Sie sind auf Seite 1von 38

Lecture 2

Complex Power, Reactive Compensation, Three Phase





Mahmoud Ghofrani
Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington, Bothell

BEE 477

POWER SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS
1
Announcements
Happy New Year!



2
Review of Phasors
Goal of phasor analysis is to simplify the analysis of
constant frequency ac systems

v(t) = V
max
cos(et + u
v
)
i(t) = I
max
cos(et + u
I
)

Root Mean Square (RMS) voltage of sinusoid
2
max
0
1
( )
2
T
V
v t dt
T
=
}
3
Phasor Representation
j
( )
Euler's Identity: e cos sin
Phasor notation is developed by rewriting
using Euler's identity
( ) 2 cos( )
( ) 2 Re
(Note: is the RMS voltage)
V
V
j t
j
v t V t
v t V e
V
u
e u
u u
e u
+
= +
= +
(
=

4
Phasor Representation, contd
The RMS, cosine-referenced voltage phasor is:
( ) Re 2
cos sin
cos sin
V
V
j
V
j j t
V V
I I
V V e V
v t Ve e
V V j V
I I j I
u
u e
u
u u
u u
= = Z
=
= +
= +
(Note: lowercase letters such as v(t) and i(t) are used
for instantaneous values; uppercase letters such as V
and I indicate rms values; and uppercase letters in italics
such as V and I represent rms phasors.
5
Phasor Representation Example
6
Advantages of Phasor Analysis
0
2 2
Resistor ( ) ( )
( )
Inductor ( )
1 1
Capacitor ( ) (0)
C
Z = Impedance
R = Resistance
X = Reactance
X
Z = =arctan( )
t
v t Ri t V RI
di t
v t L V j LI
dt
i t dt v V I
j C
R jX Z
R X
R
e
e
|
|
= =
= =
+ =
= + = Z
+
}
Device Time Analysis Phasor
7
RL Circuit Example
( ) 2100cos( 30 )
60Hz
V t t
f
e = +
=
2 2
R 4 3
4 3 5 36.9
100 30
5 36.9
20 6.9 Amps
i(t) 20 2 cos( 6.9 )
X L
Z
V
I
Z
t
e
|
e
= O = =
= + = =
Z
= =
Z
= Z
=
8
Complex Power
max
max
max max

( ) ( ) ( )
v(t) = cos( )
(t) = cos( )
1
cos cos [cos( ) cos( )]
2
1
( ) [cos( )
2
cos(2 )]
V
I
V I
V I
p t v t i t
V t
i I t
p t V I
t
e u
e u
o | o | o |
u u
e u u
=
+
+
= + +
= +
+ +
Power
9
Complex Power, contd
max max
0
max max

1
( ) [cos( ) cos(2 )]
2
1
( )
1
cos( )
2
cos( )
= =
V I V I
T
avg
V I
V I
V I
p t V I t
P p t dt
T
V I
V I
u u e u u
u u
u u
| u u
= + + +
=
=
=

}
Power Factor
Average

P
Angle
ower
10
Complex Power
| |
*
cos( ) sin( )
P = Real Power (W, kW, MW)
Q = Reactive Power (var, kvar, Mvar)
S = Complex power (VA, kVA, MVA)
Power Factor (pf) = cos
If current leads voltage then pf is leading
If current
V I V I
V I
S V I j
P jQ
u u u u
|
+
+
=
=
=
lags voltage then pf is lagging
11
Complex Power, contd
2
2 2
1
2 2
Relationships between real, reactive and complex power
cos
sin 1
( ) tan ( )
Q P.tan( )
. . cos( )
P S
Q S S pf
S P Q
Q
P
P P
p f
S
P Q
|
|
o |
o |
o |

=
= =
= +
=
=
= = =
+
12
Complex Power Example
Example: A load draws 100 kW with a leading pf of 0.85.
What are (power factor angle), Q and ? S |
1
-cos 0.85 31.8
100
117.6 kVA
0.85
117.6sin( 31.8 ) 62.0 kVar
kW
S
Q
|

= =
= =
= =
13
Load and Generator Conventions
14
Real and Reactive Power, Delivered
or Absorbed example
15
Power Consumption in Devices
2
2
Resistor
Resistor Resistor Resistor
2
2
Inductor
Inductor Inductor Inductor L
L
Resistors only consume real power
P & Q 0
Inductors only consume reactive power
P 0 & Q
Capacitors only generate reactive powe
V
I R
R
V
I X
X
= = =
= = =
2
Capacitor Capacitor Capacitor C
2
Capacitor
Capacitor C
C
(Note-some define X negative)
r
1
P 0 & Q
Q
C
I X X
C
V
X
e
= = =
=
16
Conservation of Power
At every node (bus) in the system
Sum of real power into node must equal zero
Sum of reactive power into node must equal zero
This is a direct consequence of Kirchhoffs current
law, which states that the total current into each
node must equal zero.
Conservation of power follows since S = VI*

17
Conservation of Power Example
Earlier we found
I = 20Z-6.9 amps
*
*
R
2
R R
*
L
2
L L
100 30 20 6.9 2000 36.9 VA
36.9 pf = 0.8 lagging
S 4 20 6.9 20 6.9
P 1600 (Q 0)
S 3 20 6.9 20 6.9
Q 1200var (P 0)
R
L
S V I
V I
W I R
V I j
I X
|
= = Z Z = Z
=
= = Z Z
= = =
= = Z Z
= = =
18
Example
*
40000 0
400 0 Amps
100 0
40000 0 (5 40) 400 0
42000 16000 44.9 20.8 kV
S 44.9k 20.8 400 0
17.98 20.8 MVA 16.8 6.4 MVA
V
I
V j
j
VI
j
Z
= = Z
Z O
= Z + + Z
= + = Z
= = Z Z
= Z = +
First solve
basic circuit
19
Example, contd
Now add additional
reactive power load
and resolve
70.7 0.7 lagging
564 45 Amps
59.7 13.6 kV
S 33.7 58.6 MVA 17.6 28.8 MVA
Load
Z pf
I
V
j
= Z45 =
= Z
= Z
= Z = +
20
59.7 kV
17.6 MW
28.8 MVR
40.0 kV
16.0 MW
16.0 MVR
17.6 MW 16.0 MW
-16.0 MVR 28.8 MVR
Power System Notation
Power system components are usually shown as
one-line diagrams. Previous circuit redrawn
Arrows are
used to
show loads
Generators are
shown as circles
Transmission lines
are shown as a
single line
21
Reactive Compensation
44.94 kV
16.8 MW
6.4 MVR
40.0 kV
16.0 MW
16.0 MVR
16.8 MW 16.0 MW
0.0 MVR 6.4 MVR
16.0 MVR
Key idea of reactive compensation is to supply reactive
power locally. In the previous example this can
be done by adding a 16 Mvar capacitor at the load
Compensated circuit is identical to first example with
just real power load
22
Reactive Compensation, contd
Reactive compensation decreased the line flow from
564 Amps to 400 Amps. This has advantages
Lines losses, which are equal to I
2
R decrease
Lower current allows utility to use small wires, or
alternatively, supply more load over the same wires
Voltage drop on the line is less
Reactive compensation is used extensively by
utilities
Capacitors can be used to correct a loads power
factor to an arbitrary value.
23
Power Factor Correction Example
Assume we have 100 kVA load with pf=0.8 lagging,
and would like to correct the pf to 0.95 lagging
1
1
desired
new cap
cap
cap
cap
80 60 kVA cos 0.8 36.9
PF of 0.95 requires cos 0.95 18.2
S 80 (60 Q )
60- Q
tan18.2 60 Q 26.3 kvar
80
Q 33.7 kvar
S j
j
|
|

= + = =
= =
= +
= =
=
24
Distribution System Capacitors
25
Balanced 3 Phase (|) Systems
A balanced 3 phase (|) system has
three voltage sources with equal magnitude, but with an
angle shift of 120
equal loads on each phase
equal impedance on the lines connecting the generators to
the loads
Bulk power systems are almost exclusively 3|
Single phase is used primarily only in low voltage,
low power settings, such as residential and some
commercial
26
Balanced 3| -- No Neutral Current
* * * *
(1 0 1 1
3
n a b c
n
an an bn bn cn cn an an
I I I I
V
I
Z
S V I V I V I V I
= + +
= Z + Z120 + Z120) = 0
= + + =
27
Advantages of 3| Power
Can transmit more power for same amount of wire
(twice as much as single phase)
Torque produced by 3| machines is constrant
Three phase machines use less material for same
power rating
Three phase machines start more easily than single
phase machines
28
Three Phase - Wye Connection
There are two ways to connect 3| systems
Wye (Y)
Delta (A)

an
bn
cn
Wye Connection Voltages
V
V
V
V
V
V
o
o
o
= Z
= Z 120
= Z +120
29
Wye Connection Line Voltages
V
an

V
cn

V
bn

V
ab

V
ca

V
bc

-V
bn

(1 1 120
3 30
3 90
3 150
ab an bn
bc
ca
V V V V
V
V V
V V
o o
o
o
o
= = Z Z + )
= Z +
= Z
= Z +
Line to line
voltages are
also balanced
( = 0 in this case)
30
Wye Connection, contd
Define voltage/current across/through device to be
phase voltage/current
Define voltage/current across/through lines to be
line voltage/current

6
*
3
3 1 30 3
3
j
Line Phase Phase
Line Phase
Phase Phase
V V V e
I I
S V I
t
|
= Z =
=
=
31
Delta Connection
I
ca

I
c

I
ab

I
bc

I
a

I
b

a
b
*
3
For the Delta
phase voltages equal
line voltages
For currents
I
3
I
I
3
ab ca
ab
bc ab
c ca bc
Phase Phase
I I
I
I I
I I
S V I
|
=
= Z30
=
=
=
32
Three Phase Example
Assume a A-connected load is supplied from a 3|
13.8 kV (L-L) source with Z = 100Z20O
13.8 0
13.8 0
13.8 0
ab
bc
ca
V kV
V kV
V kV
= Z
= Z12
= Z12
13.8 0
138 20
138 140 138 0
ab
bc ca
kV
I amps
I amps I amps
Z
= = Z
100Z20 O
= Z = Z10
33
Three Phase Example, contd
*
138 20 138 0
239 50 amps
239 170 amps 239 0 amps
3 3 13.8 0 kV 138 amps
5.7 MVA
5.37 1.95 MVA
pf cos 20 lagging
a ab ca
b c
ab ab
I I I
I I
S V I
j
= = Z Z10
= Z
= Z = Z7
= = Z Z20
= Z20
= +
= = 0.94
34
Delta-Wye Transformation
Y
phase
To simplify analysis of balanced 3 systems:
1) -connected loads can be replaced by
1
Y-connected loads with Z
3
2) -connected sources can be replaced by
Y-connected sources with V
3 30
Line
Z
V
|
A
=
=
Z
35
Delta-Wye Transformation Proof
From the side we get
Hence
ab ca ab ca
a
ab ca
a
V V V V
I
Z Z Z
V V
Z
I
A A A
A
A

= =

=
36
Delta-Wye Transformation, contd
a
From the side we get
( ) ( )
(2 )
Since I 0
Hence 3
3
1
Therefore
3
ab Y a b ca Y c a
ab ca Y a b c
b c a b c
ab ca Y a
ab ca
Y
a
Y
Y
V Z I I V Z I I
V V Z I I I
I I I I I
V V Z I
V V
Z Z
I
Z Z
A
A
= =
=
+ + = =
=

= =
=
37
Three Phase Transmission Line