You are on page 1of 20

FORD PINTO 2.0 - 2.


Jem Engines are THE specialist engineers to the automotive, industrial and marine trades. Formed in 1974, the companys general engineering side supplies remanufactured industrial engines for Kubota and others, with a range of specialist techniques in-house such as spiral welding and spark erosion which enable us to deal with almost any automotive mishap! Yet, we also remain enthusiast at heart you will see in our showroom a restored Rolls-Royce V12 aero/tank engine among our display pieces, and we have rebuilt many units from the past Bentley, Coventry Climax, Riley, plus our own particular favourite, the Ford Pinto. Ford launched their new Pinto engine in Mk3 Cortina in 1970, and pretty soon salesmen were racking up high mileages in their GLs and Ghias and we began to get these engines in to be reconditioned. The Pintos toughness and tuneability soon attracted the stock car fraternity particularly, so along with tuning for rally and race RS2000s and Capris, the Pinto began to supplant the Crossflow for volume of work and became quite a large part of JEM engines output. We developed a huge pool of knowledge of these engines and helped develop several successful stock car and rally engines their lead-footed drivers quickly finding the base engines few weakness and demanding more and more (reliable) power! This work continued strongly for almost two decades, gradually reducing at the end of the eighties as the Pinto-powered cars values hit rock bottom and became uneconomical to repair. It never really stopped, however, and it was unusual for the company not to have at least one Pinto in for rebuild, and a couple of donor engines in the shed to supply components for customers unserviceable parts, but this was now just a tiny fraction of JEMs total output, and more modern engines, particularly diesels, were taking over the bulk of the work. We noticed, though, that when we were brought a modern-type engine in for repair, more of the components would be unusable compared to older units like the Pinto. For instance, a blown head gasket would result in overheating, and in an aluminium engine a warped head would frequently be unrecoverable, and quite often the head bolts would stress the threads in the block resulting in a scrap block too very expensive!
we have supplied Pinto engines to the following countries:

Perhaps this is one reason for the revived interest in the all-iron Pinto. Lately, JEM have been reconditioning more and more Pintos till now we are putting out 5-6 per month as short or long motor (with head and camshaft fitted). We now run a series of monthly evening demos showing rebuild techniques block rebuilding, head work and camshaft installation. The Pintos renowned strength and durability make it an ideal choice for an economical track day car, and for a simple and cheap kit car project. A huge amount of tuning gear is available and a large pool of expertise makes tuning for more power simple and affordable. The classic car movement is returning to the advantages of the Pinto, JEM having supplied several engines for owners returning their cars to standard, in one case replacing Vauxhall power in an RS2000! In another case, a Pinto was ordered for installation in a kit car which was being crated for shipment to South Africa by the customer who was emigrating. We have now exported Pintos to 10 different countries. It is a fact that the carbon footprint of a reconditioned engine is about one tenth that of a new engine when you take into account energy use on new castings, machining and shipping, though we surely dont have to preach to the classic or kit car enthusiast about the benefits of recycling, but we believe the Pintos green credentials are assured and that it will soldier on in enthusiasts cars for many years.


Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Section 8

Donor engine Cylinder Block Machining Crankshaft and Conrods Pistons Clearance Checks Engine Assembly Cylinder Head Replacement Components

page page page page page page

3 4-5 6-7 8 9 10

page 11-13 Page 14-15


First find your donor engine. This might come from your own well looked-after classic, or from a mouldering old Transit in a scrapyard, but due to the scarcity of good Pinto base units now, we really much prefer to have a unit supplied to us in exchange for a rebuilt unit, otherwise we have to impose a hefty surcharge. The original units components must be sound and capable of reconditioning - holed blocks, snapped crankshafts or cracked heads are unacceptable and will be subject to surcharge. We will usually rebuild your own engine which can take up to 3-4 weeks, though we can generally supply a unit from stock within 1-2 weeks. Specialised repair can sometimes be undertaken to recover a damaged block if it is necessary to retain this for originality reasons. Old units are dismantled in our workshop, all useable components are pre-cleaned for inspection, then the block, crank and conrods are passed through special chemical dips which remove paint, carbonised oil and scale. Now we can start the rebuilding process...
page 3

The cylinder block is the core of any engine build, and JEMs attention to detail starts here. First, the block ends are refaced. This is purely for cosmetic reasons but is vital to give the finished unit that as new look. The crankcase sump face is also resurfaced, this with a rough cut and fast machine rate to give an ideal grip for the cork casket to ensure a good seal. *JEM TIP dont use any sealant except at the Block end being refaced

ends of the cork gasket where they butt to the flexible plastic bows - a small blob of RTV type sealant should be used here. If the cork casket needs to be secured in position during assembly, use a few tacks of impact adhesive. The top block face is usually fly cut, a single tool milling operation which leaves a surface finish perfect for good head gasket sealing
page 4

top surface being refaced



It is likely that stresses in the manufacturing processes and years of use have resulted in slight distortion of the cylinder block. Line honing ensures that the main bearings housings are precisely in line for minimum friction and a reduction in bending stresses on the Line boring of main bearing housings crankshaft. For this reason, all five main bearing caps have their joint faces lightly ground so that there is sufficient metal to allow honing. The caps are fitted to the block and torqued to manufacturers specification, measured to check there is enough stock for honing to correct alignment tolerance of less than half a thousandth of an inch. Roundness is kept to 0 to 0.0003 (three ten thousandths of and inch)

Cylinder boring The block is set up on our semi-automatic boring machine and the cylinders are bored to within 0.003 (three thou) of finished size. On completion of this process, the block is then transferred to our honing machine. It is important that the main bearing caps are installed and torqued prior to finishing the bores as the bores can become distorted when the bearing caps are torqued. *JEM TIP it would be pointless finishing the bores round and parallel to with 0.0002 (two tenths of a thou) without the main caps in place as this distortion can be as much as 0.002-0.003 (two to three thou). To maintain roundness and
page 5

parallelism the cps MUST be fitted.

Cylinder honing


Following a visual inspection, the crankshaft is set up on vee blocks to check for straightness, then the main bearing and crankpin journals are measured to ensure they are suitable for regrinding. At this time the condition of the front snout and flywheel bolt-hole threads, and the front keyway are checked too. The crank is then set up on the re-grinding machine and reground to take the required undersize of shell bearings. The front and rear oil seal tracks are also very lightly ground, removing the minimum of metal, to ensure zero run-out between bearing journals and the oil seal track to ensure they are concentric. At the back of the crank, the flywheel mounting flange is also ground to reduce flywheel run-out. On completion of the grinding process, the oil-holes are lightly honed to eliminate sharp edges on the journal surface and allow the spread of lubrication across the bearing surface. All bearing journals are polished to the correct finish for good bearing life. Each crankshaft is subjected to a magnetic particle Non-Destructive Test (NDT) where any cracks are detected under ultra-violet light.
page 6



Each conrod is checked for suitability, eg bend, twist or heat damage. Approximately 3 thou is ground off the rod and cap joint faces, then they are bolted together to the manufacturers recommended torque. The big end bore is measured to ensure that when honed,

Precision grinding bearing cap joint face the roundness of the bore is maintained to 2 tenths of a thousandth of an inch. The conrodss small end is milled on each side to allow the fitting of the new 93mm piston (2.1 version only.

Our Sunnen LB1810 precision honing machine ARP conrod bolts are fitted prior to resizing on our Premium-Plus range of builds

Milling conrod eye (2.1 build only)

page 7

Conrod bore size and roundness check

We mainly use Mahle pistons for all 2.0 litre applications (stock car), while 93mm diameter pistons are used to give the nominal 2.1litre capacity. We choose a high quality proprietary piston in aluminium alloy cast with integral steel reinforcing struts. These plates control the expansion of the piston body and allow less piston-to-bore clearance than with traditional all-alloy pistons. This stiffens the piston body, reducing the risk of fatigue cracks and cuts down piston noise (known as slap) especially on start-up. The piston pins (gudgeon pins) are of the semi floating type and are retained by a transition fit in the eye of the conrod. There are two methods of fitting the pin to the conrod: 1. Support the piston on a shaped bolster and press the gudgeon pin through the piston and conrod small end eye to the correct position. JEM TIP: damage often occurs when using this method, and distortion of the piston (highly likely) will result in increased wear and early failure. Dont use this method! 2. The correct way is to use the specially designed fitting equipment which we have installed. Here the conrod eyes are placed in special timed heater cells until the conrod expands and allows the gudgeon pin to be gently pushed into the correct position in the eye. As soon as the pin is in the rod eye, the rod begins to cool and contract so the fit is
page 8

complete without any stress to the piston.

JEM unique ID


At this stage, the individual components are brought together for running clearances to be checked. Each crankshaft is uniquely etched with the bearing undersizes, the JEM machinists identity, and the date to aid future rebuild and to guarantee authenticity. Conrods are fitted to the crankshaft so that bearing running clearances (radial) can be checked using plastiguage, and conrod free end play (axial clearance) is measured. The crankshaft is fitted to the block and main bearing clearances are measured and crank end float is set up. Each pistons running clearance is measured relative to its cylinder, then they are fitted to the conrods, using special dummy gudgeon pins, and installed in the block. Each is set precisely to TDC and the piston height is measured relative to the top of the block to determine the amount of metal to be removed from the top of the block. All components are disassembled, the crank and rods are balanced and everything inspected for final cleaning

page 9

Piston are fitted to conrods as previously described. When crank and rod assemblies are fitted to the block using appropriate big end and heavy duty competition trimetal main bearings, each conrod nut is secured with Locktite. (Where ARP bolts are required, the appropriate lubricant is used.) Block end and sump faces are lightly coated in clear lacquer. Oil seals and rear crank seal are fitted with the application of the relevant sealant. The auxiliary jack shaft is installed and the running clearance checked. The front seal carriers are fitted and the two timing belt pulleys are fitted. Sealant is applied to the core plug bores and new plugs are fitted. Rods and pistons are stamped with their appropriate cylinder number. Mains and rod fasteners are paint spotted after final torquing Bore finish Flywheel Front end Dowels Bolt seal Oil pump

page 10

In the case of the standard Pinto cylinder head, the assembly is dismantled, cleaned and inspected, including crack testing. We always recommend that new reciprocating components valves, springs, camshaft, bearings, followers etc are used. Machining is undertaken with the same meticulous attention to detail as the block both manifold faces are lightly machined to ensure flat surfaces for a positive seal at the manifold joints, and the head-to block face is machined to give the required compression ratio and achieve a flat surface for correct seal of the head gasket. Pressure test Head/manifold face resurface

page 11

Valve spring tension



To extract the most power from the Pinto engine, the JEM big valve head is the way to go. Following the cleaning and testing as detailed in Section 7, the valve guides are first to receive attention. The standard heads valves run directly in the cast iron head, but to correct wear and allow better lubrication, the JEM head uses special bronze valve guide inserts. These are fitted into position and a succession of broaches are used to expand the guides until the required gauge is achieved. JEM TIP: because the exhaust valve runs hotter than the inlet, it requires a greater running clearance. In our unleaded version, special hardened exhaust valve seats are fitted to enable the use of unleaded fuel. Specialised equipment is used machine a counterbore to a precise diameter and depth. The new valve seat insert is fitted and the profile of the

page 12

seat is cut to give throat, valve and clearance angles.


On our big valve cylinder heads the ports and chambers are reworked to high and precise standard. On completion of the combustion chamber rework, each chamber volume is checked to give an accurate compression ratio across the four chambers.


Inlet valves 44.5mm (std length) EN32 4N material Exhaust valves 38.5mm (std length) EN21 4N material Exhaust ports fully ported Inlet ports fully ported Casting pressure tested (Hot) 8 bronze valve guide liners fitted Valve seats triple angle cut Unleaded seats fitted to exhaust positions in unleaded versions Manifold joint faces fully machined Cylinder head ends machined Main gasket face machined Combustion chambers volume balanced New bronze cam bearings fitted Competition valve stem seals fitted Modified valve springs caps used Competition single valve springs (Kent VS 9) New core plug at rear Fully chemical cleaned (Hot)

Our cylinder heads are produced to the highest standards in both workmanship and quality of parts used. A lead free version of these heads is available . The compression ratio will be determined after discussion with the customer as we need to know the cylinder bore size and each head is customised to the customers requirements. These cylinder heads are only sold on an exchange basis and either with the later injection style inlet ports or the earlier round style port. The cylinder head in the picture is a library picture and not the actual head on offer but for appearance the head supplied will be to the same standard as shown. We prefer to discuss the head with the customer prior to supplying it so that we can give the desired compression ratio.
page 13


We use only the best components from recognised suppliers and manufacturers of acknowledged quality and reliability. We never use cheap unproven components as this is a false economy which can put the entire engine at risk to save just a few pence. Our machining and parts specifications may change to take account of improvements or parts availability.

page 14

The following pages detail the five most popular specification levels which have become our standard range. While we are sure one of these will suit your particular application or budget, we are always ready to discuss you individual requirements.


Rebored and hone cylinders Pressure test block water jacket Line hone main line Resized 4 con-rod large end bores Regrind crankshaft & lap Balance reciprocating and rotating components Machine block top face to required height Fit 3 core plugs & spigot bearing Fit rear crank seal Paint block sides Assemble short motor as per described procedure

Basic build description:- the basic build short motor has all the critical machine work carried out with the exception of the block ends and sump face not being machined. The front aluminium seal carriers are not fitted, however the short jackshaft is installed. The block will not be of 205 origin in most cases, but the conrods will be of 205 type. The bottom gasket set is included.


2.0 & 2.1 premium build short motor (Based on 205 block) Rebore & hone cylinders Pressure test block water jacket Line hone main line Resize 4 con-rod large end bores Regrind crankshaft and lap Balance reciprocating and rotating components Machine block top face to required height Basic build description:- Assemble short motor as per described procedure incl rear oil seal and front oil seal carriers, also fit crank toothed belt pulley and aux shaft drive pulley (painted black) Fit 3 core plugs & spigot bearing Machine both block ends Machine block sump face (coarse cut) Lacquer machined block ends Paint both block sides Supply complete lower gasket Paint (black) both from seal carriers


This is the same spec as the premium build short motor, however the premium plus is fitted with arp heavy duty competition conrod bolts


Performance camshaft Performance valve springs Alloy vernier pulley Water pump Head bolt set External stainless steel cap screws Ignition cable clips High pressure oil pump Performance cam followers Long ball studs Timing Belt Refurbished alloy RS sump Oil spray bar Dowel and modified flywheel Oil filter High tensile oil pump valve

Our Ford SOHC 2.0/2.1 Long motor is built to the highest standards. These units incorporate our popular 2.0/2.1 Premium Plus short motor and big valve cylinder head (now unleaded). An unleaded version is available at a small additional charge. Each engine is assembled in a meticulous and methodical manner, adhering to all critical limits and fits, all valve lifts are measured and any corrections to lifts are adjusted by tipping the valves. The camshaft is set up and precisely timed using a vernier hub. On completion of the assembly an oil pressure test is carried out by externally driving the oil pump drive spindle. Great care is taken to enhance the engines presentation throughout the build.
Our 2.0/2.1 Long engines are only available on an exchange basis. The returned engine must arrive with us prior to release of the newly built engine. the old unit will be required at least 3 working days in advance of despatch. This is to allow us time to dismantle the unit and evaluate the acceptability of the components. The old unit must be complete as per its supplied replacement. If an alloy RS2000 sump is being returned, it must be in useable condition - no weld repairs or unacceptable dents or gouges. The flywheel must be RS2000 or Sierra style and must not have been previously modified. Engines are only supplied on a like for like basis, i.e 205 for 205, or early 2.0 for early 2.0.


SPECIFICATION Block assembly
Rebore and hone cylinders Pressure test block water jacket Resize four conrod large end bores Balance reciprocating and rotating components Machine block top face to required height Fit three core plugs and a spigot bearing Machine and lacquer both block ends Paint block sides Paint (black) both front oil seal carriers Assemble short motor as per described procedure inc. rear oil seal and front oil seal carriers, also fit crank toothed belt pulley and aux shaft drive pulley (painted black)

Cylinder head assembly

Cylinder head Pressure test water jacket Machine & fit inlet & exhaust bronze guide liners Modify valve guide boss as per regulations Profile and cut eight valve seats Machine both sides of cylinder head Machine main face of cylinder head to achieve required combustion chamber volume Remove and fit three camshaft bearings Fit new core plug to rear of cylinder head Measure, machine and set valve spring fitted heights Measure, machine valve lengths to achieve correct lift

New parts include:

4 Mahle piston assemblies 5 pairs of tri metal competition main bearings 4 pairs of tri metal competition conrod bearings 1 pair of crankshaft thrust washers 1 high pressure oil pump exhaust valves 4 inlet valves 4 exhaust valves 8 bronze valve guide liners 4 core plugs 1 top gasket set (elring or payen) 1 lower gasket set (elring or payen) 1 timing belt 1 timing belt tensioner 1 vernier cam pulley 1 cam spray bar 1 camshaft (jem spec) 8 cam followers 8 valve springs 1 spigot bearing 10 cylinder head bolts 1 water pump 1 oil filter 1 oil pump drive spindle

The core engine is a premium plus built short motor with the cylinder head assembled with the valve timing checked, adjusted and set. The cylinder head is assembled with the camshaft and followers, the valve lifts are measured, in most cases simply installing a camshaft with its associated valve train is not enough. When the new cam kit is installed it is not uncommon for the actual valve lift to be as much as 2.0mm or more shy of book lift. When jem assemble a head we measure the valve lifts and achieve optimum lift by machining the tips of the valves individually, assembling and measuring the lifts until the desired lift is achieved. Laborious, but has huge gains in performance. The short motor is assembled per our standard assembly procedure detailed in our work procedures explanation which is attached under premium build short motor 2.0 or 2.1ltr. The complete prepared cylinder head assembly is fitted to the short motor and the camshaft is precisely timed to the crankshaft incorporating a vernier cam wheel. In conclusion the core engine is a short motor with a prepared cylinder head fitted and the valve timing set, also includes a high pressure oil pump fitted. To complete this engine all that is required to fit is oil pick up pipe and sump, a rocker cover and all necessary ancillaries, manifolds, carb, distributor and flywheel. All necessary gaskets are provided with the core engine.



23 Polmont Road Falkirk Scotland FK2 9QQ Tel 01324 633266 Fax 01324 633870