PEP Web - Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule
Fliess, R. (1949). Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 30:21-..
(1949). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 30:21-30
Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
The present study is devoted to the proposition that the physical act of speaking—to be considered here as a phase of and distinguished from the whole of 'verbalization'—may precipitate the release of quanta of regressive affect collateral to repressed ideation, and that such release is amongst the causes of the failure of the maintenance of repression. The conclusion drawn from this proposition is that the pleasure-physiological function of speaking is therapeutically active, and that, since liberation of affect is dependent upon instinctual discharge, a theory of the 'analytic rule' must account for its 'erotogenic' effects. If it is true that repression can be successful only as long as the affect collateral to the repressed ideation is suppressed—or that, as Freud expressed it, the 'vicissitudes of the affect-quantum of the representation' (in contrast to those of the ideational content) are 'decisive for the evaluation of the success of the repression'—the influence wrought upon repression through direct release of regressive affect in consequence of the pleasure-physiological functioning of the speech-apparatus requires serious consideration. Since the other influences of verbalization upon repression—such as are inherent in the formation of derivatives of repressed unconscious ideation, in the communication of these derivatives to the object of a transference, in the expression of affective experiences in the process of freeassociation, etc.—have been described exhaustively, it is in order to subject the one remaining influence to a selective investigation. The earliest analytic description of speaking per se, as a means of discharging affect we owe to Karl Abraham, who, in his Contributions of Oral Erotism to Character Formation, writes: '… The craving of certain individuals to experience gratification by way of sucking has changed to a need to give by way of the mouth, so that we find in them, besides the constant wish to obtain everything, a perpetual urge to communicate orally with others. This results in an obstinate urge to talk, connected in most cases with a feeling of overflowing. Persons of this kind are under the impression that their fund of thought is inexhaustible, and ascribe to their verbal utterances a special influence or an otherwise unusual value. Their principal relation to other people is consummated through giving out orally (Orale Ausfuhr). The obstinate insisting takes place, of course, mostly through speaking, which at the same time, however, serves the purpose of giving. I could furthermore regularly establish the fact that these individuals were able to control their other activities no more than they could their speaking. Thus, one frequently finds in them a neurotically exaggerated need for urination—a need often manifesting itself simultaneously with an outburst of talking or following it directly …'1 The implications of this first, classical observation can perhaps best be developed if the next fundamental remark on the subject, made by Ella Freeman Sharpe almost twenty years later, is considered. In an investigation of Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language Miss Sharpe observes: '… When the ego stabilizes … (the) achievement of body-control and it becomes automatic, the emotions of anger and pleasure, which heretofore accompanied bodily discharges must be dealt with in other ways. At the same time as sphincter control over anus and urethra is being established, the child is acquiring the power of speech and so an avenue of "outerance" present from birth becomes of immense importance. First of all the discharge of feeling tension, when this is no longer relieved by physical discharge, can take place through speech. The activity of speaking
Karl Abraham: Selected Papers. Hogarth Press, London, 1927. International Psycho-Analytical Library, 13, p. 401. The translation of this and the subsequent quotation from Abraham as well as the italicizations (with the exception of that of the word 'give') are this writer's.
Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor', Int. J. Psycho-Anal. XXI (1940), 202. Italics the present writer's.
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is substituted for the physical activity, now restricted at other openings of the body, while words "themselves become the very substitutes for the bodily substances …"'2 If this general principle, formulated by Sharpe, is applied to the specific type of speaking described by Abraham, it becomes evident that, while the libido discharged in the fashion observed by him is undoubtedly oral, the erotogeneity is urethral. It is the
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Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor'. Int. Abraham's observation has here been scrutinized in support of the contention that it concerns only one of several forms of pathological speech. described by Abraham. yet their observation is limited to those individuals in whom certain partial-erotic excretory activities have retained or regained—either permanently or temporarily— their original sexual function.fr/document. 402. Hence the 'obstinate urge' to exhibit verbally. 202. and
Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor'. Psycho-Anal. characterized by its relative independence from intake. verifiable by clinical observation. and derive an instinctual gratification from speaking that they had once derived. an emulation conditioning speech after the mode of a particular excretory product under conditions of its regressive erotogenic employment. and the 'inexhaustibility'4 of spurious thought paralleling the frequently copious output of urine. is forced to imitate pleasurephysiological action peculiar to the urethralerotic zone. diarrhoea. anuria.
An insistence upon the distinction between erotogeneity and libido—a distinction not always maintained in analytic discussions—is requisite to the present study. the inhibition or the performance of discharge of libido (and aggression) through a particular erotogenic zone. . The peculiarities of regressive language are traceable.pep-web. And it must also be possible to describe 'interference-phenomena' caused by the temporary diversion of the oral zone from speaking—a diversion caused by the need for extremely regressive instinctual discharge and productive of an exchange of pre-linguistic expression for verbalization. or annihilating as well as that for physical excretion. i. An alteration in their erotogenicregime does not fail to reflect itself in a corresponding change in their language. originally performed by the oral-erotic zone. XXI (1940). is destructive and procreative.univ-paris-diderot. and regressively still derive. the instinctual discharge performed by them is urethral-erotic and their procreative intent is understandable only on the basis of the persistence of 'infantile sexual theories'. including fertilization'. who writes that 'the urge to talk is in these individuals no less a representation of demanding than of attacking.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 2 de 9
.sc. to the functional peculiarities of a 'sphincter' employed regressively.e. in such a description. Psycho-Anal.PEP Web . and oral-erotic regressive language is prohibited by the scope of this communication. distribute or circulate it in any form. Italics the present writer's. yet it is supportable by a simple theoretical consideration.
WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared.5 A description of the different 'basic' and 'mixed' types of urethral-erotic. p. or evaluation (Entleerung). and in particular to the sphincter urethræ to the extent of causing speech to acquire certain characteristics of the excretory product involved. Different types of regressive partial-erotic language are observable.). Italics the present writer's. its two components as 'the incontinence-type of urethral-erotic regressive language' and 'phallic urethral-erotic regressive language'). These individuals exhibit the corresponding neurotic symptoms or perversions (pollakisuria. their speech becomes normal. (The language described by Abraham. employ their speech-apparatus for the performance of a regressive urethralerotic instinctual discharge in displacement.org. they are not traceable to the properties of regressive libido.3 Yet the particular kind of excretion emulated in speech by the subjects of his description is urinary. killing. It is illegal to copy. J. 202. the 'overflowing' with speech at the price of dilution of content. XXI (1940).Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
excretory nature of urination that explains the reversal of 'vector'-quality—designated by Abraham as 'peculiar displacements in the oral sphere' in the terminology of his time—requisite for the 'gratification by way of speaking' through 'giving by way of the mouth'. The 'unusual value' perceived by them in their utterances reflects therefore. substitutes in these persons altogether or partly for an infantile sexual and aggressive urinary performance. and is furthermore. whose erotogenic rôle it is forced to play. and a 'phallic organization'. anal-erotic. The 'special influence' ascribed by these speakers to their verbalization. 'the narcissistic evaluation applied in the unconscious to all physical and psychic productions'—an evaluation equivalent. urinary games. while doubtlessly a most suitable substitute for urethral-erotic performance. J. the masturbatory employment of enemas. frequently interfered with by the regressive employment of the speech-apparatus for instinctual discharge. one may add. Int. constipation. Speaking. and describable with the help of certain criteria. To sum up: the individuals. as Abraham later remarks. Such actually is the fact. and their speech-apparatus appears as conditioned in its performance by the functional characteristics of the excretory activity. in other words. It must suffice to present here in brief outline the corresponding basic types of silence.rproxy. lends itself also to the displacement upon it of anal-erotic instinctual discharge. would have to be classed as a 'mixed' form. The contention that there are different types of silence may at first appear startling. in other words. It is not partial-libido that reflects itself in the act of speaking but partial-erotogeneity. when put to such purpose. and has been described as such by the author. Theoretically the conclusion is inescapable that if speaking is to
http://www. etc. The speech-apparatus. however. from urination. to the original conscious evaluation by the child of his physical excretory productions.22 -
if and when analysis causes them to relinquish this 'partial-erotic' disturbance or abuse. It must therefore be possible to describe certain types of regressive 'partial-erotic' language by distinguishing certain acoustic qualities indicative of the emulation by the speech-apparatus of a particular phase in the erotogenic performance of a particular erotogenic zone. Speaking.
in contrast to the previous one. for phrasing ('rubato') or declamation and often unsuitable for notation. for example. Temporary cessation of speech must.) The control of regressive affect. quarter rest. the speech-apparatus had to imitate. His facial expression as well as his posture. the combination of a rest with a 'fermata'. who is no longer capable of either terminating it upon admonition or supplying the missing thought.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 3 de 9
. however. c.fr/document. where the head is often held or rubbed in a similar fashion) as are the immobility of the patient or the changes in his position (which are apt to resemble those intended to relieve an abdominal cramp).g. under certain conditions be caused by the retention of words as the substitute for an excretory product and it must be possible to identify a particular form of silence as the equivalent of the closure of a particular sphincter. displays the 'quasi-voluntary' and only mildly 'peristaltic' performance of this particular sphincter. etc. in doing so. No struggle accompanies its beginning or its termination. The difficulty in following the analytic rule when experienced by the patients characterized above must at times therefore be reducible to a fear of incontinence in displacement. appears to interrupt silence more
http://www. whereby the rest is deprived of its time-value. This again. and appears engrossed in his thinking without any visible strain.) The impression is borne out by the patient's readiness to resume verbalization. he employs. distribute or circulate it in any form. occasionally. silence must be considered as the equivalent of sphincter-closure. almost invariably a change of subject—a change indicative of the interruption of a trend of thought by another.
I. in other words.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
be looked upon as a substitute for sphincter-action.g. and gives merely the impression of having 'forgotten' to follow the analytic rule. exhibited temporarily by the patient. the 'rest'— characterized by its time value (whole.pep-web. b. in interrupting the 'flow of words'. In addition to this the performer inserts 'unwritten' pauses in his playing. closure of the sphincter urethræ. is actually the case. The degree and the particular kind of interference by silence with speaking and the communication of thought. no longer a 'normal' appearance. had
The existence of different types of silence has long been familiar to the musician. by being purely 'interpretative'—required. whereby he notates a still different type of pause without definite time-value and of a nature intelligible only to the expert. and occasionally even in physical pain. while the loss of contact.)
This is the most 'normal' form of silence inasmuch as it resembles most closely the silence punctuating ordinary conversation. The patient becomes lost in it. ANAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= emulation by the speech-apparatus of closure of the sphincter ani. d. pauses or breaks in a verbalization of which they are no less an integral part than are the pauses or rests in a piece of music. It occurs at odd places in the grammatical structure. as it were. who is requested to compensate for the inadequacies of a general. and seems to fetter the speaker.PEP Web .sc. in other words. He displays neither motion nor pantomime. or the combination of a double bar with a fermata. The occurrence of three different basic types of silence can be clinically observed and described with the help of the following characteristics: a. The behaviour accompanying the period of silence. and. It naturally is to be understood that these different forms of 'partial-erotic' silence are interruptions of 'partial-erotic' language. less 'affective' than the first. Besides the most popular type of pause. is disruptive of syntax. (The latter contains. Throughout its duration—a duration of extremely varying length—the patient exhibits tenseness and struggle. they are as suggestive of spastic conditions (e.rproxy.)
This form of silence presents. migraine. It is illegal to copy.
II. collateral to this break in audible ideation. The termination of analerotic silence is more likely to be followed by a thought-fragment than by a thought. and speech. URETHRAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= emulation by the speech-apparatus of closure of the sphincter urethræ. but impresses one as productive of an inhibited speech. The analyst's question: 'What is on your mind?' is almost immediately answered with a typical: 'Oh. is reminiscent of that shown in sub-coma.). half. If typical gestures accompany this form of silence.6 Their description here without the simultaneous description of the partial-erotic language-types to which they belong is an unavoidable imposition upon the reader. Inception (the fashion in which the patient begins the pause in his speech). pensively as it were. Thus. or in the first degree of hypnosis.org.
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here been dependent upon the prevention of urethral-erotic instinctual discharge in displacement. I was just thinking …' followed by an abstract of the omitted thought.univ-paris-diderot. . distinguished from both these types. schematic presentation by contrasting the salient points in the descriptions rendered below with each other. reminds the observer of that of an individual in distress. (Only occasionally does he remind the observer of an individual under the influence of mild sedation. Termination (the patient's reaction to the analyst's admonition to resume verbalization).
Int. informs one afterwards. The silence appears 'interminable'. and that the collateral active and aggressive instinct-component (biting) manifests itself in the abrupt severance of the subject from the object of a very early transference. and felt compelled to induce a bowel movement every night. i. The stoppage appears 'involuntary'. informing either directly or indirectly (e. ORAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= diversion of speech-apparatus to the control of oral-erotogeneity). demanding mutual incorporation of both subject and object.sc. its eventual termination is essentially a spontaneous one. The oral-erotic type of silence is. distribute or circulate it in any form. The object. preclusive of speaking and conducive to an erotogenic control of the earliest oral-libidinal and oral-aggressive instinctual strivings.rproxy. in other words. and when induced is often imitative of the original rage-response to an enema on the part of the child. inducing. temporarily.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 4 de 9
.g. unsuited for analysis since it is almost preclusive of freeassociation. well-structured. In the pure type of oralerotic silence. however. without recognizable motivation. symbolically) of an erotogenic occurrence. and conveys to the listener the impression that the patient had suddenly physically 'absented' himself. through the insertion
http://www. 13. in other words. as though it were solid. simultaneous with this 'total incorporation of the undivided object' (Abraham). in this instance. not only more regressive than the two previous types. treat the excretory product. While effective before an audience.PEP Web . when eventually distinguished from an ego. his very name from the fact that he is non-speaking. We have learned from Freud that the earliest relation to the parent-object is not object-libidinal but narcissistic. an excellent speaker. the strivings discharged through the oral-erotogenic zone become. credibly. lies either perfectly still or is quietly engaged in some form of pantomime. was obsessed with the phantasy of observing urinary incontinence in a woman. the patient discharges these strivings.univ-paris-diderot. and can indeed rarely be terminated through admonition. can be accounted for
Cf. If the speech-apparatus is to be thought of as emulating the once dominant oral-erotic zone.7 The control of regressive affect through silence requires here of the speech-apparatus that it emulate anal-erotogeneity. a more regressive one than that of urethral-erotic cessation of speech.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
often than silence speech. The individual has here lost speech because he has temporarily become an 'infant'.
This example concerns a male patient who exhibited throughout the beginning of his analysis a mixed form of 'phallic-urethralerotic' and 'anal-erotic' language—a combination describable as the speech of the public speaker: fluent.
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This form of silence is not—as are the others—either an interruption or a disruption of speech but rather a temporary replacement of verbalization by silence.24 -
only if a further complication is kept under consideration. its interruptions imitate closure of the powerful sphincter-ani. It is part of a struggle for or against verbalization. but it is of a different make-up. The interpolation of oral-erotic silence into verbalization is therefore indicative of the intrusion of a 'primal' transference into the transference-situation. naturally. The struggle is a more dramatic one. active as well as passive. It is in consequence of this radical transformation that the patient is suddenly silent. The control of regressive affect has not. Psycho-Anal. Freud: Female Sexuality. the excretory process displaced upon speaking is pronouncedly 'peristaltic'. cannibalistic. practised wetting perversions. but that it revert to its previous existence in an early infantile ego. before going to sleep. an individual who derives. he has ceased to exist for the moment as an object in the outside world and his suggestive influence is suspended. The three basic types of partial-erotic silence shall be illustrated by two clinical examples. required of the speech-apparatus that it emulate sphincter-action. .org. one must assume that the passive ingestive function of this zone ('sucking') excludes the excretory performance of speaking.pep-web.
III. The patient. the word..fr/document.e. J. in other words. sometimes puzzling to the patient. It is illegal to copy. Thus the analyst is ingested. The analyzand exhibits no signs of struggle or conflict whatsoever. (1932). the resumption of speech when spontaneous occurs against an almost 'physical' resistance. The clinical picture of anal-erotic silence is. The patient. has exchanged. in other words. The complete lack of affect. the analytic situation for an 'intra-uterine' existence. and inhibit 'excreting' it by exhibiting different degrees of 'verbal constipation'. It occurs. and that the ingestive activity of the child is the model for such identifications. as well as motive. a 'silence malgré lui'. of a genuine and truly unconquerable inability to speak. becomes therefore subject to the wish for incorporation. and doctrinaire. bears a resemblance to mutism. when capable of 'working through' his behaviour. sustaining or accompanying the silent period renders it understandable. versatile. 281-297. as is commonly known. that its nature is that of a 'primary identification'. however. The remaining component of the ingestive instinctual action ('devouring'). The patient. by exploiting the analytic situation in the service of a transference. such language is.
feeling that he must leave lest he wet. of the same displacement of additional quantities of narcissistic cathexis from the urethral. insured the patient against 'accidents' in the ordinary as well as in the nursery sense of the word. . In the case referred to in the text. whose ego had become endangered through the buoyancy of the repressed. to imitate his constipation through spastic anuria. and had succeeded only after a lapse of time. The change in the form of silence. The change in displacement described here is but a partial one. displayed by this patient—a change that might have been anticipated for theoretical reasons—occurred unexpectedly and abruptly. it concerns merely certain qualities of narcissistic cathexis. became aggressive. and walking towards the bathroom. this time. Since he had once. on to which they had been displaced. causing underweight and becoming acute in the presence of either mother or lover.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
of soap into the rectum. The peristaltic ('motor') effect of the displacement appears in this episode as somnambulistic ('locomotor') action. besides—and had done so since early childhood—from a particular syndrome in which a sudden spell of anorexia is accompanied by slight nausea.10 The erotogenetic employment of his speech-apparatus. the previous with the present attempt of the patient to resolve the conflict between his urinary urge and the necessity for
The analytic observer. She suffered. upon waking. He resisted one day the analyst's admonition to terminate one of his silent periods.
WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. In the first attempt he had followed the urge. not have been given in the absence of the previous acting-out. in need for urination. is committed to the drawing of candid pictures.rproxy. His language reflected thus the same mixture of urethral-erotic and anal-erotic traits that distinguished his erotogenetic régime. and totally unaware of what had been on her mind. and by eliminating his urine in single drops. since what had prevented him from verbalization had merely been his concentration upon fighting the urinary urge. in the very beginning of his analysis. enables the theoretician to compare topographically. Yet he followed this with an emphatic retraction. from the beginning of the hour on. He exclaimed. with great difficulty. yet it offers an economic advantage to the patient. terminated a session prematurely by jumping up from the couch under a sudden urinary impulse. it disproved the interpretation. The erotogenic employment of words as representatives of the excretory product is. ('I woke up just in time.9 The cathectic displacement deduced and described by this writer had actually been indirectly experienced and described symbolically by his patient. This declaration while obviously repeating the characteristically aggressive response of anal-erotic silence to admonition. by declaring that it was by no means a confirmation but that. The narrative interrupted so suddenly by silence had concerned a sleep-walking episode of the previous night—an episode representative. with an impulsion to regressive analerotic instinctual discharge.org. a 'naturalist'. but had concealed the matter throughout. symbolically. of course. and refused to supply the omitted thought. it would. who on former occasions. had been unable to urinate. walking out of that door.fr/document. I might have killed myself.PEP Web . a sensation of emptiness in her stomach and a
http://www. as he previously had treated urination. had propelled himself symbolically from the office. had arisen from bed and had found himself.8 He answered this interpretation immediately with the admission that. The partial displacement of anal-erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus affords manageability of such discharge through verbal continence in the form of regressive anal-erotic silence. and lapsed again into silence. It is illegal to copy.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 5 de 9
. To avoid an erroneous inference from the report in the text it may be explicitly stated that such interpretation is but rarely given to a patient by this writer and that it should not in his opinion ever be given in preference to that of any other form of acting-out in the analytic situation. The quantities of auxiliary cathexis of the anal sphincter that had at that time enabled the patient's urethra. distribute or circulate it in any form.
The female patient whose behaviour illustrates oral-erotic silence felt frequently tongue-tied. he had actually been fighting a urinary urge. interrupted the act of expelling himself from the posterior aperture of his room—'posterior' relative to that employed previously under the urge to urinate— through awakening under the same economic conditions that forced him subsequently to interrupt verbalization through silence. equally advantageous if compared to the employment of the patient's own person. on the contrary.univ-paris-diderot.to the analerotic zone. as it is if compared to that of the product of itself.25 -
its inhibition. occasioning this last interruption. while angrily hitting the couch: 'I know I'm not following the analytic rule!'. The patient. He was told that he was treating speaking in analysis. been frightened by the discovery that instead of approaching the bathroom he was moving away from it in exactly the opposite direction towards the door of his one-room apartment.') He had. have now been displaced on to the speech-apparatus and have enabled the latter to a similar imitation in the course of which sphincter-closure is reflected as anal-erotic silence. in other words. was silent against her will. and had experienced the effect of his unconscious counteraction as a spastic anuria. it appeared expedient to give him a partial interpretation of the erotogenic make-up of his silence.pep-web. It exhibited all the characteristics belonging to this type and lacked all those described previously as criteria for anal-erotic silence. The main symptom was a chronic anorexia. therefore. yet his silence did not: it was purely urethral-erotic. supported by the analytic work. yet upon arriving at the lavatory of a public building.sc. giving out on a staircase. Her 'erotogenic' symptomatology was entirely oral. now. had.
with an analysis. been consummated so avidly that the mere turning of his back to the patient (for example. coincident with her treatment. should be as old as I am. you could go backward. in the analyst's office. Italics mine. as far as it was describable. This mutual incorporation. HAMLET: '… All of which. if. … The thrill was one that passed over my whole being (no specific area). The dream is expressive of the pre-oedipal wish to enter the mother. The dreamer finds herself.sc.) To the second serious attempt on the part of the analyst to convince this patient of the interference. The question is asked in response to Hamlet's lapse into silence—a silence preceded by an allusion to the same change in the subject's cathectic position from the phallic to the anal-erotic zone as was supposed to have occurred in the patient. and of the type where the secondary elaboration is so deceptive that it had once led Freud to the (later tentatively abandoned) belief in a 'nocturnal phantasying' (naechtliches phantasieren). The dream. was a long one.) POLONIUS: '… Will you walk out of the air. her leg slips off the couch and hangs down from the side without a shoe. It is illegal to copy. within one year. Nevertheless I had the feeling that you enjoyed the "cure" too. my lord?' HAMLET: 'Into my grave ?' Both question and answer are illustrative of the tenets set forth in the text.
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For a general discussion of the economicgain from the displacement of regressive excretory erotogeneity upon speech. as one of the most pleasant features of her first sexual experience. (Act II. Polonius' reaction. for you yourself. in the experience of complete motor-inhibition combined with the wish to 'creep into something' or of the phantasy. put your hand between my legs and gave a firm push against my vagina. The apparent incongruency between the generalization that verbalization in analysis implies regressive instinctual discharge and thereby
http://www. like a crab. The unconscious infantile dreamwish fundamental to the dream. she responded with the equivalent of a 'children's dream' (Freud)—a simple wish-fulfilment for an analysis in which one does not have to speak but. distribute or circulate it in any form. yet I hold it not honesty to have it … set down. however. It was not only a sexual delight but almost a spiritual one. Sir. who had actually been afraid of killing himself by 'going backward'. whereupon the analyst walks back to his chair and addresses the patient: 'Don't say another word!' He then resumes his approach in undress and lies down upon the patient.pep-web. endorsed and in the same breath disowned by Hamlet ('… All of which … though I believe. so it appeared. prohibitive and competitive mother had been replaced by that of the analyst. in order to demonstrate that such language exists. see p. by her frequent interruptions of verbalization. whose unconscious incorporation had from the beginning on.org. which enabled her to exchange. is ordered to be silent. is sufficient for the present purpose. however. . Scene 2. It felt good. rendered previously by the writer. of the instinctual make-up of the pure type of oral-erotic silence. in contrast to those had by children. The patient feels 'warm and cosy'. Shakespeare's invention of a text. The latter consisted. not having to speak to the partner and employing mouth as well as vagina for contact. (She mentioned consequently. in which the analyst is referred to in the second person—'You knelt down next to me. and—to quote from the report. …' Patient and analyst look at each other. Sir.rproxy. on the contrary. complete inactivity for enjoyable and successful activity in almost all realms of her life. 28. were due to a 'substitution therapy' by which the persisting influence of a phobic. precipitated acute depressions. …') will be appreciated as a means of acquainting the audience with the protagonist's silent thought. and in speaking. A digest of it. The effects of her treatment. though I most powerfully and potently believe. are conceived of as phallic and the instinctual action (triebhandlung) appears in its characteristic attenuation to 'touching'. subject and object of the wish.fr/document. The description of partial-erotic silence—a phase of regressive partial-erotic language —has been presented here.' If it is remembered that anal-erotic silence has been characterized as unbreakable.univ-paris-diderot.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 6 de 9
. as has Abraham's clinical observation and the result of Sharpe's genetic investigation. here reported. Hamlet's answer confirms this interpretation and duplicates that of the patient. I woke up then and felt ecstatic. …' The inability of this patient to associate freely has so far precluded the analysis of her dreams. In the dream I was led to believe by you that this was some sort of treatment —a part of my analysis. both. inasmuch as the subject refuses to supply the omitted thought. is represented by the dreamer as an alternative to verbalization —a representation in full accordance with that. yet I hold it not honesty to have it thus set down. late in the evening.26 -
quasi-mood identified to herself as 'that certain feeling'.
The locomotor intent acted out somnambulistically by this patient is suggested in the astonishing question put by Polonius to Hamlet in his famous 'diagnostic' interview with him. is nevertheless quite transparent because its representation is a typical one and well known. quoting the pertinent parts.PEP Web . while crossing the room in order to get an ashtray). '… The sensation of your naked body (especially your stomach) against me was so thrilling that I was almost numb. remains incomprehensible unless it is understood as descriptive of the 'peristaltic' occurrence ending in sphincterclosure discussed in the text above and symbolized in the patient's performance. of 'being in it'. The particular ease with which the young woman became capable of vaginal responses had at first appeared almost incredible until one day her complete satisfaction over a 'big fat orgasm' of the night before made it clear that the vagina had been mobilized so unhesitatingly because it was an organ of alimentation.
etc. sufficient to perform the regressive partial-erotic discharge of certain instinctual quantities (triebquantitaeten) through speaking carries the economic benefit of their mastery by the neurotic. is cathected instead.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 7 de 9
. Discharge of regressive affect in these activities will be regarded as conducive. as is his willingness to remember. antagonistic to its concentration in speaking. of their displacement upon the latter. sir. words.pep-web. impregnation. Text consequently becomes mere 'words'. The displacement of such erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus is one of the fundamental effects of the enforcement of the 'analytic rule'. thus. after having replied to Polonius. however. at least a particular economic advantage. my lord?' with 'Between who ?' (Italics mine. sir') and excretory. The limitation to verbal expression in analysis requires. In other words: if and when the 'infantile' neurosis of the analyzand—the nucleus of his later neurosis—is reactivated through the analytic procedure. of a maximum of verbal and a minimum of excretory instinctual discharge will be recognized as a requisite to the obtainment of maximal remembrance and minimal acting-out. and of the neurosis. a disruption of this organization. in the very act of the verbal communication of the latter. ('Old men('s) … eyes purging thick amber and plumtree gum …'). The interference of different forms of partial-erotic silence with verbalization is therefore symptomatic of the struggle for control of instinctual discharge—a struggle engaging the infantile ego of the neurotic in the interest of its preservation. Yet he might nevertheless not be able to fulfil the demands of this rule if such fulfilment did not offer.). either excretory or ingestive. is not truly indicative of a contradiction. upon occasion. to his 'compliance with (the demands of) the analyst—a compliance rooted deeply in the unconscious parent-complex' (Freud). Once the unique position of the speechapparatus and the consequences of the restriction to verbalization in the 'talking-cure' are completely understood. The dialogue—that is.fr/document. content mere 'matter'. to a degree sufficient to insure his ego against such disruption. on the other.univ-paris-diderot. The indirect and symbolic representation of the subject's excretory activity has been interpreted in the remarks on the same scene contained in the footnote on pl 26.) has been omitted from the present study because it is covered by the theory of psycho-sexual development. which hitherto may have been latent. however slight and intermittent. my lord?' with the famous 'Words. concerning an excretory exchange. the mutual elimination of matter —occurs.
WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. For no neurosis lacks such a disturbance. Yet this matter is one 'between' subject and object of a transference which is aggressive ('Slanders. An acknowledgement of the existence of such employment is contained in the dialogue quoted above. engaged in the acting-out of a 'primal phantasy'. between two partners. the corresponding activity of the object is represented directly and in displacement. The reactivation of infantile erotogeneity in the course of the analytic work. of regressive affect collateral to repressed ideation. It is this fact that enables the patient to cancel the inhibition of affect collateral to repressed ideation. And the liberation of affect-quanta through erotogeneity other than that of the speech-apparatus will be looked upon as preclusive.PEP Web . topographically. answered the former's explanatory question 'What is the matter. and no analysis can be successful without its temporary exacerbation.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
the liberation. at times. an appreciation of the fact that the transformation of the derivatives of repressed unconscious thought into auditory word-images through verbalization—a transformation that renders these products of internal perception subject to external perception not only by the analyst but also by the patient himself —involves an aperture of the body terminal to an erotogenic zone that permits a regressive erotogenic employment. ultimately. and the restriction of such occurrence to patients displaying an erotogenic disturbance. The regressiveness of his psychic organization implies a topographical re-differentiation whose extent as well as its nature alters the context in which the displacements of erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus
WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. will temporarily
The regressive employment of the excretory product—the word—in the transference (phallic exhibition. etc. The psychotic's ego. in nature. The promotion. or the use of the office toilet. will be appreciated as not only economically but also topographically antagonistic to verbalization. If these theoretical considerations permit at all a technical application it is an obvious one. The patient's compliance with this rule is due. the inspection of the patient's literary or artistic products by the analyst.org. consequently. The consequences of this for the technique of the psycho-analytic treatment of the psychotic are equally obvious. . should be as old as I am …' etc. symptoms of infantile erotogeneity. The danger implies. suggestions infringing upon this restriction will—as far as the analytic treatment of the neuroses is concerned—no longer be entertained. The displacement of quantities of narcissistic cathexis upon the speech-apparatus. to a dilution of affect. in other words. is a danger to his ego-organization.) Thought is here treated regressively: cathexis is withdrawn from it and the word. peculiarly defective as it is. for its full comprehension. both of whom are 'historical' persons ('… for you yourself. Gratifications—such as smoking in analysis. economically. the substratum of thought.sc. 'What do you read. on the one hand.rproxy. words'. an excretory or ingestive incontinence.27 -
become manifest11 and productive of partial-erotic language. cannot be relied upon to avail itself of the economic advantage described previously of verbal over excretory instinctual discharge. 'gift'. where Hamlet. distribute or circulate it in any form. implied in the insistence upon submission to the demands of the analytic rule. It is
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and the response of the ego to this form of indirect excretory instinctual stimulation may be disruptive. or extensions of. in analysis. economically. far from enforcing the 'basic rule'.g. therefore. is. and is. If attainable. a silent process. The 'vocal' aspect. and distinguishing from a 'body ego'. capable of intiating alterations in the pleasure-physiological
WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared.29 -
constitution of the body-ego. The possibility of distinguishing between two topographical components of the ego proper within the framework of Freud's topography of the psychic apparatus becomes evident if it is acknowledged that his original positing of the 'nucleus of the ego' as 'consisting of word-images'. These are elements of the 'object-world'—animate or inanimate—yet their cathexis is narcissistic. stimulates ego development. . and its subsequent emendation. The central position of this formation in the whole of the ego was acknowledged by Freud. or even only permitted. a motor activity. while word-images may nevertheless be looked upon as the nuclear substratum of that part of the ego which. a 'phallus'—incapable of relinquishing its position to an adult psychic organization. The relation between the function of verbalization and the other topographical institution responsible for occurrence and
http://www. 'instinct-representative' as it is. The effect is verbal and vocal. e. . 2. It is the topographical composition of this context and the relations of its components to certain phases of the process of verbalization that require description. may allow 'ego' to overgrow 'auto-erotic' defects in the individual's erotogenic organization. to verbalize in the fashion expected of the neurotic become incontinent.-Cs' are not merely the equivalent of a statement. bring about a cathectic fusion of speech-apparatus and erotogenic zone instead of precipitating cathectic displacement from the latter upon the former. its transformation into an object-libidinal one is a prerequisite. 3. differs from thinking. we are justified in terming 'psychic ego'.pep-web. self from environment. here designated as 'verbal' concerns the absorption of unconscious thought by the nuclear context of the psychic ego.org.-Cs. to the restoration of the element proper in the body-ego. describable as the acoustic materialization of these word-images is. Topographically verbalization. while re-delimiting. distribute or circulate it in any form. expressive of ideation and affect.sc. and the analyst. The release of regressive affect through the erotogenic employment of the speech-apparatus in verbalization. it consists in the last analysis of an integration of memory-traces of word-images.rproxy. when he termed the ego 'predominantly a body-ego'. a response by (speech-)motility to perception (of thought) is an ego-function and.28 -
occur in the case of the normal and the neurotic. a 'trial-acting with small energyquanta' (Freud). such transformation. This dependence is mutual.PEP Web . The functions ascribed to the system Pcpt. certain elements of the body-ego which (in varying a Freudian expression and its employment) can be described as 'prothetic'. will therefore not only tolerate but often indirectly encourage its infringement. may well be thought of as nuclear functions of the ego. instrumental in the appropriation by the ego of unconscious content. and his later ceding of this topographical position to the 'System Pcpt. distribute or circulate it in any form. of a 'primal-mouth' a 'cloaca'. It is illegal to copy. following Freud. His work will. by requiring greater quantities of cathectic energy and by limiting the displaceability of the latter. and the infantile subject of pathogenetic pre-genital strivings the owner. as has been shown in the present study. Economically and dynamically verbalization. Continence is then threatened instead of insured. in certain areas of the psychic organization—a development described by Freud as one 'from perception to mastery of instinct' and dependent upon the 'absorption of the instinct-representation by a (psychic) context'. as it were. 4. be considered the totality of the 'organ-representations'. theoretically. the more he succeeds in performing it with the help of the erotogeneity of those substitutes for. The aspect. if the representations of the erotogenic zones contained in it are distinguished from the rest by their particular and direct dependence upon 'pleasure-physiological' processes of instinctual charge and discharge.
The clinical data and theoretical considerations presented here lead to a metapsychological description of the rôle played by verbalization in the therapeutic process: 1.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 8 de 9
. In the absence of such alterations a regressive body-ego remains resistive to restitution. Such content. on the other hand.fr/document. in turn.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
illegal to copy. Premature exercise of the erotogeneity of the speech-apparatus through untrammelled verbalization may. which were recognized as dependent upon the erotogenic complexion of the body-ego. in the process of its appropriation. consequently. be the more effective. He can therefore when requested. conditioned by processes of instinctual charge and discharge. and bear much resemblance to that which we commonly try to avoid by refraining from penetrating interpretations. These two component-institutions of the ego are reflected in two components of the auditory effect of verbalization. The latter—no less psychic a formation than the former—can.univ-paris-diderot.
WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. ten years ago in a study 'On the Exceptional Position of the Auditory Sphere' developed the formula: '… just as the nucleus of the ego is the body-ego.. as the 'transformation of the derivatives of repressed unconscious thought into auditory word-images subject to external perception'. It is illegal to copy.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1
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.rproxy.univ-paris-diderot. . who. J.PEP Web . Psycho-Anal. This transformation results in a stimulation of the auditory sphere of the patient—a sphere whose position in the topography of the psychic apparatus is nuclear to the superego. (1949). the superego.
The clinical substantiation of this statement must be reserved for a separate publication.sc. Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing.30 -
Article Citation [Who Cited This?]
Fliess. described in the text above. Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'.
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WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the subscriber to PEP Web and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. 30:21-30
Copyright © 2013.12 In either instance it is the psychosomatic nature of verbalization and the relations involved in the restitutive process. It is illegal to copy. It is operative in a phase of verbalization. distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever. so the human auditory sphere.pep-web.fr/document.org.' The auditory re-entry of certain verbal images into the psychic organization is indeed as precipitative of super-ego-formation as the re-entry of certain erotogenic elements into the context of organ-representations in consequence of the vocal release of regressive affect is originative of body-ego. distribute or circulate it in any form. that is responsible for these corrective effects. The establishment of this position is the work of Otto Isakower. R. is no less intimate and no less specific. Int. as modified in the direction of a capacity for language is to be regarded as the nucleus of the super-ego.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
maintenance of repression.