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A Resolution of Mozart and Freemasonry: Enlightenment and the Persistence of CounterReformation

By Peter Paul Fuchs, 3 !E"C#AR$%&' (n this delicate su)*ect, +e shall not s,ea- as theologians' %u)mitting in heart and mind to the religion in +hich +e +ere )orn, and the la+s under +hich +e li.e, +e shall ha.e nothing to do +ith contro.ersy/(ne half of Euro,e anathematizes the other on the su)*ect of the Eucharist0 and )lood has flo+ed in torrents/(nce again $ re,eat that $ ha.e nothing to do +ith contro.ersy' $ )elie.e +ith a li.ely faith all that the Catholic a,ostolic religion teaches on the su)*ect of the Eucharist +ithout com,rehending a +ord of it' &he 1uestion is ho+ to ,ut the greatest restraint on crimes/' 2But3 this most miraculous ,re.entati.e of human atrocities has )een most ineffecti.e'4 ---5oltaire, Entry for !Eucharist,4 Philoso,hical 6ictionary7 $t is a stri-ing fact of cultural history that the greatest intellectual of the Enlightenment and the greatest com,oser ha.e so little in common' Both 5oltaire and Mozart ,rofessed to )e Roman Catholics, the com,oser ,erha,s more )elie.a)ly, +riting )eautiful hymns to the Eucharist .ery early in life li-e Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento, 8' 7 9' &o the e:tent that Mozart had a ,hiloso,hical a,,roach he certainly !+as no 5oltarian'4 But )ringing the matter to that le.el of intellectual com,arison already unfairly mis,laces Mozart in an intellectual realm to +hich he +as ill- fitted' #is letters sho+ him to )e intellectually a)o.e-a.erage, )ut ,erha,s not )y much' &he sim,le fact that in his o,eras he could, for instance, stretch himself to meet the Enlightenment ,hiloso,hical su)tleties of a 6on Alfonso has led scholars to treat him as if some com,licated intellectual layer lay )eneath' &his ultimately may ha.e to do +ith ,ractically e.ery tasteful ,erson;s lo.e of his music, this +riter included' <e +ish to understand this man +ho has gi.en us so many hours of *oy and consolation' But +e are unli-ely to do it if +e imagine him therefore +ith the intellectual e1ui,ment to sift issues, +hich +ere not then, nor e.en really today resol.ed )y scholars' But this is in fact ho+ most studies of the great man tacitly o,erate' $n this regard, the fact that Mozart +as a committed Freemason *ust ,ushes this tendency the to,' &he tendency )ecomes irresisti)le' <hen +e com)ine this +ith the fact that the historiogra,hy of Masonry is ,ro)lematic, +e ha.e an o,a1ue circle +hich sho+s +hy Mozart the man, and more s,ecifically Mozart the com,oser =cum- Master Mason ha.e )een so misunderstood' Freemasonry +as a ,roduct of the Enlightenment' &hough that much is undou)tedly true, the tendency to im,ute to the Masonic >odge largely 6eistic or s-e,tical .ie+s is not' 6eists and s-e,tics +ere +elcomed into the >odge, )ut largely as a

2 result of the Masonic desire to de.elo, Brotherhood )et+een men holding different creedal ,osition' &his +as a radical enough desire, and surely one grounded in the Enlightenment demotion of religion from its ,osition as sole ar)iter' But there is no reason to assume, as ?icholas &ill seems to, that Freemasonry +as hea.ily da))ling in a realm +here a !secular religion of morality4 could trace its intellectual ,rogenitors to those +ho +ished a !society of atheists'43 &here is no dou)t that the >odge +elcomed a +ider .ariety of men than contem,oraneous religious organizations, )ut these ,re.ious assum,tions are sim,ly historically false' &his hel,s us focus on Mozart;s attraction to the Masonic >odge' <e can only ta-e Mozart at his +ord that he +as a ) Catholic in some sense' But again in the conte:t of Freemasonry this is not sho+n sim,ly )y the fact, as &ill assumes, that Mozart *oined the !Catholic4 >odge !Zur Wohltatigkeit4' $t +ould sim,ly )e a foundational misunderstanding of Freemasonry to imagine that any >odge could ha.e ser.ed as a !centre for/reformist/Catholicism'4@ Any theories de.elo,ed on this foundation +ill )e +ea-, if not utterly +rong' &his is a contradiction in terms for the logic of Freemasonry itself' %ince the Craft +as founded to de-centralize religious ,ositions it is highly unli-ely that this +as the case, even if the Lodge in question was filled with reformist Catholics' &he +o))ly assum,tion that many scholars ma-e in this area is lin-ed to the desire to find a ,lace to ,ut a +elter of odd)all Enlightenment ,henomena, and Freemasonry is the ,utati.e curio- ca)inet for such curiosities' &he ,henomenon of an authentic reformist mo.ement in the most unreforming organization of its day, the Roman Catholic Church, to say the least certainly 1ualifies as odd in this +ay' &his mis,laces the em,hasis for )roader cultural analysis, +hich should )egin +ith Mozart;s .ery o).ious commitment to conser.ati.e Catholicism, regardless of his strong Masonic affiliation' <e need only to mention his great Masses as e.idence, and his comments in his letters +ill fill in the fe+ s,aces that might )e left )et+een these to+ering ecclesiastical +or-s' But +e should note a strange fact of Mozart historiogra,hy and ,erformance history as +ell' Mozart;s Masses are .astly under-ser.ed )oth in historiogra,hy and ,erformance, and this is not )y accident' <hile strangely his entire ,ersonality is often seen from the ,oint of .ie+ of his o,eras' &his ma-es assessing his religious .ie+s intrinsically ,ro)lematic' $t also ma-es assessing the ultimate meaning of Freemasonry for him nearly im,ossi)le to a,,reciate' (f course +e should first note that none of this is an im,ediment to understanding the greatness of his music in the conte:t of strictly musical e.olution' (n one le.el Mozart stands as one of the ,reeminent de.elo,ers of musical language ,er se' &his a)o.e all e:,lains his (lym,ian ,osition, if you +ill, in the musical ,antheon' (ne could do no )etter than to ta-e Charles Rosen;s contentions on this matter in The Classical Style as lodestar' But his o,eras naturally ,resent the great o,,ortunity to see him in a more s,ecific cultural climate, and this seems to unfortunately almost ine:ora)ly ha.e tended to s-e+ our .ision on this matter' For reasons not altogether clear scholars ha.e assumed that Mozart;s o,eras are ,roof of his com,letely Enlightenment aesthetic a,,roach' >et me ,re-em,t misunderstanding +ith the a.o+al of Mozart;s )asic consonance +ith many ideas of his age' But if +e consider that he +as mostly not +riting the te:ts of the li)rettos, )ut at most

3 in colla)oration, +e ha.e to ma-e the commonsense assum,tion that these great +or-s do not ,ro.e in any great a,,ro,riation of Enlightenment ,hiloso,hy )y this great musician' &hey may )e ,roof of his consummate ,o+er of musical or ,erha,s theatrical conce,tualization, )ut not for ,hiloso,hy or intellectual discernment generally' Aet if +e ta-e &ill;s massi.ely researched )oo- as an e:am,le, the o,eras seduce one into im,uting *ust a)out e.ery as,ect of the Aufklrung to this man' Merely to sho+ ho+ this us in a )izarre +orld of intellectual somersaults, let us note ho+ &ill re,eatedly in.o-es Engels as an analyst on one ,age, and then Bur-e on another, as if ,oor Mozart should resol.e in his o+n self massi.e human conce,tual ,uzzles not sol.ed after centuries' But the .ery fact that a fine researcher li-e &ill could )e thus )e seduced into these antinomies of inter,retation is in itself a sort of ,roof that there is much more to this story' &here is really no reason to assume that Mozart had any great insight into the contradictions of his age' &hough he had a gro+ing ,ersonal +isdom as to human relationshi,s, a,,arent in the o,eras, conce,tual matters are a +orld a,art' $ronically, &ill himself has nicely descri)ed the ,ath )y +hich +e are more li-ely to get a clearer read on Mozart;s true state-of-mind: !For most of the eighteenth century 5ienna had )een considered the ca,ital of an o)scurantist )ac-+ater' $t +as .ie+ed as the )astion of the CounterReformation north of the Al,s, socially and economically ,rimiti.e, and long-ridden )y that fa.orite target of Enlightenment demonology, the Besuits49 &his +hole matter is freighted +ith the hea.y historical +eight of the su,,ression of the Besuits, +hich +ill )e addressed later in our in.estigation' At this ,oint +hat matters is that the Austrian +orld in +hich Mozart li.ed most of his life +as still hea.ily controlled )y the assum,tions of the Catholic Counter-Reformation' $t is at this ,oint that a sleight-of-hand often enters the in.estigation' Because Mozart +as a Freemason, and )ecause his o,eras em)ody some Enlightenment tro,es, it has )een assumed that his ,ersonal ,hiloso,hyCagain, assuming he had such a +ell-de.elo,ed thing--+ould )e e:,ressed in his aesthetics in o,,osition to the Counter-Reformation assum,tions of his culture' &ill does this su)tly and im,ressi.ely )y s-etching here and there the sense of a more li)eral Catholicism = !Muratorian Catholicism4D -- +hich Mozart and his father might ha.e had allegiance to' But to say the o).ious ,rima facie, in the general societal conte:t of the massi.e conser.ati.e influence of the Church, es,ecially in aesthetics, this tiny trend is ri.ulet com,ared +ith the sea' <ithin the ocean of that ultra-traditional religiosity +e ha.e the staggeringly huge testimony of his out,ut of Masses, +hich em)ody the heady glories of the Counter-Reformation in tension +ith Classical elements so ,erfectly and' %urely the dis,assionate +ay to ,arse this matter is )y ,rinci,ally not assuming that Mozart had a .ery +ell de.elo,ed ,ersonal ,hiloso,hy at all' &here is in fact almost no e.idence of it' #e had .ie+s, o,inions, ,re*udices, se:ual attractions and re,ulsions, *ust li-e any other ,erson of that day or any other' $n musical matters he of course had e:1uisitely attuned tastes and something a,,roaching an aesthetic ,hiloso,hy' But e.en

4 there it ta-es the form of incremental li-es and disli-es' #e laments anything !too e:aggerated4 in music and )emoans that, Ethe golden mean of truth is no longer -no+n or a,,reciated'4F But someho+ Mozart;s mem)ershi, in the >odge is a su,,osed to signal that +e should im,ute something more to him, a ,hiloso,hy +hich +ould encom,ass the age' And it fills )oo-s and )oo-s, and it is 1uite +rong' $t +ould )e closer to the truth to sim,ly im,ute to Mozart the long-standing, traditional .ie+ of many Catholics in Euro,e' ?amely, holding tenaciously to the religion of one;s )irth for not .ery good reasons, )ut for strong emotional ties' %cholars ha.e in.erted this matter to+ards this man, and mostly )ecause of he *oined the Masonic >odge' &here is scant reason to assume that he resol.ed any of the tensions of his conser.ati.e Counter-Reformation assum,tions, +ith his o+n anti-clericalism, Masonic rectitude, or +hiffs of Enlightenment conce,tual fashions' %o +e can start +ith the sim,ler and uncontro.ersial assum,tion, that Mozart +as ine:ora)ly in.ol.ed in the limitations of his Austrian Catholic +orld' $n fact Mozart;s +orld +as li-ely so constrained that e.en those as,ects of scientific rationalism, +hich might ha.e affected him as ,art of the Auf-lGrung;s conce,tual entourage, +ere li-ely dam,ened +ith a more conser.ati.e religious sense of the ,hysical +orld' !Austrian culture of the eighteenth century had remained rooted in the Catholic )elief that the material +orld, im,erfect though it may )e, reflected the di.ine cosmos/4H &he )eauty of Brother Mozart;s commitment to the Craft is not dimmed one )it )y the sane recognition that he +as ,erfectly a.erage in not the grand contradictions of his societal mileau' &his means that Mozart;s com,ositional style +ould ha.e )een stretched )et+een Counter-Reformation styles and ,rocli.ities, meaning ,rinci,ally the religiously didactic and thus ,otentially trium,halistic, and Enlightenment classicizing' %ome+here amidst that elasticity is the more aesthetically sli,,ery rococo, eluding final ,eriodization' $t only reinforces his greatness as a com,oser to see ho+ his +or-ing-out of classical form +as accom,lished in this dynamic tension' &his tension seems to flummo: many scholars, again ,rinci,ally )ecause they are committed someho+ to the notion that this man, +ho +as a Freemason must ha.e )een at )ottom some attenuated form of social critic or historian' $n fact musical history itself +ill often )e distorted to ma-e the facts fit this odd mold' &ill sees in Mozart;s Mass settings of the ona !obis "acem as fast-,aced Allegros as coming from a !time-honored tradition4I' %urely this is so only in a .ery limited sense, and therefore the general statement incorrect' <hat he seems to )e a.oiding is that the tradition is a rather late s,ecific e:crescence of the Counter Reformation, and rather s,ecifically localized at that' Most of the !time-honored tradition4 for ona !obis "acem settings is in the o,,osite direction of ,lainti.e ,rayerfulness' My ,oint is that if +e are going to accurately situate Mozart;s style in reference to !tradition; then +e must use this s,ecific case as e:em,lary as seen in the fact that !the ona !obis "acem is traditionally set to/more serene music/47J And that Mozart;s, #aydn;s and later Beetho.en;s ado,tion of the )right, fast tem,o for this section is s,ecifically a ,articularity of ,ersistent Counter-Reformation tro,e' <e then ha.e a hel,ful ru)ric )y this e:am,le, an Enlightenment form only made )y a Counter-Reformation meme' &he Classical form meeting the structural demands of Counter-Reformation ,ractice' %uch a s,ecific e:am,le sho+s )etter than any ,hiloso,hical animad.ersions ,ossi)ly could, that Mozart +as ,ulled in .arious directions stylistically and ,ro)a)ly

5 ,ersonally' &here is little e.idence that he found these tensions trou)ling, ,ro)a)ly )ecause they are *ust ,art of )eing human in e.ery age' $t is only in the rarefied domain of ,hiloso,hy that these contradictions are really made e:,licit and thus trou)lesome' Mozart;s mem)ershi, in the >odge is not a de facto indication that he )elongs in that realm' &hus, +e ought to see e.en the thoroughly Enlightenment as,ects of his o,eras in the conte:t of his rather conser.ati.e, a.erage ma-e-u,' &ill seems to ha.e an underlying intuition that this is the ,ro,er route +hen he notes = amazingly, for our argument -- that the comic o,era Le !o##e de $igaro should )e considered in a manner incor,orating the essentially Catholic .ie+ of the 6ante in his 6i.ine Comedy77' CounterReformation artistic e:,ression +as surely an attem,t to sa.e e:actly those essentially elements of Christendom in a form that could effecti.ely )attle +ith the disarming affects of Protestantism +ith u,-to-date .igor' &hus it armed itself +ith glory and ,om,' &he )rightness and cheer of Mozart;s music is not the heady li)erated sense of a 5oltairian, of common assum,tion, freed from the constraints of old religion )y Reason' &his is the tale told in so many )oo-s on Mozart, and collaterally his +orld is seen $carusli-e heading for the French Re.olution' $ )elie.e this a,,roach is 1uite +rong' Mozart;s Freemasonry cannot )e ta-en as a thoroughgoing ,ersonal criti1ue of the ,erduring Counter-Reformation ethos of his day-to-day +orld' #is Masonry +as certainly radical in a +ay that +ill )e e:,lained later' But at this ,oint +e must disa)use the general conce,tion that *ust )ecause Mozart occasionally interacted +ith royalty and their re, that he should )e identified +ith their ,oliticized am)itions for the arts and rarified, elite intentions' As an a.erage man in e.ery +ay )ut his music he can in a)solutely no +ay )e seen in connection +ith !2t3he cultural leaders of the Austrian Enlightenment 2+ho3 +ere con.inced that its success de,ended u,on )eing a)le to drag 5iennese culture a+ay from its roots in baroque, Catholic art'47 2em,hasis added3 &his is so e.en if he +as fashiona)ly anti-clerical, +hich as +e +ill se +as a conser.ati.e theme in his cultural conte:t' $t is crucial to note a sort of regressi.e hermeneutical circle o,erating in the failure to understand this, and that this ironically in turn forces a misinter,retation some of the .ery +or-s +here Enlightenment elements are most clearly seen, the o,eras' &hus &ill;s .ision of ie %ntf&hrung is made o,a1ue )y the failure to a,,reciate such elements' #e is forced to do+n-,lay )oth the truly Enlightenment notions of ie %ntf&hrung, and the Counter-Reformation ones as +ell' %o the im,licit strategy and logic of this argument should )e clear no+' <e ha.e )een limning the understanding, using &ill;s )oo- as telling e:em,lar for a start, that the denial of Mozart;s Counter-Reformation ethos is also related to the ina)ility of a ,ro,er understanding of his Enlightenment manifestations' &ill asserts that Mozart;s choice of to,ic +as occasioned )y the Em,eror;s desire to ma-e +ar on the &ur-s and the corres,onding need for ,ro,aganda' %o in &ill; .ie+ this &ur-ish o,era +as, !chosen not as is so often suggested, as an e:,ression of the )ourgeois Enlightenment;s more li)eral .ision of uni.ersal humanity and tolerance, )ut as a story that +ould ser.e the em,eror;s/cam,aign/473' <ar- ma-ing )ased on religion +ithout dou)t hardly counts as an Enlightenment im,etus distilled from its great criti1ue of doctrinal di.isions' <e can )e dou)ly sure that it is not Masonic either' But this hardly means that there +as not an Enlightenment arc to the +hole effort' Again this strangely seems to )e related to the tendency to deny the militaristic, trium,halistic Counter-

6 Reformation elements for +hat they are, and thus to ,oliticize them regressi.ely' <hereas if +e see these elements as one ,ole of artistic tension, +e can a,,reciate the o.erarching Enlightenment theme' &hus +e can see that this +or- +hich em,loys a num)er of Counter-Reformation stylistic tro,es' $t is also an Enlightenment +or- in the .ery sense that it allo+s a dynamic tension )et+een these Counter-Reformation as,ects, and the Enlightenment demotion of religious e:clusi.ity +itnessed )y the focus on another culture, e.en if only as e:oticism' &his tension is ironically made clear e.en )y &ill;s o+n +ords +hen he comments that the o,era;s greatest moment 'artern aller Arten is so ela)orate amidst the o,era;s continuum that !no dramaturgical e:,lanation can ser.e,47@ to ma-e it fit' &his alone sho+s a .ery great need for a ,ro,er inter,reti.e heuristic for this +or-' But if +e in.ol.e the Counter =Reformation artistic .ie+ in our analysis +e can 1uic-ly summon to mind the religious !o,eras4 of Allessandro %carlatti +here there are ,lentiful e:am,les of such ela)orate e:tended arias in the drama as e:1uisite e.idence' &hese %carlatti arias are 1uite similar to 'artern aller Arten, though they sho+ Mozart;s incredi)le classical im,ro.ement of a )aro1ue model' &he !dramaturgical; e:,lanation is the ty,ical dramatic stasis +hich is used to heighten the religious fer.or of .irtue for instance in %carlatti;s La Col(a) *l "entimento) e La +ra#ia' $n %carlatti;s religious o,eras the stasis is not *ust an e,i,henomenon of secular o(era seria stolidness, )ut a +ay of shar,ening the intensity of s,iritual emotion, the raison d,etre of Counter -Reformation art' &his com,arison is made most a,t )y focusing on the rather gruesome +ords of 'artern aller Arten +hich +ould seem to out,ace e.en the )loody Cristos of %,anish Colonial Baro1ue for Counter =Reformation .i.idness' &o )olster this s,ecific com,arison +e can note a general sense of continuity that has )een a,,reciated )y scholars for 1uite a long time, as a recent scholar tells us referring to 6ent;s +onderful )iogra,hy of %carlatti: !?early a century ago an astute critic ,ercei.ed that there +as some dee,seated continuity stretching )et+een Allesandro %calatti and Mozart' $ndeed there +as and it ,assed )y +ay of something li-e a master-to-,u,il relationshi,, se.eral generations )y +ay of 2>eonardo3 >eo and his 5iennese disci,le, 2Kiuse,,e3 Bonno'479 Ki.en this Counter-Reformation continuity, the fact that the o,era e.inces such light-hearted e1uanimity in the face of the )loody ,ossi)ilities of +arring religious cultures is itself a ,roof of its essential Enlightenment cast' $n a )road sense it could )e related to >essing;s insights in !athan the Wise' >i-e the similarly themed early +orZaide, +ith a story tracing )ac- to Montes1uieu, it ma-es a li)eral ,oint' &his is undou)tedly an Enlightened o,era that !set out to sho+ that oriental religions +ere at least e1ual to Christianity in moral .alues'47D Clearly, &ill has )een forced to turn this matter on its head' %o ,erha,s li-e+ise +e can see in &ill;s statement that Mozart;s !adolescent o,era La $inta +iardiniera4 is more assured than ie %ntf&hrung 7F as ,roof that the unac-no+ledged stylistic tensions inherent in this +or- ha.e made hazy his aesthetic

7 sense as +ell' By contrast, +e can say +ith Koethe, E ie %ntf&hrung aus dem Serail con1uered all';47H <e must )e sure that this inter,reti.e sense *i)es +ith the most ,otentially intellectually com,licated +or-, his Masonic o,era ie Lau)erflMte' &his +or- of fantasy and imagination is also a +or- of Masonic dignity' &he Masonic >odge has al+ays ,rized its ,ri.acy, or secrecy, and that continues to this day' But +hat can )e said is that Masonic ritual, )oth in its actual form +hich may )e de facto understood outside the >odge, and its s,irit of ritual ,erformance, +hich is naturally much less +ell com,rehended, is remar-a)le for its ritual sense of dignity and rectitude' Fantastical elements ,er se are not )e found in the Masonic >odge' A num)er of e:,lanations ha.e )een offered for these elements in Mozart;s magical +or- that +as more im,ortant than any other in assuring the com,oser;s ,osthumous re,utation'7I But let us start for sa-e of this argument +ith the last things first' $t is +ell understood that Mozart had intimations of his mortality' (ne should not ,ress the ,oint too far' But +e -no+ surely from his letters that he had a strong sense of his o+n +orth as a com,oser, and thus considered his ,osition +ith ,osterity' <ith this in mind +e can assume that he understood that this more ,o,ular o,era +as li-ely to cement his re,utation +ith ,osterity +ith the +idest s+ath of humanity' &his is in fact +hat ha,,ened' &he dignity of Masonic ritual is .ery )eautiful in the solemn sense for ,artici,ants' But as ,o,ular entertainment it +ould )e +anting' &hus, there may )e myriad ,ossi)le e:,lanations +hy Mozart chose the fantastical elements he did, )ut none is as im,ortant as the artistic )usiness- decision that these +ould ma-e a great .ehicle for his great music +ith the general audience' %o +hile in trying to assess this Masonic o,era +e should surely -ee, his commitment to the Craft in mind, +e should also see in the looseness and a,,arent slo,,iness in the li)retto;s changes rather real-+orld e:,lanations not ,rofound ,hiloso,hical conundrums' (ne )iogra,her has made this ,oint amazingly +ell )y d+elling on Mozart;s life at the time: !(ther ad.entures may ha.e enli.ened Mozart;s life +hile he +as hard at +or- 2on 6ie Lau)erflMte3, hidden from ,rying eyes in the little +ooden ,a.ilion near %chi-aneder;s theater' A high degree of li)erty, the ,ursuit of entertainment, and the a)sence of moralism, ruled in %chi-aneder;s theatrical realm, to the ,oint that %chi-aneder himself +as e:,elled from Freemasonry for his dissolute life' E.en the ,rudent #erman Al)ert felt that during the ,rocess of readying The 'agic $lute for its first ,erformance, the t+enty-one year old Bar)ara Kerl, nee Reisinger, the first Pa,agena, and the +ife of Franz Kerl, the first %arsastro, may ha.e managed to 2se:ually3 snare Mozart, or .ice-.ersa' &he list does not sto, there' &here are also suggestions that Anna Kottlie)/the first Pamina in The 'agic $lute also succeeded in seducing =or )eing seduced )yCMozart' #is letters from ,eriod e:ude a *oyous e:ultation' #e +ould )e dead only t+o months later, )ut he +as only thirty-fi.e at the time'4 J

8 &he cru: is not to d+ell on Mozart;s ,ersonal dalliances, or +orse to ma-e the tedious ,oint !he +as only human'4 Clearly this man in one +ay +as unli-e most humans +ho ha.e li.ed' But in considering a +or- li-e ie Zauberfl-te +e are utterly *ustified in seeing the com,licated sym)olism as some+hat ad hoc character' $t is certainly note+orthy that Masonic scholars ha.e long understood that, !it is needless /to ,oint out +hat a ,oor thing this story is, ! e.en though it, !teems +ith allusions to Freemasonry'4 7 And +e are certainly *ustified in re*ecting the tendency to search for more recondite e:,lanations' As to the ,utati.e great de,th of su,,osed Masonic reasoning )ehind the .aria)ly Masonic sym)ols, !the ,ursuit of entertainment, and the a)sence of moralism4 really say it all' $ndeed, a literary analyst has connected Mozart;s fanciful use of Masonic sym)olism here merely to his long-standing literary style in his letters, !full of ,uns, dra+ings, and doggerel'4 $ )elie.e this -ind of commonsense reasoning has )een o)scured in dealing +ith ie Zauberfl-te. $t is some+hat understanda)le in this case )ecause the o,era offers so many o,,ortunities for ela)orate e:,lanations' %o +hile our net should )e a )it +ider +ith this ,utati.ely mystical +or-, it should not )e so )y much' <e can re*ect 1uite confidently the tendency of some scholars to identify .arious characters allegorically +ith certain Enlightenment characteristics' For as a Masonic source has o)ser.ed: !All this is so ela)orate that it is ,ractically im,ossi)le for the allegory to ha.e )een in the mind of the authors in .ie+ of the hurried +ay the Magic Flute +as ,roduced'4 3 %ome recent studies ha.e em,hasized the ,ossi)le influence, in the Masonic conte:t, of the Egy,tian Rite of Count Cagliostro' A recent study of Cagliostro +hich is sym,athetic to the man and his meaning for Freemasonry assesses the matter +ith an elegant, sim,le deduction' ?amely, that as !an o,era dedicated to Freemasonry +ith some Egy,tian themes, it can hardly ha.e )een )ased on anything other than Cagliostro;s Egy,tian Rite'4 @ &he reasons for this may )e de)ata)le, though they seem ,lausi)le to me', e.en if Cagliostroes1ue elements are the ins,iration, this does not define +hy it is a Masonic o,era at all' Cagliostro;s rituals +ere a sui generis creation only tangentially related to actual Masonry +or-ed )y actual Freemasons' But +hat has )een missed is that Cagliostro;s .ery strange am)ition for com)ining his Egy,tian Rite +ith Catholicism may ,ro.ide an e:,lanation as to +hy Mozart +as dra+n to these Cagliostroes1ue fantastical elements' %o the dynamic tension )et+een Counter-Reformation artistic elements, ,ossi)ly signified )y Cagliostroes1ue Catholic-Egy,tian elements and Enlightenment as,irations ma-es the case of ie Zauberfl-te ,articularly com,licated' &he )izarre )elief of Count Cagliostro that his Egy,tian Rite +ould )e +elcomed )y the Catholic Church as a .alua)le addition to Counter-Reformation &ridentine liturgy ma-es for an e:tremely dynamic tension, and a com,letely fantastical one' Regardless, $ thin- there is e.ery reason to )elie.e that Mozart +ished to +rite a Masonic o,era in some sense )ecause of his genuine affection for the Craft' But the sim,le dignity of Masonic ritual, as +e said a)o.e, +ould not suffice' &hus he +as creati.ely ,ulled in the direction of the o,,osite

9 ,ole of his artistically sensi)ility, the Counter=Reformation' All the ,om,, mystery and chthonic ritual is really only the Counter-Reformation artistic techni1ues disguised in Cagliostroes1ue Enlightenment clothes' $f +e com,are the fantastical +hole created in this o,era +ith the tenor of his actual Masonic +or-s this only )ecomes more clear' From the sim,le, measured dignity of the Masonic songs, to the rousing, )ut reassuringly stolid male-Cantatas, +hat +e ha.e is anything )ut fantastical' $n fact a !sim,le/character4 +as ,rescri)ed )y a +ell--no+n Masonic musical authority as ! the ,rinci,le laid do+n/for music in Masonic ceremonies'4 9 Mozart may ha.e im,orted Masonic rhythms and other elements into the o,era, )ut the measured Masonic decorousness of the Cantatas is +holly re,laced there )y fantastical ,om,' &he closest similarity may )e in the Masonic Funeral Music' But e.en here the sense of grim, su)lime solemnity is transmogrified in the o,era into a more )om)astic dar- effulgence' $t is crucial to see that in structuring things this +ay Mozart still had a ,rofoundly Masonic intent in mind' ?amely, to sym)olize freedom of religion in some manner' &he fantastical sym)ols and themes are ,erha,s not so significant in, for their meaning is .aria)le, and their e:act etiology may )e truly -no+n' <hat is clear is that they re,resent a ho,e or +ish for Masonic .irtue +hich means a dee, sense of res,ect for one;s fello+ man and his creedal assertions' <hen +e ,ut this together +e can e.en e:tend the insight to hazard, to my mind, a much more reasona)le resolution to ,art of the historical ,uzzle of the +or-' As many commentators ha.e noted the ,lot of the o,era seems to change mid-+ay' &his is most clearly seen in the change in the ,ersonality of the Nueen of the ?ight' (n the most )asic le.el the fact that the Nueen changes so might )e ta-en as a ,rima facie indication that ,erha,s the e:act ,lot is not that im,ortant' &he )roader sense of sym)ol and ritual is clearly more central' Again, if +e ta-e the tension )et+een the elements of CounterReformation and Enlightenment as central +e can deduce a sim,ler e:,lanation' Bust as in Counter-Reformation religious drama there is em,hasis laid on dis,laying .arious .irtues and sins, so +e can see the same o,erating in ie Zauberfl-te. &he Nueen of the ?ight in the )eginning re,resents female .irtues, motherly lo.e and ,rotecti.e com,assion' &he dramatic stasis of her aria is, li-e 'artern aller Arten) similar to the Counter-Reformation techni1ue for religious o,era' &he same can )e said of her second a,,earance' >ater she re,resents the sins of shre+ish .engeance and female inde,endence of thought Onot a .irtue in contem,oraneous termsP' &hus the a,,lication of this heuristic hel,s us see the loose ,lot de.ices as su)ordinate to a strong schema of Counter =Reformation demands' &hese in turn +ere e:,ressed in a .ariety of Cagliostroes1ue fantastical tro,es, assuming +e +ish to see Cagliostro as the originator' &he ,oint is that that this collateral assertion is not necessary to the more )asic common sense deduction a)out the structure of the +or- as mirroring Counter =Reformation demands' &hough clearly Cagliostro;s star-crossed and ,erha,s delusional Catholic am)itions +ould )e a strong su,,ort for the Counter-Reformation s,irit of it all'


$n some +ay the general ,oint may )e )olstered )y .eering a+ay from the Cagliostro e:,lanation and ado,ting the suggestion of &homson that the Enlightenment .ie+s inherent in Marmontel;s +ildly ,o,ular The *ncas) and as em)odied in ?aumann;s %+edish Enlightenment o,era Cora och Alon#o) had an influence on Mozart' D &he significance of this ,ossi)le e:,lanation in terms of ultimate intent is t+ofold' First, it +ould suggest that the Egy,tian sym)olism is a sort of clothing for a more )asic sense, ,erha,s e.en a 1uasi-historical one from another culture' &hus the story and sym)olism could )e )oth ad hoc in some sense and serious as alluding to another layer, e.en an historical one, the $ncas' %econd, the connection +ith the $ncas ,resents a stri-ing Counter-Reformation as,ect' &he ,henomenon of >atin American culture in +hich the strong Counter-Reformation Catholicism fer.or +as e:,ressed simultaneously +ith identification +ith $nca heroes and culture +as ,ro)a)ly not un-no+n in Euro,e if Marmontel;s )oo- +as so ,o,ular' Amazingly there seems to ha.e )een a sort of $ncachic in the Counter-Reformation en.ironment' Catholics in >atin America ,erha,s ,ioneered a curious synthesis of identification +ith the in fact defeated, distant culture as a true culture of the !$nca ,resent4, from +hich they, e.en as Counter-Reformation Catholic .ictors, sought affirmation and ,edigree' F %o it is ,ro)a)le, )y one genesis or another for its sym)olism, that ie Zauberfl-te manifested a cultural com,le:ity, +hich literally fanned in a .ariety of directions' Because Mozart;s +ife Constanze destroyed so many of his letters touching on anything ,otentially contro.ersial connected +ith Freemasonry H +e are left ultimately to s,eculate' $ thinthere is no dou)t that e.en +ith this a fundamental Masonic s,irit is ,resent )eneath the com,le:ity, and that Koethe +as right in o) the -inshi, )et+een this +or- and his Faust that only, !the initiated +ill understand its higher meaning'4 I But if it is not directly discerna)le from the +elter of sym)olism, then in +hat does this initiatic intent consistQ <e +ill incrementally ma-e this clear throughout this argument' &o assess it ,reliminarily $ )elie.e +e ha.e to grant the dynamic tension )et+een Counter-Reformation Catholicism and Enlightenment ,re.iously descri)ed' &his tension itself, in its ,ersistence, may )e a ,rofound ,sychological e:,lanation for some of the radical ,olitical tendencies that Mozart manifested' Psychologically s,ea-ing, those +ho can resol.e such tensions )y conce,tual ,uzzling or at least +rangling +ith them intellectually are historically not ,ushed into radicality' $ do not )elie.e that Mozart manifested this sort of intellectual ,rocli.ity' Rather, he +as in an a.erage man +ho there for +as ,ushed to )e some+hat engaged ,olitically' Mozart;s choice of the radical ,hiloso,her Liegenhagen;s te:t for his Cantata, 8' D7I is an undenia)le indication of a certain radicality in his tem,erament' !&he +ords )id men Ethro+ off the madmen;s chains that )ind you; to )anish the strife +hich di.ides men in o,,osing sects/43J Again, +e should not fall into the tra, of seeing in Mozart more than an ordinary citizen here' #e might ha.e )een dra+n in this direction, )ut as is often the case it could ha.e )een as a release for a )asically underlying conser.atism +hich remained ,art of him' &here +as in 5ienna e.entually a great interest in the ongoing drama of the French Re.olution' Aet if +e conflate Mozart;s interest in these ,o,ular e.ents +ith a +ell-de.elo,ed s-e,tical or re.olutionary ,hiloso,hy +e go +ildly

11 astray' &o +it: e.en Mozart;s hated, stic--in-the-mud former-em,loyer the Arch)isho, of %alz)urg had art+or-s in honor Enlightenment luminaries, 5oltaire included' By contrast, +hen 5oltaire died Mozart had this comment a)out this .ery great man: !&hat godless arch-rascal 5oltaire has ,egged-out li-e a dog, li-e a )eastR437 &ruly, he +as no 5oltairian' $t is amazing therefore those scholars ha.e read s,ecifically 5oltairian ideals into his +or-s' &he reasons for the a.erage confusion are closely related to the confusion in the .ie+s of Em,eror Bose,h $$ himself and the effects on general culture' #is .ie+ to+ards 5oltaire or 5oltairian thought generally do not admit of easy sim,lification ,ro or con' Because of his lo.e-hate infatuation +ith Frederic- the Kreat, Bose,h $$ had a desire to introduce some measures that could )e identified +ith the more enlightened 5oltairian thought' &his tendency +as so great that Maria &heresa +as frightened that !her Catholic son +ould )e corru,ted )y the free-thin-ing Prussian -ing +ho +as +orse than a >utheran, for he +as a friend of 5oltaire'4 But he famously snu))ed 5oltaire )y not .isiting him, and later made snide comments' %u)se1uently, e.en though he +as in fa.or of the freedom of the ,ress, he )anned 5oltaire;s +or-s, e:ce,t if they +ere ,u)lished in FrenchR3 &hough he +as a cham,ion of freedom of religion in a sense, anything outside of the realm of a minimal ,iety, )e it 6eism or something more s-e,tical, mo.ed him to hostile ,roscri,tion' %ince 5oltarian thought +ould fall some+here in that field, +e should note one of Bose,h $$;s e.entual efforts at enforcement: !/as soon as any ,erson, man or +oman, came out as a 6eist or anything else 2not minimally ,ious3, Ehe should +ithout further in.estigation, )e gi.en t+enty =four lashes +ith a leather +hi, on his )uttoc-s';433 $n such an en.ironment it +ould )e futile to e:,ect Mozart to ha.e re,resented a consistent ,osition, though this cannot )e ta-en to mean a default ,ositi.e ,osition to+ards 5oltairian thought in any +ay' < radical notions Mozart may ha.e entertained +ould li-ely hardly looradical )y other Eighteenth Century standards'3@ #is mem)ershi, in the >odge is not indicati.e of anything really in this regard, for the odd authentic radical in the >odge cannot )e ta-en as descri,ti.e of the +hole' Certainly, tremendous radicality cannot )e im,uted to Freemasonry at this ,oint, regardless of the ,aranoia of the later Bose,hine !reform4 crac-do+n efforts' $n this regard, it is telling that Mozart;s admired fello+ Mason the famed ,oet Blumauer, +hom some call a radical, had +hat +ould seem to )e ultimately rather conser.ati.e desiderata, li-ely indicati.e of the attitude in the >odge as a +hole: !#e )elie.ed that #a)s)urg Masons +ished to coo,erate +ith the em,eror to end religious ,re*udice and fanaticism and in Masonic terms e:,lained that religious toleration ,ermitted Bose,h to cement the )loc-s of his em,ire firmly'! 39 %uch can hardly )e seen as radical desires, e.en though they re,resent some+hat critical ones to+ards religion' <hat is crucial to understand is that is that they +ere not as critical as other mo.ements +hich truly +ere radical li-e the $lluminati' &his +hole 1uestion is made .ery o,a1ue )y the tendency of scholars to conflate Freemasonry +ith the )rief $lluminati mo.ement for +hich there is no factual su,,ort' $t is 1uite shoc-ing to

12 see e.en a scholar li-e &homson engaging in this, +hich ma-es it all the more crucial that +e tread critically in this area to a more reasona)le .ie+ of Mozart; s ,olitical inclinations' <hat is a more reasona)le assertion a)out Mozart is that in some ill-defined +ay he +as a Rousseauist' A num)er of scholars are +ont to .ie+ him under this aegis3D and it has some su,,ort in the underlying assum,tions of his o,eras: the higher no)ility of sim,le ,eo,le and emotions' &his .ie+ has the added ad.antage of hel,ing us conte:tualize his nasty comment a)out 5oltaire' $n this sense Mozart may ha.e )een sim,ly ,artici,ating the Euro,e-+ide antagonism of ,olitical ideas in the years leading u, to and during the French Re.olution' !&he 1uarrel )et+een the de.otees and admirers of Rousseau and the +orshi,,ers of 5oltaire +as .ery harsh43F But surely the .itriol against 5oltaire s,ea-s to something more, namely a standard societal conser.ati.e religiosity +hich meant that in Austria there +ould ha.e )een fe+er fer.ently thoroughgoing Rousseauists' &his im,ortant inter,reti.e matter has )een .e:ed )y the misinter,retation of Freemasonry in relation to trends li-e Rousseuaism and the fuzziness a)out the e:act nature of )oth to ,olitical trends at the time' Rousseauism +as more religiously inclined than 5oltarianism,3H )ut neither so much as Freemasonry' &his is a ,oint usually not +ell understood' Bac1ues Chailley, one of the foremost musicologists and inter,reters of Masonry in Mozart;s music, stri-es a more -no+ing chord +hen he says that sim,ly that Freemasonry +as !resolutely religious'43I ?aturally +ith this ,ro,er understanding he also e:,resses !s-e,ticism4 a)out any connection )et+een Mozart and the $lluminati or their ideas'@J $n fact, much of the anti-clericalism and discomfiture +ith ultramontane thin-ing that Mozart e.idenced has )een incorrectly attri)uted to Freemasonry directly' $nstead it is a sim,le characteristic of Fe)ronian thin-ing at the time in Austria' &his tendency +as )ased in the thin-ing of Bohan ?icolas .on #ontheim +ho ado,ted the ,en-name Fe)ronius' !Besus, he argued, had intended the Roman )isho, to ha.e di.ine ,o+ers/Besus did not gi.e the -eys to the Bisho, of Rome )ut to the +hole Christian community'4@7 Far from )eing a radical ,osition, it +as the conser.ati.e ,osition of the ruling classes: !Closely related to Fe)ronianism +as Bose,henism an amalgam of li)eral and a)solutist ideas that characterized the rule of Bose,h $$/#e sought to su)ordinate the Catholic Church to the state;s authority/Fe)ronius ad.ocated a more national/Catholic Church, a church in tune +ith an enlightened, rational religiosity'4@ <e are so accustomed to connecting these anti-clerical and anti-ultramontane o,inions +ith radicalism ,er se' &he cultural facts say the o,,osite' $ndeed the ,ro,er understanding of it as conser.ati.e in the Kermanic conte:t is, as a .ery famous ,olitical analyst has s,ecifically said, !foreign and strange,4@3 to us +ith our modern inter,reti.e schema' But +e must acce,t this historical strangeness, or counter-intuiti.e deduction, if +e are to li)erate our conce,tion of Masonic matters at this ,eriod and ha.e chance to ,ro,erly gauge Mozart in relation to the Craft' $n addition, the .aria)le affections for

13 5oltarian thought )y many in Austria, from the Em,eror to those )elo+, su)stantially com,licates the understanding of anti-Romanist doctrines li-e Fe)ronianism +hich +ere nationalist, )ut also theoretically seem to ha.e an affinity +ith thought of the sage of Fernay' $n this res,ect the misunderstanding of Mozart;s music as re,resenting a 5oltairian enlightenment s,irit of li)eration can )e seen as *ust a tiny ,art of the contingent misunderstanding of )roader nationalist im,' (ne )iogra,her of Bose,h $$ has .ery ,erce,ti.ely made this e:act ,oint' &he am)iguity to+ards 5oltaire can )e seen as a grudging admiration for his high intellectual attainments' Both the am)iguous censorshi, of his +or-s and the im,ortation of some of his li)eral ideas are ultimately tracea)le to the desire to esta)lish an authentic Austrian literary realm@@' ?amely, one a,art yet +orthy from the Franco,hile sentiments of the 8ing of Prussia' !But if Bose,h had ho,ed that the li)eralization of the censorshi,/+ould result in the )irth of an Austrian literary school of first ran-, he +as to )e disa,,ointed'4@9 (n a )roader le.el, an e:,lanation for the large inter,reti.e strangeness of these ,henomena comes from the fact that tendencies of Erastian Catholicism +ere destroyed )y the Counter-Reformation itself, and s,ecifically the Council of &rent' (n a related ,oint Margaret Baco) tells us that the !uni.ersalist ideology of Freemasonry +ith its em,hasis on state church4 +as coincident among the many Austrian ser.ants +ho +ere Masons +ith, !their Erastian and religion 2+hich3 ser.ed as an antidote to the ultramontane tendencies of the nati.e clergy4 @D $ndeed, the Erastian conce,tion of Christianity +ith its humanistic em,hasis on bonae literae and its condemnation of guiltridden monastic thin-ing and ceremonialism@F is ,ro)a)ly the real religious )ac-ground of Christians +ho +ere also Freemasons' &he fact that it is, relati.ely s,ea-ing, harder to re-construct the Erastian conce,tual ,ath historiogra,hically s,ea-s .olumes on +hy it has )een so hard for scholars to ,ro,erly conce,tualize Freemasonry as +ell' >i-e+ise, it also follo+s that a Rousseauist tendency in Mozart;s thin-ing must )e seen in this light' A conce,tually unfocussed )elief in the reality of the !no)le sa.age4 idea +as a .irtually omni,resent reality in certain 1uarters at this ,eriod and easily do.etailed +ith e:oticism' As +ell as his central notion of a !social contract4 +hich is further ,roof of the danger of sim,lification in this area' $n fact some of the conser.ati.e intellectuals Bose,h $$ most fa.ored, !de.elo,ed the theory =/ura ma/estatica circa sacra = that the ruler;s so.ereignty the church +as ,art of the authority +hich )elonged to the formation of the original contract ORousseau;s %ocial ContractP 2R3'!@H %urely +ith com,le:ities li-e these easy sim,lifications a)out Mozart in relation to Rousseuist tendencies should )e fores+orn' (f course +e should not forget that Rousseau +as a com,oser of sorts and a musical theorist' #e traded ideological )ar)s +ith famous musicians of his day )ased on his theoretical musical o)sessions from his !no)le sa.age4 idea' Certainly, Rousseau;s .ery radical and ultimately ata.istic notions on harmony can hardly ha.e )een ta-en .ery seriously )y a musical genius li-e Mozart' @I Perha,s )ecause of this tendency to+ards ata.ism or,lification in Rousseauism some earlier inter,reters held the .ie+ that !Mozart;s conce,tion of man +as the o,,osite of Rousseau;s'4 9J &hus indicating again $ thin- that such ideological em,hases are at )est historically ,ro)lematic

14 +hen dealing +ith this man' <e ha.e touched on a heuristic for analyzing his +or-s in terms of CounterReformation Catholicism and Enlightenment, and also there)y discarded a num)er of easy and ultimately false ans+ers that are collateral to the denial of that tension' %o +e are in a ,osition to as- +hat is s,ecifically Masonic a)out Mozart;s music' Chailley o) something .ery interesting a)out the famous Chorale of the Men in Armor in the %e.enth %cene of Act $$ of ie Zauberfl-te, +hich might )e hel,ful' &his section of the o,era creates a haunting effect )y using a >utheran chorale' Chailley +onders +hy the music has the strange character it does and +hy Mozart used a chorale of reformed liturgy' !Mozart +as a Catholic and a Freemason, )ut he seems to ha.e had no connection +ith reformed religion'497 As an aside let me say that it is sur,assingly odd that Chailley does not mention the influence of Bach on Mozart in this regard' But still in gra,,ling +ith this ,uzzle he hazards a guess +hich really ,ro.ides a long-range insight' !Freemasonry officially admitted/)elief in Kod, the !Kreat Architect of the "ni.erse40 )ut it refused to su,,ort any single religion, .enerating e1ually as !)oo-s of the #oly >a+4 the Bi)le, the 8oran, the 5edas, and holy )oo-s of other religions' $f one considers that this reformed chorale is a literal translation of a .erse from a 0ebrew Psalm and is de.elo,ed )y ada,tation to an ancient te:t of (agan religion O+hether or not it is authentic is unim,ortantP on the orchestral )ase of a 8yrie9 )y a %alz)urg Catholic 1a(ellmeister, one +ill form an idea of the e:traordinary attem,t at synthesis +hich, long )efore the ecumenism of the second half of the t+entieth century, Mozart;s admira)le music illustrates, thus re,resenting, consciously or unconsciously, an idea dear to Freemasonry, the union of the cults and dogmas )eyond their ,articularisms, in a sort of ,hiloso,hic su,er-religion +hich Masonry tried to )e493 $f +e re,lace the rather ,re,osterous sounding 4su,er-religion4 +ith something li-e the more ,hiloso,hically e:act !meta-religion,49@ then this fascinating o)ser.ation is in stri-ing distance of great insight into +hat really moti.ated Mozart ' Please note that the .ie+ Chailley is suggesting here a -ind of creati.e meeting- ,oint, or intersection, )et+een ,otentially o,,osing religious currents' At least they are o,,osing under e:isting societal-religious modes of discernment, +hich in fact is the ,oint' $t is correct to also to credit this to a Masonic .ie+, )ut a .ery highly de.elo,ed one' $n this lies the ru)' For there has )een de.elo,ment in Masonic theory, and ,art of the analytical ,ro)lem is that this more e:,licit sense of intersecting modes of religious e:,ression is not clearly, e:,licitly ,resent in any Masonic theorist at this ,eriod' &his does not mean that it is not ,resent as an underlying theme of Masonic ritual' &he American Masonic theorist Al)ert Pi-e +as to de.elo, such thoughts in the ?ineteenth Century99' But that this +as a more amor,hous sense in Mozart;s time is indicated )y the fact that Chailley alludes to his ,erha,s !unconsciously4 coming to this idea of synthesis of Masonic ideas, +hich only recei.ed e:,licit society-+ide e:,ression in the t+entieth century' $t is in this light that +e should .ie+ the +ide-s,read tendency of scholars to see

15 Mozart as follo+er of esoteric Christianity' >et us note that +hen one in.o-es the com,le:ities of Rosicrucian mystagogy a +hole lot can )e co.ered under its +ings' &here is some e.idence that Mozart had interest in !occult4 Christianity, )ased on his li)rary'9D But to say the o).ious, and +ith all deference to no)le Rosicrucian theory, this +as not a s,irituality +hich had the radical Masonic sense of the intersection and tolerance of religious .ie+,oints' Rosicrucianism, li-e all intrinsic esotericisms, tended to the increasingly recondite and e:clusi.e' $t tended to su)limate or a,otheosize com,eting .ie+,oints under an elite understanding'9F By definition, not something ,ractical that +ould hel, a great com,oser !+or- the rough stone4 of his di.erse com,ositional idea' But if my .ie+ of Mozart;s Masonry, e:,anding on Chailley;s suggestion, is correct, then the .ery inchoate sense of it at this ,eriod +ould allo+ us to see the Rosicrucian e:,lanation as harmless, )ut *ust not .ery hel,ful for clarity' $t is in this sense that +e should see &ill;s descri,tion of Mozart and !Rosicrucian freemasonry49H as a .ery multi-layered matter ' &ill in.o-es a +hole ,ano,ly of Ca)alistic, alchemical and occult names' #e e.en ro,es in 8ant, +hich is really ,ushing the ridiculous edge for our admired com,oserR But as fascinating as it is, and as )elie.a)le as it is that Mozart might ha.e found it fascinating, if he encountered it, another of &ill;s e:am,les sho+s the great +ea-ness of this +hole a,,roach' After connecting Rosicrucian Christians +ith Knostic Christian tro,es, he suddenly =may +e say subito (iano = in.o-es Mozart;s !hushed4 master,iece Ave 2erum Cor(us' %ignificantly, &ill tries to force the delicate ,rofundity of this Counter-Reformation adorational hymn to the Catholic Blessed %acrament into )eing an e.ocation of a Rosicrucian-Knostic alchemical notion/'4the ,urification of )ase metals'49I By contrast, a Masonic conce,tion em)races the +or- more realistically' &his mis,rision, in the course of &ill;s com,licated erudition, only highlights ho+ muddy the +hole to,ic has )ecome for some scholars outside of Masonic scholarshi, circles, +here the distinction is made +ith more shar,ness' But +hat is crystal clear is that in the s,ecific case of Ave 2erum Cor(us it is )oth an indication of Mozart;s strong Catholic ethos generally, and his .ery dee, understanding of the solemnity of Catholic Eucharistic de.otion s,ecifically ' $ feel this e:am,le strongly )olsters the sense that a more realistic analysis of Mozart is ,ossi)le only )y ac-no+ledging the tension )et+een his Counter-Reformation tendenciesDJ and Enlightenment ones' <ith this sense of some of the ,otential +ay+ardness of the Esoteric- Christianity e:,lanation, +e can see the sym)olism of ie Zauberfl-te +ith greater clarity' &hough Chailley suggested his )rilliant thesis !tentati.ely,4 )y contrast he treads rather )rashly through a load of more s,ecific sym)olical digressions' #is underlying ,ur,ose seems to )e to )olster Koethe;s famous contention a)out ie Zauberfl-te) +ith +hich he concludes his entire )oo-: !More -no+ledge is re1uired to understand the .alue of this li)retto than to moc- it'4D7 Koethe may )e right ultimately' Aet touring Mozart;s ,otential interests in esoteric Christian themes might )e hel,ful in creating a fascinating mystical-occult 3aedeker,s for the o,era' But $ )elie.e, in the end, it *ust results in mostly terrific sightseeing' $n this regard +e should note a seemingly contradictory statement Chailley ma-es

16 much earlier in his study' #e notes sim,ly that, !%chi-aneder /+as little dis,osed to+ard the handling of large a)stractions'4D Chailley is clearly right on a)out this su)ur)an Shaus(ieldirector' But the same could )e said of Mozart as +ell' But then one must logically in1uire ho+ in the +orld such manifold s,eculations a)out the meanings of the messy li)retto can )e *ustified' For they all in.ol.e com,etence and facility +ith !large a)stractions4 if they are to )e acce,ted as a dee, significance as o,,osed to entertainment ,o+er, +hich of course does not rule out some sym)olic chords sim,ly )eing struc-' By contrast, to gi.e some of the loosely concei.ed elements of this o,era real meaning +ould ha.e ta-en a !%ha-es,earean genius4D3, as one )iogra,her has noted, +hich in literary terms neither %chi-aneder nor Mozart certainly could ,ossi)ly ha.e a,,roached' &hus $ thin- that Chailley )rilliant guess discussed earlier is a much more clear-headed sense in +hich to see the Masonic character of the +hole affair' &he search for ,ossi)le esoteric e:,lanations ma-es for an elegant conce,tual *ourney, for this +riter included, )ut it may o)scure some e:citing features of +hat Mozart actually did accom,lish' <hereas the intersectional Masonic .ie+ can )e seen as the summation of an increasing tendency during Mozart;s +hole com,ositional career, not *ust the result of some relati.ely recent occult e,i,hany' &his sense really *i)es +ith the re1uisite hard ,ersonal +or--- only in this case for a genius com,oser --of !+or-ing the rough stone'4 %cholarly coherence also dictates that +e note the seeming ,arado: that limning this dee,er Masonic sense is contingent on de-cou,ling the li)retto from the realm of serious Masonic sym)olism ,er se or e.en serious esotericism ,er se' &he s,irit under +hich the o,era +as li-ely +ritten could not )e )etter e:em,lified that )y a detail +hich Chailley mentions' $n reference to the charming duet !Mann und <ei), <ei) und Mann4 Chailley notes: !Mozart +as so conscious of the im,ortance of this duet that at first he had +or-ed out a much more highly de.elo,ed and ;no)le; .ersion of it than the one +e -no+' For theatrical reasons %chi-aneder, +ho ,layed the role of Pa,ageno, had him redo it /in a more ,o,ular style related to the character' <hat +e ha.e is that second .ersion4D@ Mozart;s com,ositional history is re,lete +ith occasions +here he ,ro.ided singers +ith arias they needed, or made ad*ustments' But this case is different' Mozart had strong ego a)out himself as a com,oser, +hich ,ro)a)ly cost him many o,,ortunities for loose-cannon remar-s' &here is no ,recedent for tossing out something he had fully de.elo,ed &he idea that he should cast aside and ,resuma)ly destroy ORP a !highly de.elo,ed and Eno)le;4 .ersion of this duet is incredi)ly telling' $t seems a )it crazy that he should alter his genius to suit the +hims of his hardscra))le ra-e of colla)orator' &o my mind, it is a strong indication that Mozart had more di.erting things on his mind, li-e !<ein, <ei) und Kesang4 and not necessarily +ith his o+n !<ei)4' (f course he still managed to ,roduce an incom,ara)le master,iece' But surely, if esoteric, alchemical meanings +ere in the forefront for his attaining the high-le.el of ins,iration that he )rought to his +or-, then these charming +ords, a)o.e all, !Mann und <ei) /'Reichen an die Kottheit an4 +ould ha.e )een the ,erfect ,lace for a !no)le4 Chemical <edding, a sacred ritual that +ould not ha.e )een so casually altered' &hat it +as not tells us so much'


<hen +e ,ut this understanding together +ith the -no+ledge that outside the >odge, !not until 7H9F +as the +ord Efreemasonry; s,o-en clearly in connection +ith ie Zauberfl-te,4D9 +e ha.e a +ay of the later historiogra,hy of this +or- +ith +hat +e -no+' Kernot Kru)er in his 'o#art and "osterity made clear that the fantastical entertainment as,ect of this +or- +as a strong ,art of +hy this musical master,iece +as chiefly res,onsi)le for Mozart;s ,osthumous re,utation'DD $n this regard it ma-es a certain sense that Masonry as a con.enient catch-all e:,lanation came considera)ly later, after the +or- had )een already imitated into clichSs' &hus, ,otential esoteric e:,lanations should )e e.aluated +ith this )ac-ground, not as the sine qua non or inelucta)le starting- ,oint for this efflorescence of his genius' $f the ,articular sym)olism of ie Zauberfl-te +ere an indis,ensa)le starting ,oint for anything, for Mozart;s genius, or as a reflection of some .alua)le de.elo,ment in Masonic history, surely it +ould ha.e )een recognized as such )y Masons' By contrast, an e:,ert on the Austrian #igher 6egrees tells us the o,,osite a)out its effect on Masonic ,osterity +hen ,olitical e.ents allo+ed the Craft to flourish again: !&he French Re.olution also interru,ted Masonic acti.ity' <hen Masonic +or- +as a)le to )e resume, a false Egy,tian orientation +as )rought in, +hich Cagliostro had ,ut forth, and Mozart in 6ie Lau)erflMte had made ,o,ular'4 DF <ith this e:,ert;s hel, +e can see ho+ strange it is that so many scholars treat the sym)olism of ie Zauberfl-te as if it +ere some ,rofound, .alua)le datum of Masonic insight' Clearly if the effects led to a !false Egy,tian orientation4 then it could hardly ha.e )een a Masonic master,iece in terms of the sym)olism itself' (f course the total effect +ith the music in a finely staged ,erformance is 1uite another matter' &his sense of scholarly )alance and realism can hel, us a,,reciate Mozart ,rinci,ally for +hat truly made his art e:ce,tional' &his +ould hardly seem li-e a necessary e1ui,oise to stri.e after, e:ce,t that Mozart;s music has time come to .ie+ed )y scholars as a .irtual e1ui.alent of an historical ,ainting of an Eighteenth Century Collector;s Kallery, +ith the +alls crammed +ith ela)orately framed rococo can.asses of e.ery ty,e, and 6resden ,orcelain filling the remaining niches' $n recent times the fashion for authentic ,erformance ,ractice has added another niche to )e filled +ith inter,reti.e an:iety, )ut still the dri.e to+ards the fo,,ish eccentricity of collectoro)session is strong' But if the contentions of my argument are correct +e ha.e )een illustrating his music incorrectly, and thus de-naturing it' First +e should conce,tually isolate the 1uality of aesthetic grandiosity of the Baro1ue from the insouciant and ,otentially insi,id grace of the rococo' <e then can come close to the issue of +hy the Baro1ue +as unsta)le yet intense and therefore might ha.e )een aesthetic ,rod for Mozart' %urely a genius li-e Mozart had the a)ility to a,,ro,riate the )est from )oth +orlds, )ut it )ecomes a matter of em,hasis' &herefore, instead of a collector;s gallery +ith lo.ely <atteau ,aintings or e:otic landsca,es, or e.en less +ith 6resden ,orcelain figurines, +e ought to search for Mozart in the Counter =Reformation' $n this regard a great ,ainting )y Peter Paul Ru)ens or Kuido Reni much )etter e.o-es the intense )alance

18 of Mozart;s music than a Fragonard could' Again this is hardly e.en a radical gam)it, as com,arisons of Mozart +ith Counter-Reformation ,ainters li-e 6omenichino in contradistinction to eighteenth century ones +ere s,ecifically made )y nineteenth century commentators'DH (f course there is really no ultimately serious argument to )e made in such com,arisons for any ,eriod' For music ultimately utterly mirrors art ,er se' My only ,oint is that the incredi)le )alance that his music e.inces should at least )e com,ared to the art that it most resem)les, if +e are going to ma-e such com,arisons' And such com,arisons seem almost ine.ita)le at this ,oint in history' $t is im,ortant to clear this u, if +e are going to ha.e the conce,tual tools to address Mozart;s Masonic ethos to e.entually reflect on the rest of his music, +hich does not ha.e the schemata of li)rettos as ,otential grids' %ome+hat ironically, it is in this sense, and not for an understanding of Mozart;s dramatic acts, that Brigid Bro,hy;s famous )oo- 'o#art the ramatist is of interest' Bro,hy, )eing a no.elist of note, ,lausi)ly had some insight into Mozart as a character +hich +e are all interested in reconstructing from e:tant literary materials' (f course, for insight into Freemasonry her )oo- is of no .alue, )ecause she, )y the loo-s of her )i)liogra,hy, seems not to ha.e consulted one serious Masonic source' %till her +or- needs to )e countenanced on the )asis of its su)stantial ,o,ularity among elite inter,reters' #er +ell--no+n analysis of ie Zauberfl-te )ased on &errrason;s Life of Sethos is a +or- of .ast inter,reti.e fantasy itself' ?ot )ecause she has no insight into &errason, )ut )ecause she com,ares it re,eatedly to Freemasonry of +hich she +as a,,arently +illfully = fantastically =ignorant' E.en ma-ing florid com,arisons )et+een +hat she imagines Freemasonry to )e and literary analysis of &errason;s +or- )ecomes farcical )ecause she ma-es a fundamental aesthetic *udgment a)out ho+ a great master,iece could ha.e )een ins,ired )y a .ery odd +or-' More *udicious commentators manage to correct this, +hile still ma-ing the connection, )y noting that, !%ethos may ha.e had fe+ literary merits'4DI &hus, a %ethos -ins,ired li)retto +ould )elong, ,erha,s not stylistically or conce,tually, )ut certainly 1ualitati.ely in something li-e that .ast Metastasian +aste-land that conce,tually scattered so many o,eras of the ,eriod' &his .alue-assessment also ma-es clear that one is unli-ely to find great ,rofundity in a %ethosins,ired ,roduct, sym)olic, literary, or Masonic' &hus, it is almost too easy to say that Bro,hy, in her analysis , sums u, many of the tem,tations +e ha.e alluded to in this argument' <hat is amazing is that this is true )ut that, due to a certain literary shre+dness, she has moments of great insight as +ell' For Bro,hy;s insight is ,rinci,ally a)out the issue of Mozart;s +or- as art in an a)stract cultural sense: !(fficial taste has al+ays )een ,erce,ti.e enough to admit Mozart to the canon of ,er,etual remem)rance, and ,o,ular taste is ,erfectly correct +hen it calls him charming/Mozart is charmingCindeed, ra.ishing = u, to the .ery limit of out tolerance of ,leasure' (ur only 1uarrel +ith either ,o,ular or official taste is that neither goes dee, enough' A,,reciation of Mozart is a matter of )eing mo.ed/From the ,oint of .ie+ of the academies, Mozart is there, and has al+ays )een there' $t is merely that the academies do not -no+ 1uite +hat to ma-e of him/'$n Mozart;s case the

19 difficulty is 2that3/his e:cellence is couched in the idiom of the eighteenth century/+e are still not +holly at ease +ith any eighteenth century +or- of art' For this there is sufficient reason' &he eighteenth century itself, and in ,articular its dominant intellectual tem,er, +hich +as rationalistic, +as not +holly at ease +ith any +or- of art' Eighteenthcentury rationalism, )eing enlightened in e.ery direction )ut ,sychologically, +as at a loss +hen it +as confronted +ith artistic fictions'4FJ Bro,hy is descri)ing a difficulty +ith Mozart inter,retation that has )een e:tremely hard to narro+ do+n' (n the first le.el it has to do +ith the a)o.e-referenced incom,ati)ility of his music +ith much of its contem,oraneous .isual arts' But as if to mutually reinforce this, the .ery ethos of the eighteenth century, as Bro,hy a.ers, may ha.e had some intrinsic ,hiloso,hical and ,ossi)ly ,sychological difficulty +ith the intensity of Mozart;s +or-, or +ith any non-tri.ializing +or- of art' Clearly this +as a ,artial matter )ecause Mozart +as recognized )y many as ,reeminent in his day' But not as much as others, that is the ,oint, to the detriment of o,,ortunities gi.en to him' $ndeed, one can only +onder +hat our musical re,ertoire +ould )e li-e if he had had the charmed e:istence that the enno)led and rich 6itters .on 6ittersdorf en*oyed for most of life until nearly the end' &here is no ,oint in stri-ing a tragic note, )ut this matter is useful theoretically as +ell' &o some e:tent Mozart;s music em)odied this inherent tension more than other ,urely rococo com,osers' #e may ha.e suffered for this ,ersonally, )ut his greatness is )eyond measure for ,osterity ' But gi.en his tensions in tem,erament his times +e are ,ushed to+ards a further insight, that Mozart had to embrace the dynamic tension with Counter45eformation to become the great com(oser that he was. &he eighteenth century discomfiture +ith art itself, as o,,osed to reason, made it +ell-nigh im,ossi)le for a com,oser of Mozart;s intensity to )e situated e:clusi.ely in the some+hat selftri.ializing eighteenth century cultural-artistic tro,es' %o it +as not *ust his societal u,)ringing )ut something intrinsic to his genius that dre+ him to the glories of the Catholic Counter =Reformation aesthetic' &his also sheds light on that strong ,arodic sense so often commented on in his music' &his sense of ,arody of the rococo, and of the Counter-Reformation )aro1ue are uni1ue to his genius'F7 But in humor is the truth of course' $t is +ith this more informed understanding that +e should read of the relation in Mozart;s music +ith the !#igh Baro1ue,4 as descri)ed in Rosen;s The Classical Style' %ince to my mind Rosen;s )oo- is the finest descri,tion of Mozart;s era, there is great .alue in the ins,iration it ,ro.ides' $n addition, Rosen;s magnificently clear analysis ,ermits a so)riety in our ultimate assessments of the man;s contri)ution to musical history, +hile still em)racing its com,licated stylistic ,henomenology' Because Rosen so strongly summarized Mozart;s and #aydn;s attainments in the e.entual e.olution of the classical style of com,osition, logic +ould also seem to dictate a ,arado:ical element necessary for the creati.e ethos in this case, )ecause there remains an ine:,lica)le as,ect' &he ,roof of this logic can )e seen in #aydn;s case' $f there +ere not some ,arado:ical

20 elements in the ethos, then #aydn, as the e1ual de.elo,er of the classical style, +ould ha.e the same relati.e 1uality standard in the totality of his com,ositional out,ut that Mozart does' <hen one considers the great 1uantity of .ery )land music #aydn +rote, from di.erse concerti to o,eras, against the much smaller amount Mozart contri)uted, a logical and aesthetic dis*unct a,,ears' &he musical facts s,ea- for' Consistent analysis then re1uires as-ing +hat accounts for this'F &his also means that -no+ing +hat is in.ol.ed in these attainments has )een a ,henomenon, +hich has cuts )oth +ays for ,otential musical analysis' Because Mozart;s and #aydn;s de.elo,ments in distilling and ad.ancing elements of ,re.ious styles +ere so, this has lead to a rather de)ata)le attem,t also to shar,ly distinguish ,eriods for stylistic ,rogression )ased on a reading of their attainments as a grid for the +hole era' <hile one could certainly ma-e a case for this +ith the careers of these greatest of com,osers, )y contrast +ith the mass of other less- ins,ired creators such strictures fall a,art, to my ears' &hus in a +ay Mozart;s and #aydn;s merits ha.e ironically and unfortunately limited the ,ossi)le field of stylistic considerations for their o+n +or-s, +hich in turn has lead to some of the mis,risions in inter,retations +e ha.e mentioned' &hus Rosen sees Mozart;s in.ol.ement +ith the #igh Baro1ue as merely a feature of !archaism4 in his music' Rosen then closely co))les this +ith imitati.e ,arody, as +ell as of course high-road intent' !An imitation of the #igh Baro1ue style, a mori)und )ut not )uried tradition )y the 7FHJ;s, had the ad.antage that a reference to the ,ast al+ays has in religion/li-e continuing to address Kod as !&hou4/4F3 $t is stri-ing that a num)er of the elements of the .ie+ $ ha.e descri)ed seem ,resent in Rosen;s incredi)ly erudite e:,osition, )ut are not made e:,licit, &hus they seem limited to Mozart;s study and use of Baro1ue techni1ues' &he )roader sense of Counter-Reformation s,irit and aesthetic im,etus is not so ,otentially identifia)le in Rosen;s descri,tions' Aet certainly +hen noting the !$-&hou4 le.el of religiosity, +hich can ,lausi)ly )e attri)uted to Counter-Reformation s,iritual direction of the $gnatian .ariety, Rosen has nonetheless hit the core' $f +e ta-e this Counter-Reformation instinct for religious intensity and see it metamor,hosed )y true artistic genius, +e can )e more ,recise a)out the ethos that fueled his great music' For Mozart;s genius seems to hit the listener at the center of one;s )eing, +hich +as the goal of Counter-Reformation religious intensity' And yet, this remains in tension +ith the o,,osite ,ole +ith ,arodies of rococo fri.olity' <hat ma-es this ,ossi)leQ <e should loo- to the dee,est sense of Freemasonry, as the realm, +hich allo+s for the intersection of di.erse creedal or ,hiloso,hical ,ositions, for the -ey to this com,licated matter' But there are s,ecific su)tleties of inter,retation that ha.e o)scured it' $n some +ays Masonry might )e seen as similar to Bro,hy;s descri,tion of eighteenth century rationalistic culture and its discomfiture +ith art' &he .ery reser.e and decorum of Masonic ritual do not lea, to mind as a ,ossi)le ins,iration for Mozart;s intensity' But this is )ecause sadly Masonry is ty,ically characterized in scholarly analysis )y a ,arsing of discrete religio-historical data, and not )y in-de,th ,hiloso,hical in.estigation' ?ot allo+ing much to )e found there )y restricting the data-field, all sorts of intellectual fancies are )rought in )y scholars, +hich only ma-e it hazy'


&hus they miss +hat is actually .ery )eautiful a)out Masonic rituals, if they -no+ of them at all' More im,ortantly, they miss ho+ the ,hiloso,hy )ehind these rituals could ha.e dee,ly ins,ired a genius li-e Mozart' ?ot )ecause they easily =according to someC do.e-tail +ith influences li-e The Life of Sethos s,ecifically or Rosicrucianism generally ' But )ecause Masonry ga.e Mozart the a)ility to function incredi)ly +ell in that tension )et+een Catholic Counter-Reformation and the Enlightenment modes' ?ot *ust )ecause he +as raised a Catholic' And not *ust )ecause he +as a man of the Auflklaerung' Rather, )ecause he could !act )y the ,lum)4 artistically and aesthetically to see a ,otential meeting ,oint )et+een these other+ise irreconcila)le tendencies' For all these reasons +e can say that in many +ays one of the greatest +or- of Mozart;s Masonic understanding could )e said to )e the Kreat Mass in C Minor, 8' @ F' $t is in this +or- that that intersection )et+een Baro1ue Counter-Reformation elements and ad.anced Classical de.elo,ments first reaches an a,otheosis' (f course Mozart )egan +riting his +or- in 7FH , and this means that he had a de.elo,ing sense of Masonry;s meaning )efore he officially entered the >odge in 7FH@' #e had many friends +ho +ere Masons, and there is some indication that his father had )een a mem)er in %alz)urg 1uite a )it earlier' <e can ,lausi)ly see Mozart already in a Masonic culture, interacting +ith ,eo,le +ho already had gained !>ight4 from the rituals and +ere sharing that s,irit +ith him' &his sense of clarity and light are +hat it too- to -ee, the )alance to in.ol.e such di.erse tendencies in one +or- li-e the Kreat Mass' &he s,ecific stylistic com,le:ity of this +or- has al+ays )een recognized' $ndeed, the fact that the C Minor Mass contains Counter-Reformation elements is hardly e.en a radical idea' E.en an old-fashioned source li-e Einstein noted that: !Bach is not the only master +ho stands )ehind this +or-, there are also #andel and the +hole of the eighteenth century, there are also the great $talians such as Allessandro %carlatti, Caldara, Por,ora, and 6urante0 one cannot single out ,articular names )ecause Mozart sums u, his century and transfigures its musical language'4 F@ %o, musically s,ea-ing, +e can see that Mozart;s a)ility to !transfigure4 his times in artistic e:,ression =)oth ,ast and ,resent = are the ,ro)a)le )asis of the +hat came to )e called the Masonic character of his +or-' <e should not allo+ the date of his )ecoming Entered A,,rentice to form a dis*unct +ith earlier +or-s in this regard' #is first Masonic com,osition !( heiliges Band ! 8' 7@H is a .ery early one' <ritten long )efore he )ecame a Freemason, it ne.ertheless sho+s !ideological connections +ith Masonry'4F9 <e can ta-e this early ideological connection as an early, slo+ly de.elo,ing attraction to the Masonic ethos' $n addition, he +as dra+n to Masonic societal circles much earlier than )eing officially +elcomed into the >odge' &hus, e.en though actually the 6egree in a regular >odge is crucially im,ortant, in musical terms it is a )it ar)itrary for an analysis of his Masonic sentiment ' $t may )e for this reason that the usually 1uir-ily ,erce,ti.e <ilfred Mellers sees the C Minor Mass as !Catholic;, though !ostensi)ly4 so' <hereas he .ie+s the Re1uiem as !Masonic'4FD %ince Mellers does not delimit clearly +hat he means )y Masonic, e:ce,t in hac-neyed enlightenment terms, +e are left to

22 +onder at the distinction' &hough the Re1uiem and the C minor Mass certainly sho+ difference in structure, in terms of dee, conce,tion they share a )asic Masonic sensi)ility' The %volution of 'o#art,s 'asonry and 3elief6 $f +e ha.e reached the ,oint +here +e can see t+o of his greatest ecclesiastical +or-s as Masonic in the intersectional sense, then there is a corres,onding 1uestion to )e entertained' Mozart may ha.e o,erated musically in a tension )et+een the CounterReformation and the Enlightenment, )ut +as this *ust an artistic dynamicQ #e gre+ u, Catholic, and one can )e sure that the modern sho,+orn +isdom !(nce a Catholic al+ays a Catholic4 had its eighteenth century .ersion' %o the 1uestion surfaces, +hat really +ere Mozart;s )eliefs, as o,,osed to his artistic o,erating ,rinci,lesQ Preliminarily, of one thing +e can )e sure, that there +as some change in his .ie+s time' &his conclusion +e can dra+ sim,ly from +hat +e -no+ a)out the facts of his life, es,ecially his disa,,ointments, and the tenor of his letters' For instance, +e can )e sure the older Mozart +as 1uite different from the one +ho +rote this to his father: !?o+ comes something urgent, for +hich $ re1uest an ans+er' Mamma and $ ha.e discussed the matter and +e agree that +e do not li-e the sort of life the <endlings lead' <endling is an honorable and kind man, )ut unha,,ily de.oid of all religion, and the +hole family is the same' $ say enough +hen $ tell you that his daughter has a most disre,uta)le character 2+as the Elector;s mistress3' Ramm is a good 2u,right3 fello+ )ut a li)ertine' $ -no+ myself, and $ ha.e such a sense of religion that $ shall do anything +hich $ +ould not do )efore the +hole +orld0 )ut $ am alarmed e.en at the .ery thought of )eing in the society of ,eo,le/+hose mode of thin-ing is so entirely different from mine Oand from all good ,eo,le;sP' /Friends +ho ha.e no religion cannot )e long our friends 2are not sta)le friends3'4FF 2italics added3 Bet+een these youthful certainties and his later relationshi, +ith the dissolute %chi-aneder +ho +as cast out of the >odge, lies a lifetime of hard e:,eriences' (ne can reasona)ly deduce that after many re.ersals and little treacheries )y so-called friends, Mozart might not so haughtily turned a+ay from !an honora)le and -ind man'4 &his is so e.en though his relations +ith the <endling family +ere com,licated' Mozart certainly must ha.e learned, as most do, that such honora)le and -ind ,eo,le are not so easy to come )y, and that religion is not a relia)le guide to honor or -indness one +ay or another' $t is also not realistically a guide to sta)ility in ,eo,le or societies' But clearly e.en +ith all this +e +ill -no+ for sure a)out his continued faith, e.en though Mozart continued to ma-e statements a)out Kod and !falling to his -nees4 in ,rayer' &he 1uestion is really only ,ertinent in t+o senses' First, that Freemasonry is no indication that he did not ha.e )elief or +as necessarily s-e,tical of )elief' But the fact that the >odge admitted some s-e,tics u, to a ,oint as +ell as )elie.ers, raises the 1uestion of +hether Mozart;s )eliefs coincided +ith a s-e,tical Brother he might ha.e

23 en*oyed and )een influenced )y' <e +ill -no+ for sure, )arring the disco.ery of some un-no+n letters' &he 1uotation )y 5oltaire +hich started our in1uiry ought to gi.e the sense that e.en a famous old s-e,tic is ca,a)le of rather fideistic sounding sentiments in the right conte:t' Mozart +as not a of 5oltaire;s insouciance and tongue-in-cheedeclarations' But the strong feeling of ,arody in his music ha.e almost irresisti)ly dra+n countless inter,reters to attri)ute something of this light-handed and )iting 5oltarian insouciance to him' &em,ting as this is, $ thin- it is entirely mista-en' But that does not mean that he +as a ) at the end of his life in a com,letely orthodo: sense'FH %ince this matter cannot )e resol.ed +ith assurance, $ feel *ustified in ,ositing an idea more tentati.ely or s,eculati.ely to e:,lain the sense of ,arody in his music' For ,arody might ma-e one thin- of a sense of moc-ing to+ards recei.ed )eliefs, +hich as +e ha.e seen +as not the case really for Mozart' Clearing u, the ,arodic matter also clarifies the more )asic sense of +hat the )elief -structure undergirding the Masonic sense of his music, ,re.iously descri)ed, (n one le.el this should )e self-e.ident' For if he truly had the intersectional Masonic .ie+, that +ould mean he held at least a fundamental .ie+ of the goodness of ,eo,le and the +orld as )eing +orthy of such a no)le and res,ectful conce,tion' But it is also ,ossi)le that the tension +ith the Counter-Reformation elements +as a real tension e:istentially for him, and not *ust artistically' $ndeed it is +orth noting that some Masonic sources see Mozart as a !,assionate Catholic'4FI <e are ,ro)a)ly on safe ground if +e thin- of a Catholic in the Erastian sense' But to clarify matters further +e cannot ,roceed +ithout ma-ing sure +e -no+ +hat +e are not tal-ing a)out' Mozart;s music may ha.e a greater resonance +ith Counter-Reformation .isual arts on one le.el, )ut there is also something in that intensity +hich threatens to )rea- the )ounds' Many ha.e read into 6on Kio.anni an an:iety on Mozart;s ,art a)out moral and ethical transgressions' And surely the fire and )rimstone of the 6on;s fate count as a Counter-Reformation +arning in an artistic sense' But this artistic as,ect does not clearly indicate that Mozart;s ,ersonal sense of religion can )e read into this fire and )rimstone' $ndeed +e should read much more into the aesthetic tension )et+een the an:ieties of 6on Kio.anni and the not angst-ridden, and decidedly not ,arodic +or-s of confident, manly e:u)erance, his Masonic cantatas' Also +e should -ee, in mind the tran1uil su)lime resolution of this tension in the transcendent !Masonic motet4HJ Ave 2erum Cor(us, e.en +ith its authentic engagement of a CounterReformation de.otional meme' $t is surely remar-a)le ho+ distant from the o,eratic an:ieties of the 6on such +or-s a,,ear' $n this regard it is interesting to note that a Masonic source has claimed Ave 2erum Cor(us as Masonic ,recisely )ecause it manifests a more true !religious4 feeling in contradistinction to the more !o,eratic4 1uality of his other Church music'H7 &his can )e ta-en to mean that the motet distilled the essence of religious ,eace em)odied in Masonry, e.en +hile doing so using a Counter-Reformation theme' (nly in this case it +as freed e.en from the florid o,eratic an:ieties of the Counter-Reformation and )esto+ed a tran1uil master,iece for the ages' #o+ is all this e:istentially se,arated music so high-reaching, and yet still the ,roduct of one human )eingQ $t can only )e )ecause the Masonic sense of things +as dee,ly in.ol.ed +ith Mozart;s feeling of religious ,eace, as +e hear in Ave 2erum Cor(us' &his ,eace allo+ed him great creati.e freedom'


&herefore +hen +e notice that Mozart has this continuity +ith CounterReformation aesthetics +e can re*ect the notion that the hy,er- fer.ent faith of the Counter-Reformation +as a consolation to him' $t is no+ clear this is not +hat +e are addressing in his religious' For the $gnatian s,irituality of the CounterReformation is the o,,osite of the e:istential gem&tlichkeit that Mozart;s letters e.ery+here e:hi)it' Religion is im,ortant to him as a comfort and a reassurance' But the s,iritual and strenuousness of $gnatian S(iritual %7ercises, +hich +ere so massi.ely influential in the Catholic Counter -Reformation +orld can confidently )e ruled out as an influence sim,ly )y reading his letters' For surely +e are not s,ea-ing a)out a Counter-Reformation s,irituality ,er se in this man' And though his music does not resem)le Rococo .isual tro,es directly, +e might say that it e.o-es them architectonically' &he e:tremely insightful )oo- )y 8arsten #arries The 3avarian 5ococo Church ,ro.ides an o)ser.ation that might hel, us resol.e this matter: !Rococo ornament/assumes that a successful )uilding is a hierarchical order that assigns to each ,art its ,ro,er ,lace and it assumes that society is such an order, (rnament contri)utes to the articulation of that order' $n this sense ornament can )e said to ,ossess an ethical not merely aesthetic significance0 ethical in sense of hel,ing to esta)lish the ethos of a society, +hich assigns to ,ersons and things their ,ro,er ,laces'4H &his sense of the rococo, +ith ornament su,,lying strong architectural su,,ort for a larger order can )e heard 1uite clearly in Mozart;s musicH3' (ne gets none of the sense of e,isodes )eing strung together, or ad.entitiously re-ornamented, as in other com,osers; music from the ,eriod' Mozart;s music seems to ha.e )een concei.ed conce,tually as a +hole, to such a ,erfection that it stri-es the listener as incredi)le' $n this sense it may resonate )roadly, as does the rococo architecture, +ith that .ast cosmic sense of order em)odied in >ei)niz; ,hiloso,hy +hich eddied into ,o,ular ,hiloso,hy )y the intellectual ministrations of Christian <olff' $ndeed, Margaret Baco) has em,hasized that >ei)niz; H@ thought +as recei.ed as ,art of the general societal reform efforts in the #a)s)urg state, and thus +ould ha.e )een influential on general culture in Austria' More s,ecifically, for Mozart as a Mason, the ,hiloso,hy of the sym)ols of the Craft contains the strong sense that the !(rnaments of the >odge4 ser.e a !single unity,4 not discrete esoteric contri.ance' E.en more than church architecture +ould ha.e ,erha,s, all gra,hic, .isual a,,urtenances of the >odge are really only im,ortant for that ,hiloso,hy +hich )rings !the entire ,icture, into a unity'4H9 &his sense of underlying order is so ,al,a)le in Mozart;s +or-s' #e felt the inherent structure in all the Enlightenment ornament more -eenly than others as something intrinsic, and not *ust additi.e' $n this sense Masonic aesthetics of the Eighteenth Century em)ody this insight )etter than anything else' &hus feeling so secure in his understanding, ,erha,s he also felt free to ,arody it' $n fact, the ,arodic rococo moments )ecome e:,lica)le ultimately as a ,sychological intention of dee, o)eisance to+ards that +hich one is ,arodying' &he

25 Baro1ue sense of intensity and an:iety,+hich has inherently disru,ti.e elements, .anish +ith the rococo unfla,,a)ility, and +ith it the $gnatian s,irit of s,iritual' %o +hile Mozart might seem far ultimately from the e:1uisite )landishments of Pater or >ancret,, he is not far from the Ba.arian or Austrian rococo church'HD &he distinction is an im,ortant one, for ,ainting delimits often a more s,ecific realm, +hile architecture e:,ands into a more thoroughly e:istential ,lane' (f course +hen aesthetic ,henomena are distri)uted in this +ay, the s,ecifically Masonic elements that are ,resent in Mozart music, in the case of +or-s )eing s,ecifically +ritten for the >odge , ta-e on a heightened meaning' &he )eauty of Masonic artifacts and regalia from this ,eriod set a .ery dignified standard, as s,ecific ,ro,s for a sense of ,hiloso,hic order, ,erha,s e.en more than the graceful glories of rococo architecture' $ thin- this may hel, resol.e +hat some ha.e ,ercei.ed as the oddly stolid character of Mozart;s Masonic +or-s' >et me say, that to my ears they are not ,ercei.ed in that +ay' But ,erha,s +e can hear in their solemnity generally +hat #'C' Ro))ins >andon heard in the Masonic Funeral Music s,ecifically, a dee, meditation on the insights of Masonic ritual on ultimate matters li-e death, e1ualizing all on the le.el' $n this ,ersonal, ,ractical sense this Master Mason was a ,hiloso,her, for the +or-, !re.eals Mozart;s total in.ol.ement +ith the theories and ,hiloso,hies of/the first degree of the Craft'4HF $ndeed, the greatest of these +or-s Laut 2erkunde 8nsre $reude has )een seen )y one analyst as more im,ortant as a ,ersonal statement than e.en the Re1uiem' !&his not the Re1uiem, +as his final testament'4 HH Aet in com,arison +ith the effortless flo+ of the ,iano concertos or the seamless intensity of the later o,eras, a case could )e made that the Masonic +or-s are different' &hey are different )ecause they +ere intended for a +orld +hich heightened the dee, architectonics of the Enlightenment' &hus heightening an aesthetic realm +hich had a some+hat ,ro)lematic relationshi, +ith aesthetics to )egin +ithR &hese +or-s are .ery )eautiful, )ut they seem to e.o-e a moral solemnity +hich ,erha,s al+ays +ill sound odd against the many e:am,les of Mozart;s rococo ,arodic tro,es' &his leads us to the ,erha,s off-center assum,tion that Mozart may ha.e )een im,elled into a reliance on that tension +ith the Counter-Reformation )y his dee, understanding of the rococo aesthetic edifice, so to s,ea-, as more than *ust ornament and grace' But also that this sense +as heightened ,al,a)ly for him )y the (rnaments and %ym)ols of the >odge that he had e:,erienced, +hich ga.e him a sense of the architectonics of the )y-then rather decadent rococo style' &he ,hiloso,hy )ehind the rituals, es,ecially the em,hasis on order, allo+ed him to use the inherent fragility, or ,erha,s +ea-ness of rococo style, )y highlighting its organizing ,rinci,le, rather than its decorati.e tendencies as others did' Perha,s +e can also see that he used the CounterReformation theatricality to shore u, the +ea- s,ots in +ays that others could ha.e dreamed of' $ndeed, Mozart intuited the de,th of the rococo Enlightenment' #e had a lot of scorn for com,osers +ho too- it all too light-heartedly and +ithout good taste and the golden mean' But loo-ing at his )iogra,hy one cannot hel, +ondering if he +ould not ha.e

26 )een )etter off ,ersonally if he used his dee, understanding to *ust -ee, +ith the )land measured intensity of rococo art' #aydn is a fine com,arison in this +ay, for he +as e1ually a great com,oser' &he fact that some of the same tension +ith CounterReformation tro,es e:ists in some of #aydn;s music, es,ecially the Masses, may indicate that the a)ility to em)race that tension is indicati.e of the demands of the de.elo,ment of the musical language ,er se at the highest le.els' But +hat is stri-ing a)out #aydn is that he +as ca,a)le of re.erting, if that is the right +ord, to a more steady flo+ of unruffled rococo insight' (ne could not get a stronger indication of this than )y focusing on the ,iano concertos and o,eras of )oth com,osers' &hese t+o great com,osers are +orlds a,art in 1uality +ith these +or-s in a +ay that they are not in string 1uartets or sym,honies' %o +hy +as one great com,oser gi.en to sli,,ing effortlessly )et+een occasional forays +ith Counter-Reformation dynamic tension and the realm of Enlightenment gallantry, and the other more and more com,elled to de.elo, his greatness concentratedly in the tension of that heady creati.e realmQ $f Mozart had )een more li-e #aydn could he ha.e had his o+n comforta)le ,osition at an EsterhazyQ <ould +e )e )etter or +orse off in terms of our de,osit of great musicQ (f course +e +ill -no+ the ans+er to these 1uestions' But ,osing them ,ers,icaciously allo+s us to see there may ha.e )een many reasons +hy Mozart too- the ,ath he did' Being true to one;s ,ersonal con.ictions counts for a lot in life, and Mozart e.ery+here seems to )e ,ersonally sincere in the dee,est human +ay in his letters, if a )it nai.e' $t ma-es reading of his later ,aranoia caused )y illness in his last year ,articularly heart)rea-ing' But +e do no damage to the gratitude and a,,reciation that Brother Mozart if +e try to s,eculate a )it further as to +hy he +as so utterly and uns+er.ingly Masonic in his aesthetic a,,roach' $t has not )een commented on enough, $ thin-, that much of Mozart;s career too,lace during the ,eriod +hen the Besuits had )een su,,ressed )y the #oly %ee' &he e:tent to +hich the Besuits as a religious and ,olitical force created the Counter-Reformation cannot )e o.erstated' &he Besuit (rder .irtually controlled the theological s,eculations of the Council of &rent' &his Council created the +hole culture of the Counter -Reformation and its artistic e:,ression, the Baro1ue' &he identification is so -een )et+een these ,henomena that in recent times there has )een a some+hat fran- amongst historians of the identification of the style +ith the religious ,hiloso,hy in the notion of the !Besuit Baro1ue;, or sim,ly the !Besuit %tyle'4 $t is im,ortant to note that ,art of Mozart;s a)ility to creati.ely engage the tension +ith this !archaism4 is that it ,erha,s al+ays had that archaic feature e.en +hen used in its initial force' (ne should certainly stay clear of ideological considerations ,er seHI, )ut ,erha,s there are aesthetic reasons for considering that this Besuit Baro1ue style, +ith its unsu)tle ,ro,aganda moorings, al+ays had a ,ut-on 1uality' As a recent analyst tells us of later Romantic attem,ts to understand this ,henomenon: !&he terms !Baro1ue4 and !Rococo! )ecame o,erati.e in this ,eriod as +ell, although they resisted ,eriodization to a certain e:tent, retaining the eighteenth century sense of !decadence4 /&hus )oth the ,olitical and art historiogra,hic conte:ts out of +hich the term !Besuit %tyle4 emerged

27 +ere com,le:/4IJ As concerns Mozart and his life and music the rele.ance of this com,le:ity is not *ust in the ,ersistence of the Counter-Reformation generally in Austria, though as +e ha.e seen, such is crucial' Rather it +as that this Baro1ue Counter-Reformation ethos +as not ,ure, )ut had a ,articular !decadence4 attached to it' &his +ould mean that its use could ha.e )een stimulated )y a num)er of factors not necessarily high-)ro+ or s,iritual in nature' $n this regard, +hat has )een less noticed is that Mozart li.ed during a ,eriod of strange Anti-Masonic fer.ors, +hich too- .ery )izarre, t+ists and turns' &hough it is )eyond the sco,e of this in.estigation, the strange conce,tual +orld of Anti-Masons li-e A))e Barruel )ecomes rele.ant to this argument' As detailed in a mar.elous study )y %te.en >uc-ert, this ,er.erse realm of lies and half-truths in.ol.ed traffic-ing in fantasies a)out Freemasonry that literally -ne+ no sane )ounds' $n fact, )y a tangle of odd assertions the Brotherhood of Freemasons and the Besuit (rder +ere someho+ cathected to )e in a mysterious !com,lot4, as >uc-ert re,eatedly ,uts it'I7 &he historically fascinating details of this are not rele.ant here e:ce,t ,oint out that they +ere e:ce,tionally florid and ,articular' $n this nether-+orld the Besuits had allegedly gone underground and had ta-en Freemasonry' (ne is left +ith historical the insight, that life often )rings, that ,eo,le +ill )elie.e anything' $ndeed )eyond the minutiae of ,seudo-arguments in com,lot theories, the historical milieu created generally )y Bose,h $$;s sur.eillance- state su,,orts our contentions a)out Mozart;s ,ro)a)le assum,tions' &hat this is surely not a far-flung contention is a,,arent from the historical )ac-ground in the classic )iogra,hy )y of Bose,h $$' Bose,h +ished to )e as harsh as ,ossi)le +ith remnants of the Besuit order after their su,,ression, his Eenlightened; .ie+ +as in contradistinction to his mother +ho had fondness for them' But in the meantime this )ifurcation of intent created a .ery curious ,sychological atmos,here: !As Bose,h;s ,o+er increased, the enlightened grou, )ecame )older' Radical centres +ere formed in many cities, +atching and s,ying on those +ho +ere generally du))ed Earistocrats;, Esecret Besuits;, Edar-lings; and Eo)scurantists;' $t )ecame dangerous for any man, no matter +hat his ,osition to )e -no+n as a Edar-ling;'4I (f course it 1uic-ly )ecomes clear that in such a ,aranoid en.ironment an indi.idual !no matter +hat his ,osition4 +ould ha.e to gi.e credence to the reality of such chimeras as !secret Besuits4 in order to distinguish himself from the much -sus,ected and des,ised !dar-lings4' Realistic s-e,ticism +ould ha.e had a hard time in such a +orld, and +e can see the )elief in !secret Besuits4 as a default ,osition conce,tually related to Bose,h;s later ,aranoid attac- on Freemasonry itself, +hich lamenta)ly could only ha.e )een seen as reinforcing the reality of ,re.ious descri,tors' But ,erha,s a further insight might )e the follo+ing' $n an age )efore relia)le means of communications and .erification, +hen ,am,hlets fle+ anonymously and easily, it might not ha.e )een terri)ly easy to -no+ +hat the truth +as' 45ienna )ecame a

28 ,aradise for ,en-,ushers /and ,am,hleteers/' &hey sat in smo-y cafes,,, collecting gossi, to ,ut in ,am,hlets' &he +hole +orld +as their -ingdom, church and state/4I3 $ am not suggesting that there +as any truth to any of the dastardly and ,re*udicial !com,lot4 theories, far from it' But it is reasona)le that in the e.eryday +orld, so to s,ea-, it might ha.e seemed harder to -no+ or )e really sure of' %uch ideas might ha.e )een hard to disentangle for a young Mason li-e Mozart +ho $ am sure met not one clandestine Besuit in the >odge' But he might ha.e met mem)ers of the aristocracy +ho might )e !former Besuits4 realistically mo.ed -on in life' %uch !former Besuits4 )elonged to the &rue #armony >odgeI@, and thus might ha.e )een -no+n in 5iennese Masonic circles generally' But that is a far cry from the com,lot-notion of an acti.e clandestine mem)er of the %ociety of Besus infiltrating the Craft' &here +as also the fact that no less than the de facto chief Freemason in Euro,e, Frederic- the Kreat, had made the grand ,u)lic gesture of +elcoming the Besuits into his realm, and them refuge' %urely this might ha.e caused some to +onder if the Besuits had some secret connections to Freemasonry' (f course +e -no+ from history that Frederic-;s decision +as entirely dictated )y Machia.ellian considerations' But this is )ecause +e can read his cunning ,ri.ate statements' Frederic- +rote to 5oltaire that he !had great difficulty finding teachers,! for the enlightened state he +as )uilding' &hus +hat, !8ings ha.e thro+n out $ am collecting as much as $ can'4 #e seems to ha.e .ie+ed the Besuits in the lo+est ,ossi)le terms, hardly a grou, +ith someone +ho +ould ,otentially )e an e1ual Brother in the Masonic >odge' $n fact he sa+ these e:iled religious almost as +ith no ,lace else to go, +hich +as ,ro)a)ly true ,olitically' #e +rote of them li-e chattel: !$ ,reser.e the )reed and ,resently $;ll sell then )ac- again' $ tell them so =$ +ill easily get 3JJ thalers for you my Father, and DJJ for Father Pro.incial'! $n res,onse 5oltaire *o-ed that Frederic- +ith his military )ac-ground +as no+ ,erfect to )ecome the !Keneral of the Besuits'4I9 &he irony is of course that +hile Frederic-;s statements sound nasty, historically he +as infinitely more -ind to these men than the ,ious 8ings +ho had gi.en them truly )rutal treatment' %ince such -no+ledge +as ,ri.ate there is e.ery reason to )elie.e that an ordinary citizen li-e <olfgang Mozart might ha.e seen Frederic-;s strange action as a mysterious ,redilection' As to )roader cultural matters in society, +hat Mozart the o,era -com,oser might ha.e -no+n a)out him ,u)licly +as that he +as also the author of an o,era li)retto 'onte#uma, +hich dared to ta-e on an e:otic nadir for Christendom' &his e.ent +as the )eginning ,oint, +hich resulted in many religious orders )ecoming .ery +ealthy, )ut es,ecially the Besuits' &his Besuit +ealth, e,itomized )y their .ast holdings in the ?e+ <orld, +as one of the ,rinci,le reasons Euro,eans rulers +ished to confiscate their riches and dim their ,o+er' &he 'onte#uma story +as a ne:us of dangerous Enlightenment ,olitical themes, )oth ecclesiastical and e:otic, made more ,otentially threatening )y )eing actually )ased on historical e.ents' "nli-e earlier o,era settings of the 'onte#uma story, Frederic-;s +as !ideological'4ID &he ideological radicality of Frederic-;s .ision is hard to reconstruct at this ,oint )ecause +e are heirs to a lot of historiogra,hic re.elations on the ,eriod of the Con1uest that clarify matters that +ould ha.e )een o)scure in the eighteenth century' <ith our contem,orary sense his +or- on this o,era +ould seem *ust another Enlightenment cultural manifestation' %o to get a sense of +hat at least some of

29 the su)sisting assum,tions +ould ha.e )een, and ho+ an o,era- com,oser li-e Mozart +ho +as interested in ,ortraying the mythic ,ast +ould ha.e .ie+ed it, +e can sur.ey cultural artifacts' >uc-ily, in this regard ,ortraiture of Montezuma con.eys the recei.ed assum,tion ,erha,s )etter than a thousand +ords could' !Moctezuma is sho+n do+ncast and de*ected, on the .erge of tears or at the ,oint of con.ersion as a result of an e,i,hany 2of the Christian Kod3 from on high'4IF <ith this art-historical sense +e can see ho+ daring Frederic-;s .ie+ actually +as )y contrast, and ho+ his +or- on this o,era could ha.e )een ta-en as re,resentati.e of a larger )ra.e .ision, +hich li-e the Montezuma story itself might ha.e had some odd t+ists and turns' Bro,hy is 1uite hel,ful in understanding this dee,er layer as she notes of Frederic-;s intention in connection Mozart;s use of the e:otic sense of threatening otherness: !&he tone itself is largely the creation of the e:otic .ein +hen that +as used to ma-e ,ro,aganda for reason' $n the e:otic fa)le, the ,ro,agandist 2Frederic-3 aimed to ,roduce artificially the *u:ta,osition )et+een Christian moeurs and outlandish ones +hich had first sha-en reason into use'4IH &his means that in some sense Frederic- thought that Christian )ar)arityII and nati.e )ar)arity in tandem +ere needed in a necessary conflict to force humanity to acce,t !reason/the only ,ossi)le ar)iter )et+een them'4 7JJ <hen +e recall that the Besuits +ere the originators of a s,ecial ty,e of "ro(aganda $idei, +e might grant that those hearing of Frederic-;s ,ro,agandistic daring in tac-ling such a dangerous issue might ha.e considered it almost an almost su,er-human )ra.ery for the time ,eriod' $n the )izarre terms of com,lot-theory, ,erha,s it could ha.e )een construed that Frederic- admired and needed the s-ills of those Besuit ,ro,agandizers for his Masonic intentions' $f Fredericcould ta-e on the e:otic, !outlandish4 Montezuma and +ith that directly confront the Church and use him to ,ro,agandize for Reason, could not he do something e.en more outlandishQ #e +ould ha.e ,uissance to handle the e:otic )anned Besuits +ho +ere so dangerous that they had )een su,,ressed )y their o+n Church' Almost li-e a tri)e that had )een con1uered, +hich in fact they +ere only the con1ueror +as a hy,er-Enlightenment figure, Pom)al' Could not this chief Freemason Frederic- ha.e had the +here+ithal to someho+ clandestinely incor,orate e.en those e:otically threatening tri)e of Besuit ,ro,agandizers into the CraftQ (f course +ith our hindsight -no+ledge of Frederic-;s Machia.ellian trueintentions it seems ridiculous' &o the a.erage ,erson, e.en to the a.erage Mason, it might ha.e )een harder to figure out as a factor of history' &hus it is reasona)le to assume some le.el of confusion' And for an e:am,le of some confusion you could not do )etter than the sym)ol that is sometimes suggested Mozart used for the Besuits' $t has )een ,osited that the )lac--ro)ed image of Monostatos in ie Zauberfl-te is meant to re,resent him as a )lac-- ro)ed Besuit7J7' $f this is true, it hardly s,ea-s to any -ind feeling to+ards the %ociety of Besus' But against this +e ha.e Mozart;s life-long +or-ing out of a .irtual a,otheosis of musical structure the aesthetics of the Besuits' As $ said earlier, the ,rinci,al reason for this ultimately is the de.elo,ment of musical language as Rosen has made clear' But there is .ery li-ely more to it than that' <e see this )y com,arison +ith

30 the e:am,le of #aydn, +ho de.elo,ed the language e1ually as much as Mozart did' Aet he did it +hile sli,,ing effortlessly )et+een tendencies, and a.oided hea.y CounterReformation tendencies in most of his +or-s, and ,erha,s therefore it affected his career' $t may )e s,ecifically significant in this regard that #aydn s,ent much of his career a+ay from the ferment of the city, in Esterhazy' &hat also means a+ay from the hustle and )ustle of rumor-mongering and the insecurity it )rings' By contrast as a city-d+eller Mozart;s final years demonstrates some a)ility to )elie.e stories )ased on +eird sus,icions or e.en ,aranoia' &herefore, $ mean a)solutely no disres,ect to my fa.orite com,oser +hen $ s,eculate on the follo+ing' Mozart +as a leader in the Masonic +orld, or any+here else' $t is ,ossi)le therefore that is some +ay he +ondered if the Besuits +ho had created the religious +orld he li.ed in +ere still e:erting some influence in the +orld generally, or in the >odge in ,articular ' Again, there can )e no serious 1uestion that he encountered a clandestine Besuit in the >odge' But still he clearly had an acti.e imagination' <illiam %tafford +ho in.estigated many of the ,ersistent mysteries of Mozart;s )eha.ior in his last years summed u, his state of mind generally )y noting that for him !life and stories +ere inter+o.en'47J $s it so hard to imagine that therefore Mozart , +anting to ma-e the )iggest im,ression ,ossi)le, ado,ted a tactic of attem,ted ,artial aggrandizementQ &his com,orts +ell +ith some of his slightly incoherent statements a)out himself in his letters , in relation to his actual ,osition in society' Mozart may ha.e felt ,ushed to continually em)race the !archaism4 of the Counter-Reformation as a form of sub4rosa o)eisance in some +ay' $n this sense it might ha.e do.e-tailed +ith some slo+ly de.elo,ing as,ects of mental stress or difficulty, +hich manifested acutely in his last year' By loo-ing at things this +ay, +e can see his actual *oining of the >odge as e.en more crucial to him and his integrity ,ersonally' $n the rituals of the >odge he +ould ha.e e:,erienced a real e.ocation of )alance and acce,tance amidst ,otentially conflicting .ie+s' &his did not ta-e him out of the real +orld +ith its 1uestions or rumors, )ut it ga.e him a +ay of actually transmogrifying all these 1uestions and contradictions into a coherent +hole' Most discerning listeners consider that his music only got )etter after 7FH@ +hen he officially *oined the >odge'7J3 As someone creati.ely stretched )et+een ,ast and ,resent, he can only ha.e suffered some+hat +ith Bose,h $$;s ,aranoid crac-do+n on Freemasonry' Because he had e:,erienced the )eauty of the Craft, and e:,ressed it in the dee,est sense in his music, he had a lot at sta-e' As someone +ho had artistically del.ed into humanity;s ,ast and humanity;s social future, he had some ,ersonal +isdom mi:ed +ith some tendencies to )elie.e the +orst' <hat ga.e him )alance +as Freemasonry, and that is +hy he -e,t to it' <ith ,olitical ,ressure and rumor, Masonry +as hardly an uncom,licated affair during this ,eriod' But surely +e can see in the e1ui,oise it )rought to Mozart something fundamental, e.en constitutional, a)out it, +hich is e.en ,resent amidst ,olitical currents and reactions' &his sense is so +ell e:,ressed in some song,oetry included in Anderson,s Constitutions, a founding document of Masonry e.ery+here, so a,,ro,riate for a man +ho +rote his Masonic fantasy of humanity;s ,ast and future shortly )efore his o+n life ended:


!Anti1uity;s Pride <e ha.e on our %ide, And it ma-eth Men *ust in their %tations, &here;s not )ut +hat;s good &o )e understood By a Free and an Acce,ted Mason'47J@ Mozart may ha.e had the leadershi, ,osition in the >odge or in ,u)lic life to )e a)le to resol.e e.ery 1uestion +ith certainty for himself' But that is not +hat really mattered, e.en if 1uestions remained' %till he +ould ha.e had a ,hiloso,hically healthful frame+or- in +hich to ,ut all these ,olitical, religious and aesthetic contradictions' &ruly in this sense he +as !*ust4 in his !%tation4' %till, it is reasona)le to assume that some of those remaining 1uestions included the ,ro)lematic ,ersistence of the .ery cultural, aesthetic and ,olitical frame+or- the Besuits had created for society, and the odd ,arado: that the )lac--froc-ed originators had )een )anished from the .ery culture they created' From the hindsight of history it truly seems incredi)le that any of the Besuit com,lot ideas a)out Freemasonry +ere entertained, and could ha.e affected ,eo,le' But if one considers .arious contem,orary theories it is not )eyond com,rehension intellectually +hen one considers ordinary ,eo,le' And in most +ays Mozart +as .ery ordinary' Because of his musical e:cellence +e +ould li-e to see a corres,onding coherence in intellectual matters that +e see so +ell in his musical su)limity ' But +e -no+ that he li-ely did not reach that le.el' $ndeed, that Mozart did not ,arse all these matters +ith intellectual rigor +as finally ,ro.ed )y his Masonic o,era' Aet if +e are admonished therefore )y a dou)ting ,hiloso,her +ith the +ords !$inem Lauda,4 +e can regardless easily hea, our ,raise for his accom,lishment on his own terms throughout his +hole life, as +ell as at the end' &hat Mozart +as a great Mason and a great com,oser is ultimately e.ident from the magnificence of his authentically Masonic contri)ution to musical de.elo,ment itself'

1 2

Voltaire, A Philosophical Dictionary. London: W. Dugdale, 1843, pp. 454-456. Peter Gay, Mozart. New York: Penguin, 2006, p. 84. 3 Nicholas Till, Mozart and the Enlightenment: Truth, Virtue and Beauty in Mozarts Operas. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1992, p. 118-119. Tills whole discussion here is heavily indebted to Habermas interpretation of Freemasonry, though he does not credit him. This Habermasian view in itself is not without its problems for understanding the Craft accurately. He does however include him as one source amongst many in the bibliography. 4 Till, Mozart and the Enlightenment, p. 127. Later, Till says something so ridiculous that to quote it directly in our text would effectively eliminate him as a reasonable source: Like his Masonic brothers, Mozart would have espoused a dual set of values. Within the lodge he and his brethren would have espoused the truth of moral CatholicismOutside they would have continued to affirm the realities of divine retribution for the masses (p.222) With these statements Till evinces such a thorough misunderstanding of Freemasonry and also an unreasonableness about Enlightenment quotidian culture to virtually disqualify him. I have chosen however, to see these statements as aberrations in a, in many ways, fascinating book. 5 Till, Mozart and the Enlightenment, p.87 6 Till, Mozart and the Enlightenment, see index. 7 Katharine Thomson, The Masonic Thread in Mozart, Lawrence & Wishart, Ltd. 1977, p. 57. 8 Till, p. 167. 9 Till, p. 179. 10 Glenn Stanley, Cambridge Companion to Beethoven, Cambridge University Press, 2000 p. 233. 11 Till, p. 140. 12 Till, p. 131. 13 Till, p. 105. 14 Till, p. 135. 15 Donald Heartz, Haydn, Mozart and the Viennese School, 1749-1780, W.W. Norton & Co, 1995, p. 118. 16 Katharine Thomson, The Masonic Thread in Mozart, p. 46. 17 Till, p. 137. 18 Thomson, p. 73. 19 See Gernot Gruber, Mozart and Posterity. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. , 1994. 20 Piero Melograni, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: A Biography, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006, p. 242. 21 Herbert Bradley, Brother Mozart and Some of His Masonic Friends. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Vol. 26 (1913), p. 252 22 Brigid Brophy, Mozart the Dramatist. Revised Edition. New York: Da Capo Paperbacks, 1988, p. 13. 23 Herbert Bradley, p. 254. 24 Robert Cooper. Cagliostro, The Masonic Magician, Watkins, 2006, p. 97. See also pp. 193-194 for further support of this idea. 25 Thomson, p. 44, Thomson is referring to Scheibe who authored a well-known collection of Masonic songs. 26 Thomson, p. 155. 27 See Gauvin Alexander Bailey, Art of Colonial Latin America. London: Phaidon, 2005, p. 75 & p. 113. In describing Colonial portraiture from the period Bailey writes: these pictures emphasized the link between the historical Inca past and the Christian present, but they also affirmed that there was an Inca present (emphasis added). 28 Thomson, p. 116. 29 Thomson, p. 155.

30 31

Thomson, p. 149. Thomson, p. 37. 32 Saul K. Padover. The Revolutionary Emperor: Joseph II of Austria. N/p: Archon Books, 1967. (see index for Voltaire.) Quote: p. 90. 33 Saul K. Padover, p. 132 34 They may have looked radical to his traumatized wife, or she may have worried others would have perceived them to be so and thus diminish whatever posthumous benefit she could gain from his memory and works. Thus the fact that she destroyed letters cannot be realistically argued to support the notion that the view were actually radical in comparison with other Enlightenment figures. 35 R. William Weisberger, Speculative Freemasonry and the Enlightenment: A Study of the Craft in London, Paris, Prague, and Vienna. Boulder: East European Monographs, 1993, p. 138. Blumauer later became the official Censor as well. 36 Thomson, for instance, develops this theme repeatedly (see her index), but note that this would conflict with her conflation of Freemasonry and the Illuminati. 37 Bernard Fay, Revolution and Freemasonry, 1680-1800. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1935, p. 265. 38 Fay, p. 265, Fay notes that Rousseauists imputed to Voltarians immorality as well. 39 Jacques Chailley. The Magic Flute: Masonic Opera. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1971, p. 57. 40 Chailley, p. 65. 41 Saul K. Padover, p. 148. 42 Jon Vanden Heuvel, A German Life in the Age of Revolution, Joseph Gorres, 1776-1848. Washington: Catholic University of America Press., 2001. Excerpting from p. 11, then p. 10. 43 Henry Kissinger, in Foreword to Vanden Heuvel, p. xiv. 44 To say the obvious this is related in Mozarts case on the emphasis placed on German theatre. 45 Paul B. Bernard. Joseph II. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1968, p. 101 46 Margaret Jacob, p. 252. 47 See James Tracy, Erasmsus of the Low Countries. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. 48 Saul K. Padover, p. 127 49 Cynthia Verba, Music and the French Enlightenment: Reconstruction of a Dialogue; 1750-1764. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. This extremely elegant reassembling of the musical dialogue between Rameau and Rousseau carried on in a variety of sources is remarkable for the cumulative insight it might give to our argument. When one sees the ultimate bleakness of Rousseaus harmonic conceptions against Rameaus, and remembers the philosophical connections that might very well be made as well, it invites great interpretive caution. To say the obvious, Mozart has vastly more in common with Rameau, who by the way, some say was a Freemason. Seeing the specific musical manifestation of the noble savage trope is revelatory. Only in a very attenuated form can this heady political notion have affected a man like Mozart. Verba only mentions Mozart, though, to note that he set a similar libretto in his Bastien and Bastienne as Rousseau did in his Devin du Village, p. 11. 50 W.J. Turner. Mozart: The Man and His Works. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1979, p. 399. 51 Chailley, p. 277. 52 Based on the St. Henry Mass by Biber, who is most famous for his beautiful Rosary Sonatas for Violin. One does not get more Catholic than that. 53 Chailley, p. 278. 54 The distinction between super and meta in this context would be that it takes the analysis out of any hierarchical judgment about the desirability of one world-view being preferable over another in an abstract sense, and puts it in a moral continuum of analysis by some meta-conceptual schema. This was the basis of the best examples of Enlightenment thinking on religion. In addition, super has later Nietzshean connotations which are problematic. Though one should never forget that Nietzsche dedicated Human, All to Human to Voltaire! 55 See Peter Paul Fuchs, Incense to the Intellect, Heredom.


Till, p. 316. Till relates that Mozart had a book called Die Metaphysic in der Connecion mit der Chemie which he remarks is an obviously alchemical title. It certainly means something that Mozart had this book, but one must parse what it means correctly. One book does not a profound understanding of anything make. Of course, that is even assuming that he had read it. 57 It may be that the fact that in Russia Rosicrucianism virtually swallowed-up Masonry itself, and that there was a strong connection with Swedish Masonry which is the most Christian in the European context, that has led historians to conflate Rosicrucianism so heavily with Freemasonry. Since Catherine the Great was such a famous historical character, this has lead historians to use the Russian example as exemplary. To say the obvious, Austria was not Russia. Also, the Russian Orthodox Church always had a strong anti-intellectual flavor which would have colored its being used as a foil for occult elements. Again, the same anti-intellectual sense never existed in the Roman Catholic Church, and therefore to the extent that it was a foil for occult elements was strongly modified. What is absolutely clear is that Freemasonry was only variably to be attached to Rosicrucian ideas in the Austrian context as opposed to the famous Russian example. See Working the Rough Stone. 58 Till, p. 316. 59 Till, p. 307. 60 The emphasis on Eucharistic adoration was an important part of Counter-Reformation Catholicism, the very idea of which involved a complete rejection of Reformed understandings of the Lords Supper. One can say with confidence that Eucharistic adoration expresses the very essence of CounterReformation spirituality in its denial of Protestant theology. (See Carter Lindberg. The European Reformations Wiley-Blackwell, p. 355). Peter Paul Rubens great tapestry cartoon cycle The Triumph of the Eucharist is a great example of this fact. 61 Chailley, p. 297. 62 Chailley, p. 19. 63 W. J. Turner, p. 400. We should note that sometimes Die Zauberflte has quite wrongly been compared to A Midsummer Nights Dream in terms of fantasy. The comparison is not really meaningful at all. 64 Chailley, p. 209. 65 Chailley, p. 48. Chailley says it was mentioned by Leopold von Sonnleithner. 66 See Gernot Gruber, Mozart and Posterity. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. , 1994. 67 Alec Mellor, Loge Rituale Hochgrade: Handbuch der Freimaurei. Graz: Verlag Styria, 1967, p. 372. Die Franzsische Revolution unterbricht auch die freimauerische Aktivitat. Als die Arbeiten wieder aufgenommen werden, tritt jene falsche gyptische Orientierung hervor, die Cagliostro eingefuhrt und die Mozart in Die Zauberflte popular gemacht hat. 68 E.J. Dent. Mozarts Operas: A Critical Study. New York: McBride, Nast, and Co., 1913, p. 74. Dent is referring to Stendahl here. 69 John Hamill and Robert Gilbert. Freemasonry: A Celebration of the Craft, p. 80. 70 Brigid Brophy. Mozart the Dramatist. Revised Edition. New York: Da Capo Paperback, 1988. p. 20. 71 Prokofiev is of course, his fantastically talented imitator in this regard. 72 We should not be tempted into thinking that traditional religious belief in itself will tell us anything in this matter whereas stylistic appropriation of aesthetic tropes will. On this matter it is not so important that Haydn seems always to have been a simpler sort of unskeptical Catholic believer throughout his life than Mozart. Despite this fact Haydns music evinces a more pragmatic and merely affirmational tone, which in turn can be said to have produced strengths and weaknesses. Haydns church music is firmly grounded in the here-and-now and is at its finest where it seeks to express a positive attitude towards life in all its different aspects. It is far less successful at expressing powerful and dark emotions [than Mozarts], and it generally stops short of setting foot inside the portals of the mysteries alluded to by the words of the Mass. (Herman Albert. W.A. Mozart. New Haven: Yale

University Press, p. 355.) On a somewhat related matter, Haydn had only a slight connection with the Masonic Lodge compared to Mozart. But it is noteworthy that even here his pragmatism probably shone through. In fact, ironically he was more successful than Mozart in working the potential patronage that Masonic societies offered. Haydns Paris Symphonies were commissioned by the concert association of the Loge Olypique in Paris. However, his music did not develop the philosophical insights of Masonry the way Mozarts did. In this regard, it is a strange fact of musical history that Haydns Paris Symphonies are probably the greatest works resulting from direct Masonic patronage, which in fact came from a person with quite tenuous connections to the Lodge compared to Mozart. 73 Charles Rosen, The Classical Style. W.W. Norton & Co., 1972, p. 367. 74 Alfred Einstein, Mozart, His Character, His Work. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 348. 75 Arthur Sharp, Mozart s Masonic Music Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Volume 69 (1957), p. 18. Sharp notes additionally that O heiliges Band was included in Breitkopf and Hartels Mozarts Komponisten fur Freimauer. (Ed. 1357.). 76 Wilfred Mellers. Celestial Music: Some Masterpieces of European Religious Music. Boydell and Brewer, 2002, p. 108. 77 Letter to Leopold Mozart February 4, 1778. I have used the following for this quote, as well as consulted many other translations in general: Ludwig Nohl. Mozarts Briefe: Nach dem Originalem herausgegeben. Salzburg: Verlag der Maurischen Buchhandlung, 1865, p. 124; and, the translation by Lady Grace Wallace, The Letters of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1866, p. 160. 78 The fact that Mozarts wife and friends had difficulty getting a priest to come to give him last rites has I think amazingly been taken as an indication that he was known specifically for unbelief. This shows a denial of the actual history of Roman Catholic Church structure at the period. Until the nineteenth century in most places, and even later in others, like Mexico, many of the sacraments were administered with a fee. Priests lives financially were centered on the benefice system, for which parishioners regular monetary support was crucial. Ecclesiastical income came from semi-feudal dues such as tithes (Gerald B. Cragg. The Church and the Age of Reason, 1648-1789. London: Penguin Books, 1970. , p. 11) Thus fees from parishioners were not gratuities, but what made up a living wage. That Mozart was known to not be able to afford all this would have been a much more important to his reputation as an irregular church-goer than his Masonry or putative personal philosophy ever could have been. In fact the extent to which Catholics were routinely denied the sacraments for this reason before modern times is a mostly untold story for historians. 79 Alec Mellor, p. 122. der ubrigens ein leidenschaftlicher Katholik gewesen ist. 80 Mellers, p. 111. I believe Mellers means Masonic here in something like the intersectional way I have described and definitely not in the Rosicrucian sense that Till posited. 81 Arthur Sharp, p. 24. 82 Karsten Harries, The Bavarian Rococo Church: Between Faith and Aestheticism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983, p. 246. Quoted in Robert L. Schwartz Metaphors and Action Schemes: Some Themes in Intellectual History. Bucknell University Press. P. 253. 83 By following Karsten Harries insight here I am aware that it takes a step in a direction that Rosens The Classical Style does not take. Though Rosen describes the persistence of Rococo features even in Hummels dull music he sees the development of the classical style mostly as a sort of temporal evolution in musical language generally in line with stylistic progression: It was the symmetrical organization of Rococo style from eighteenth century on that made the dramatic concentration of the later classical style a reality (Rosen, p. 77. ) While this may be true, and I certainly do not wish to contradict anything that Rosen says ultimately, there is difference in emphasis to be made. Showing perhaps, fortuitously for the argument I have made here, that being clear about potential comparisons to

the visual arts is important because of its affect on our general aesthetic heuristic, Rosen participates in this. He makes this statement about the Rococo aesthetic: In rococo interiors, the decoration was used to hide the structure, to cover over the joints, to enforce a supreme continuity. (p. 107) I think more philosophical view of Karsten Harries insight is very helpful here. Harries sees the ornament, the decoration as intrinsic to the sense of order conveyed. I prefer Harries view, though I think Rosens ultimate contentions about the music are correct. I think Mozart had this deeper structural sense of the Rococo, but what he also had was the sense of the weakness of it as well. One way or another he was pushed into his own evolution of the classical style, which was a distillation of past influences. I see his path involving such a profound grasp of the structure of the rococo, which perhaps always was a weak structure aesthetically, as to impel him into the dynamic tension with the Counter-Reformation aesthetics which were stronger if unstable. This may be a form of archaism as Rosen calls it, though that word seems freighted with other elements not germane to Mozarts use. For the same word archaism could be applied to the persistence of rococo tropes in Hummel, which Rosen has described and denigrated. One could then have to speak of a successful archaism, or unsuccessful one, which defeats the purpose. Instead, I think Mozarts dynamic tension of with the Counter Reformation was a living, workable phenomenon, whereas the rococo in Hummel is just dead mostly. To me, archaism seems to connote therefore something in fact that was already not useful. 84 Margaret Jacob, The Radical Enlightenment, p. 53. 85 Kirk MacNulty,A Philosophic Background for Masonic Symbolism, in Freemasonry in Context. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2004, p. 235. 86 Though it is quite beyond the scope in detail of this paper, there is some indication that late in his life Mozart, incredible as it seems, was trying to master a more simplistic, late- rococo style of church music in order to get a job. This gives us a sense that Mozart understood that here was something different about his approach, for certainly he had quite a lot of experience writing rococo church music of a sort in his youth. I think these real-world insecurities should be distinguished from the artistic confidence of his ultimate creative trajectory. For certainly the Great Mass show mastery of ecclesiastical style in an absolute sense. Though the matter shows just how vexed and personally costly these stylistic issues were for Mozart. This matter is discussed by Alan Tyson: But if around 1788 Mozart was making transcriptions by an esteemed Viennese Kapellmeister who had worked at St. Stephens. perhaps he was seeking to master the style of composition that would land him the position of church composer. Alan Tyson. Mozart: Studies of the Autograph Scores, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, p. 27. 87 H.C. Robbins Landon, Mozart and the Masons. London: Thames and Hudson, 1982, p. 20. 88 William Stafford. The Mozart Myths: A Critical Reassessment. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993, p. 197. 89 The whole question of Casuistry as the supreme art of Jesuit propaganda is quite beyond the scope of this argument. But it should at least be mentioned that the put-on or artificial quality of Casuistry, which the Jesuits asserted as a justified necessity of making faith battle-worthy in the CounterReformation environment, could certainly and easily be seen as an inspiration for the exciting yet perhaps unstable aesthetic of the Baroque. 90 Evonne Anita Levy, Propaganda and the Jesuit Baroque. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004, p. 29. 91 Steven Luckert. Jesuits, Freemasons, Illuminati, and Jacobins: Conspiracy Theories, Secret Societies and Politics in late eighteenth century Germany. Unpublished Ph D. Dissertation. SUNYBinghamton, 1993. Thanks to the Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa for making this valuable work available to me. Luckert went on to become Chief Curator of the Holocaust Museum in Washington. D.C. 92 Saul K. Padover. The Revolutionary Emperor: Joseph II of Austria. N/p: Archon Books, 1967, p. 45. 93 Saul K. Padover, p. 136.


R. Williams Weisberger, Freemasonry as a Source of Jewish Civil Rights in Late Eighteenth Century Vienna and Philadelphia: A Study in Atlantic History. East European Quarterly, Winter 2000, p. 13? 95 Nancy Mitford. Frederick the Great. New York: Harper & Rowe, 1970, pp. 273-274. 96 Roger Parker. The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 63. Let it be said in passing that though one would expect Grauns setting of Fredericks libretto to be a dull affair, it is not. Judging from the live tape of a Spoleto production, it is just as fine music as the Vivaldi setting, which is much better known, or the De Majo which is less so. Still there is also no doubt that Grauns music is exactly the sort that in a less vigorous production could become quickly enervating. 97 Jaime Cuadriello, Moctezuma in The Arts in Latin America, 1492-1820. Exhibition Catalogue. Philadelphia Museum of Art. New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 377. This catalogue also shows that some portraits of Montezuma ended-up in European collections, see p. 376. 98 Brophy, p. 216. 99 Brophy, p. 227. 100 Brophy, p. 217. 101 Chailley, p. 105. Whatever is the case with Monostatos, it is clear that in all interpretations he is the character no one can figure out. He is the character that is the wrench in every interpretation. That says something in itself. 102 William Stafford, The Mozart Myths: A Critical Reassessment. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991, p. 267. 103 It might be worth recalling here Glenn Goulds rather well-known dislike of the later Mozart and his preference for more gallant works. . This may have been one of Goulds eccentricities, but is strongly shows that there is a developmental difference in these later works which musicians themselves can identify keenly. 104 The Fellowcraft Song by Brother Charles de la Fay. In Andersons Constitutions Facsimile Reproduction printed for the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. Abingdon: Burgess and Sons, 1976, p. 205.