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W3C Working Groups: XHTML 2 and HTML 5

Overview of XHTML 2: XHTML 2.0 is a markup language developed for rich and portable web-based applications. lthough XHTML 2.0 is derived from XHTML !.0" XHTML !.!" and HTML #" it is not purported to provide !00 $ backwards compatibilit% to its earlier versions. &eb-based application developers who are familiar with its predecessors will be comfortable with working on XHTML 2.0. lso" XHTML 2.0 has been a member of the XHTML 'amil% of markup languages. Moreover" it is an XHTML Host Language defined in the Modulari(ation of XHTML. )t is comprised of a set of XHTML modules which describe the attributes and elements of the language" along with their content model. )t also updates most of the modules defined in Modulari(ation of XHTML including the updated versions of those modules and their semantics *Malone 200+, *-.. /0amples 200+, *.mith 2001,. XHTML 2.0 is e0clusivel% based on XML" wherein .2ML heritage and s%nta0 peculiarities that e0isted in the current web markup are eliminated. Technicall%" XHTML 2.0 is a 3general-purpose4 language comprising of a minimum default feature set that is easil% e0tendible b% using -.. and other similar technologies like XML /vents" X'orms" etc. moreover" it is a modular approach allowing the XHTML 2 working group to concentrate on generic document markup" whereas other technologies emplo% several mechanisms for document construction" interactivit%" presentation" etc. 'urthermore" the number one priorit% for the XHTML group is to promote further separation of document content as well as structure e0tracted from document presentation. Moreover" other goals of XHTML 2.0 working group is to increase accessibilit% and usabilit%" device

independence" better internationali(ation" improved integration with the .emantic &eb *Malone 200+,. XHTML 2.0 was developed shortl% after XHTML !.! was broadl% recommended in 200!" followed b% the release of the ver% first XHTML 2.0 working draft in 2002. However" most of the documentation was in an incomplete" non-standardi(ed state. .ome outstanding industr% stakeholders" like web developers" browser vendors" content owners" and designers" b% 200#" had been dissatisfied with the wa% XHTML2 working group was shaping up. 5eferring to the closed behavior and nature of the &6- processes" the% settled on starting over and developing their own standard. Hence" in 200#" &eb H%perte0t pplication Technolog% &orking 2roup *&H T&2, was formed as an independent coalition *Malone 200+,. The group commenced operations on a specification known as &eb pplications !.0. The &6-7s overwhelming votes" in pril 2008" was inclined more towards the proposal of adopting the group7s specification for reviewing. However" the original members of &H T&2 started operating in the &6- as the independent HTML working group. The members continued to develop their proposal that was then renamed as HTML 9. Therefore" there is a possibilit% that the working draft of HTML 9 group ma% become a recommendation for &6- along with XHTML 2.0 *Malone 200+, *-.. /0amples 200+, *.mith 2001,. The XHTML 2 working group does not clearl% deal with backward compatibilit% as compared to their predecessors" including the HTML working group. This has" thereb%" led them to neglect man% of the s%ntactic packages that e0isted in earlier versions of HTML. s a result" a cleaner" and a more concise language was developed that accuratel% detects and corrects most of the past indiscretions of &eb markup *Malone 200+,. The ob:ective of XHTML 2 working group is to satisf% the need for appl%ing XHTML to a broad arra% of var%ing platforms with more focus thrown on internationali(ation" device

impendence" accessibilit%" document structuring and usabilit%. The XHTML group provides a significant piece for supporting rich" robust and ;ualit% &eb content that effectivel% combines XHTML with several other &6- work on areas like scalable vector graphics" math" forms" and s%nchroni(ed multimedia" in coordination with other &6- working groups *Malone 200+, *<emberton 2001, *-.. /0amples 200+,. The XHTML 2.0 group specifies the usage of the 3backward compatible4 under the following conditions= !. The e0ternal interface to the module cannot be changed in an% wa% which would lead to breaking of either markup language or another module. 2. The content model cannot be changed in an% wa% b% which a previousl% valid document would become invalid. )f incase either of the above mentioned constraints is violated b% a change" the XHTML 2.0 working group will either not make the change or amend the applicable module. The latter case will lead to changes in the associated identifiers as well *-.. /0amples 200+,. The XHTML 2 working group has recentl% published the second edition of the 2roup >ote of XHTML Media T%pes. .everal customers wish to use XHTML to create their web pages. However" the% are unclear and confused about the most effective wa%s of delivering those pages in a wa% to be processed correctl% b% several user agents. 'urthermore" included in this >ote are the suggestions regarding how the formatting of XHTML is done to ensure it is portable" and the wa%s of delivering XHTML to a variet% of user agents. The mission of this document is to be used b% various document authors who wish to use XHTML" but are not confident that the XHTML content the% developed is likel% to work in var%ing platforms and environments *Malone 200+, *.mith 2001,.

The focus of XHTML 9 is mainl% on creation of a more generic" user-friendl%" and simplified language. The%7ve refrained from introducing several speciali(ed elements to show different t%pes of content. The working group also argued that the new role attribute offers a mechanism b% which rich metadata can be included" b% making the need for speciali(ed elements" insignificant. 'or this" a few new elements were included such as blockcode for computer code" di for a group of related definitions and terms in dl" for multiple spellings" or multiple definitions" and handler for scripted event handlers" with a kind of attribute indicating the handler language *Malone 200+, *<emberton 2001, *.mith 2001,.

Overview of HTML 5: ?nlike XTHML 2.0 that aimed to be revolutionar%" HTML 9 was designed as an evolutionar% technolog% since the HTML working group took more pragmatic measures and approaches. )n other words" HTML 9 can be stated as an incremental step taken for remaining most compatible with the current XHTML !@ HTML # standards. >evertheless" HTML 9 provides several numbers of changes and e0tensions to XHTML !@ HTML # standards that deal with most of the errors in the earlier specifications *Malone 200+, *-otton et al 2001,. )nterestingl%" HTML 9 is concerned with shifting HTML from the document markup" and converting it into a language compatible for web applications. greater amount of specification

deals with creating a feature-full and more robust client side environment for development of web application b% offering a number of var%ing <)s. mongst other things" the specification defines that following implementations should provide persistent storage for client-side" including .AL storage engines and ke%@value" video and audio pla%back <)s" cross-document messaging" 2B

drawing using the canvas element" a networking <)" and server-sent events *Malone 200+, *Hickson C H%att 20!0, *-.. /0amples 200+, *HDgaret 2001,. dditionall%" the HTML 9 specification aims at maintaining an .2ML-like s%nta0 which is compatible with the specifications of the current HTML" even though it no longer supports the more private features of .2ML. second 3XML .eriali(ation4 is also included in the

specification that allows application developers to serve XML documents. gain" the HTML working group has discovered a balance between progress and pragmatism b% preserving an .2ML-like seriali(ation. Moreover" developers can markup content b% using either the XML seriali(ation *appearing similar to XHTML !.0, or the HTML seriali(ation *appearing similar to HTML #.0, *-otton et al 2001, *.mith 2001,. .ince XHTML 2.0 emplo%s a new HTML vocabular% with improvised features of multimedia content" h%perlinks" declarative interactive forms" rich metadata" as well as demonstrating the semantics of human literar% works like scientific papers and poems *Malone 200+,. However" it is deprived of the elements for describing and e0pressing the semantics of most of the non-document t%pes of content seen on the &eb. good e0ample of this is auction sites"

forum sites" online shops" search engines" etc" which are not well versed with document metaphor" and not covered b% XHTML 2.0. Moreover" this specification aims at e0tending HTML. XHML 2 and HTML 9 specification utili(e different namespaces" and hence" can be implemented within the same XML processor *Malone 200+, *-otton et al 2001, *Hickson C H%att 20!0, *-.. /0amples 200+,. Latel%" &6- has also launched the HTML 9 Eapanese )nterest 2roup which targets at facilitating focused and in-depth discussion in Eapanese of the HTML 9 specification along with specifications tightl% related to HTML 9" for gathering ;uestion" comments" and feedbacks in Eapanese regarding those specifications" for collecting information about particular use cases in

Eapan onl% for technologies specified in those specifications" and lastl%" for reporting the outcomes of its activities as a team or group and others within the communit% *Malone 200+, *-otton et al 2001, *.mith 2001,. Man% new elements have been added b% HTML 9 that are not available in XHTML 2.0." such as figure representing a graphic or an image with a caption" a nested legend representing the caption" whereas a normal img element used for the imageF time representing time and dateF m representing marked te0tF meter indicating measurements" datagrid indicating an interactive tree list or tabular information@dataF etc. HTML 9 also provides an <) for offline web applications similar to 2oogle 2ears. lso" an editing <) is also included that ma% be used in combination with the global attribute Gcontenteditable7. HTML 9 also has a provision for allowing &eb applications to interact with each other through the T-< through a network <) *Malone 200+, *<emberton 2001, *-otton et al 2001,. )n addition" various t%pes of new attributes help in order to semanticall% markup the portions of a document. These self-e0planator% elements include article" section" header" footer" aside" etc. lso" a new dialog element is introduced for representing the communication and conversation b% using dd elements for the te0t and child dt elements indicating the speaker7s name *-otton et al 2001, *Hickson C H%att 20!0, *.mith 2001,. s an attempt to accelerate the development of HTML 9" &orld &ide &eb -onsortium had announced that it would terminate all XHTML 2 research. This meant that the XHTML 2.0 working group would discontinue all its activities b% the end of 2001 and the resulting resources were re-directed to the HTML 9 working group *-impanu 2001, *&6- 2001, *5ubinstein 2001,.

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