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Fliess, R. (1949). Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 30:21-..
(1949). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 30:21-30
Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
The present study is devoted to the proposition that the physical act of speaking—to be considered here as a phase of and distinguished from the whole of 'verbalization'—may precipitate the release of quanta of regressive affect collateral to repressed ideation, and that such release is amongst the causes of the failure of the maintenance of repression. The conclusion drawn from this proposition is that the pleasure-physiological function of speaking is therapeutically active, and that, since liberation of affect is dependent upon instinctual discharge, a theory of the 'analytic rule' must account for its 'erotogenic' effects. If it is true that repression can be successful only as long as the affect collateral to the repressed ideation is suppressed—or that, as Freud expressed it, the 'vicissitudes of the affect-quantum of the representation' (in contrast to those of the ideational content) are 'decisive for the evaluation of the success of the repression'—the influence wrought upon repression through direct release of regressive affect in consequence of the pleasure-physiological functioning of the speech-apparatus requires serious consideration. Since the other influences of verbalization upon repression—such as are inherent in the formation of derivatives of repressed unconscious ideation, in the communication of these derivatives to the object of a transference, in the expression of affective experiences in the process of freeassociation, etc.—have been described exhaustively, it is in order to subject the one remaining influence to a selective investigation. The earliest analytic description of speaking per se, as a means of discharging affect we owe to Karl Abraham, who, in his Contributions of Oral Erotism to Character Formation, writes: '… The craving of certain individuals to experience gratification by way of sucking has changed to a need to give by way of the mouth, so that we find in them, besides the constant wish to obtain everything, a perpetual urge to communicate orally with others. This results in an obstinate urge to talk, connected in most cases with a feeling of overflowing. Persons of this kind are under the impression that their fund of thought is inexhaustible, and ascribe to their verbal utterances a special influence or an otherwise unusual value. Their principal relation to other people is consummated through giving out orally (Orale Ausfuhr). The obstinate insisting takes place, of course, mostly through speaking, which at the same time, however, serves the purpose of giving. I could furthermore regularly establish the fact that these individuals were able to control their other activities no more than they could their speaking. Thus, one frequently finds in them a neurotically exaggerated need for urination—a need often manifesting itself simultaneously with an outburst of talking or following it directly …'1 The implications of this first, classical observation can perhaps best be developed if the next fundamental remark on the subject, made by Ella Freeman Sharpe almost twenty years later, is considered. In an investigation of Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language Miss Sharpe observes: '… When the ego stabilizes … (the) achievement of body-control and it becomes automatic, the emotions of anger and pleasure, which heretofore accompanied bodily discharges must be dealt with in other ways. At the same time as sphincter control over anus and urethra is being established, the child is acquiring the power of speech and so an avenue of "outerance" present from birth becomes of immense importance. First of all the discharge of feeling tension, when this is no longer relieved by physical discharge, can take place through speech. The activity of speaking
Karl Abraham: Selected Papers. Hogarth Press, London, 1927. International Psycho-Analytical Library, 13, p. 401. The translation of this and the subsequent quotation from Abraham as well as the italicizations (with the exception of that of the word 'give') are this writer's.
Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor', Int. J. Psycho-Anal. XXI (1940), 202. Italics the present writer's.
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is substituted for the physical activity, now restricted at other openings of the body, while words "themselves become the very substitutes for the bodily substances …"'2 If this general principle, formulated by Sharpe, is applied to the specific type of speaking described by Abraham, it becomes evident that, while the libido discharged in the fashion observed by him is undoubtedly oral, the erotogeneity is urethral. It is the
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It is illegal to copy. characterized by its relative independence from intake. An alteration in their erotogenicregime does not fail to reflect itself in a corresponding change in their language. The speech-apparatus. who writes that 'the urge to talk is in these individuals no less a representation of demanding than of attacking.univ-paris-diderot.pep-web. distribute or circulate it in any form. anal-erotic. they are not traceable to the properties of regressive libido. The contention that there are different types of silence may at first appear startling. The 'unusual value' perceived by them in their utterances reflects therefore. XXI (1940). Psycho-Anal.sc. employ their speech-apparatus for the performance of a regressive urethralerotic instinctual discharge in displacement. anuria. It must therefore be possible to describe certain types of regressive 'partial-erotic' language by distinguishing certain acoustic qualities indicative of the emulation by the speech-apparatus of a particular phase in the erotogenic performance of a particular erotogenic zone. Speaking. from urination.PEP Web . and derive an instinctual gratification from speaking that they had once derived. and their speech-apparatus appears as conditioned in its performance by the functional characteristics of the excretory activity. Int. whose erotogenic rôle it is forced to play. . as Abraham later remarks. in other words. Such actually is the fact. The peculiarities of regressive language are traceable. (The language described by Abraham. Abraham's observation has here been scrutinized in support of the contention that it concerns only one of several forms of pathological speech.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 2 de 9 . and ————————————— 3 Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor'. to the original conscious evaluation by the child of his physical excretory productions. killing. or evaluation (Entleerung). p. It is not partial-libido that reflects itself in the act of speaking but partial-erotogeneity. the 'overflowing' with speech at the price of dilution of content. is forced to imitate pleasurephysiological action peculiar to the urethralerotic zone. Hence the 'obstinate urge' to exhibit verbally. Italics the present writer's. including fertilization'. 'the narcissistic evaluation applied in the unconscious to all physical and psychic productions'—an evaluation equivalent.rproxy. Italics the present writer's. and in particular to the sphincter urethræ to the extent of causing speech to acquire certain characteristics of the excretory product involved. the masturbatory employment of enemas. in such a description. 402.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 excretory nature of urination that explains the reversal of 'vector'-quality—designated by Abraham as 'peculiar displacements in the oral sphere' in the terminology of his time—requisite for the 'gratification by way of speaking' through 'giving by way of the mouth'. i.5 A description of the different 'basic' and 'mixed' types of urethral-erotic. 202. an emulation conditioning speech after the mode of a particular excretory product under conditions of its regressive erotogenic employment. its two components as 'the incontinence-type of urethral-erotic regressive language' and 'phallic urethral-erotic regressive language'). to the functional peculiarities of a 'sphincter' employed regressively.22 - if and when analysis causes them to relinquish this 'partial-erotic' disturbance or abuse. substitutes in these persons altogether or partly for an infantile sexual and aggressive urinary performance. To sum up: the individuals. urinary games. described by Abraham. The 'special influence' ascribed by these speakers to their verbalization. originally performed by the oral-erotic zone. These individuals exhibit the corresponding neurotic symptoms or perversions (pollakisuria. and has been described as such by the author. in other words. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. and a 'phallic organization'. Psycho-Anal. It must suffice to present here in brief outline the corresponding basic types of silence.e. XXI (1940). 4 Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor'. lends itself also to the displacement upon it of anal-erotic instinctual discharge. or annihilating as well as that for physical excretion.). verifiable by clinical observation. and describable with the help of certain criteria. Speaking. And it must also be possible to describe 'interference-phenomena' caused by the temporary diversion of the oral zone from speaking—a diversion caused by the need for extremely regressive instinctual discharge and productive of an exchange of pre-linguistic expression for verbalization. etc. frequently interfered with by the regressive employment of the speech-apparatus for instinctual discharge. yet their observation is limited to those individuals in whom certain partial-erotic excretory activities have retained or regained—either permanently or temporarily— their original sexual function. diarrhoea. Int. while doubtlessly a most suitable substitute for urethral-erotic performance. the instinctual discharge performed by them is urethral-erotic and their procreative intent is understandable only on the basis of the persistence of 'infantile sexual theories'. and the 'inexhaustibility'4 of spurious thought paralleling the frequently copious output of urine. one may add. and is furthermore. 5 An insistence upon the distinction between erotogeneity and libido—a distinction not always maintained in analytic discussions—is requisite to the present study. and regressively still derive. yet it is supportable by a simple theoretical consideration.3 Yet the particular kind of excretion emulated in speech by the subjects of his description is urinary. is destructive and procreative.fr/document. their speech becomes normal. and oral-erotic regressive language is prohibited by the scope of this communication. Theoretically the conclusion is inescapable that if speaking is to http://www. Different types of regressive partial-erotic language are observable. would have to be classed as a 'mixed' form. constipation. J. J. the inhibition or the performance of discharge of libido (and aggression) through a particular erotogenic zone. however. when put to such purpose. 202.org.
closure of the sphincter urethræ. where the head is often held or rubbed in a similar fashion) as are the immobility of the patient or the changes in his position (which are apt to resemble those intended to relieve an abdominal cramp). they are as suggestive of spastic conditions (e. or in the first degree of hypnosis.g.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 be looked upon as a substitute for sphincter-action. The degree and the particular kind of interference by silence with speaking and the communication of thought. appears to interrupt silence more http://www. collateral to this break in audible ideation.6 Their description here without the simultaneous description of the partial-erotic language-types to which they belong is an unavoidable imposition upon the reader. in doing so. Termination (the patient's reaction to the analyst's admonition to resume verbalization). almost invariably a change of subject—a change indicative of the interruption of a trend of thought by another. by being purely 'interpretative'—required.) This is the most 'normal' form of silence inasmuch as it resembles most closely the silence punctuating ordinary conversation. is actually the case. the combination of a rest with a 'fermata'. exhibited temporarily by the patient. e.23 - here been dependent upon the prevention of urethral-erotic instinctual discharge in displacement. the 'rest'— characterized by its time value (whole. or the combination of a double bar with a fermata. in contrast to the previous one. and appears engrossed in his thinking without any visible strain. (Only occasionally does he remind the observer of an individual under the influence of mild sedation. The patient becomes lost in it. His facial expression as well as his posture. In addition to this the performer inserts 'unwritten' pauses in his playing. ANAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= emulation by the speech-apparatus of closure of the sphincter ani. whereby he notates a still different type of pause without definite time-value and of a nature intelligible only to the expert. displays the 'quasi-voluntary' and only mildly 'peristaltic' performance of this particular sphincter. d. It occurs at odd places in the grammatical structure. The difficulty in following the analytic rule when experienced by the patients characterized above must at times therefore be reducible to a fear of incontinence in displacement. and seems to fetter the speaker. distribute or circulate it in any form. If typical gestures accompany this form of silence. and speech. in other words. had ————————————— 6 The existence of different types of silence has long been familiar to the musician. however. pauses or breaks in a verbalization of which they are no less an integral part than are the pauses or rests in a piece of music. and gives merely the impression of having 'forgotten' to follow the analytic rule. and. etc.g. I. No struggle accompanies its beginning or its termination. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. The behaviour accompanying the period of silence. is disruptive of syntax.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 3 de 9 . c. who is no longer capable of either terminating it upon admonition or supplying the missing thought.) The impression is borne out by the patient's readiness to resume verbalization. URETHRAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= emulation by the speech-apparatus of closure of the sphincter urethræ. and occasionally even in physical pain. It is illegal to copy.rproxy. half.pep-web. He displays neither motion nor pantomime. silence must be considered as the equivalent of sphincter-closure. The analyst's question: 'What is on your mind?' is almost immediately answered with a typical: 'Oh. is reminiscent of that shown in sub-coma. for phrasing ('rubato') or declamation and often unsuitable for notation. pensively as it were. for example. Temporary cessation of speech must. Throughout its duration—a duration of extremely varying length—the patient exhibits tenseness and struggle. (The latter contains. Inception (the fashion in which the patient begins the pause in his speech).sc. II.) This form of silence presents. reminds the observer of that of an individual in distress. no longer a 'normal' appearance. in other words.PEP Web . b. but impresses one as productive of an inhibited speech.). migraine.univ-paris-diderot. Besides the most popular type of pause. I was just thinking …' followed by an abstract of the omitted thought. less 'affective' than the first. as it were. while the loss of contact. schematic presentation by contrasting the salient points in the descriptions rendered below with each other. Thus. quarter rest. distinguished from both these types.fr/document. under certain conditions be caused by the retention of words as the substitute for an excretory product and it must be possible to identify a particular form of silence as the equivalent of the closure of a particular sphincter. he employs. occasionally.) The control of regressive affect. whereby the rest is deprived of its time-value.org. The termination of analerotic silence is more likely to be followed by a thought-fragment than by a thought. who is requested to compensate for the inadequacies of a general. in interrupting the 'flow of words'. the speech-apparatus had to imitate. . It naturally is to be understood that these different forms of 'partial-erotic' silence are interruptions of 'partial-erotic' language. The occurrence of three different basic types of silence can be clinically observed and described with the help of the following characteristics: a. This again.
. EXAMPLE I This example concerns a male patient who exhibited throughout the beginning of his analysis a mixed form of 'phallic-urethralerotic' and 'anal-erotic' language—a combination describable as the speech of the public speaker: fluent. The three basic types of partial-erotic silence shall be illustrated by two clinical examples. unsuited for analysis since it is almost preclusive of freeassociation. and that the ingestive activity of the child is the model for such identifications. treat the excretory product. If the speech-apparatus is to be thought of as emulating the once dominant oral-erotic zone. cannibalistic.rproxy. The complete lack of affect. 281-297. as though it were solid. but it is of a different make-up. distribute or circulate it in any form. Int. required of the speech-apparatus that it emulate sphincter-action.7 The control of regressive affect through silence requires here of the speech-apparatus that it emulate anal-erotogeneity. before going to sleep.PEP Web .fr/document. and inhibit 'excreting' it by exhibiting different degrees of 'verbal constipation'. by exploiting the analytic situation in the service of a transference. not only more regressive than the two previous types. becomes therefore subject to the wish for incorporation. his very name from the fact that he is non-speaking. without recognizable motivation. can be accounted for ————————————— 7 Cf. the resumption of speech when spontaneous occurs against an almost 'physical' resistance. he has ceased to exist for the moment as an object in the outside world and his suggestive influence is suspended. It is in consequence of this radical transformation that the patient is suddenly silent. sometimes puzzling to the patient. and that the collateral active and aggressive instinct-component (biting) manifests itself in the abrupt severance of the subject from the object of a very early transference. The oral-erotic type of silence is.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 often than silence speech. The stoppage appears 'involuntary'. and doctrinaire. Thus the analyst is ingested. through the insertion http://www. the word. The struggle is a more dramatic one. and conveys to the listener the impression that the patient had suddenly physically 'absented' himself. its eventual termination is essentially a spontaneous one. While effective before an audience. The remaining component of the ingestive instinctual action ('devouring'). the patient discharges these strivings. when eventually distinguished from an ego. has exchanged. sustaining or accompanying the silent period renders it understandable. The analyzand exhibits no signs of struggle or conflict whatsoever. The control of regressive affect has not. the strivings discharged through the oral-erotogenic zone become. The interpolation of oral-erotic silence into verbalization is therefore indicative of the intrusion of a 'primal' transference into the transference-situation. informing either directly or indirectly (e. the analytic situation for an 'intra-uterine' existence.org.univ-paris-diderot. temporarily.sc. naturally. such language is. a 'silence malgré lui'. however.pep-web. III. was obsessed with the phantasy of observing urinary incontinence in a woman. J. an individual who derives. a more regressive one than that of urethral-erotic cessation of speech. in other words. that its nature is that of a 'primary identification'. It is illegal to copy.e. It occurs. one must assume that the passive ingestive function of this zone ('sucking') excludes the excretory performance of speaking. credibly. in other words. symbolically) of an erotogenic occurrence. The patient. Freud: Female Sexuality. The individual has here lost speech because he has temporarily become an 'infant'. practised wetting perversions.24 - only if a further complication is kept under consideration. The object. simultaneous with this 'total incorporation of the undivided object' (Abraham). however. in this instance. and when induced is often imitative of the original rage-response to an enema on the part of the child. (1932). when capable of 'working through' his behaviour. The patient. as is commonly known. We have learned from Freud that the earliest relation to the parent-object is not object-libidinal but narcissistic. the excretory process displaced upon speaking is pronouncedly 'peristaltic'. bears a resemblance to mutism.g. in other words. as well as motive. 13. ORAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= diversion of speech-apparatus to the control of oral-erotogeneity). This form of silence is not—as are the others—either an interruption or a disruption of speech but rather a temporary replacement of verbalization by silence. informs one afterwards. and felt compelled to induce a bowel movement every night. its interruptions imitate closure of the powerful sphincter-ani. but that it revert to its previous existence in an early infantile ego.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 4 de 9 . The silence appears 'interminable'. inducing. preclusive of speaking and conducive to an erotogenic control of the earliest oral-libidinal and oral-aggressive instinctual strivings. active as well as passive. lies either perfectly still or is quietly engaged in some form of pantomime. In the pure type of oralerotic silence. i. Psycho-Anal. The clinical picture of anal-erotic silence is. It is part of a struggle for or against verbalization. The patient. in other words. and can indeed rarely be terminated through admonition. . versatile. well-structured. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. an excellent speaker. demanding mutual incorporation of both subject and object. of a genuine and truly unconquerable inability to speak.
since what had prevented him from verbalization had merely been his concentration upon fighting the urinary urge. In the case referred to in the text. The change in displacement described here is but a partial one. and refused to supply the omitted thought. Yet he followed this with an emphatic retraction. He resisted one day the analyst's admonition to terminate one of his silent periods. had. Her 'erotogenic' symptomatology was entirely oral. Since he had once. distribute or circulate it in any form. now. This declaration while obviously repeating the characteristically aggressive response of anal-erotic silence to admonition. In the first attempt he had followed the urge. with an impulsion to regressive analerotic instinctual discharge. enables the theoretician to compare topographically. was silent against her will. to imitate his constipation through spastic anuria. She suffered. It exhibited all the characteristics belonging to this type and lacked all those described previously as criteria for anal-erotic silence. yet it offers an economic advantage to the patient. this time.rproxy. feeling that he must leave lest he wet. it concerns merely certain qualities of narcissistic cathexis. had been unable to urinate. who on former occasions. while angrily hitting the couch: 'I know I'm not following the analytic rule!'. and by eliminating his urine in single drops. The narrative interrupted so suddenly by silence had concerned a sleep-walking episode of the previous night—an episode representative. been frightened by the discovery that instead of approaching the bathroom he was moving away from it in exactly the opposite direction towards the door of his one-room apartment.sc. The erotogenic employment of words as representatives of the excretory product is. The main symptom was a chronic anorexia. The peristaltic ('motor') effect of the displacement appears in this episode as somnambulistic ('locomotor') action. causing underweight and becoming acute in the presence of either mother or lover. The partial displacement of anal-erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus affords manageability of such discharge through verbal continence in the form of regressive anal-erotic silence. it disproved the interpretation. terminated a session prematurely by jumping up from the couch under a sudden urinary impulse.25 - its inhibition.9 The cathectic displacement deduced and described by this writer had actually been indirectly experienced and described symbolically by his patient. in other words. it appeared expedient to give him a partial interpretation of the erotogenic make-up of his silence.to the analerotic zone. but had concealed the matter throughout.pep-web. equally advantageous if compared to the employment of the patient's own person. in the very beginning of his analysis. with great difficulty. besides—and had done so since early childhood—from a particular syndrome in which a sudden spell of anorexia is accompanied by slight nausea. and lapsed again into silence. It is illegal to copy. it would.10 The erotogenetic employment of his speech-apparatus. by declaring that it was by no means a confirmation but that. and had succeeded only after a lapse of time.univ-paris-diderot. is committed to the drawing of candid pictures. supported by the analytic work.fr/document. he had actually been fighting a urinary urge. as it is if compared to that of the product of itself. from the beginning of the hour on. insured the patient against 'accidents' in the ordinary as well as in the nursery sense of the word. not have been given in the absence of the previous acting-out. and walking towards the bathroom. and had experienced the effect of his unconscious counteraction as a spastic anuria.PEP Web . of course. yet his silence did not: it was purely urethral-erotic. on the contrary. whose ego had become endangered through the buoyancy of the repressed. He was told that he was treating speaking in analysis. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared.org. as he previously had treated urination. upon waking. therefore. displayed by this patient—a change that might have been anticipated for theoretical reasons—occurred unexpectedly and abruptly.8 He answered this interpretation immediately with the admission that. . occasioning this last interruption.') He had. The patient. and totally unaware of what had been on her mind. have now been displaced on to the speech-apparatus and have enabled the latter to a similar imitation in the course of which sphincter-closure is reflected as anal-erotic silence. interrupted the act of expelling himself from the posterior aperture of his room—'posterior' relative to that employed previously under the urge to urinate— through awakening under the same economic conditions that forced him subsequently to interrupt verbalization through silence. walking out of that door. ('I woke up just in time. I might have killed myself. in need for urination.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 5 de 9 . The change in the form of silence. had propelled himself symbolically from the office. had arisen from bed and had found himself. a sensation of emptiness in her stomach and a http://www. on to which they had been displaced. The quantities of auxiliary cathexis of the anal sphincter that had at that time enabled the patient's urethra. To avoid an erroneous inference from the report in the text it may be explicitly stated that such interpretation is but rarely given to a patient by this writer and that it should not in his opinion ever be given in preference to that of any other form of acting-out in the analytic situation. giving out on a staircase. He exclaimed. of the same displacement of additional quantities of narcissistic cathexis from the urethral. became aggressive. a 'naturalist'. symbolically. the previous with the present attempt of the patient to resolve the conflict between his urinary urge and the necessity for ————————————— 8 The analytic observer. His language reflected thus the same mixture of urethral-erotic and anal-erotic traits that distinguished his erotogenetic régime. yet upon arriving at the lavatory of a public building.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 of soap into the rectum. EXAMPLE II The female patient whose behaviour illustrates oral-erotic silence felt frequently tongue-tied.
in which the analyst is referred to in the second person—'You knelt down next to me. whereupon the analyst walks back to his chair and addresses the patient: 'Don't say another word!' He then resumes his approach in undress and lies down upon the patient. It is illegal to copy.' If it is remembered that anal-erotic silence has been characterized as unbreakable. inasmuch as the subject refuses to supply the omitted thought. though I most powerfully and potently believe. The dreamer finds herself. distribute or circulate it in any form.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 6 de 9 . she responded with the equivalent of a 'children's dream' (Freud)—a simple wish-fulfilment for an analysis in which one does not have to speak but.26 - quasi-mood identified to herself as 'that certain feeling'. The dream is expressive of the pre-oedipal wish to enter the mother. Hamlet's answer confirms this interpretation and duplicates that of the patient. are conceived of as phallic and the instinctual action (triebhandlung) appears in its characteristic attenuation to 'touching'. prohibitive and competitive mother had been replaced by that of the analyst. (Act II. see p. in the analyst's office. within one year. should be as old as I am. is ordered to be silent. …' Patient and analyst look at each other. precipitated acute depressions. in order to demonstrate that such language exists. however. been consummated so avidly that the mere turning of his back to the patient (for example. The apparent incongruency between the generalization that verbalization in analysis implies regressive instinctual discharge and thereby http://www. yet I hold it not honesty to have it … set down. as far as it was describable. HAMLET: '… All of which. … The thrill was one that passed over my whole being (no specific area). and of the type where the secondary elaboration is so deceptive that it had once led Freud to the (later tentatively abandoned) belief in a 'nocturnal phantasying' (naechtliches phantasieren). The question is asked in response to Hamlet's lapse into silence—a silence preceded by an allusion to the same change in the subject's cathectic position from the phallic to the anal-erotic zone as was supposed to have occurred in the patient.) To the second serious attempt on the part of the analyst to convince this patient of the interference. It felt good. remains incomprehensible unless it is understood as descriptive of the 'peristaltic' occurrence ending in sphincterclosure discussed in the text above and symbolized in the patient's performance. rendered previously by the writer. Italics mine. whose unconscious incorporation had from the beginning on. Nevertheless I had the feeling that you enjoyed the "cure" too. so it appeared. is sufficient for the present purpose. yet I hold it not honesty to have it thus set down. late in the evening. with an analysis.univ-paris-diderot. 10 The locomotor intent acted out somnambulistically by this patient is suggested in the astonishing question put by Polonius to Hamlet in his famous 'diagnostic' interview with him. (She mentioned consequently. you could go backward. as has Abraham's clinical observation and the result of Sharpe's genetic investigation. is nevertheless quite transparent because its representation is a typical one and well known. The description of partial-erotic silence—a phase of regressive partial-erotic language —has been presented here. The particular ease with which the young woman became capable of vaginal responses had at first appeared almost incredible until one day her complete satisfaction over a 'big fat orgasm' of the night before made it clear that the vagina had been mobilized so unhesitatingly because it was an organ of alimentation. quoting the pertinent parts. however. complete inactivity for enjoyable and successful activity in almost all realms of her life. The latter consisted.pep-web. were due to a 'substitution therapy' by which the persisting influence of a phobic. of the instinctual make-up of the pure type of oral-erotic silence. The dream. by her frequent interruptions of verbalization. of 'being in it'. and—to quote from the report. is represented by the dreamer as an alternative to verbalization —a representation in full accordance with that. in contrast to those had by children. Sir. The patient feels 'warm and cosy'. put your hand between my legs and gave a firm push against my vagina.PEP Web . not having to speak to the partner and employing mouth as well as vagina for contact. coincident with her treatment. This mutual incorporation. on the contrary.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 ————————————— 9 For a general discussion of the economicgain from the displacement of regressive excretory erotogeneity upon speech. …') will be appreciated as a means of acquainting the audience with the protagonist's silent thought. for you yourself. her leg slips off the couch and hangs down from the side without a shoe. . WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. if. which enabled her to exchange. like a crab.rproxy.org. A digest of it. and in speaking. my lord?' HAMLET: 'Into my grave ?' Both question and answer are illustrative of the tenets set forth in the text. I woke up then and felt ecstatic. endorsed and in the same breath disowned by Hamlet ('… All of which … though I believe. …' The inability of this patient to associate freely has so far precluded the analysis of her dreams. Polonius' reaction. 28. subject and object of the wish. while crossing the room in order to get an ashtray). Sir. Scene 2. in the experience of complete motor-inhibition combined with the wish to 'creep into something' or of the phantasy. as one of the most pleasant features of her first sexual experience. The effects of her treatment. both. Shakespeare's invention of a text.sc. was a long one. In the dream I was led to believe by you that this was some sort of treatment —a part of my analysis. It was not only a sexual delight but almost a spiritual one. The unconscious infantile dreamwish fundamental to the dream. here reported.) POLONIUS: '… Will you walk out of the air. who had actually been afraid of killing himself by 'going backward'.fr/document. '… The sensation of your naked body (especially your stomach) against me was so thrilling that I was almost numb.
as is his willingness to remember. both of whom are 'historical' persons ('… for you yourself.PEP Web . is not truly indicative of a contradiction. where Hamlet.) has been omitted from the present study because it is covered by the theory of psycho-sexual development. in the very act of the verbal communication of the latter. either excretory or ingestive. The regressiveness of his psychic organization implies a topographical re-differentiation whose extent as well as its nature alters the context in which the displacements of erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. ultimately. implied in the insistence upon submission to the demands of the analytic rule.fr/document. The reactivation of infantile erotogeneity in the course of the analytic work. It is http://www. thus. sir') and excretory. however. consequently. or the use of the office toilet. words'. an excretory or ingestive incontinence. which hitherto may have been latent. An acknowledgement of the existence of such employment is contained in the dialogue quoted above. my lord?' with 'Between who ?' (Italics mine. at least a particular economic advantage. the corresponding activity of the object is represented directly and in displacement. And the liberation of affect-quanta through erotogeneity other than that of the speech-apparatus will be looked upon as preclusive. concerning an excretory exchange. of regressive affect collateral to repressed ideation. The danger implies. etc. to his 'compliance with (the demands of) the analyst—a compliance rooted deeply in the unconscious parent-complex' (Freud). to a degree sufficient to insure his ego against such disruption. Yet he might nevertheless not be able to fulfil the demands of this rule if such fulfilment did not offer. 'gift'. the mutual elimination of matter —occurs. The dialogue—that is.sc. sir.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 the liberation.univ-paris-diderot. engaged in the acting-out of a 'primal phantasy'. to a dilution of affect. a disruption of this organization. however slight and intermittent. content mere 'matter'. Text consequently becomes mere 'words'. the substratum of thought. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. The displacement of quantities of narcissistic cathexis upon the speech-apparatus.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 7 de 9 . The indirect and symbolic representation of the subject's excretory activity has been interpreted in the remarks on the same scene contained in the footnote on pl 26. The limitation to verbal expression in analysis requires. for its full comprehension. etc. is cathected instead. For no neurosis lacks such a disturbance.rproxy. is a danger to his ego-organization.27 - become manifest11 and productive of partial-erotic language. distribute or circulate it in any form. The consequences of this for the technique of the psycho-analytic treatment of the psychotic are equally obvious. and of the neurosis. ('Old men('s) … eyes purging thick amber and plumtree gum …'). Yet this matter is one 'between' subject and object of a transference which is aggressive ('Slanders.) Thought is here treated regressively: cathexis is withdrawn from it and the word. between two partners. 'What do you read. Once the unique position of the speechapparatus and the consequences of the restriction to verbalization in the 'talking-cure' are completely understood. on the one hand. symptoms of infantile erotogeneity. on the other. The interference of different forms of partial-erotic silence with verbalization is therefore symptomatic of the struggle for control of instinctual discharge—a struggle engaging the infantile ego of the neurotic in the interest of its preservation. economically. of their displacement upon the latter. sufficient to perform the regressive partial-erotic discharge of certain instinctual quantities (triebquantitaeten) through speaking carries the economic benefit of their mastery by the neurotic.pep-web. and the restriction of such occurrence to patients displaying an erotogenic disturbance. Gratifications—such as smoking in analysis. in other words. impregnation. the inspection of the patient's literary or artistic products by the analyst. should be as old as I am …' etc. my lord?' with the famous 'Words. cannot be relied upon to avail itself of the economic advantage described previously of verbal over excretory instinctual discharge. It is illegal to copy. and no analysis can be successful without its temporary exacerbation. The psychotic's ego. . The patient's compliance with this rule is due. The promotion. upon occasion. in nature. after having replied to Polonius. answered the former's explanatory question 'What is the matter. It is this fact that enables the patient to cancel the inhibition of affect collateral to repressed ideation. at times. Discharge of regressive affect in these activities will be regarded as conducive. of a maximum of verbal and a minimum of excretory instinctual discharge will be recognized as a requisite to the obtainment of maximal remembrance and minimal acting-out. In other words: if and when the 'infantile' neurosis of the analyzand—the nucleus of his later neurosis—is reactivated through the analytic procedure.). If these theoretical considerations permit at all a technical application it is an obvious one.org. words. suggestions infringing upon this restriction will—as far as the analytic treatment of the neuroses is concerned—no longer be entertained. topographically. will temporarily ————————————— 11 The regressive employment of the excretory product—the word—in the transference (phallic exhibition. The displacement of such erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus is one of the fundamental effects of the enforcement of the 'analytic rule'. will be appreciated as not only economically but also topographically antagonistic to verbalization. peculiarly defective as it is. an appreciation of the fact that the transformation of the derivatives of repressed unconscious thought into auditory word-images through verbalization—a transformation that renders these products of internal perception subject to external perception not only by the analyst but also by the patient himself —involves an aperture of the body terminal to an erotogenic zone that permits a regressive erotogenic employment. antagonistic to its concentration in speaking.
4. distribute or circulate it in any form.rproxy. far from enforcing the 'basic rule'. These are elements of the 'object-world'—animate or inanimate—yet their cathexis is narcissistic. The functions ascribed to the system Pcpt. 2. to the restoration of the element proper in the body-ego. The effect is verbal and vocal. The central position of this formation in the whole of the ego was acknowledged by Freud. consequently. If attainable. His work will. following Freud.-Cs' are not merely the equivalent of a statement.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 illegal to copy. a response by (speech-)motility to perception (of thought) is an ego-function and. which were recognized as dependent upon the erotogenic complexion of the body-ego.pep-web. the more he succeeds in performing it with the help of the erotogeneity of those substitutes for. He can therefore when requested. self from environment. on the other hand. to verbalize in the fashion expected of the neurotic become incontinent. when he termed the ego 'predominantly a body-ego'. It is the topographical composition of this context and the relations of its components to certain phases of the process of verbalization that require description.univ-paris-diderot.-Cs. and the infantile subject of pathogenetic pre-genital strivings the owner. be the more effective. its transformation into an object-libidinal one is a prerequisite. we are justified in terming 'psychic ego'. It is illegal to copy. and the analyst.org. and distinguishing from a 'body ego'.28 - occur in the case of the normal and the neurotic. be considered the totality of the 'organ-representations'. or extensions of. while re-delimiting. These two component-institutions of the ego are reflected in two components of the auditory effect of verbalization. and is. The 'vocal' aspect.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 8 de 9 . Such content. describable as the acoustic materialization of these word-images is.sc. This dependence is mutual. may allow 'ego' to overgrow 'auto-erotic' defects in the individual's erotogenic organization. CONCLUSION The clinical data and theoretical considerations presented here lead to a metapsychological description of the rôle played by verbalization in the therapeutic process: 1. theoretically. 3. conditioned by processes of instinctual charge and discharge. and its subsequent emendation. in turn. may well be thought of as nuclear functions of the ego. The release of regressive affect through the erotogenic employment of the speech-apparatus in verbalization. in the process of its appropriation. The possibility of distinguishing between two topographical components of the ego proper within the framework of Freud's topography of the psychic apparatus becomes evident if it is acknowledged that his original positing of the 'nucleus of the ego' as 'consisting of word-images'. such transformation. here designated as 'verbal' concerns the absorption of unconscious thought by the nuclear context of the psychic ego. Premature exercise of the erotogeneity of the speech-apparatus through untrammelled verbalization may. if the representations of the erotogenic zones contained in it are distinguished from the rest by their particular and direct dependence upon 'pleasure-physiological' processes of instinctual charge and discharge. The latter—no less psychic a formation than the former—can. 'instinct-representative' as it is. certain elements of the body-ego which (in varying a Freudian expression and its employment) can be described as 'prothetic'. Economically and dynamically verbalization. instrumental in the appropriation by the ego of unconscious content. and his later ceding of this topographical position to the 'System Pcpt. e.PEP Web . in analysis. . and the response of the ego to this form of indirect excretory instinctual stimulation may be disruptive. a motor activity. a 'phallus'—incapable of relinquishing its position to an adult psychic organization. distribute or circulate it in any form. by requiring greater quantities of cathectic energy and by limiting the displaceability of the latter.29 - constitution of the body-ego. . Topographically verbalization. as it were. The aspect. a silent process. is. of a 'primal-mouth' a 'cloaca'. or even only permitted. stimulates ego development. economically. bring about a cathectic fusion of speech-apparatus and erotogenic zone instead of precipitating cathectic displacement from the latter upon the former. differs from thinking. as has been shown in the present study.g. and bear much resemblance to that which we commonly try to avoid by refraining from penetrating interpretations. a 'trial-acting with small energyquanta' (Freud). in certain areas of the psychic organization—a development described by Freud as one 'from perception to mastery of instinct' and dependent upon the 'absorption of the instinct-representation by a (psychic) context'. expressive of ideation and affect. while word-images may nevertheless be looked upon as the nuclear substratum of that part of the ego which. capable of intiating alterations in the pleasure-physiological WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. Continence is then threatened instead of insured. The relation between the function of verbalization and the other topographical institution responsible for occurrence and http://www. it consists in the last analysis of an integration of memory-traces of word-images. In the absence of such alterations a regressive body-ego remains resistive to restitution.fr/document. will therefore not only tolerate but often indirectly encourage its infringement. therefore.
Help | About | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Problem WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the subscriber to PEP Web and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. ————————————— 12 The clinical substantiation of this statement must be reserved for a separate publication.rproxy.fr/document.PEP Web . (1949).. who. It is illegal to copy. http://www. so the human auditory sphere. Psycho-Anal. distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever. is no less intimate and no less specific. Int. It is illegal to copy. distribute or circulate it in any form. J.sc. 30:21-30 Copyright © 2013.' The auditory re-entry of certain verbal images into the psychic organization is indeed as precipitative of super-ego-formation as the re-entry of certain erotogenic elements into the context of organ-representations in consequence of the vocal release of regressive affect is originative of body-ego.30 - Article Citation [Who Cited This?] Fliess. Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing. described in the text above.pep-web. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'.univ-paris-diderot. as the 'transformation of the derivatives of repressed unconscious thought into auditory word-images subject to external perception'. R. the superego. that is responsible for these corrective effects. ten years ago in a study 'On the Exceptional Position of the Auditory Sphere' developed the formula: '… just as the nucleus of the ego is the body-ego. The establishment of this position is the work of Otto Isakower. .Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 maintenance of repression. This transformation results in a stimulation of the auditory sphere of the patient—a sphere whose position in the topography of the psychic apparatus is nuclear to the superego. It is operative in a phase of verbalization.12 In either instance it is the psychosomatic nature of verbalization and the relations involved in the restitutive process.org. as modified in the direction of a capacity for language is to be regarded as the nucleus of the super-ego.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 9 de 9 .