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Class Notes 6/12/2013 Opportunistic Fugni PPT 130611_001 Review: Why are fungi important Medicine, environment, industry,

hypersensitivity and allergies What is the difference between a mold and yeast? Mold colonies are filamentious and branching, yeast is aunicellular and bacterial-like colonies What is the standard media in mycology Saboroud Dextrose Agar What is the preferred pH of fungi? Acidic 5-6 What is a dimorphic fungus? At 37C yeast, at RT a mold Give 3 types of wet mounts KOH, India ink, LPCB, Calcoflour white What are 2 stains used in hematological preparations Wright and Gimsa What are the stains used for Tissue? H&E, PAS, Methenemine silver Who prepares tissue smears? Anatomical pathology This organism is pathogenic and found inside WBC, systemic group, detected by wright or gimsea stain. Histoplasma Capsulatum Define Selective media Has extra inhibitory ingredient like antibiotics to inhibito other organisms like normal flora Standard media SDA What is a common selective media used in the lab Mycosel What common antibiotics added to the agar to make it selective? chloramphenancol or cyclohexanimide What other addition media is used in the mycology laboratory BHI, PDA/PFA What is the special effect of PDA agar? Enhance spore formation/ conidiation What are common techniques to ID fungi? Slide culture, tease mount, biochemical testing (metabolism or enzymes, assimilation), PCR/RT-PCR, immunological techniques Know the different structures of fungi Philides Sporangium Coidiopohre Macro amd microconidia Conidia synonomous with spores Septated and aseptated What is the difference between Dematiacious and hyaline? Hyaline Dematiacious Are clear and will take up the color of the stain structures are dark staining

Opportunistic fungi Exceptions

Fungi under normal healthy conditions will not cause infection in the patient debilitated or significantly injured patients, may cause slight allergies in healthy persons e.g. sick, malnourished, on antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy, diabetic, immunocompromised, low immune responses

What are the general characteristics of the Opportunistic organisms Saprophytic, live off decaying matter Found in soil and common to the environment Mostly inhibited by antibiotics, if suspected of systemic infection, do not use antibiotics in media Fast growers/rapid growers Hyaline or dematiacious Aseptated or septated ( divisions in hyphae) aseptated are associated with zygomycetes, fast death aseptated septated Absidia dematiacious hyaline Mucor Alternaria Acremonium Rhizopus Aureebasidium Aspergillus Bipolaris Fusarium Cladosporium Penicillium Culvaria Chrysosporium Nigrospora Scopulariosus Sepedomium RAM alternating curvy bipolar aurora Sweet Christ! Asburgers peoples risen abcess mucoid comes next acne fuzed secularly You need to be able to differentiate when these are the etologic agents of disease vs contaminants. In order to decide you firstly DO NOT open plate cultures with filamentous colony growing. Open under the hood to prevent exposure to systemic fungus endemic to the area line coccidiodies to El Paso. Check that the symptoms and diagnosis of infection are consistent with suspected organism Were the fungal elements seen in tissue or other material obtained from infection? Are these same fungal elements seen in other patient sample cultures? If the organisms is the same colony type and capable of growing on different media plated. Did a fungus grow in culture of infected material? Sometimes thaty need to be incubated for a longer time to allow for growth Was there more than one cultures positive for the same fungus ? e.g. blood cultures collect 6 tubes, if true infection growth will be seen in all 6 tubes. Is the fungus isolated capable of causing the associated infections Know general characteristics and associated disease

What are the opportunistic organisms associated with disease? The zygomycetes Absidia mucor Rhizopus Aspergillus Fumigatus 34 Fungi and memory picture Description Aseptated Branching No rhizoids or stolons seen sporangia Clinical significance Zygomycosis, otomycosis, allergies name Mucor

aseptate unbranched stoons connect rhizoids like roots

zygomycosis, otomycosys

rhizopu s

aseptate pear shaped sporangia rhizoids collarette fat stems

zygomycosis, allergies

absidia

tapering conidiopho res closly packed elliptical conidia hyaline septate resembles S Shenckii

keratomycosis, mycetoma, systemic infections

acremo nium

Flash shaped phialides hyaline septated different conidia arrangemen t A. Fumagatus is the most commonly isolated pathogen

pulmonary disease Allergic reactions, otomycosis Keratomycosis nasal sinuses

Apergil lus

macroconid ia banana shaped , Fusiform tapering phialiades confused with acremoniu m

onychomycosis otomycosis keratitis invasive nasal infections

fusariu m

chains of conidia form phialide conidiopho re resembles paint brushed

pulmonary infection onychomycosis bladder infections

penicill ium

thin septated hypha ovoid conidia conidia produced within or along hypha sensitive to cyclohexa mide confused with B dermatitidi s

clinical significance , rarely recovered from infections found in hylohyphomyco sis & osteomielytus

chysos porium

thick walled conidia that may be tuberculate d resemble H capsulatum Conidia of different sizes according to growth stage

n/a

sepedo nium

short onychomycosis septated rare otitis and anellophore septicemia s conidia are pear shaped thick echiulate wall

scopula riosis