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Pee VEU el| (CAMBRIDGE m4 ky Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults Scott Thornbury e with Cambridge ESOL . ie arent Peter Watkins Contents ction A The learners and their contexts Who are the learners? ners as individuals 3 Classroom teaching Foreign language lesson Classroom management Presenting vocabulary 6 Presenting grammar (1) Presenting grammar (2) Practising new language ror correction Developing listening skills Developing reading skills 12. Presenting language through texts Developing speaking skills Developing writing skills Integrating skills 16 Lesson planning: design and staging 17 Lesson planning: defining aims S Alternative approaches to lesson design 2 Planning a scheme of work 20 Motivating learners Teaching different levels English for Special Purposes Teaching literacy Monitoring and assessing learning Teaching exam classes Choosing and using teaching resources 15 19 23 29 33 37 42 47 52 56 59 63 o7 7 76 80 84 88 an 95 99 103 107 i C Language awareness 27 Introduction to language analysis 28 Tense and aspect 29 Meaning, form and use: the past 30 Expressing future meaning 31 Modality 32 Conditionals and hypothetical meaning 33 Language functions 34 The noun phrase 35. The sounds of English 36. Stress, rhythm and intonation 37 Teaching pronunciation 38 Vocabulary 39 Text grammar Professional development 40 Professional development and finding a job Teaching practice Classroom observation Observation tasks Introductory quiz Photocopiable quiz Review CELTA Snakes and ladders Correspondence table Course units and CELTA sessions Acknowledgements M5 9 123 127 131 135 139 143 147 151 155 159 162 166 170 177 178 181 183 184 Introduction What is The CELTA Course? The CELTA Course is a coursebook for participants on the CELTA course. (For more on CELTA, visit the Cambridge ESOL website: http://www.cambridgeesol.org/.) The course covers all the main content areas addressed in CELTA and aims to provide trainers with ready-made session plans that can be tailored to meet the needs of their trainees. It thus saves on preparation time, as well as reducing the need to prepare and copy session handouts. It also provides a basis around which new centres can design and structure their courses. Finally, it provides trainees with a compact record of their course, which they can consult both during the course and afterwards. What does The CELTA Course consist of? The CELTA Course consists of two components: + Trainee Book: this includes material to be used in input sessions on the course, plus advice concerning the practical and administrative aspects of the course, along with a file of useful reference material. © Trainer’s Manual: this includes guidance and advice as to how best to exploit the material in the Trainee Book, as well as photocopiable material to supplement sessions. The bulk of the course comprises forty units, each representing an input session of between 45 to 90 minutes. The selection of topic areas for these units reflects the choice of topics in the sample CELTA timetable (available on the Cambridge ESOL website). This timetable is in turn a synthesis of a number of timetables that were submitted by different CELTA centres worldwide. The 40 units are divided into four topic areas: + Section A: The learners and their contexts (Units 1 and 2) Learners’ purposes, goals, expectations and learning styles * Section B: Classroom teaching (Units 3-26) Presenting language, developing language skills, planning, classroom management, teaching different levels, English for special purposes, monitoring and assessing learning, choosing and using teaching resources » Section C: Language analysis and awareness (Units 27-39) Grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation * Section D: Professional development (Unit 40) How to get a job and continue your professional development The division of topics into these four areas means that the sequence of topic areas in the book does not exactly match the sequence in the sample CELTA timetable. The sequencing of topics in the book has been governed by a number of factors. These indude: + Developmental: topics considered to be more fundamental - such as classroom management — are dealt with before topics that can be safely postponed until later in the course ~such as teaching ESP or exam classes. + Thematic: opic areas that are related are usually sequenced together. Introdu * Convention: topics that — for whatever reasons ~ are conventionally dealt with early in most courses precede those that are conventionally dealt with later. However, it is not expected that trainers will follow the sequence of topics in exactly the order that they are presented. (For more on how to use the course, see below.) Each unit comprises a number of tasks, starting with a warm-up task and concluding with a reflection task. For some units, optional tasks are available in the Trainer's Manual, with photocopiable materials, where necessary. As well as the input session tasks, the Trainee Book includes the following features: « Teaching practice: This section consists of practical advice for trainees as well as a bank of TP reflection tasks. * Classroom observation: This section consists of a bank of observation tasks for use in observing experienced teachers (as part of the course requirements) and also teaching practice (TP). + Written assignments and tutorials: This section includes advice as to how trainees should interpret the assessment criteria and how they can best prepare lor tutorials * Resource file: This section includes: — an overview of the main verb forms = abank of warmers and games ~ aglossary — recommended reading list and relevant website addresses The Trainer’s Manual consists of: + a guide for each unit, on how to set up activities, suggested variants and expected answers to tasks + optional (photocopiable) materials for some units teaching practice: some guidelines on how to organise TP. write TP points and give TP feedback + classroom observation: some suggestions as to how to get the most out of this component of the course « introductory photocopiable quiz + aphotocopiable review boardgame for trainees How should The CELTA Course be used? Each CELTA centre will design and run its courses according to its own particular circumstances and needs. Hence, The CELTA Course has been designed with flexibility and adapiability in mind. Course trainers are invited to select only those elements that meet the needs and syllabus specifications of their particular courses: it is not expected, for example, that they will do all the units and ail the tasks in the book (for one thing, there is unlikely to be sufficient time on most courses), nor that they will do the units in the order that they occur in the book. To this end, the units have been written as far as possible as stand alone entities. When using the material, however, trainers should observe certain core principles that are intrinsic to the CELTA scheme. These are that the course is: + Practical: The CELTA is an introductory course and as such it has to be very practical. This does not mean avoiding theoretical issues, but simply that input sessions should always be firmly grounded in classroom practice. This may mean starting with a discussion of classroom experiences, drawing out some basic principles and returning to classroom practice through the analysis and evaluation of classroom materials. Trainer’s manual + Integrated: In keeping with the above point, emphasising the interconnectedness, not only of theory and practice, but also of the different strands of the course, should be a priority. These strands include the input sessions, TP, classroom observation and the written assignments. Trainers should seek every opportunity to draw connections and to encourage trainees to make these connections for themselves. One way of doing this, for example, is to adapt some tasks so that they anticipate forthcoming teaching practice points, or to choose, as example material, extracts from the coursebooks the trainees are using in their TP. Likewise, TP reflection tasks and classroom observation tasks can be chosen so that they tie in with areas of content that have been dealt with ~ or are about to be dealt with — in the input sessions. Likewise, opportunities to recycle themes that have been dealt with at an earlier stage in the course should be exploited. For example, when dealing with an area of language awareness, such as tense and aspect, there will be opportunities to review approaches to grammar presentation and practice. » Experiential: Axiomaticto the CELTA course is the notion that learning is optimised if itis driven by personal experience. To this end, trainers are recommended to include demonstrations of classroom procedures in the sessions, where the trainees experience classroom techniques as learners, and reflect on their experience. Many of the tasks in the book can be substituted with actual demonstrations and these opportunities are flagged in the Trainer's Manual. + Co-operative: The course has been prepared for classroom use (as opposed to self-study) and as such exploits the communal and collaborative nature of the CELTA, where trainees frequently work together in pairs or small groups in order to compare experiences, solve tasks, debate issues, evaluate materials, or design lessons. For each task, the Trainer’s Manual suggests an appropriate organisation. Typically, this organisation will take the form of pairwork or small-group work, followed by some kind of report-back stage. It is important that the training should take place in a space that is conducive to a variety of different formations and interactions. + Reflective: A key component of the experiential learning cycle is reflection: for this reason every unit ends with a reflection task. But reflection can be built into the course at other points too. For example, after trainees have experienced an activity as if they were learners, they can then reflect on their experience in order to extrapolate principles that might apply when setting up the same or similar activities as teachers, A good idea, on Day 1, is to give the trainees a light-hearted quiz about the course, its administration, and about your institution, They can answer this individually and then compare in pairs or groups. Alternatively, it could be done as a race with groups competing with each other to finish it first. They should be allowed to consult their books and any other related handouts in search of the answers. A suggested quiz can be found in this book on page 179. Trainers may of course want to design their own quiz material. NVGVGTTVITTIITITTUSLT TSS T TTT STUER ho are the learners? Main focus Te ise awareness regarding the learners, thelr backgrounds, thelr level of comprehension and tuction. Learning outcomes sinees are aware of the diversity of learner purposes, goals, expectations, and degree of motivation. nees can describe different levels of proficiency in general terms. ainees understand the importance of identifying and accommodating learner differences. Key concepts purposes, goals, expectations, motivation + English as a foreign language (EFL), English as a second language (ESL), English as an international anguage (Ell), English for specific purposes (ESP) + acquisition vs leaning +» monolingualism, bilingualism and multilingualism Focus rm-up reflecting on a previous second language learning experience ners’ purposes identifying the different purposes for learning English mers’ goals distinguishing between different goals D Learners’ expectations relating learners’ expectations to their background flection thinking of questions to ask to (or about) the learners Note: It is expected that this session will take place prior to the trainees meeting their teaching ‘ice classes for the first time. If this is not possible, it should be scheduled as near to the start { the teaching practice as possible, so that trainees can get the maximum benefit from the diagnostic task (see Reflection). Warm-up 5u could begin this stage by briefly relating a language learning experience of your own. nnise the class into groups to share their experiences. The objective of the activity is 10 dentify context factors that impact on learning, particularly the learners’ purposes, chievement goals, expectations and degree of motivation. At the end of the discussion, elicit examples of widely differing learning experiences. Trainer’s manual: A The learners and their contexts An alternative way of introducing this activity is to set up a ‘Find someone who....’ activity, with trainees milling in order to ask and answer questions to find trainees who share certain language learning experiences. Photocopy and distribute the following rubric: Find someone who: * speaks at least two other languages fluently « isbilingual + taught themselves a second language * picked up a second language simply by living in the country where it is spoken * studied a second language at school but didn’t enjoy the experience Learners’ purposes Ask trainees to read the profiles and identify the learners’ reasons for learning English. These are, in general terms + Ning Wang ~ to pass an exam, and then to study in English + Lucia— probably no immediate purpose + Kazankiran and Maxim integration into an English-speaking society, including work and education + Soni Kim travel + Carmen ~ business + Mies —academie study. 1 You could write up the abbreviations (FFL, ESL, etc.) on the board, and ask trainees if they know what they stand for. Trainees then identify the one that best matches each situation. (You may like to do the first one with them.) Answers: Ning Wang: EFL, EAP; Lucia: EFL; Kazankiran: ESL; Maxim: ESL; Soni Kim: EFL; Carmen: ESP, FIL; Mies: EAP EIL. Note that the term ESOL (= English for speakers of other languages) is widely used to cover both EFL and ESI. Note that none of these terms is unproblematic, and that the point of the matching activity is to problematise them, to a certain extent. The difference between foreign and second is not always obvious; and for many learners English is not their second but perhaps their third or {fourth language (which is why the acronym EAL — English as an additional language — is sometimes preferred). Also, now that English has global language status, itis likely that the EFLJEIL distinction will become blurred, to the point of being irrelevant. (ESP is dealt with in more detail in Classroom Teaching Session 22.) The next three questions introduce key concepts in language acquis 2 The nearest to a pure bilingual (i.e. someone who has two ‘first’ languages) is perhaps Mies, (Dutch and English), but it could also be argued that all these learners are bilingual (or multilingual) in that they have (some degree of) competence in more than one language. Since Kazankiran already speaks two languages, the addition of English will make her multilingual. Its worth pointing out that bilingualism/muhtilingualism is a more ‘normal’ condition than monolingualism: for many leamers, English will not be even a second language. 3 All things being equal, the closer the first language and the second language are ~ in terms of vocabulary, grammar, script, and pronunciation — the more likely the former will aid the learning of the latter. Thus, Lucia’s Italian, Carmen's Portuguese and Mies's Dutch will contribute more to their English learning than, say, Soni Kim’s Korean, or Kazankiran’s Kurdish and Arabic. rr ition: 1 Who are the learners? distinction between (intentional) earning, e.g. in a dassroom context, and (incidental) acquisition is a useful one, but, again, easily blurred. The clearest instance of acquisition in these profiles is Maxim. Both Ning Wang and Kazankiran are attending classes, but they are probably also picking up English by virtue of living in an English-speaking context. This is not the case with Carmen or Soni Kim, who are closer to the learning end of the spectrum. Mies started English at such an early age that he probably picked up (i.e. acquired) more language than he learnt formally, at least initially. Those living in an English-speaking environment (Kazankiran, Ning Wang, and Maxim) will be getting the most exposure, but this may be limited, depending on the contact they have with English-speakers. Mies will also be getting a lot of exposure, although more to non- native speakers than native speakers perhaps. Soni Kim is probably getting the least exposure, since Carmen probably already uses her English in her business dealings, and Lucia is attending classes both at school and after school. Alll of the case studies (except perhaps for Soni Kim) are users to some extent. Even Lucia could be said to be putting her language knowledge to use, even if this is in a classroom context. This suggests that labelling leamers as, simply, learners, masks the fact that many of them are already using English, maybe in ways that do not always reilect the content and pace of their formal learning. 6 Without more information, itis hard to say who is likely to be motivated or not. Motivation, isa rather personal attribute, and is not necessarily a result of having a clear purpose (or motive) for learning, although this certainly helps. The extent that the learning experience fulfils the learners’ expectations will also contribute to their motivation. The answer to this question will obviously depend on the particular circumstances of the trainees, but itis likely that most of them will be anticipating teaching in (adult) EFL, rather than ESL, contexts, and to groups rather than one-to-one or online, Learners’ goals The point of this section is to introduce criteria for establishing learning goals, and to suggest that different learners will have different goals, in terms of the level of proficiency they wish (or need) to achieve. The concept of partial competence may be sufficient for many. 1 a Maxim; b Kazankiran; c Soni Kim; d Carmen. 2 Soni Kim and Maxim are at the basic user end of the scale, while Carmen probably aims to be an independent user and Kazankiran a proficient user. Note that these terms are borrowed from the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEB), a ‘detailed model for describing and scaling language use’. Learners’ expectations 1 Ning Wang expected a more traditional, teacher-controlled, accuracy-focused classroom. 2 The type of dassroom he was used to in China. 3. Given the exam-orientation of the course he is attending, these expectations could be considered realistic. 4 Despite Lucia’s expectations (based on her school experience) not being met, she was happy since the less formal, learner-centred approach of her evening classes probably seemed appropriate. The notion of appropriagy is probably more important than simply trying to match instruction to learners’ expectations. The new approach was more appropriate for Lucia than for Ning Wang. 9 Trainer’s manual: A The learners and their contexts ier aes en ues 1 Ideally, this task should be prepared in advance of the trainees meeting their teaching practice 10 lasses for the first time, The trainees can then conduct interviews with their teaching practice students: if there are more students than trainees in these classes, the interviews can take place in small groups. The number of questions will depend on the level of the classes, but, in any case, they should be quite broad, offering learners plenty of opportunity to speak. Eg, "Tell me about your English classes at school in If it is not possible for trainees to interview the students, the questions can be directed at you, as long as you know who will be in the teaching practice classes. 2 Learners as individuals ‘Main focus ‘To raise awareness about the individual needs of learners and how these needs can be accommodated. Learning outcomes + Trainees are aware of the diversity of earner purposes, goals, expectations and degree of motivation. * Trainees can describe different levels of proficiency in general terms. ~ Trainees understand the importance of identifying and accommodating learner differences. Key concepts + learning styles, multiple intelligences «= learning strategies, learner training + learner autonomy, individualised instruction Focus reflecting on learner differences identifying different learning styles C Multiple intelligences identifying different kinds of intelligence D Learning strategies and leamer identifying learning strategies and evaluating learner ining training approaches Learner autonomy exploring ways of developing learner autonomy ection summarising ways of dealing with diversity that this session should be timetabled only when the trainees are already familiar with eaching practice students. jarm-up nees can perform this reflective task in pairs or small groups. Ideally, they should work with + members of their teaching practice group, so that they share a familiarity with the Note that some of the differences they identify may relate to the context factors wssed in Unit Al, such as previous learning experience and motivation. A brief review of Ses session may be helpful © Learning style .cteristics of a passive-experiential learning style (type C) might be: they enjoy the social ts of learning, and like to learn from experience, but more as observers than active ‘pators; type D learners, on the other hand, are willing to take risks, are not afraid of ‘ing mistakes, and prefer direct communication rather than analysis and study of rules. a Trainer's manu: The learners and their contexts Trainees can work on this task in pairs or small groups. Some typical questions might be: + How do you feel when your teacher corrects you? * Do you like games and groupwork in class? + Do you try to speak English outside the classroom? + How often do you read in English? * How often do you watch English movies? + Do you note down new words when you read them? * Do you review your English lessons? + Do you always do your homework? Note: If trainees have the opportunity, they could use their questionnaires in their teaching practice classes, and use the data to feed into their Focus on the learner’ assignment. (@ Multiple intelligences Note: As well as the intelligences listed, other intelligences, such as emotional intelligence, natural intelligence and spiritual intelligence have been proposed. You could also point out that classroom activities involving movement and physical contact may not go down well in certain contexts. 2 The activity is designed to foster interpersonal intelligence. There is also a kinesthetic element, perhaps, since it involves touch and movement. You can make this task easier by suggesting that trainees consult their coursebooks to find activities that might match the different intelligences. + visual intelligence: anything involving images, e.g. visual aids, video, learners drawing (e.g. a picture that is dictated to them) «kinesthetic intelligence: activities involving movement, e.g. action games (like Simon says...), “Total Physical Response’ techniques, drama activities, etc. + musical intelligence: listening to and singing songs; jazz chants; background music (as in Suggestopedia). [) Learning strategies and learner training 1 2 12 1 The areas of language learning that these strategies focus on are: Learner A: pronunciation, particularly intonation; memorising chunks of language Learner B: vocabulary ‘Leamer C: speaking/interacting Learner D: reading 2 The learning principles involved might be: A: repetition aids memory, at least in the short term; subvocalisation helps pronunciation B: forming associations aids memory interaction is necessary for language learning; collaboration aids learning D: using ‘top-down’ processes such as guessing meaning from context improves reading fluency The extracts target: A: vocabulary learning B: dictionary use, for both pronunciation and meaning C: note-taking and record-keeping, especially of vocabulary 2 Learners as individuals 3. You may prefer to assign one extract per group, and then have groups report back. Possible ways of exploiting these extracts include: A: demonstrating the use of word cards in class; asking learners to prepare their own and to show them to each other; testing each other; including a word-card writing and testing slot in each lesson, at least initially, until learners are in the habit. B: distributing dictionaries and asking learners to work together to find the meanings and pronunciation of unfamiliar words; asking them to group words that rhyme, using the ictionary; using dictionaries to choose between similar words to fit a context, ¢.g. commuter, computer. C: completing a verb chart; dictating verbs that learners then record in their notebooks, along with their pronunciation: asking learners to ‘proof-read’ each other's vocabulary records; reviewing their notes in later lessons and asking them to pronounce the words to each other. 1 Learner autonomy Before this activity, elicit the different kinds of reference sources that are targeted at learners, such as grammar reference books, dictionaries (print, on-line, CD; monolingual, bilingual, picture, specialised, etc), vocabulary exercise books, the reference sections of their coursebooks, CD-ROMs and internet grammar sites. Then, elicit as many different ways in which learners might have exposure to English, even in non-English speaking contexts, e.g. films, TV, songs, books, newspapers and magazines, adverts, internet (including sound files, video, etc.), computer games, tourists, etc. Trainees can use these lists to help brainstorm ideas in order to make suggestions for each of the questions. Some possible ideas: a Read graded readers; magazines targeted at leamers; literature written for English-speaking children or teenagers; short authentic texts about topics they are familiar with b Listen to songs where the lyrics are available, watch videos with English subtitle short news reports from the internet, and read their associated news story. ¢ Watch movies with English subtitles, rather than L1 subtitles; record movies and watch short segments repeatedly, perhaps with a copy of the script, if available; choose movies that are based on a novel or a play, and read the book in advance, especially if it’s available in a simplified form (c.g. classics such as Pride and Prejudicey; avoid films whose English is very vernacular, regional, etc. Probably not; alternatives are learning words that come up in reading texts, or at least learning from lists of high frequency words (such as the defining words found at the back of most learner's dictionaries). € Find grammar sites on the internet, buy a grammar reference book with exercises (e.g. English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy, CUP); use the exercises in the coursebook and the workbook. £ Starta blog; find sites dedicated to learners; join a chat room; use the reference material available, including corpus sites; download the lyrics of songs, extracts of films, reading and listening material, etc. (For further ideas, see The Internet and the Language Classroom by Gavin. Dudeney, CUP) Use pronunciation materials; join an English-speaking club; have a conversation exchange with an English speaker who wants to learn your language; record yourself speaking, etc. download 13 Cee ‘Trainer's manual: A The learners and their contexts TSAO TO DN 3 Foreign language lesson Main focus Key concepts Teinees have a lesson in a foreign language. + classroom management, instructions, seating Learning outcomes + Involvement, participation, interaction + Trainees experience learning a language. = staging, aims » Trainees reflect on their learning experience. = clarifying meaning, comprehension + language similarities and differences ‘stage Focus | A warm-up ~—_| sharing experiences to predict what may happen in the lesson 5 A foreign language lesson experiencing a lesson in a foreign language C After your lesson considering what happened in the lesson and how it affected feelings D Comparing languages ‘comparing the new language and English Reflection ‘i | reflecting on what has been experienced Note: You may wish to have a separate teacher for the foreign language lesson itself, Section B. ©) warm-up The aim of this section is to get leamers to think about what may happen in the lesson and to anticipate some of the techniques and procedures that may be used, The trainees could talk to each other in small groups about their experiences before reporting back in open class. |) A foreign language lesson This is obviously the most important part of the session. There is no ‘right’ lesson to teach, or ‘right’ way of approaching it. It is important that whoever teaches the lesson feels comfortable with what they are doing. The lesson does not necessarily have to be taught by one of the trainers on the course. Here are some general points to consider in preparing the lesson: * The lesson should probably last around 30 minutes. » The lesson should be predominantly in the target language. » Learners should be given the opportunity to speak and to interact, as far as possible. * The teacher may want to correct some errors in order to provide a model of error correction for trainees. + The teacher should maintain a natural speaking voice and speed of delivery, even if using simplified language. 15 Trainer’s manual: B Classroom teaching 16 Here are two lesson plans that you could use as a model for your language lesson, if you wish: Note: In these lesson plans, the language forms are given in English, but their target language equivalents should obviously be used throughout. Lesson1 Aim: What's your name? My name is... * Teacher writes his/her name on the board. * Teacher models My name is X. « Teacher asks a trainee What's your name? (the trainee is unlikely to understand this ~ but may guess from the context what you want them to say ~ be prepared to help by modelling the language again.) + Continue to nominate other trainees — each time they should use My name is. * Be prepared to correct pronunciation that is very inaccurate and would interfere with understanding. By now the trainees will have heard What's your name? several times. + Model it again and ask for choral repetition. + Ask for some individual repetition. + Write both What's your name? and My name is... on the board. ‘* Gesture that trainees should copy this down. + Ask one of the trainees to repeat the question after you ~ and answer it yourself, + Ask the same trainee to ask the question — this time directing it to another lass member. + Continue this - with the person answering the question, being the next person to ask the question. + Ask the trainees to stand up. Ask them to mingle around the room asking and answering the question as many times as they can. + Stop the activity, Ask one or two trainees the question, What's your name? to finish the lesson. Ii you wish to extend the lesson you could: © Collect pictures of famous people from different countries. For each person you need the flag which represents their country. + Use the flags to teach the vocabulary of the countries. You could use both individual and choral repetition. Write the new words on the board. + Drill the question Where are you from? * Give out the pictures and the corresponding flag. + Aska trainee their new ‘name’. Ask them where they are from. For example: ‘Teacher: What’s your name? ‘Trainee: Kylie Teacher: Where are you from? Trainee: Australia + Set up some pairwork to practise this routine. Lesson2 Aim: like... Idon'tlike ... * Use realia and/or pictures to teach four or five items of vocabulary, such as chocolate, apples, lemonade, tomatoes and cheese. + Hold up the first object/picture. Model the word. 3 Foreign language lesson + Ask everyone to repeat it together. + Ask for some individual repetition. + Continue with the other objects/pictures. + Hold up the first picture again. Re-elicit the word and write it on the board. * Do the same for the other items. + Gesture that the trainees should write the words down. + Use a gesture, or draw a smiling face on the board and ada 1 ike before one of the items — like apples. + Use choral and individual repetition. + Use a gesture, or draw a frowning face on the board and add Idon’t like before one of the items ~ I don't like lemonade. + Use choral and individual repetition. + Use some fairly universal brand names such as Coca-Cola, McDonald’s, Guinness (assuming that alcohol is not inappropriate for the culture you are in) and Pizza Hut to expand your vocabulary list without adding to the learning load. + Draw the following on the board putting your name and the name of one of the trainees. Jane likes | doesn’t like Don | likes Guinness doesn't like The aim is to find something you both like, something neither of you likes and something that each of you like that the other doesn’t. For example: Teacher (Don): [like Guinness. Do you? Trainee (Jane): Sorry? Teacher: Guinness? ‘Trainee: No Teacher indicates the phrase ~I don’t like Trainee: I don't like Guinness. Teacher: OK [writes ‘Guinness’ on the grid] * Divide the trainees into pairs. They should copy the grid and complete it by saying what they like and don’t like. + Ask individual trainees to report back. you wish to extend the lesson you could!: + Teach the phrases: / ike it, 1don like it and it’s OK. You could use both individual and choral repetition. Write the new words on the board. * Prepare a recording of short extracts of very varied music. + Play each piece of music and ask the trainees to comment on each one, using the phrases above. ! This activity is based on one in the New Cambridge English Course 1, Michael Swan and Catherine Walter, Cambridge University Press. 17 Trainer’s manual: B Classroom teaching After your lesson It may be useful to have a different person conduct feedback than the person who taught the lesson. This may allow trainees to speak more freely, less worried that they may make an implicit criticism of their teacher. The trainees are likely to be quite energised after their learning experience and the concentration it requires. You may like to have a short break (say five minutes or so), or at least allow the trainees to discuss their feelings in a fairly unstructured way for a short time before focusing them on some of the questions given, if necessary. You may wish to follow up the questions in the trainee book with some more specific questions, such as: «© setting up activities How did the teacher explain instructions? How did the teacher end activities? + involving the learners Did you repeat things that your teacher said? If so, did you feel this was useful? Did you have to speak in front of the rest of the class? How did you feel? + making meaning clear Was there anything you didn't understand in the lesson? Were you able to ask for clarification? « presenting new words or expressions Did your teacher write anything on the board? If so, what? Would you have liked more time to write things down? « dealing with errors Did the teacher correct any errors? If so, what and how? Was the amount of correction about right during the lesson? Would you have liked more/less? You might also like to encourage trainees to discuss the extent to which they actually used, or would have liked to use, English. They could also discuss whether the teacher used any English and if so, in what situations and for what purposes. ©) Comparing languages Allow trainees to discuss this briefly in pairs before asking them 1o report back in open class. You may need to point things out for them, and could mention the implications this would have for learning/teaching. For example, the length of time it may take learners to become confident with certain features of the language. However, it is worth pointing out that by no means all difficulties or errors are caused by divergence between languages. TT TR TON ‘Trainees could discuss these questions in small groups before you ask them to report back in open lass. How much they remember may depend on their motivation to remember (unlikely to be sgreat, as they have no real reason to learn the language). In order to remember, they would need to review what they have learned at home, look for opportunities to practise, and so on. You may like to focus the discussion of questions 2 and 3 by considering what specific things they could do (or not do) in teaching practice during the course. 18 4 Classroom management Main focus To examine some of the principal considerations in classroom management and in facilitating interaction. Learning outcomes = Trainees understand the rationale behind the use of different seating arrangements. +» Trainees understand the rationale behind the use of pairwork and groupwork., * Trainees understand how to use the board. » Trainees understand the principles of how to grade languageand give instructions. +» Tainees understand the principles of effective monitoring. Key concepts + classroom organisation, seating, monitoring + boardwork + language grading, teacher talk instructions Stage Focus ‘A Warm-up introducing some background issues in classroom management 8 Classroom organisation considering different seating arrangements, and the use of the board Grading language looking at ways of making classroom language intelligible D Giving instructions introducing the main considerations in giving clear, instructions E Trainees’ questions trainees match questions and answers on a variety of practical points F Classroom application trainees consider the implications of what they have learned for their own teaching Reflection trainees review some of the main terms used in talking about classroom management Note: This unit can serve only as an introduction to classroom management, and you will probably want to return to the issues as trainees gain more teaching experience. 19 Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching ©) Warm-up 20 a Gesture Gestures are used to support communication and the classroom is no different in this respect. ‘Typically teachers need to use a lot of gesture, and developing a repertoire of easily understood gestures (such as pointing over your shoulder to indicate the past) can help to cut down on the amount of verbal explanation teachers are required to give and consequently the processing burden placed on learners, particularly at lower levels. b Pointing Suggest that, as an alternative to pointing, it is a good idea to learn learners’ names. You may also like to show trainees less aggressive gestures that could be used instead of pointing. ¢ Silence If people are to practise speaking they need to speak, for example during pairwork and groupwork, and this will create some noise. However, teachers need to distinguish between ‘useful’ noise and ‘disruptive’ noise. d Hands up More appropriate to young leamers than to adults. Demonstration Especially at lower levels, explanation is likely to challenge learners’ ability to understand; also, some classroom activities may be unfamiliar to them, and are best demonstrated. Classroom organisation 1 It might be worth pointing out to trainees that seating arrangements are sometimes beyond the control of the teacher. Where the teacher can control the arrangements: + a large class: for very large classes, arrangement (1) may be the only alternative, although, depending on the size of the room, other arrangements - such as (2) and (4) - may be viable. © a small, business English class: arrangement (3) is ideal, not least because it reflects the ‘meeting’ format that these learners may be used to. © a grammar presentation: arrangements (1) and (2) may be best because this usually requires attention on the teacher and the board; arrangement (3) would also work for small groups. + pairwork: all formats can easily be adapted for pairwork. «© groupwork. arrangement (4) is obviously ideal, but with a little re-organisation the other formats can be adapted for groupwork too. For example, in (1) pairs in one row can turn 10 face pairs in the row behind them. * anexam: probably (1), especially if the learners are separated. 2 1 Answers will vary. I's likely that some activities were done in pairs or groups, but the purpose of each pair and group stage will depend on the lesson given, 2 Pairwork and groupwork maximise the opportunities learners have to use the language productively, giving lots of speaking opportunities. They also allow learners to practise without having to perform in front of the whole class, and this may help them to build confidence. In addition, pairwork and groupwork allow learners to use a relatively informal style, whereas some may {eel the need to be relatively more formal if addressing the teacher. 4 Classroom management 3 In some classes, particularly large ones, pair- and groupwork can lead to a loss of teacher control and a sense of disorder. Learners may be uneasy if they feel that the teacher cannot hear what they are saying and that a lot of errors are going uncorrected. Indeed, the idea of pair- and groupwork may run contrary to the expectations of some learners. Unobserved by the teacher, learners may resort to the easiest means of achieving the task, induding the use of their first language. However, most teachers tend to feel that the benefits outweigh these potential drawbacks. Use the pictures to help the trainees understand the most effective way of using the board. he following points could be made: + Plan the use of the board, perhaps leaving designated spaces for different purposes. + Use upper and lower case appropriately. + Take care with spelling. + Generally avoid joined up writing as it is harder to read, + Generally avoid letting the board become too cluttered. you prefer, you could create a poor example on the board yourself and ask trainees how it uuld be improved. Grading language ir is important to point out that it is not necessary for learners to understand every individual word that the teacher says. But it is important that the learners understand enough to comprehend the overall message. Most researchers agree that such ‘comprehensible input’ is a necessary (if not sufficient) condition for language acquisition to take place. The advice centres on making language easier to understand because most trainees have more ciifficulty in grading language appropriately for lower-level learners than higher-level learners, where they can speak making fewer adjustments to their language. | Good advice Potentially unsound advice © Use gestures, pictures and other things that will support what you are saying to make it easier to understand. speak with natural rhythm and intonation. Speak at a natural speed, but pause slightly longerafter each ‘chunk’, ifnecessary. A little extra decoding time after each phrase is likely o help comprehension more than pausing aftereach word. F Try to avoid ‘difficult’ vocabulary (for example, very idiomatic language). g Tiytoavoid complex grammar patterns. a Pronounce each word slowly and deliberately. Learners need to get used to hearing reasonably natural sounding language Miss out small words (articles, prepositions, auxiliary verbs and so on) so that learners can focus on the ‘content’ words and understand the message. This will impoverish the input they seceive - learners pick up a ot of grammar from hearing itused. Also, learners may feel patronised it they feel they are being spoken toin ‘babytalk: 21 Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching f) Giving instructions 1 Rather than having the trainees read descriptions given here, you may prefer to demonstrate by giving two sets of instructions to the trainees for an activity. This may be more involving for the trainees. The second set of instructions is easier to understand. This should be very easy to spot. ‘Trainees may comment on: ‘Teacher 2 breaks down the instructions — only telling learners what they need to know for the next part of the lesson and therefore placing less burden on memory. ‘Teacher 2 is more direct — Compare: ‘if you wouldn’t mind ...’ with ‘Write four sentences, please’. (Imperative forms + ‘please’ are useful for many instructions.) ‘Teacher 1 is less explicit - “or threes if you want’ and doesn't tell learners who they should work with. ‘Teacher 2 uses the material to make instructions clearer (pointing to the pictures, in this case). Teacher | uses quite demanding vocabulary, e.g. have ago, have in common, mingle. Teacher 2 checks understanding more effectively, e.g. do you speak to one person or lots? 2 The bullet points are intended to give a summary of these points. You might also like to point out that it can sometimes be useful for teachers to check that learners have understood the instructions for a task by asking simple questions. { Trainees’ queries 1 Ask trainees to read the comments and to discuss possible solutions to the problems. 2 Ask them to do the matching activity, to compare their answers, and to compare them with their own solutions in 1, above. Suggested answers: 1-d) 2-1) 3-b) 4a) 5—c) 6-e). 3. Be ready to answer any other questions that the trainees may have. {2 Classroom application You need to ensure that trainees know what lesson they will next be teaching before you do this section. Allow the trainees to think about the prompts given. Or, if you are short of time, ask them to choose the point that they feel is most relevant to them. You could then put the trainees into small groups to share ideas and suggestions before asking them to report back briefly in open class. iam eenuroont Give an example of good advice based on the terms. For example, ‘Decide on the seating arrangement thats most appropriate to the size of the class and to the kind of activity you have planned.’ Allow the trainees time to complete the task, working in pairs or small groups. Check their understanding of some of the terms, and clicit examples of good advice. 22 5 Presenting vocabulary Main focus Ways of presenting vocabulary. Learning outcomes = Trainees understand some ways of conveying the meaning of new lexical items. + Trainees understand the basic principles of eliciting new language from leamers. + Trainees understand the basic principles of checking the understanding of new language. Key concepts * word knowledge: meaning, spoken and written form, use = conveying meaning: visual aids, realia, mime, demonstration, definition eliciting + checking understanding; concept checking Stage Focus ‘A Warm-up introducing the topic | B Form, meaning and use | introducing the need to learn form and meaning, C Learning about form and meaning _| introducing some vocabulary teaching techniques | D eliciting vocabulary introducing basic principles for eliciting new language E Checking understanding introducing concept checking questions ns “| F Practising vocabulary trainees are introduced to three ways of practising vocabulary G Classroom application: | trainees have the opportunity to experiment with the microteaching techniques introduced Reflection trainees reflect on what they have learned There is one optional activty for this unit, about analysing a vocabulary activity. There is a lot of material in this unit. If your timetable allows, you may prefer to split it into more than one session. Alternatively, concept-checking could be omitted here and covered during Unit 7, where it also occurs. It would also be possible to miss out the section on practising vocabulary, as this is also dealt with in Unit 8. ©) Warm-up land2 Allow the trainees a little time to think about the two questions before discussing them in groups and briefly reporting back to the class. Question 1 often elicits the answer ‘phrase book’ — this can be exploited to demonstrate that people instinctively value vocabulary linked by topic, and also ‘chunks’ of language which go beyond single words and have an immediate communicative value. 23 Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching ©) Form, meaning and use 1_ Ask the trainees to brainstorm all the information that they would expect to find about a word in a dictionary designed for language learners. Compare their ideas with those given below. Information about (a) the form consists of its spelling and pronunciation, (b) the meaning includes its definition (or ‘denotation’), (c) the word's use includes its part of speech, grammatical information (countability, transitivity) and its style (e.g. informal). Form Meaning Use + spelling definitions or‘denotations’ | + partof speech, eg. noun + phonemictranscriptions | of words [cu] with stress patterns (Youmaywishtoaddthat | + grammatical information, Indicated some words have e.g. transitive verb ‘connotations’~an evaluative | + example sentences element. Arroganthas a + information on formality negative connotation whereas self-confidentis more positive, for example.) 2. Knowing a word means correctly associating its form (either spoken or written), and its meaning. In addition, knowing how to use a word productively means knowing both the written and spoken forms of the word (i. its spelling and pronunciation); its meaning, including any connotations it has; its grammatical use, e.g. what part of speech it is, whether itis countable or uncountable, transitive or intransitive, etc; its style or register, e.g. whether itis informal, technical, etc., and its typical environments, induding the words it commonly co-occurs with (its collocations). 3. The teaching implications of the above might include: © Itis not enough to teach just the form of the word, or just its meaning. + Teaching for production (i.e. speaking and writing) involves more steps than teaching simply for recognition. * Toteach all aspects of a word's form, meaning and use can be quite a lengthy process, so that, given the number of words that learners need, some of the work of vocabulary learning has to be entrusted to them, e.g, through extensive reading, learner training, etc. {@ Learning about form and meaning You may like to start by brainstorming different ways in which meaning could be conveyed. Translation is not covered in the examples but is an option when teaching a monolingual class. You could spend a few minutes discussing the advantages and disadvantages of using translation. It is quick and easy for the learners. It assumes that the teacher is fairly expert in both languages. It assumes that there is a direct equivalence between words in different languages, but this is not always the case. 5 Presenting vocabulary 1 You may prefer to demonstrate some or all of these techniques. Having read the lesson transcripts, trainees could work in small groups to complete the table and answer the questions. You may also want to comment on the fact that ~in some of the extracts the teacher attempts to elicit either the word or its meaning, perhaps assuming that some learners may already be familiar with it. (Eliciting is dealt with in more detail in Section D.) Howisthemeaning | Isthespokenform | Howis the written conveyed? practised? form made clear? 2 Beginners’ class(i)_ | by using pictures Yes The teacher writes it on the boord. b Beginners’ class(2) | through Yes The teacher writes demonstration ion the board. ¢ Falsebeginners’ | byusing a picture No The teacher writes it class on the board. d Elementary class | with word ves itis not dealt with, relationships ~ in this case giving examples of co-hyponyms’ € Intermediate class] with word Itappears to be The teacher writes it relationships~a unnecessaryasthe | onthe board. synonym in this case | learner aidit appropriately. f Advancedclass — | bygivingadefinition | itappears to be Itappears to already unnecessary asthe | bein atext. learner said it appropriately. 2 1 Mime, demonstration, realia (real objects), ete. 2 The teacher chooses to involve the rest of the group and addresses the question to them, before ‘shaping’ the answer volunteered, by using questions. 3 You could replace these words with ones that are likely to occur in teaching practice over the next few sessions. The trainees could work in groups to decide on the possible ways of teaching these words before reporting back to the class. There is no single correct answer, but some suggestions are given below. If you are short of time you could give one set of words to each group in the class, and then ask a spokesperson to report to the whole group. Group 1: pet: by example: cats and dogs are types of pet, by explanation ‘a domestic animal - one you keep in a house’ to put down: by explanation ‘to kill an animal for humane reasons because it is in pain’. 1 vaccinate: by explanation ‘to give a person or animal an injection to stop them getting a particular illness’ Group 2: all of these could be presented using mime. Group 3: all of these could be presented using realia or pictures, 25 Trainer's manual: 8 Classroom teaching Group 4: a combination of mime and explanation: punch —with a closed fist slap — with an open hand smack ~ with an open hand usually as a punishment. In some cultures, a parent might smack a child. Eliciting vocabulary 1 Allow the trainees a few minutes to discuss their ideas before comparing in open class The teacher elicits pilot but simply presents doctor and nurse ~ presumably because there is little chance of beginner students knowing the words. Generally eliciting is a useful technique. It may help the teacher to gauge the level of the class and will also involve learners more fully in the lesson. However, a teacher cannot elicit what is unknown to the group and must also have techniques for conveying meaning when the item is completely new to the learners. 2. Allow the trainees a few minutes to discuss their ideas in small groups before comparing with you. a Not good advice: eliciting needs to be done quickly and efficiently or it will slow the lesson down too much. The prompts should be as transparent and as clear as possible. b Good advice: finding the right prompt can be difficult for inexperienced teachers when they are under pressure in a lesson. © Good advice: see above. Not good advice: you cannot elicit something which is unknown, € Good advice: this often ‘triggers’ the word for learners. 3. You could replace these words with ones that are likely to occur in teaching practice over the next few sessions. Allow the trainees a few minutes to discuss their ideas in small groups before comparing with you. ‘a watch (noun): the teacher could point to his/her own watch and ask What's this? b game show: through a definition: ‘a type of television programme where ordinary people answer questions and do things to win prizes.’ Or pethaps through examples, if there are suitable ones familiar to the whole group. ¢ toflatter: through a definition. hurricane: through a definition or through a picture. © Checking understanding 26 1 Allow the trainees some time to discuss the techniques before discussing them in open class. ‘You may wish to point out the following: a Translation: fairly quick and in some ways efficient; it relies on the teacher having a fairly expert knowledge of both languages and also assumes that the dass is monolingual. It may encourage learners to see words as having direct equivalents in other languages, whereas this is not always the case. b Doyou understand?: leamers may be embarrassed about saying that they do not understand, or they may genuinely think that they do understand (in the case of ‘false friends’, for example) and therefore do not get the clarification they need. 5 Presenting vocabulary © Example sentence: this can be effective, as long as learners think of sentences that actually do give some demonstration of meaning. Itis easy to think of sentences that do not demonstrate this. For example, ‘The teacher just asked me to use the word pogo in a sentence.’ 4 Short, easy to answer questions: can be useful as long as they are well designed and appropriate. See below for details. 2 2 The teacher asks the questions in order to check understanding. b 1)No 2) Yes 3)No 4) Yes 5)No 6) Yes he answers are all short and easy for the learners to give, if they understand the word being checked. This could be done individually, with trainees checking with each other before checking with you. Questions a and d are not useful. It may be worth highlighting at this point that good concept-checking questions are based on good language analysis. Trainees have to consider what could lead to misunderstanding and confusion and then focus questions on these areas. 4 Trainees could work in small groups to think about the language and to prepare appropriate questions. ‘Questions may vary, but sample ones are given below. a Do you use a briefcase for work or for holidays? (work) Do you put clothes in a briefcase? (n0) b Would you say this to a friend? (yes) Would you write it in a job application? (no) ¢ Was the car badly damaged or a bit damaged? (badly) Could it be repaired? (no) d Is there a coast between countries? (no) Do all countries have coasts? (no) Is the coast near the sea? (yes) Do people usually want to live on the coast? (yes - although there may be some cultural variation here) € Do you limp if you have hurt yourself? (yes) Do you limp if you are drunk? (no) {a Practising vocabulary Allow the trainees to discuss the practice activities and answer the questions in small groups before reporting back. All the activities are intended as relevant and useful. The key point is that trainees appreciate the need to provide practice activities. a Discussion: 1 The level is flexible but learners need a degree of fluency —so pre-intermediate upwards 2. Not suitable for homework as it requires groups of learners and also monitoring by the teacher. 3 Time allocation will depend on the level of the class. Higher level groups will probably be able to speak for longer. 4 Speaking and listening are practised, b Eliciting vocabulary: 1 Depending on the words sclected, this activity would be suitable for any level group. 2. Not suitable for homework as it requires groups of learners and also monitoring by the teacher. 3 The time required will depend on the number of words selected. 4 Speaking and listening are practised © Gap-fill exercise: 1 Suitable forall levels, and the ‘clues’ would need to be graded accordingly. 27 i ‘Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching 2. Suitable for homework as learners can work individually. 3 Time will depend on the number of examples. 4 Reading and writing are practised. {© Classroom application: microteaching Allow the groups time to prepare their teaching. Make sure that they understand that one person from each group will have to teach the rest of the lass. Three possible groups of words are given below, but you may prefer to choose vocabulary that will come up in future teaching practice sessions. Group Group2 Group3 cousin brake stage niece accelerator scenery father-in-law bonnet to rehearse tobe engaged to break down script toget divorced to overtake tobesold out REFLECTION Allow the trainees to work in groups to discuss their answers to the questions. When they have had some time to think about what happened and also to discuss it, conduct feedback with the whole class. You could close the lesson by using the optional activity. Optional activity Select a vocabulary activity from a current coursebook. Ensure that there are enough copies for trainees to work in groups of two or three. Ask the trainees to analyse the material and answer the following questions. 1 How is form dealt with? 2 How is meaning dealt with? 3. Is information given about how the words are used? 4. How much practice is provided? 5 Can you think of ways of adapting or extending this material? 28 6 Presenting grammar (1) Main focus Ways of presenting grammar. Learning outcomes + Trainees understand the basic principles of conveying the meaning of new grammatical patterns. * Trainees understand the basic principles of highlighting the form of new grammatical patterns. Key concepts * conveying meaning = highlighting form; modeling, model sentence * guided discovery; Inductive presentation stage Focus Warm-up introducing the topic B Three presentations ‘comparing and contrasting three approaches to presentation € Conveying the meaning of a exploring different ways of presenting meaning grammaritem D Highlighting the form of a new introducing ways of highlighting the spoken and written form | grammaritem of anew grammar item Reflection trainees reflect on whattheyhaveleamed 1 Warm-up Allow the trainees a little time to think about the questions before discussing them in small groups. When they have had sufficient time, ask the groups to report back to the class. 1 There are parallels between learning grammar and other new skills. The language teacher can also tell people about grammar. Learners can be shown how grammar is used in context. Learners can read about grammar for themselves in reference books. Leamers can try communicating using the language they have and pick up grammar as they go along. Of course, learners may chop and change between preferred strategies. 2. Answers may vary, but it could be argued that the processes are similar and therefore the strategies may well be similar. ) Three presentations 1 Tell the trainees that you are going to demonstrate three short lessons at an elementary level, and explain that the trainees themselves will take the role of the learners. 2. The demonstration lessons should follow the spirit if not the letter of these scripts: 29 Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching Demonstration lesson 1: ‘Teacher: When we want to talk about our future plans, we can use the form going t0. For example, Next weekend I am going to play football. [Teacher writes this sentence on the board.] Can you repeat that? [Class repeats.] Or, This evening | am going to phone my sister. Everybody. {Class repeats. Or, Next winter I'm going to learn to ski. These are my plans. You use going fo with the infinitive: going to play, going to phone, going to learn. So, what are you going to do next weekend? [Teacher asks individual students.] Demonstration lesson 2: ‘Teacher: OK, everyone. Listen and watch me. It’s hot in here. I’m going to open the window. [Walks to the window and opens it.] OK. But it’s very noisy. I’m going to close the window. [Closes it.] OK, now Int going to open the door. [Walks to the door and opens it.] OK. Now it’s time for the lesson. I'm going to write on the board. What was the first sentence I said? [Writes the sentences that have been previously presented, and highlights the form and meaning of going to.) Demonstration lesson 3: Teacher: [Draws person's face on board.] OK, this is Jo. [Draws thought bubble above the face_] Jo's thinking about the future. [Draws plane in thought bubble.] He’s thinking about his next holiday. What's he going to do? [Draws Eiffel Tower in thought bubble; elicits He’s -going to fly to Paris.| Everybody, repeat. He's going to fly to Paris, [Class repeats; teacher draws ticket in Jo's hand,] Has he got the ticket? [Students: Yes.] So, is he deciding to go to Paris now, or did he decide before? [Students: Before.] So, this is Jo's plan. Where's he going to stay? [Teacher draws a smiling face in the thought bubble.] Listen, He’s going o stay with a friend. Everybody, [Class repeats.] He's planned this already. What's he going to do in Paris? What's he going to see? What's he going to eat? [Teacher elicits possible responses, and drills these; all the sentences that have been drilled are then re-elicited and written on the board. The teacher highlights the form and meaning of going to.] “Teach’ the three lessons consecutively, making it clear where one finishes and the next begins. Then allow trainees time to compare their reactions and feelings in pairs or small groups. 2 The expected answer to this question is: (1) explanation; (2) demonstration; (3) situation. There is clearly some overlap here since lessons (2) and (3) both involve some explanation too, but that is not their starting point, nor their main focus. Allow some time to discuss the pros and cons of the three different approaches. It is expected that trainees will prefer the more interactive and involving, and the less wordy, presentations 2 and 3, but it is worth pointing out that sometimes explanation can be an appropriate and effective vehicle of presentation, e.g. when dealing with grammar issues that arise in the course of other activities, but always assuming learners have the metalanguage to cope with it. {@ Conveying the meaning of a grammar item 30 1 Review the ways that meaning was conveyed in the presentations 2 and 3 in the previous activity, and highlight the usefulness of visual means of presentation, Allow trainees to work together to suggest uses for the visuals. Possible structures that could be taught using these pictures include: + needs doing (It needs painting.) + present perfect for present results (They've painted the windows.) 66 Presenting grammar (i) + present perfect passive (The windows have been fixed.) + causative have (They had the windows fixed.) + used to (The garden used to be a mess.) * comparatives (The garden is tidier; The house is cleaner.) As an option, you may like to ask trainees to plan the stages of a presentation based on these pictures. You could also bring in other pictures that suggest particular structures, e.g. making deductions about the scene of a crime using must/could/might have 2. You may like to assign different structures to different groups. Point out that trainees don’t have to fill in every cell in the table. Possible answers are: Grammar item Demonstration Visual aids Situation can/can't(for ability) | Asklearnersto perform| Pictures of animals, to | interview for ajob actionsintheclass, | elicit Acheetah con —_| requiring lotsof skills, someofwhichare | runfast;abatcan’t | eg. au pair: Canyou possible, andothers | seeverywell;a drive? Can you cook? not,eg.Touchthe | kangaroocanjump.._ | etc. celling (to elicit: etc can’t..); Openthe door..(lcan..), etc. used to (for past habits) Picture of person Story of person who before and after radical | has experienced a major cosmeticsurgery: He | lifestyle change, by, for used to have big ears | example, winninga ete lottery, or marrying into royalty, or downsizing present continuous (for | Perform action such | Wallchartwith lots of | Two people activities happening at | as walking, sitting, activitieshappening | communicating by the moment of opening doors. etc. | simultaneously,e.g. | mobile phone, speaking) andsaywhatyouare | party, beach orstreet | reporting on what doingasyoudothem | scene their family members aredoingat the moment ‘must have done (for Scene of crime picture: | mysterious situation, making deductions They must havecome | suchas the Mary about past situations) in through the Celeste ship found bathroom window... | abandoned on the high seas) 3. Trainees will be continuing to work on their presentations in the next activity. 31 Trainer’s manual: B Classroom teaching BD) Highlighting the form of a new grammar item Allow time for trainees to read through the transcript silently. Alternatively, assign roles to different individuals who read the transcript aloud. 1 The teacher conveys the meaning in turn a (using a situation); the teacher highlights the spoken form in tum ¢, and the written form in turns k and m. 2.1 The teacher is asking concept questions in order to highlight the concept of high probability, but not certainty. 2 Possibly because the teacher believes that exposure to the written form might interfere with the pronunciation of the structure; or possibly because itis easier to maintain the learners’ attention by focusing on the spoken form initially and discouraging writing. 3 The teacher is directing attention on to the rules of form, and making these explicit, perhaps in the belief that implicit learning leaves too much to chance. 3 Allow trainees, working in groups, to fine-tune their presentation ideas from the last activity, so that they include at least these three stages: ‘+ presentation of meaning (including checking of understanding of concept) + highlighting of spoken form + highlighting of written form, including rule(s) of form ‘Asa further activity, trainees could jointly plan presentations that are forthcoming in their TP lasses. REFLECTION 32 Presenting grammar (2) Main focus: Ways of presenting grammar: checking understanding and providing controlled practice. Learning outcomes += Trainees are introduced to ways of checking the meaning of new grammatical patterns. © Trainees are introduced to the use of timelines. +» Trainees are introduced to ways of providing practice of new grammatical patterns. Key concepts © checking understanding; concept questions = timelines = controlled/restricted practice stage Focus ‘A Warm-up review of words relating to the teaching of grammar B Checking understanding introducing ways of checking understanding of new grammar Timelines | introducing the use of timelines. D Ways of practising grammar introducing ways of practising language in a restricted context E Planning a grammar lesson sequencing the elements of a grammar presentation Reflection trainees reflect on what they have learned ‘There is one optional activity that supports the unit, in which trainees select and analyse part of a grammar lesson taken from the internet. Warm-up Start the activity by writing on the board A good grammar presentation should ... and elicit a way of continuing the sentence. Then ask the trainees to work together to produce more sentences. Possible sentences might be: A good grammar presentation should be clear/memorable/economical; should build on what the learners already know; ... should include a focus on form and a focus on meaning ...; ... should include a statement of the rule ... . etc. Ask groups to report back in open class, and challenge them to justify their criteria, by asking why? (Note that this format can be used to review many of the sessions.) 33 Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching ©) checking understanding 34 1 You may like to review what trainees remember of checking the understanding of vocabulary before moving on to this. This may help to make this section less daunting. Allow the trainees to spend some time looking at the techniques individually before discussing their ideas in pairs. a Nota very useful technique. Some learners may think that they understand, when in fact they don’t, Others may be embarrassed to say that they do not understand in front of the whole class. b The repetition of the new item of language (used to) in the question makes this unreliable. It could be compared to asking, ‘Is a duck a duck?" ¢ This may be useful in some circumstances, as long as the teacher has a good knowledge of both languages. However, it may encourage learners to see grammar patterns as having direct equivalents in different languages, and this may not always be the case. It obviously cannot work in a multilingual class. Useful: this approach is further developed in the following part of this section. € Useful: you may like to point out that asking concept-checking questions is not the only way to check leaner understanding. Ensure that trainees understand that they do not need to check the meaning of the lexis. So, they do not check the meaning of ‘break up’ for example, but of the past perfect. Answers will vary but example questions are given below. a Amon the plane now? (no) Isit likely that I have booked my ticket already? (yes) Is this about the present or the future? (future) b What happened first? I met her or she broke up with Chris? (broke up with Chris) Am 1 Prime Minister? (no) Isit likely that I will be Prime Minister? (no) Isthis about the past or present/future time? (present/future) 7 Presenting grammar (2) Timelines ‘You may want to spend a little time explaining the particular conventions that you would like trainees to use. 1 Allow the trainees to work together in pairs to try to match the timelines to the pictures. Conduct feedback and clarify any points that they are unsure of. Point out how a state is represented differently to a repeated action. Answers: a-iv; b-iii; ii; d-i 2. Conventions of drawing timelines may vary but below are possible answers. | end of year ce [past now future | koe f | past now future eg | past now future | met her h {past now future ©) Ways of practising grammar Allow the trainees to discuss the material in small groups before reporting back to the class. You may wish to point out: 1 3.3 personalises the language use. 4 contrasts the two forms. 2. 3.1 and 3.2 appear to be fairly form-focused. In 4, the emphasis is on meaning. 3 3.1, 3.2. and 3.3 all involve oral production. 4 is comprehension-based, and involves reading, 35 ‘Trainer’s manual: B Classroom teaching {Planning a grammar lesson ‘The trainees could work together to piece together the lesson plan. You may like to stress that this is one model fora lesson plan, and isnot the only way that grammar teaching could be approached. stage Procedure Building context ve The class talks about what things they enjoyed doing when they were children, 2h Model sentence Teacher says David used to play football. Highlight meaning "| 3a The teacher draws a timeline on the board, showing a period inthe past with several crosses within it. 4b Highlight spoken form | The teacher repeats the model sentence with natural linking, stress and intonation, The class repeats. Checking understanding _| 5j Teacher asks Did he play football in the past? Yes) Does he play football now?(No) 6c Highlight written form — | The teacher writes the model sentence on the board. Draws a box round ‘used to’ and writes ‘base form’ over ‘play’ ‘Summarise ‘rule’ 7f Teacher says Used to + infinitive can be used to talk about things we regularly did in the past, but don’t do now. Bi Restricted practice Learners choose an activity they enjoyed as children and then walk round the class asking if other people used to do the same thing. Report back 9d The teacher asks some individuals how many people shared thelr interest and corrects errors if they are made. 10g Freer practice The learners discuss their memories oftheir first school in small groups. Report back The teacher asks some individuals what they talked about. Afterwards she writes some errors she heard on the board and asks learners to correct them. REFLECTION ‘You may prefer to use the optional activity below instead of this activity. You might like to have the TP groups work together for this activity so that they are thinking of the same group of Jearners. You may like to select appropriate grammar sections for them to look at. Allow each group time to consider the material and the questions asked. You could get a member from each group to join with members of other groups to explain the material they have looked at and how they think it could be adapted, before reporting back. Optional activity Ask the trainees to search the internet for a grammar lesson that they feel would be relevant for the class they are teaching. They should then print off the lesson and analyse it, using the questions in the Reflection activity. They should pay particular attention to areas that would need to be adapted. 36 Practising new language Main focus: Controlled (or restricted) practice of new language. Learning outcomes + Trainees are introduced to ways of practising the meaning and form of new language in controlled (or restricted) contexts. ‘© Trainees are introduced to ideas of how to select and sequence activities according to the needs of a group. Key concepts ‘repetition; choral and individual drills dialogues * accuracy vs fluency » personalisation + Interactive and communicative practice Stage Focus A Warm-up introducing the topic B Practice drills Introducing the rationale and mechanics of driling | C Written practice introducing common types of controlled written practice Dinteractive and communicative | introducing the principles of interactive and communicative practice practice activities E Dialogue building introducing the stages of dialogue building Reflection trainees reflect on what they have learned | There are two optional activities to support the unit. Optional activity 1: trainees analyse some published ELT material. Optional activity 2: trainees practise dialogue building. Warm-up If you prefer, you could start the session with books closed and discuss different learning experiences and their parallels with language learning. Allow the trainees to read the two short texts and encourage them to discuss the parallels with language learning in small groups. Remind them to discuss their own experiences. The tennis example highlights practising parts of something in isolation and repeatedly before attempting to integrate the new skill into existing skills. The cooking example takes a far more ‘deep-end’ approach, with the learner experimenting, benefiting from guidance (including both positive and negative feedback}, but essentially learning in a more holistic sense. 37 Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching 38 Practice drills Using the trainees as students, demonstrate a short lesson sequence (about 5-10 minutes at most) that includes the introduction of some vocabulary items and a structure, or idiomatic (multi-word) expression. Ideally the lesson should be in a language that the learners are not familiar with, but if this is not possible, the lesson can be in English. The lesson should include examples of the teacher modelling and choral drilling the new language items, followed by individual drilling and correction. For example: Teacher: Listen, She’s been to Spain. She’s been to Spain. Now you. Repeat. Class: She's been to Spain. ‘Teacher: Good. Cinzia, can you say it? Cinzia: She has been to Spain. Teacher: OK but put ‘she’ and ‘has’ together. Try again. Cinzia: She's been to Spai Teacher: Great. Roberto At the conclusion of the lesson, ask the learners to discuss the questions 1-6, and then to report back. The following points could be made: + Drilling was originally devised as a way of forming good language ‘habits’, and asa focus on accuracy. More recently, drilling is justified as a way of fixing formulaic chunks in working memory, and/or as a way of practising oral fluidity, including the appropriate use of stress, rhythm and intonation. + Notall new language items may need to be drilled. Drilling is useful if learners have problems articulating the new item, e.g. if they find it difficult to produce the elements of the structure ina fluid manner. It may also be a useful in aiding the memorisation of formulaic language, such as common sentence stems (Would you like ... Have you ever... ? etc.) The pros of drilling include: it gives the learners initial confidence, and choral drills allow them to ‘have a go’ without feeling conspicuous; repetition can aid memory; it serves to highlight the key language items in a lesson. The cons include: it can become mindless ‘parroting’, if overdone, and it can have an infantilising effect, which may not be appropriate for older learners; repetition is no guarantee that new language items are stored in long-term memory. Written practice 1 The activities become increasingly challenging. In (a) the actual words are supplied in the correct form. In (b) the verbs are supplied but the correct forms have to be inserted, and in (c) the learner has to think of an appropriate verb (there are several possibilities in most cases) and then put it into the correct form. This sort of exercise can be easily manipulated to suit the learning needs of a class, or indeed, individuals within a class, 2 The activities are different from drills in that: (fairly obviously) they are written and not spoken; they don’t involve repetition; they require the learners to make choices and display knowledge about the form and/or meaning of the target language items. The advantages of using written exercises are: learners can work at their own pace and/or in pairs; it is easier for the teacher to monitor cach learner's progress; it is perhaps easier for learners to focus on the formal features of the new language items. 8 Practising new language 3 The activity is less controlled in that it requires learners to produce larger stretches of language and there is no single correct answer. Activities such as these can be useful in consolidating learning, for example, as a homework task. In a lesson they can help to provide a change of pace and energy. They also may be successfully used before oral practice as they allow more thinking time and learners can get thei ‘minds around’ the new item without the added pressure of getting their ‘tongues around’ it. This may be particularly true for complex structures (such as this one), or for items of language that are more common in written than spoken language, such as some aspects of reported speech or the use of passive forms. 4 You may decide to choose a language focus that is related to a forthcoming teaching practice point. Trainees should work in pairs or small groups: they need only design three or four items for each exercise. Interactive and communicative practice 1 Again, you may like to briefly demonstrate some of the activities in this section or the following sections. Trainees may have a better idea of the ‘mechanics’ of an activity from having experienced it than from having read a description of it and will also find it more engaging. Do one example with the class first. It is important to establish the difference between an activity that is simply interactive, ie. one where learners interact and/or take turns; and one that is communicative, i.e, one in which the outcome of the activity depends on the learners listening to one another and processing what they hear. In the latter, learners will need to negotiate and repair communication breakdowns, and adapt their 9wn contributions in accordance with their partner's: there is an clement of unpredictability. ‘ADialogue| Bcircle | cspotthe| DFind | EWriting practice | drill __| difference | someone | sentences who There is built-in repetition: the activity v v v es v gives learners opportunities to use the l new language item on several occasions. {| ‘The language is contextualised. ¥ Ys | Leatners interact and/or take turns. v v v v v Learners communicate - they must u v v both speak and listen to what is said The language is personalised, v v v | The activity is fun and playful v v v * This is subjective to some extent. 39 Trainer’s manual: B Classroom teaching 2 Initiate a discussion on the advantages of activities that have one or more of these characteristics. (Note that none of the example activities has all these characteristics ~ that would be a tall order.) Points that may come up include the following a repetition: the acquisition of a new skill usually involves some element of repetition: why should language be different? b context: this helps reinforce the meaning of the new item, and shows how it might be used in real life ¢ interaction: most authentic language use is interactive in some way; learners can work together and maximise learning and practice opportunities. d_ communication: the ability to negotiate and repair communication breakdown, and to adapt one’s message according to the ongoing nature of the discourse is crucial for effective real-life communication. € personalisation: language practice is likely to be more interesting and hence more memorable if itis personalised. £ fun: activities are often more motivating if there is a fun element. You could use optional activity 1 at this point. REFLECTION Allow the trainees to think individually for a few moments about the questions, and then. encourage them to share their ideas in small groups. You may like to highlight the following points. a. Knowing a rule ~in the sense of being able to put it into words - is different to being able to operate it under time pressure, which typically applies when speaking, for example, Spoken practice of new language items should help to make the use of those items more automatic and therefore make language production more fluent. b_Asthese activities are partly targeted at promoting accuracy, then in most cases teachers would probably want to correct learners as they go along. Also, by correcting learners from time to time, the teacher is gently reminding the learners that they should pay at least some attention to form. ¢ The activities in this unit have all been fairly controlled. Learners will also need to practise with fluency-focused activities. (See Unit B13.) Not necessarily. It is often assumed that there is a progression from ‘controlled’ to ‘freer’ activities within a lesson but this need not always be the case. However, the notion of ‘controlled’ is not unproblematic in itself because activities may be controlled either in the sense that the teacher controls who says what, and when they should say it, or in the sense that there is tight control over the language used in the activity. Drills, for example are controlled in both senses, but a Find Someone Who ... exercise is only controlled in the latter sense, There is no reason why the teacher shouldn't sometimes challenge the learners early on with an activity which is relatively free and then go back to something more restricted if it is necessary. Activities need to be sequenced in accordance with the needs and preferences of the group. The key thing is for teachers to be able to provide a lot of varied practice activities. 40 } 8 Practising new language Optional activity 1 Select some coursebook presentations of new items of language and ask the trainees to analyse them using the criteria in Section D in the Trainee Book. Optional activity 2 Dialogue building ‘Trainees work in small groups, Give them an item of language. You could use any item of language for this exercise. Functional language (such as making suggestions, requests and so on) would work well. Again, you may like to use a language item that will soon be taught in their teaching practice. Each group should: 2 think ofa context in which the item of language could be used b write a short dialogue that includes the language item at least once clicit their dialogue from the rest of the class, ensuring there is some choral and individual repetition of parts set up some pairwork to practise the dialogue aid i ee ne 4a 9 Error correction Main focus, Key concepts Ways of correcting errors. errors, mistakes Learning outcomes * correction: teacher, peer, self © Trainees understand the principal * reformulation considerations in dealing with errors. » immediate vs delayed correction * Trainees learn a variety of techniques for dealing with errors. Stage Focus A Warm-up introducing some background views on error B Types of error introducingtraineestotypesoferor When to correct introducing some of the principal considerations in deciding when itis appropriate to correct D Correction strategies introducing correction strategies E Demonstration __| thetrainer demonstrates some correction techniques F Classroom application trainees practise different correction techniques. [Reflection trainees put what they have learned into practice Note: The term ‘error’ is used throughout this unit. The literature on error often draws a distinction between mistakes, which are not systematic, and ‘errors’, which are systematic, i. they are evidence of the learner's developing language system, or ‘interlanguage’. In theory, a learner can self-correct a mistake because they know the correct form — they simply ‘got it wrong’ on one occasion, pethaps through inattention and the demands of ‘on-line’ processing However, a learner might not be able to self-correct an error since it results from a gap in their knowledge. In practice, it is difficult, if not impossible, for the teacher to decide if a non- standard form is systematic or non-systematic, so the distinction is ignored in this unit. Dealing with errors in written work is dealt with in Unit 14. Warm-up 1 Allow the trainees some time to discuss the different teachers’ approaches in small groups before reporting back to the whole class. Avoiding error is very difficult if learners are given any freedom to create the messages they want to with the language. Most people would argue that learners should be encouraged to become ‘risk-takers’ and this will inevitably lead to some errors, which is largely Mariagrazia’s position. Over-correction may lead to a loss of confidence (Paula) but itis 42 9 Error correction worth pointing out to trainees that the majority of learners expect their teacher to correct them and are far more likely to complain if they are never corrected than if they are corrected a lot. Error correction should, of course, be done in a sensitive and encouraging way. ©) Types of error We suggest that you collect some errors made by learners in TP sessions before you do this unit. Collecting these errors could be part of an observation task for trainees, and then they could be analysed in activity B2. 1 This should be quite easy. The aim is simply to demonstrate that not all errors are grammar errors. In fact, errors in vocabulary and prosodic features of pronunciation may lead to more breakdowns in communication than many grammar errors. Of course, this activity does not cover all possible categories of error. Allow the trainees some time to complete the matching activity individually before checking with a partner and then confirming those answers in open class. The answers are: 1-f)-present perfect would be more appropriate. 2-e)-100 informal for the given context. 34d) injured or hurt rather than damaged (which is not used to describe people). 4) sa) 6) When to correct Allow the trainees some time to discuss the situations in pairs before they report back. Arguments could be made for alternative strategies, so there is no single correct answer, but some suggestions follow: Lesson 1: (Note: only two speakers have made errors.) The learners are communicating and ‘here seems little point in disrupting the flow of the lesson with immediate correction. However, higher-level learners are often fluent and need to work on becoming more accurate, and so some delayed correction may be appropriate. You might like to point out what at lower levels a teacher may choose to correct less often, in the interests of encouraging camers to keep talking. Lesson 2: The learner's message is very unclear and so communication breaks down. When this pens, meaning needs to be ‘negotiated’, usually by asking questions — a form of nediate correction. “Lesson 3: It would be inappropriate to correct the learner when the focus is a social or personal one. L 4: The teacher's aim is to check comprehension ofa listening task. As long as meaning is r (and assuming saxophone is the correct answer) it may prove distracting to correct small omar lapses. However, the teacher may choose to reformulate the answer by saying snething like: Yes, that's right. He plays the saxophone. a3 Trainer's manual: 8 Classroom teaching Correction strategies 1 Give the trainees some time to look at the responses in pairs before conducting a group discussion and highlighting the key points. a The teacher tries to prompt the leamer to self-correct. The value of encouraging self- correction before peer- or teacher-correction could be discussed at this point. b The teacher repeats the learner's utterance up to the point of the error, in order to elicit a self-correction. c Using fingers (called finger correction) in this way can be useful in focusing learners on exacily where the error occurred, again, as a prompt for self-correction. d The teacher asks a question to establish the learner's intended meaning. By implying that the message was not clear, the teacher may be encouraging the learner to re-think the way the message was formulated —a further way of encouraging self-correction. e The teacher reformulates (or recasts) the learner's utterance. However, the learner may not realise she is being corrected. Often such reformulations go unnoticed by learners. On the other hand it allows the flow of the lesson to continue. f The teacher has decided not to interrupt the activity flow, but to note errors as they occur, and then go back to them at the end of the activity. 2. Ask trainees to reflect on the correction strategies they have seen, either in their teaching practice, or in their observed classes. If you have access to video or DVD footage of classes in progress, these can be a useful way of showing different correction strategies in action, and of evaluating their effectiveness. 3. Ifyou are short of time, you may like to divide the class into pairs and ask each pair just to look at one or two strategies, before they report back. Correction strategy Advantages Disadvantages a Teacher prompts using Easy to use Leamers need to be familiar terminology, e.g. ‘grammar, | Indicates the typeof errorthat_| with the terminology used. ‘tense; ‘pronunciation’ etc. | the leamer should be looking for. bb Teacher repeats the utterance | Quick and easy. Gives guidance | Teacher needs to use tothe point of the error, e.g. as towhere exactly the problem | appropriate intonation, or Yesterday you is gesture, to ensure that the learner understands that this is a correction procedure and not part of the communication ¢ Finger correction Gives a very clear indication of | Only works with short where the problemi. Quite | utterances. Takes practice for flexible - can be used to most teachers to become indicate the need to putaword | confident, n, take a word out, run words together('m’ etc). 9 Error correction Correction strategy Advantages Disadvantages d Teacher uses questions, ‘A good way to discover the ‘Questions need to be clear and e.g. Doyoumean you go learner's intended message __| easy to answer to avoid further every day? and ‘repairs’ the confusing the leamer. communication after a breakdown. € Reformulation, Quick and easy. Leamers may not realise that eg. Youwent tothe beach. | Doesn't break the flow of they are being corrected and it communication. may therefore have little impact. f Delayed correction Does not interfere with the Correction has less impact if flow of communication. the | ‘served cold teacher has time to prepare what to say, rather than having to do it immediately. Demonstration 1 Ask the trainees to close their books so that they do not try to complete the table as you go along. Give out the grey cards to a selection of trainees. Tell the trainees that they should say exactly what is on the card, i.e, they should not produce a corrected version. Correct the errors in any way in which you feel comfortable it would be useful to demonstrate a range of techniques, including some from the previous section. My brother fell off his bike Her fathers a PROfessor. Bring me the menut ifeweer tsa died Can you borrow me some money? Do you can juggle? Where is going Felipe? ‘© Cambridge University Press 2007 2 Ask the trainees to open their books and allow them to work in groups to complete the table. Classroom application Ensure that the trainees understand the instruction in their books. Give each group a set of cards. When the trainees have had time to practise, collect in the cards, nominate a trainee, read out ‘one of the cards and let the trainee correct you. Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching (said with very flat, ‘bored! intonation) I can't wait for the next session. likes CIGars. Ihave tree sisters. (ina bar and toa member of the bar staf.) Twant a beer. Helen is wedding her boyfriend next week. Paula and Chris is married fortwo years. He stopped to smoke three ee Thad gone to cinema years ago. | yesterday. Iwas late because I She bles het jabishet I going to New York at the works for the same stopped talking to a friend, weekend. company for years. i © Cambridge University Press 2007 REFLE Encourage trainees to discuss what they consider to be the main things they have learned about correction before filling in the mind map. Stress that they can add bubbles as they wish and need not feel constrained by what is on the page in front of them. Allow some time for them to compare their completed maps with other pairs before briefly reporting back their ideas to the dass. Trainees may include: types of error (problems with word stress, intonation, word order, choice of words, register, verb forms and so on) and strategies for correcting errors (including such things as: using terminology, repeating the utterance to the point of the error, using fingers, asking questions, delayed correction and so on), 46 7 eee 10 Developing listening skills ‘Main focus To leam the basicprinciples of developing the listening skill, and to apply these tothe design of a skills-based lesson. Learning outcomes ‘« Trainees understand different purposes and ways of listening. + Trainees understand how top-down and bottom-up factors influence comprehension. « Trainees can apply these understandings to the development of the listening skill. Key concepts « interactive/non-interactive listening ‘* top-down vs bottom-up processing + transactional listening, listening forpleasure _» pre-listening, while-istening and post-lstening, « listening for gist, Intensive listening tasks Stage Focus ‘A Warm-up reflecting on real-life listening, and categorising listening events, B Comprehension distinguishing between top-down (knowledge-based) and bottom-up (language-based) factors in understanding C Listening texts and tasks D Allistening lesson identifying the aims and sequencing principles of the stages ofa listening lesson matching text and task E Classroom application applying these principles to the design ofa listening lesson Reflection reflecting on some of the problems faced by learners and teacher in classroom listening activities Warm-up 1 Start the activity by giving some examples of your own — including examples that involved both speaking and listening. 2 Point out that each listening experience may involve more than one item from the list af. In the discussion, the following points should be highlighted: » Listening can range from being very interactive to wholly non-interactive. » Listening can be face-to-face, or ‘disembodied’, as when listening to the radio or on the phone; it can also be reinforced with images, as when watching a film or TY. + The purposes of listening can vary, from the purely transactional (as when information is being conveyed) to ‘listening for pleasure’, as when listening to songs, or when watching a film. = Listening can be intensive, where every word counts, or it can involve simply listening to the gist a7 Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching 48 3. All of these situations present possible difficulties, exacerbated by the fact that the listener is not a native speaker. Factors that could make listening difficult include: « the lack of visual reinforcement, as when listening to the radio or whe (although sometimes the visual reinforcement can be distracting) * the inability to interact, in order to negotiate breakdowns in communication, as when listening to the radio or TV © the inability to control the rate of the input, by ‘pausing’ or ‘replaying’ it, as is possible when a text is recorded the pressure, in face-to-face interaction, to speak, which might interfere with listening * poor acoustics, as in many classrooms + the topic, e.g. the news may be more difficult than a song, because of the density of information, lack of repetition, etc.; on the other hand, song lyrics are often idiomatic, elliptical, and hard to hear. on the phone Comprehension 1 Read the following two texts to the trainees, at a natural speed, with natural pausing. Avoid supplying any paralinguistic support, e.g. the use of gesture, in order to clarify understanding. Allow the trainees to discuss their level of understanding. If requested, read the texts again. Texta! Before they start, conditions are less than ideal and security is at risk. But the problem is soon resolved as each of their adjacent arms repeatedly describes the same short arc, the one in time with the other, In this way the impediment is removed, thus avoiding the need to stop and perform the operation by hand. The process continues until such timeas a change in conditions renders it unnecessary. Text) We sat down at the table in the corner and the forby took our order. To start with, Therese ordered gumble, and had a green dibblet. For the main course, Therese went for the pan-fried lunk with a fibitch sauce, while | opted for the house speciality, a shoulder of roast chorton. We washed all this down with a bottle of their best white jimmery. 2. Read these second versions of the texts (the differences are in italics): Text a Windscreen wipers. Before they start, conditions are less than ideal and security is at risk. But the problem Is soon resolved as each of their adjacent arms repeatedly describes the same short arc, the one in time with the other. In this way the impediment is removed, thus avoiding the need to stop and perform the operation by hand. The process continues until such time as a change in conditions renders it unnecessary. Text b We sat down at the table in the comer and the waiter took our order. To start with, Therese ordered | soup, and | had a green salad. For the main course, Therese went for the pan-fried sole with a dill sauce, | while | opted for the house speciality, a shoulder of roast lamb. We washed all this down with a bottle | of their best white wine. a 10 Developing listening skills In discussing the task, the following points should be noted: 1) and 2) Comprehension depends on a number of factors, and is not simply a case of “understanding every word’. In the first text (in its first version), trainees will have understood all the words, but will probably have been unsure as to what the text was about. They lacked the necessary (extralinguistic) background information to make sense of the words. In other words, they lacked top-down knowledge. In the second text (in its first version), they were unfamiliar with a number of the words (because they were invented): they lacked some bottom-up knowledge. But they had a clear idea of the situation, and therefore could supply some of the missing (linguistic) information. Comprehension, then, results from the interaction of top-down and bottom-up levels of knowledge. This is true for both reading and listening. (Reading is dealt with in Unit 11.) 3) and 4) The implications are that in order to maximise comprehension, it helps: «= toestablish the general situation, topic, context, etc. of the text (to activate top-down knowledge) * to provide help with individual words (bottom-up knowledge), e.g. in the form of pre- teaching, or allowing dictionary use When choosing or designing listening texts, these factors can be balanced against one another, in order to achieve an appropriate level of difficulty. Listening texts and tasks 1 Appropriate tasks for each of these text types might include: anews broadcast: a, ¢ 9 the directions to a person's home: d, g the description of a missing person: fj an embarrassing personal anecdote: 4, b a shopping dialogue (sales assistant and customer): @ a pop song: a, fh i,k recorded entertainment information (e.g. movies, theatre, etc.): a, e, 9 8 aweather forecast: a, d, eh 2 Criteria for choosing a task include: = Does the task replicate an authentic (i. ‘real-life’) response to the material? For example, when listening to directions, we often take notes and/or draw a rough map. + Does the task reflect the way the information is organised? For example, information that isin a particular sequence (as in a story) is best extracted by means of a sequencing task; on the other hand, information which is organised into categories (such as entertainment information) is best extracted by means of a grid or table. Note that the most generally applicable task type is a (answering wh-questions): most listening sexts lend themselves to this treatment. On the other hand, the least applicable task types are i sod K(vwriting the exact words or filling in gaps), since these do not usually reflect real-life tasks. However, they can be useful in the classroom in order to focus on specific features in a text, but may be best used after tasks that require less intensive listening. 49 Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching A listening lesson 1 Activity 1a: (pre-listening): activating interest and background knowledge; pre-teaching vocabulary Activity Ib: (while-listening): gist listening; gaining overall familiarity with content Activity 2a: more detailed check of understanding, leading to second listening (re-listening). Activity 3a: using transcript to match spoken and written texts, and to help resolve problems of understanding (re-listening); focus on a discrete feature of the spoken text (sentence stress: post-listening) Activity 3b: application of discrete feature (post-listening) Activity 3¢: checking (re-listening), 2 Itmay be worth pointing out that there is no single correct order, but that the ordering of stages will follow a logic dictated in part by the content of the text, the level of the class, and 85, a basic ‘default’ order might be: d), e), f), b),€), a). the purpose of the activity. Neverthe! 3 The rationale for this orders: d Activating interest and background (top-down) knowledge helps understanding, € Pre-teaching vocabulary (bottom-up knowledge) helps understanding f Setting a task provides a motivation to listen; more general tasks precede more specific tasks. b More specific tasks, requiring more intensive listening, follow more extensive tasks. ¢ Following the transcript helps resolve residual problems of understanding, and forms links between aural signal and written words. a The text is used as a source of language focus, but only after it has been thoroughly understood. Classroom application 1 Point out that this three-way division is a convenient way of classifying listening (and reading) tasks. Pre-listening: d, e; while-listening: f, b, ¢ post-listening: a. Trainees work in small groups, and should be prepared to present their tasks to the class. It is ‘expected that their task sequences should reflect the principles outlined above. (Note: As an alternative, set the trainees a text from the current coursebook they are using, in the form of the transcript; they can then compare their treatment of the text with the way itis dealt with in the coursebook. Different groups can also work with different texts.) Poi Qu Qa: Q3: 50 mits that could be made include: Speaking intvolves listening, so for learners who want to learn to speak, listening would seem to be essential; also, there are some grounds to believe that “understanding messages’ is a prerequisite for language acquisition. There are acceptable alternatives, but they don’t necessarily involve reading aloud. For example: simply talking to the learners (‘live listening’), and/or using video/DVD as a source for listening material. Tasks that divert attention away from processing the text at the word level can help, e.g. matching, sequencing, selecting, etc. tasks. Learners’ need to ‘understand every word’ can ‘ve satisfied towards the end of a task sequence, by giving them the transcript Qa: Qs: Q6: 10 Developing listening skills Songs can be used like any other listening text, but many do not lend themselves to in~ depth scrutiny. The best are probably those that have some narrative element, and/or that include the repeated use of (useful) formulaic language, A diet solely of songs would probably not be a good idea, but their occasional use is likely to motivate many learners, especially if they are songs they have themselves chosen. Coursebook texts may sound unnatural because — in order to control their level of difficulty, or to build into them specific language items — they have often been scripted and then recorded, rather than recorded spontaneously. Teachers can make their own unscripted, or semi-scripted, recordings, using colleagues or friends, but there is often a price to pay in terms of acoustic quality. Another source of more natural-sounding speech is authentic recorded material, such as TV and radio interviews, films, and soap operas. ‘One way of helping leamers become ‘strategic listeners’ in interactive talk is to teach them some expressions with which they can control the input, such as Do you mean ...? Did you say 2 U’msorry, I didn’t understand ..., etc. Practice interacting with each other, and with the teacher, obviously helps. 51 11 Developing reading skills Main focus * Trainees apply these principles to the design of Toleamn the basic principles of developing the lessons aimed at developing reading skills. reading skill, and to apply thesetothedesignofa Key concepts skills-based lesson. « reading forinformation, gist, pleasure, intensive Learning outcomes reading * Tralnees are aware of different purposes and © skimming, scanning strategies for reading. » top-down vs bottom-up knowledge «Trainees understand how comprehension is « linguistics extralinguistic clues achieved in reading, © pre; while- and post-reading tasks Stage Focus ‘A Warm-up introducing the topic through discussion questions B Reading purposesand strategies _| highlighting different reasons for, and ways of, reading texts C Reading ina second language experiencing reading in another language D Coursebook reading texts and tasks | identifying the rationale behind coursebook reading tasks E Areading lesson ordering the stages of a reading lesson Reflection reviewing the issues discussed in this unit Warm-up The following points could be made, in discussing these questions: a Reading is like listening: both are receptive skills and involve the comprehension of text. The main difference is in the mode (written vs spoken language), and in the fact that listening takes place in real time whereas readers (usually) have time to read (and re-read) at their own pace. b Vocabulary is important, but a knowledge of all the words does not guarantee comprehension, since other kinds of knowledge (such as grammar knowledge, and background knowledge of the topic) are also implicated. ¢ Reading aloud, on the part of the students, has only limited usefulness, can be very tedious, and may actually interfere with the successful understanding of a text. Itis best avoided. Simplifying texts can make them more accessible to learners, but a diet of only simplified texts may not be the best preparation for ‘real-life’ reading. Reading is a good way of improving vocabulary, although more for receptive than for productive purposes. Moreover, classroom reading is seldom sufficient to trigger incidental vocabulary learning: it needs to be supplemented by a great deal of extra-class reading {Literary texts can provide variety as well as useful cultural knowledge, but most learners need to read for information rather than for pleasure. g Thisis largely true, but the successful transfer of reading skills from one language to another depends on the reader having a core of language knowledge (e.g. vocabulary and grammar) 52 11 Developing reading skills Reading purposes and strategies 1 The completed chart should look like this: (Note that more than one way of reading may be possible, as the reader alternates between different modes, according to his or her purpose.) Text type Reason for reading Way of reading pleasure | information | close reading | skimming | scanning for forgist | specific information the instructions for installing a 7 Z ‘computer monitor a text message (SMS) from a friend v v v the evening's programmes in aTV v Z guide ‘a newspaper report ofa sports event v v v ashort story v v v ‘research paper published in a 7 5 v iy scholarly journal Note the following points: Readers read some texts very closely (such as instructions) while other texts they may simply skim, in order to get the main gist (as, for example, in reading the report of a sports event, where they may be less interested in the detail than in the main facts). Readers may also scart a text, searching for a specific piece of information, as when they are consulting a TV guide. In actual fact, readers will probably apply several different strategies to the one text. Their purpose for reading the text ~ e.g, the need for specific information as opposed to getting the gist of a story — will determine the strategies they employ. 2 The main point to note here is that different text types will require different kinds of classroom tasks. For example, it would be inappropriate to ask learners to read an instruction manual just for gist, or to read a poem for specific information. Reading in a second language 1 Ask ifanyone is familiar with Esperanto. If they are, ask them to imagine how an English speaker with no knowledge of Esperanto would process this text. Trainees should read the text individually and silently, and attempt to answer the questions. 2 Trainees can compare their answers to activity C1 in pairs. 1 Even with limited knowledge of the language of the text, the reader can use a range of clues to ‘decode’ both the gist of it as well as identifying some specific facts. These clues include: + layout, type face, etc. which triggers background knowledge of this kind of text type (news report), induding the way that news information is typically organised, i.e. main facts first, then background information; + the picture, which provides information about the topic: + words that are similar to English or other language words (e.g. teatro, egipta, personoj) as well as other cross-linguistic information, such as number and place names. 53 Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching 2 This suggests that learners do not need to know all the words in a text in order to be able to gain some understanding of its content. This in turn supports the case for using authentic (ungraded) texts with learners, even at relatively low levels. 3. Teachers can help learners understand texts by setting tasks that exploit their different kinds of knowledge. For example, the students can be asked to use their knowledge of text types and/or any extralinguistic information (such as pictures) and/or their background knowledge of the topic to make predictions as to the content of the text, in advance of reading it. They can also be asked to skin the text initially, using the words that they recognise, to give them a general idea of the gist, before a closer, more intensive reading. |) Coursebook reading texts and tasks 34 1 The purpose of these tasks can be summarised as: a and b Using the picture to trigger background knowledge of the topic, and any related vocabulary that learners already know. ¢ Pre-teaching key vocabulary in order to make the text easier to understand (Tasks a, b and c are pre-reading tasks.) dA general gist reading task, to give the students a purpose for reading, without encouraging them to read (and try to remember) every detail. (This is a while-reading task.) € More detailed questions, to provide a purpose for a more detailed re-reading of the text. (This is probably another while-reading task, although the instruction to re-read the text is not explicit.) £ and g These tasks now focus attention on specific language features of the text, such as vocabulary. They are post-reading tasks. h This is another post-reading task that requires learners to respond to the text in some way ~ in this case through writing. The features of the text that might help understanding include its ttle and the illustration (which allow the reader to predict the content of the text); topic familiarity, at least with other ball games, which helps make sense of potentially ambiguous words like court, rings, pads; and the logical organisation of the text into paragraphs, each with its own topic. Factors that might inhibit understanding include the use of rare or specialised vocabulary (ritual, sacred, enactment; rectangular, sloping, diameter, etc.), and the use of some ‘higher level’ grammar structures such as the passive (was played, were divided, etc.) and modal constructions (would have weighed, must have made ...). b Possible pre-reading tasks might include: + using the picture and/or title to activate background knowledge and to brainstorm vocabulary (e.g. associated with ball games) * pre-teaching unfamiliar vocabulary Possible while-reading tasks might include: * answering gist questions, e.g. how many players were there? what was the aim of the ‘game? what was its significance? Or: how similar was this game to modern basketball? + using the information to draw a ball court, or to choose the picture that best represents the game in action; * answering more detailed questions, such as true/false, or multiple choice. 11 Developing reading skills Post-reading tasks might include: + focus on language features such as modality, by, for example, underlining all the modal verbs and other expressions of probability/possibility; © write a description of moder day football or basket ball, from the point of view of a writer 1000 years from now. Areading lesson 1 The most logical order is probably: ¢, h, f, d, a,b, g, e. 2 For this task, it may be appropriate to use the coursebook that the trainces are using in their teaching practice. You may wish to assign particular sequences to look at. Encourage trainees to think of ways of extending the task sequence by, for example, adding stages that are mentioned in the previous task. REFLECTION. These questions could be assigned to different groups, ¢.g., questions ad to one group, questions /:1o another, The groups can then re-form and compare their responses, before a general, ‘open-class discussion. Points that could be made here include: a b This extralinguistic information can help activate background knowledge, which in turn assists comprehension by compensating for lack of linguistic knowledge. Authentic materials may be more motivating for learners, even if challenging, and they are arguably better preparation for ‘real-life’ reading. They may also retain textual and extralinguistic features that assist comprehension, and that are lost in simplified or specially- written materials. A task provides the learners with a purpose for reading the text, and (depending on the choice of task) it can help divert the learners away from the temptation to focus on decoding the meaning of every word. Ifa textis of a type that is typically scanned (such as a TV guide), a task that ‘matches’ this text type would be a scanning one. On the other hand, ifa text is of a type that is typically read intensively, such as a set of instructions, an appropriate task would be one which requires the students to process it in a similar, intensive, way. It is a good idea to match the tasks with the text, since such a matching is more likely to prompt learners to transfer their first language reading skills into their second language. Moreover it provides realistic preparation for real-life reading. In this way the focus is moved away from testing reading, to developing reading skills, zeachting reading. Learners tend to over-rely on dictionaries unless trained in how to use them constructively. An. alternative is to try to work out the meaning of unfamiliar words from context. The ability to recall the details of a text isa reliable gauge of understanding, but understanding % not dependent on memorising details. Most kinds of texts, in fact, are read for immediate ‘snderstanding, not for later recall. Moreover, ariswering questions from memory is associated Sore with testing than with skills development. 35 12 Presenting language through texts ‘Main focus To explore text-based ways of presenting grammar and vocabulary. Learning outcomes * Trainees review approaches to presenting new language items. * ‘Trainees understand how texts can be exploited to present grammar and vocabulary. © Tralnees can apply these understandings to the design of text-based presentation. Key concepts = context + authenticity «© text (spoken and written) © text-based teaching Stage Focus A Warm-up reviewing the stages of a grammar presentation B Context deciding on the features of a useful context for presentation C Text-based presentations identifying the stages of a text-based grammar presentation D Classroom application designing a text-based presentation Reflection reflecting on the pros and cons of text-based presentations Note: This unit assumes familiarity with Unit 5 (on vocabulary presentation), Units 6 and 7 (on grammar presentation) and 10 and 11 (on receptive skills). ©) Warm-up 1 This activity is designed to review aspects of grammar presentation covered in Units 6 and 7 Classroom Teaching. You may like to cut the sentence halves up and have trainees mingle to find their partner. Answers: 1—d); 2-c); 3b); 4-a). 2 Other possible ways of presenting the meaning of the structure include: + areal situation, e.g. using the experience of one of the students, or the teacher's own experience + translation (only an option in mono-lingual groups) «paraphrase, explanation, e.g, we use this structure when we want to talk about something that began in the past and continues to the present + acontext - which is the focus of this session. 12 Presenting language through texts Context 1 Point out that ‘context’ is used in this unit to mean ‘the surrounding text’ (sometimes referred to as ¢o-tex!) and that the surrounding text can be either spoken or written. For language presentation purposes, the same principles apply for both spoken and written texts, but, in the case of the former, it helps if there is a transcript that learners can study. 1 Context a is an easily recognisable one and the sense of obligation is fairly clear; however, there is only one example of the target form, and the understanding of that is partly dependent on students understanding babysit. Context b, on the other hand, has several examples, and the sense of obligation is reinforced by synonymous expressions, such as It’s really important ... t's one of the rules. Moreover, have to co-occurs with don’t have to, which is clearly related to the meaning of mo obligation. Context c has two examples of have fo, but they both occur with go, and the context does not foreground the sense of obligation: have 10 go could equally well mean want to go, (would) like to go, or simply go or am going in these contexts, Context d has plenty of examples of have fo, but so much so that it sounds unnatural, and there are few if any context clues to suggest that these activities are obligatory, 2 Again, Context b displays the form well, since there are several examples; these occur with different personal pronouns, and there is an example in the negative. In Contexts a, cand dit would be difficult to infer these other forms. 2 Avery general principle, which all the following points support, is that the context should provide enough data for the leamers to work out the rules of meaning and form for themselves. Other principles might include: + the context should be an easily recognisable and comprehensible one * it should provide lots of clues as to the meaning of the target item + itshould help eliminate other, competing meanings « there should be more than one example of the item, if possible (but not so many that the text sounds unnatural) + the item should be displayed in a variety of forms Text-based presentations 1 The structure is the second conditional. The ‘imaginative’ use of this verb structure is clearly llustrated, not just in the text, but in the graphics. Moreover, the structure is repeated a number of times. There could be some problems, however, if learners didn’t know some of the vocabulary, e.g. budgie, palace, governess, etc. Note that, at no point, is the learners’ comprehension of the text checked. ‘he purpose of these stages ar tage 1 to check understanding of the concept; age 2 to highlight the form; 3 to provide initial practice EE Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching REFLE: Classroom application 1 Divide the class into pairs or small groups. Assign a text to each group. Tell the groups to plan a presentation based on their text, which they should be prepared to demonstrate, or at least ‘talk through’. The presentation should include a stage where the learners’ understanding of the text is facilitated, according to the principles and procedures outlined in Units 10 and 11. The language areas that they choose to highlight should be appropriate to the level, as indicated in the rubric a Language areas that might be exploited using these texts are: Texta: language to talk about future plans, intentions, and wishes, e.g. plan on +-ing, plan 10+ infinitive, will (+ probably/definitely), present continuous (we're heading back), love to do, hope to do. Also, positive appraisal language: (sounds/it's been) great; favourite (place); love, enjoy; really friendly; etc. Text b: different types of transport; travel language (travel, head (south), transport, journey, trek, arrive, complete). ‘Text c: phrasal verbs, e.g. workout, sort out, turn out. Idioms and collocations: beyond repair, take charge, a dressing down, strings attached, take things] for granted. Vocabulary of problems/solutions: mistakes, stressfit situation, tricky matter, issue, solution, resolved; modal verbs for prediction: might, could, will, going to. 2. Representatives from each group can then demonstrate their ‘lesson’, using the other trainees as learners, or they can simply talk the rest of the class through their lesson plan. After each ‘lesson’, comment on the logic of the staging, and the appropriacy of choice of language focus. oy Points that could emerge from this discussion include: A text-based approach displays language ‘at work’, rather than in the form of de- 58 contextualised sentences; it also allows learners to work rules out for themselves (assuming the texts are well chosen), which is good preparation for autonomous learning; it can also provide a natural follow-on to other text-based activities, such as skills development. Problems include: text difficulty, and the need to ensure comprehension of the text in advance of using it as a ‘language object’; the artificiality of texts that are specially written to display numerous examples of a pre-selected item. Authentic texts have the advantage that the target items will (generally) be used in ‘real life’ ways, ¢.g. in association with other items that they naturally co-occur with. However, they may not occur with sufficient frequency for ‘discovery learning’ purposes. More problematic is the difficulty involved in processing the texts, which may preclude their use for language presentation purposes, except at higher levels, 13 Developing speaking skills Main focus Ways of developing speaking skills. Learning outcomes 1 Trainees understand the main considerations in dealing with a speaking skills lesson. 2 Trainees understand the uses ofa variety of speaking a Key concepts + communication, information gap + task, discussion, roleplay, survey, presentation, game « rehearsal, outcome, feedback [ Stage Focus | A Warm-up trainees experience and reflect on a short speaking activity | 8 Different speaking activities introducing variety of speakingactivities | c Challenges introducing some practical considerations in dealing with speaking D Questions and answers introducing the role of the teacher in speaking lessons Reflection _ trainees put what they have learned into practice * Warm-up This section can be done without the trainees opening their books. Set the activity up and then encourage trainees to reflect on their experience by answering the questions. 1 Ttassumes that learners can hold short conversations ~so it would not be appropriate for very low level learners. However, a simple formula such as Do you like...? would enable learners to cope with it. It assumes that the learners will be comfortable sharing information about themselves. Speaking and listening ~ and potentially grammar points such as, both of us, neither of us, assuming that there is a stage in which learners report back on what they found out. 3. To set up and manage the activity and to monitor learner output 4 Answers will vary but trainees need to justify their answer with reference to the issues in 1 and 2). 5 The learners could be asked to report back on what they found out and the teacher could offer some feedback (correction and so on). 59 Trainer’s manual: B Classroom teaching |) Different speaking activities 1 If time allows, we suggest that the trainees do at least some of these activities. They could then reflect on the way the activities were set up and their potential for speaking practice. In this way you could, of course, replace any of the activities with others that you prefer. The trainees could work in small groups to discuss the questions and note down their responses in the grid. Encourage trainees to share their experience of using these types of activities, either in the TP lessons or in their previous experience. If you are short of time, assign two or three activities to each group of trainees, rather than have them consider all the activities. The following summarises the main points that should emerge from this task: a Isit practical? 1 Discussion: Easy to set up; less easy to monitor; helps if learners are given planning time. 2 Roleplay: Learners need to understand their role and this may sometimes involve lengthy reading. They are asked to voice opinions that may not be their own and this may demand preparation time as they think of arguments, etc. 3. Survey/presentation: Some preparation will be required before the survey, as learners formulate questions, Also they will need to prepare before reporting back their findings. 4. Guessing game: Generally fairly little preparation but —see d). Some games can have quite complex instructions, but it will depend on the exact activity being used. 5 Information gap: Yes, they are generally easy to set up and quickly understood by learners. b Is it purposeful? 1 Discussion: No real outcome to this task, but might be made more purposeful if learners had to persuade each other and reach a consensus and/or report the discussion to the class. 2 Roleplay: This may depend on the roleplay, but usually there is a purpose: in this case it’s a resolution to a problem. 3. Survey/presentation: There is an outcome from the survey (the report). But the reporting back may not engage those that are not actually speaking. 4 Guessing game: Yes - solving the problem or ‘winning’ the game. 5. Information gap: Typically it is purposeful because learners share information to solve a problem or complete a task of some kind, as in this case. ¢ Isit productive? 1 Discussion: If learners are not engaged with the topic, discussions can fall flat; can be rather academic; helps if there is a purpose (see (b}) 2 Roleplay: Some learners may resent the artificiality of the roleplay - topics need to be chosen that the learners can relate to and are interested in. 3 Survey/presentation: Yes, if learners are asked to give a presentation they will produce a fair amount of language in most cases. 4 Guessing game: This will vary with the type of game. 5 Information gap: Yes— learners must participate in order to complete the task. d Isit predictable? 1 Discussion: Some vocabulary is predictable and learners are also likely to practise agreeing/disagreeing, interrupting and so on, However, the majority of language use is unpredictable. 18 Developing speaking sills 2 Roleplay: This will depend on the roleplay, but a roleplay of a service encounter, for example, is usually highly predictable. 3 Survey/presentation: Yes - this will be determined by the topic of the survey/ presentation. Learners can prepare survey questions in advance, and can prepare and rehearse presentations, making the language used in both cases highly predictable. 4 Guessing game: Fairly predictable, meaning that lower level learners can be prepared for the activity if necessary Information gap: Usually very predictable as the design of the task can be manipulated to elicit particular language. The example given here would be good for the present continuous for future arrangements. e Isit adaptable? 1 Discussion: Assumes a fairly advanced level; easier topics could be chosen for lower levels. 2 Roleplay: Very adaptable. Roleplays can be used with almost any level, although at lower levels they are likely to be short. Learners can experiment with language in different contexts and practise a variety of styles/registers. 3. Survey/presentation: Yes, topics and specific tasks can be designed that will appeal to a range of learners. 4 Guessing game: Activities such as these are often used with lower levels, but an example such as the one given would work with a higher level class. Information gap: Very adaptable and are frequently used in communicative language teaching, particularly as they can be designed to elicit the use of particular language items. Ask the trainees to choose one of the above activities or assign them one. They can work in irs to decide how they will set up the activity and to prepare instructions for it. You could nen nominate two or three trainees to give their instructions and ask the group to comment n their appropriacy and clarity. Challenges The second part of this section is a summary of the points raised in the first part. Allow the -es some time to discuss the comments by learners before reporting back their ideas and then completing the table. If you are short of time, you might like to assign just one or two of ne learner comments to each pair or group of trainees. in What can learn from the learner inzia Learners can feel very intimidated if the teacher demands that they speak. Ideally the classroom should be a safe and relaxing place in which learners can experiment and practise with language. Teachers need to try to create a relaxed environment. At lower levels, learners may need quite a lot of preparation before they are ready to undertake a speaking task. Teachers need to consider the cultural differences that exist between themselves and learners. Topics that the teacher may feel comfortable discussing may not be considered appropriate by everybody. Different learners will have different tastes ~ and so teachers need to include a variety of activity types in order to appeal to as many people as possible, Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching What I can learn from the learner Alejandra Speaking is extremely difficult if you don’t know what to say. Teachers need to ensure that learners are thoroughly prepared for activities ~in this case, for example, brainstorming ideas would have helped. Al Speaking is more than knowing words and how to combine them. There are some socio-cultural skills to learn too. How longisit appropriate to speak for? How can you interrupt? How is your turn signalled’ etc. Anja Particularly at higher levels, it can be hard forleamers to see the point of speaking activities. The teacher needs to consider how the value can be demonstrated - for ‘example by giving plenty of feedback to learners both on what was good and how their performance could be improved. Vera While not all learners may want to speak, itis very important that the teacher ensures that those that do want to speak get opportunities to do so. Sometimes the teacher canhelp by forming groups based on level ~ so that all the stronger learners are together and also the weaker ones are together this will reduce the risk of weaker learners being dominated by stronger peers. | Questions and answers 1 The activity is designed to reinforce some of the points covered and also to deal briefly with some practical considerations in setting up and dealing with speaking lessons. The answers to the activity are: 1-c) 2-d) 3b) 4-f) 5-a) 6-e) 2 Invite and answer any similar questions that the trainees may have. REFLECTION This activity can be done without trainees referring to the instructions in the trainee book. Allow ‘the trainees time to prepare. You may like to structure the feedback in a pyramid fashion — with pairs joining to make fours, and then eights and so on, before concluding with an open class discussion. 62 14 Developing writing skills Main focus Ways of developing writing skills. Learning outcomes 1 Trainees understand the principle of writing asa process. 2 Trainees understand ways of developing writing skills in a classroom context. | 3 Trainees understand the rationale behind ways of responding to written work. Key concepts * communication, readership »_-model text; drafts | = text-type ‘© correcting writing, responding to writing = product vs process writing Stage Focus farm-up introducing some practical considerations and background issues in teaching writing iting activities introducing some writing activities ges in writing introducing the idea of writing as a process introducing ways of responding to writi trainees identify stages in a writing lesson and then implement them in their own design of a lesson trainees reflect on what they have learned by doing a short writing task s one optional a ity that supports the unit. It involves responding to learner writing, m-up Id elicit the views of some of the trainees before starting this activity. They could talk cir experiences of dealing with writing in TP, or of learning to write in other languages. trainees to work in small groups to discuss their ideas before reporting back. You 2y wish to highlight some of the following points: Itis a common view that writing can be done almost exclusively outside the class. ever, some stages of a writing lesson that can be done usefully in class ~ thinking of, discussing and organising ideas, group writing, working on editing skills, ete. rali: Learners always need lots of varied practice of grammar and vocabulary and the ‘2c: that they are under less time pressure when they write means that writing is a useful or a focus on accuracy. However, to use this mode exclusively for language practice ¢ fact that writing is a skill in its own right, and one that (arguably) needs to be veloped through practice. 63 Trainer's manual: B Classroom teaching ¢ David: It is probably right to pick out only some of the errors. Ifa learner gets a piece of ‘work back which is covered in corrections it can be demotivating. It is also a good idea to respond, not just to the form of the message (including its errors) but also to its content, as this reinforces the idea that writing is a means of communication, not just a way of practising grammar and spelling. Paula: Its probably right to think of ways that writing activities can be made fun and not be intimidating to learners. On the other hand, simply doing writing for self-expression ignores the fact that many learners (c.g. those who need English for academic or professional purposes) need to master text types where a high premium is placed on accuracy. ¢ Hassan: This point of view is reasonable, but overlooks the fact that the weaker learners may be getting support from the stronger ones, and hence learning from them. © writing activities 64 1 You may prefer to demonstrate one activity, for example the text messaging (c). Afterwards analyse the activity, drawing attention to the sorts of issues raised in the table. The trainees could then discuss another activity that contrasts with the first (for example, d). Ensure that the trainees understand the criteria for categorising the different tasks. It may help to complete one of the rows in open class. Then, allow the trainees to work in pairs to discuss their answers before they report back. Note that a writing task is ‘communicative’ if it requires writers to communicate meanings in order to affect the thoughts or behaviours of their reader(s). The production of sentences or texts in order to practise specific grammatical or textual features, although perfectly justifiable as a form of practice, is unlikely to be communicative. A text is ‘integrated! if it forms a complete ‘message’ in a recognisable text type, even if it is part of a series of messages (as in the case of text-messaging). As for authenticity, a task can be ‘real-life-like’ even if it’s not something that the learners themselves expect to do in real life, e.g. write a poem. You may want to point out that none of the activities is inherently ‘better’ or ‘worse’ than any of the others, but that those where there isa high number of ‘no’ answers probably do not in themselves provide sufficient preparation for the skill of writing. Analysis of activity types Activity type | Communicative | integration | Authenticity | Readership | Level purpose a Capfill no no no no alllevels ® Reproducing | no (unless yes ‘yes ifthe mode! | no unless rmostlevels model stipulated in textistealfe: | stipulatedinthe | (éependingon the task rubric) Te) taskrubric) | modeltext) Interactive | yes yes yes yes alllevels waiting 4 Composition | no (unless yes no no(uniess: intermediate stipulated) stipulated) and upwards @ Dialogue | no yes na no mostlevels + items ee | | 14 Developing writing skills 2 Trainees can discuss the activity in pairs or small groups, before reporting back. One way of re-designing the activity to make it more communicative, more integrated, more authentic, and of providing a readership, might be: Your favourite pop group is coming to your town shortly. Write an email to a friend, who doesn’t know about this group, and try to persuade the friend to come to see them with you, giving lots of reasons. Stages in writing 1 Allow trainees to work indivi ually for a minute or two before comparing with each other in pairs and then agreeing an appropriate order with you. You could point out that these stag may overlap to some extent. A logical order might be: d,c, ba, e. Proponents of a ‘process approach’ to writing would argue that writing in the classroom needs to be treated as a staged process, with attention being given to each stage. Examples are given in 3, below. You may prefer to choose a writing task from a coursebook that the trainees are currently using, but the task should embody at least some features of a process approach. Part a— the leamers read the email and identify the information requested. This helps them to understand the model text and gives ideas for what could be included during the writing phase. Part b= the learners analyse some of the language used in the email. In this case they consider the formal expressions and try to think of more informal equivalents. This phase focuses on some of the language that the learners will need for the task. Part c~ the learners choose a course and write an email requesting information. By having more than one course advert, there is a better chance that the learners will be able to write about something they are interested in. This is in effect a first draft. Notice the instruction that follows (check your email for grammar, spelling and punctuation) which encourages an editing stage. 4 Trainees may have various ideas about how the material could be adapted. For example, they may suggest having a phase of discussing ideas at the start. They may suggest that the writing be done in pairs or small groups, or that the adverts are substituted for genuine ones whereby the learners can write real emails and (perhaps) get a reply Marking written work As an alternative to the procedure here, you could collect some samples of writing from earners in TP classes and photocopy them for trainees to correct You may like to lead into this activity by asking trainees about their recollections of how eachers marked their work at school, particularly anything written in a foreign language. 1 Ask them to look at the three samples of types of marking and allow them to discuss their