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Trigonometry Study Guide

Maths 101

Maths 101: Trigonometry The Basics The hypotenuse is the longest side The side opposite the labelled angle is called the opposite side The side next to the labelled angle which is not the hypotenuse is the adjacent side Remember SOH CAH TOA sine $ % opposite hypotenuse ad#acent hypotenuse opposite ad#acent opposite

$ ad#acent

hypotenuse

cosine $ %

tangent $ %

The Sine We can use the sine ormula rom abo!e to ind" an angle when gi!en the opposite and hypotenuse sides to the angle a side when gi!en the opposite angle and the hypotenuse Wor ed !"amp#e &n the diagrams below' ind the !alue o x a$ 10cm x x a sine $ % opposite hypotenuse % , 10 % 0+, ,cm %$ /0o 11cm

(se the in!erse unction to ind x sin)1*0+,- % ..o % opposite sine $ % o x % sin/0 x hypotenuse 11 % 2+3cm % x 11

The Cosine We can use the cosine ormula to ind" an angle when gi!en the ad#acent and hypotenuse sides to the angle a side when gi!en the ad#acent angle and the hypotenuse
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Trigonometry Study Guide

Maths 101

Wor ed !"amp#e &n the diagrams below' ind the !alue o x a$ 11cm x ,cm a cosine $ % ad#acent hypotenuse (se the in!erse unction to ind x + % 20+.o cos)1*0+.12% 11 10 + % 0+.12 %$ x .,o 3cm

ad#acent o cosine $ % x % sin., x 3 hypotenuse % 2+1.cm

x 3

The Tangent We can use the tangent ormula to ind" an angle when gi!en the opposite and ad#acent sides to the angle a side when gi!en the ad#acent angle and side Wor ed !"amp#e &n the diagram below' ind the !alue o x /0 2cm
o

tangent $ %

opposite ad#acent

x 2

% 0+.12

x % tan/0o x 3 % 4+2cm 5ind the !alues o angles and sides mar6ed with letters below a$ x %$ c$

d$ x

.0o

2cm a

e$ 10cm b 20o
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00o

11cm

0cm

4cm y

,+1cm 11+4cm

Trigonometry Study Guide

Maths 101

The 'sosce#es Triang#e Wor ed !"amp#e The diagram to the right shows triangle 9:;+ 9: and 9; are the same length+ a$ 5ind the length' x' o the triangle %$ :alculate the area o the triangle a 5irst we ind y' which is <x' using the cosine o 0/o' which gi!es" y cos0/o % y % ,*cos0/o- % .+1cm , x % 1y y % 4+.

,cm

% 5or the area' we must ind the height' h We can use =ythagoras or trigonometry sin0/o % h h % ,*sin0/o- % 0+2cm 0/o x 0/o , The area is <*b x h- so" 0+0 x 4+.10> x 0+03> % 1/+00cm1 *to 1 d+p+-

Wor ed !"amp#e &n the ollowing triangles' calculate the !alue o x The Sine (u#e a$ are two rules we can use besides the abo!e %$ trigonometric ratios or triangles There with no right)angle+ The irst is the sine ru#e+ :alculate the lengths o the sides and siAe o the angle mar6ed with letters a b c sin A sin B sin C a$ %$ % % ?R % % sin A sin B sin : a b c We use the sine rule to ind" a (se the sine rule with the sides on top when trying to ind a side a side when gi!en two angles and a side 7sides go on top8 an angle when gi!en two sides and an angle sines go on top8 % /.+0cm *to / s+ +there ore x 7% c$ d$ % (se the sine rule with the sines on top when trying to ind an angle @
o oo oo o sin 90cm sin 9x , 4. 2m x0, ., o @ % % 4.o sin x sin 10 2 ., .0 10cm x 10 4cm m

@ % .4+2o *to / s+ +Page there ore)x % sin)1 *0+,.33o oooo :: 9 9y 9 r 10*sin ,cm sin .0 1/1 ./ 3mm @ ., 4. 10m - 20o14o 2cm x : ::

Trigonometry Study Guide

Maths 101

9 The Cosine (u#e The second o the two rules is the cosine ru#e' which we can use to" ind the hypotenuse when gi!en two sides and an angle ind any angle when we ha!e all three sides The cosine rule is" a1 % b1 B c1 C 1bc*cosAb1 % a1 B c1 C 1ac*cosBc1 % a1 B b1 C 1ab*cosC@ c 9 2cm b : 10cm Dnow that in these triangles A' B and C are all angles and a' b and c are all sides
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cosA % ?R cosB %

b1 B c1 C a1 1bc a1 B c1 C b1 1ac a1 B b1 C c1 1ab

cosC %

Trigonometry Study Guide

Maths 101

Wor ed !"amp#e &n the ollowing triangles' calculate the !alue o x a$ 40o x %$ ,cm F 0cm 9y way o the cosine rule" x1 % 21 B 101 C *1 x 2 x 10-cos40o x1 % 1/2 C 110cos40o x1 % 110+12 x % 110+12 % 10+,cm 9y way o the cosine rule" 01 B ,1 C 41 cos F % % 1x0x, % 0+1.14> cos)1*0+1.14- % 41o 4cm 5ind the !alue o y in each o the ollowing triangles a$ %$ y 12cm 2m 110o 4m 3cm

10 ,0 x 0x,

11cm y

When to +se the (u#es Eere is the ull list o scenarios you may encounter and how to respond" When gi!en 1 sides and the angle in between them" use the cosine rule to ind the third side use the sine rule to ind either missing angle ind the other missing angle using the other two angles rom 140 degrees

,0o

10

10 21o

40

When gi!en a side in between 1 angles" use triangle theory to ind the missing angle use the sine rule to ind both the missing sides

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Trigonometry Study Guide

Maths 101

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When gi!en all / sides" use the cosine rule to ind any missing angle use the sine rule to ind another angle use triangle theory to ind the third angle

10 The am%iguous case" use the sine rule to ind both possible answers o the reGuired missing angle use the sum o 140 to ind the possibilities or the other angle in the triangle use the sign rule to ind out the possibilities or what the third side may be

3 .0o 10

-etting to .no/ 0our Trigonometric (atios 5rom di!iding the eGuilateral triangle on the ollowing page into two right)angled triangles' we ta6e #ust one o them+ (sing that right)angled triangle' and the ormulae or sine' cosine and tangent' we can wor6 out certain !alues or sine' cosine and tangent at regular inter!als in a graph+

1 20o 1
/

1 20o 1

/0o

1 20o

/0o
/

1 1
/

1 tan 20o %
/

sin 20o %

1 1

cos 20o %

sin /0 %

cos /0 %

tan /0 %

We can also use a right)angled isosceles triangle' where the eGual sides are o length 1 and the hypotenuse will be root 1 sin .0 %
o

cos .0 %

1
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1
.0o

.0o

Trigonometry Study Guide

Maths 101

tan .0o % 1

The Sine 2ormu#a The sine ormula can be used to calculate the area o a scalene triangle @rea % < ab *sin : Wor ed !"amp#e 5ind the area o this triangle' to / signi icant igures 9 0cm /4o ,cm

@ % < x a x b x sin : @ % 0+0 x 0 x , x sin /4o % 10+4cm1

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