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Fliess, R. (1949). Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 30:21-..

(1949). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 30:21-30

Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
Robert Fliess
The present study is devoted to the proposition that the physical act of speaking—to be considered here as a phase of and distinguished from the whole of 'verbalization'—may precipitate the release of quanta of regressive affect collateral to repressed ideation, and that such release is amongst the causes of the failure of the maintenance of repression. The conclusion drawn from this proposition is that the pleasure-physiological function of speaking is therapeutically active, and that, since liberation of affect is dependent upon instinctual discharge, a theory of the 'analytic rule' must account for its 'erotogenic' effects. If it is true that repression can be successful only as long as the affect collateral to the repressed ideation is suppressed—or that, as Freud expressed it, the 'vicissitudes of the affect-quantum of the representation' (in contrast to those of the ideational content) are 'decisive for the evaluation of the success of the repression'—the influence wrought upon repression through direct release of regressive affect in consequence of the pleasure-physiological functioning of the speech-apparatus requires serious consideration. Since the other influences of verbalization upon repression—such as are inherent in the formation of derivatives of repressed unconscious ideation, in the communication of these derivatives to the object of a transference, in the expression of affective experiences in the process of freeassociation, etc.—have been described exhaustively, it is in order to subject the one remaining influence to a selective investigation. The earliest analytic description of speaking per se, as a means of discharging affect we owe to Karl Abraham, who, in his Contributions of Oral Erotism to Character Formation, writes: '… The craving of certain individuals to experience gratification by way of sucking has changed to a need to give by way of the mouth, so that we find in them, besides the constant wish to obtain everything, a perpetual urge to communicate orally with others. This results in an obstinate urge to talk, connected in most cases with a feeling of overflowing. Persons of this kind are under the impression that their fund of thought is inexhaustible, and ascribe to their verbal utterances a special influence or an otherwise unusual value. Their principal relation to other people is consummated through giving out orally (Orale Ausfuhr). The obstinate insisting takes place, of course, mostly through speaking, which at the same time, however, serves the purpose of giving. I could furthermore regularly establish the fact that these individuals were able to control their other activities no more than they could their speaking. Thus, one frequently finds in them a neurotically exaggerated need for urination—a need often manifesting itself simultaneously with an outburst of talking or following it directly …'1 The implications of this first, classical observation can perhaps best be developed if the next fundamental remark on the subject, made by Ella Freeman Sharpe almost twenty years later, is considered. In an investigation of Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language Miss Sharpe observes: '… When the ego stabilizes … (the) achievement of body-control and it becomes automatic, the emotions of anger and pleasure, which heretofore accompanied bodily discharges must be dealt with in other ways. At the same time as sphincter control over anus and urethra is being established, the child is acquiring the power of speech and so an avenue of "outerance" present from birth becomes of immense importance. First of all the discharge of feeling tension, when this is no longer relieved by physical discharge, can take place through speech. The activity of speaking
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1

Karl Abraham: Selected Papers. Hogarth Press, London, 1927. International Psycho-Analytical Library, 13, p. 401. The translation of this and the subsequent quotation from Abraham as well as the italicizations (with the exception of that of the word 'give') are this writer's.
2

Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor', Int. J. Psycho-Anal. XXI (1940), 202. Italics the present writer's.
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is substituted for the physical activity, now restricted at other openings of the body, while words "themselves become the very substitutes for the bodily substances …"'2 If this general principle, formulated by Sharpe, is applied to the specific type of speaking described by Abraham, it becomes evident that, while the libido discharged in the fashion observed by him is undoubtedly oral, the erotogeneity is urethral. It is the
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its two components as 'the incontinence-type of urethral-erotic regressive language' and 'phallic urethral-erotic regressive language'). The peculiarities of regressive language are traceable. and regressively still derive. characterized by its relative independence from intake. The 'special influence' ascribed by these speakers to their verbalization. and in particular to the sphincter urethræ to the extent of causing speech to acquire certain characteristics of the excretory product involved. and describable with the help of certain criteria. yet their observation is limited to those individuals in whom certain partial-erotic excretory activities have retained or regained—either permanently or temporarily— their original sexual function. The contention that there are different types of silence may at first appear startling. they are not traceable to the properties of regressive libido. The speech-apparatus.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 excretory nature of urination that explains the reversal of 'vector'-quality—designated by Abraham as 'peculiar displacements in the oral sphere' in the terminology of his time—requisite for the 'gratification by way of speaking' through 'giving by way of the mouth'. J. the instinctual discharge performed by them is urethral-erotic and their procreative intent is understandable only on the basis of the persistence of 'infantile sexual theories'. It is not partial-libido that reflects itself in the act of speaking but partial-erotogeneity. Italics the present writer's. and has been described as such by the author.rproxy. substitutes in these persons altogether or partly for an infantile sexual and aggressive urinary performance. 4 Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor'. or evaluation (Entleerung). verifiable by clinical observation. p. their speech becomes normal. in other words. Psycho-Anal. and the 'inexhaustibility'4 of spurious thought paralleling the frequently copious output of urine. Theoretically the conclusion is inescapable that if speaking is to http://www. as Abraham later remarks. employ their speech-apparatus for the performance of a regressive urethralerotic instinctual discharge in displacement. and a 'phallic organization'. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. described by Abraham. lends itself also to the displacement upon it of anal-erotic instinctual discharge. and is furthermore. i. . urinary games. 402.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 2 de 9 . Psycho-Anal. diarrhoea. It must therefore be possible to describe certain types of regressive 'partial-erotic' language by distinguishing certain acoustic qualities indicative of the emulation by the speech-apparatus of a particular phase in the erotogenic performance of a particular erotogenic zone.). is forced to imitate pleasurephysiological action peculiar to the urethralerotic zone.pep-web. XXI (1940). 'the narcissistic evaluation applied in the unconscious to all physical and psychic productions'—an evaluation equivalent. etc. and their speech-apparatus appears as conditioned in its performance by the functional characteristics of the excretory activity. (The language described by Abraham. anuria. Abraham's observation has here been scrutinized in support of the contention that it concerns only one of several forms of pathological speech. who writes that 'the urge to talk is in these individuals no less a representation of demanding than of attacking. Different types of regressive partial-erotic language are observable. an emulation conditioning speech after the mode of a particular excretory product under conditions of its regressive erotogenic employment. anal-erotic. would have to be classed as a 'mixed' form. An alteration in their erotogenicregime does not fail to reflect itself in a corresponding change in their language. whose erotogenic rôle it is forced to play. yet it is supportable by a simple theoretical consideration.univ-paris-diderot. J. killing. originally performed by the oral-erotic zone. The 'unusual value' perceived by them in their utterances reflects therefore. 202. however. distribute or circulate it in any form. Speaking. to the functional peculiarities of a 'sphincter' employed regressively. is destructive and procreative. the masturbatory employment of enemas. including fertilization'. frequently interfered with by the regressive employment of the speech-apparatus for instinctual discharge. Such actually is the fact. the 'overflowing' with speech at the price of dilution of content. 5 An insistence upon the distinction between erotogeneity and libido—a distinction not always maintained in analytic discussions—is requisite to the present study. Italics the present writer's. and derive an instinctual gratification from speaking that they had once derived. and ————————————— 3 Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor'. or annihilating as well as that for physical excretion.3 Yet the particular kind of excretion emulated in speech by the subjects of his description is urinary. the inhibition or the performance of discharge of libido (and aggression) through a particular erotogenic zone. Int. It is illegal to copy. when put to such purpose. from urination.PEP Web . to the original conscious evaluation by the child of his physical excretory productions.sc.fr/document. Hence the 'obstinate urge' to exhibit verbally. And it must also be possible to describe 'interference-phenomena' caused by the temporary diversion of the oral zone from speaking—a diversion caused by the need for extremely regressive instinctual discharge and productive of an exchange of pre-linguistic expression for verbalization. It must suffice to present here in brief outline the corresponding basic types of silence.22 - if and when analysis causes them to relinquish this 'partial-erotic' disturbance or abuse. in other words. Int. in such a description. XXI (1940). and oral-erotic regressive language is prohibited by the scope of this communication. while doubtlessly a most suitable substitute for urethral-erotic performance. constipation. These individuals exhibit the corresponding neurotic symptoms or perversions (pollakisuria. 202. one may add. Speaking.5 A description of the different 'basic' and 'mixed' types of urethral-erotic. To sum up: the individuals.org.e.

distribute or circulate it in any form. migraine. URETHRAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= emulation by the speech-apparatus of closure of the sphincter urethræ. distinguished from both these types. however. is disruptive of syntax.) This is the most 'normal' form of silence inasmuch as it resembles most closely the silence punctuating ordinary conversation. exhibited temporarily by the patient. pensively as it were. Throughout its duration—a duration of extremely varying length—the patient exhibits tenseness and struggle. I was just thinking …' followed by an abstract of the omitted thought. occasionally.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 be looked upon as a substitute for sphincter-action. Besides the most popular type of pause. the combination of a rest with a 'fermata'.sc. in other words. in other words. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. b. for example.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 3 de 9 . no longer a 'normal' appearance. (Only occasionally does he remind the observer of an individual under the influence of mild sedation. It naturally is to be understood that these different forms of 'partial-erotic' silence are interruptions of 'partial-erotic' language. Inception (the fashion in which the patient begins the pause in his speech). It occurs at odd places in the grammatical structure. collateral to this break in audible ideation. he employs. who is no longer capable of either terminating it upon admonition or supplying the missing thought. displays the 'quasi-voluntary' and only mildly 'peristaltic' performance of this particular sphincter. e. d.g. while the loss of contact. in contrast to the previous one. The difficulty in following the analytic rule when experienced by the patients characterized above must at times therefore be reducible to a fear of incontinence in displacement. is reminiscent of that shown in sub-coma. The occurrence of three different basic types of silence can be clinically observed and described with the help of the following characteristics: a.) This form of silence presents. appears to interrupt silence more http://www. or the combination of a double bar with a fermata. quarter rest.). had ————————————— 6 The existence of different types of silence has long been familiar to the musician. He displays neither motion nor pantomime.univ-paris-diderot. I. in interrupting the 'flow of words'. In addition to this the performer inserts 'unwritten' pauses in his playing. as it were. The termination of analerotic silence is more likely to be followed by a thought-fragment than by a thought. schematic presentation by contrasting the salient points in the descriptions rendered below with each other. . and seems to fetter the speaker. This again. It is illegal to copy. The behaviour accompanying the period of silence. almost invariably a change of subject—a change indicative of the interruption of a trend of thought by another. whereby he notates a still different type of pause without definite time-value and of a nature intelligible only to the expert. half. by being purely 'interpretative'—required. c.6 Their description here without the simultaneous description of the partial-erotic language-types to which they belong is an unavoidable imposition upon the reader.fr/document. The degree and the particular kind of interference by silence with speaking and the communication of thought. in doing so. No struggle accompanies its beginning or its termination.rproxy. closure of the sphincter urethræ. and. they are as suggestive of spastic conditions (e. If typical gestures accompany this form of silence. pauses or breaks in a verbalization of which they are no less an integral part than are the pauses or rests in a piece of music. Thus. but impresses one as productive of an inhibited speech.pep-web. II. whereby the rest is deprived of its time-value. the 'rest'— characterized by its time value (whole. and occasionally even in physical pain.g. is actually the case. Termination (the patient's reaction to the analyst's admonition to resume verbalization).PEP Web . reminds the observer of that of an individual in distress. The analyst's question: 'What is on your mind?' is almost immediately answered with a typical: 'Oh. and appears engrossed in his thinking without any visible strain.org. Temporary cessation of speech must. silence must be considered as the equivalent of sphincter-closure. and speech.) The control of regressive affect. ANAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= emulation by the speech-apparatus of closure of the sphincter ani. His facial expression as well as his posture.) The impression is borne out by the patient's readiness to resume verbalization. and gives merely the impression of having 'forgotten' to follow the analytic rule. where the head is often held or rubbed in a similar fashion) as are the immobility of the patient or the changes in his position (which are apt to resemble those intended to relieve an abdominal cramp). etc. the speech-apparatus had to imitate. for phrasing ('rubato') or declamation and often unsuitable for notation. (The latter contains.23 - here been dependent upon the prevention of urethral-erotic instinctual discharge in displacement. less 'affective' than the first. who is requested to compensate for the inadequacies of a general. under certain conditions be caused by the retention of words as the substitute for an excretory product and it must be possible to identify a particular form of silence as the equivalent of the closure of a particular sphincter. The patient becomes lost in it. or in the first degree of hypnosis.

Thus the analyst is ingested. The patient. when eventually distinguished from an ego. becomes therefore subject to the wish for incorporation. and that the ingestive activity of the child is the model for such identifications. credibly.pep-web. as well as motive. the strivings discharged through the oral-erotogenic zone become. sometimes puzzling to the patient. a more regressive one than that of urethral-erotic cessation of speech. the excretory process displaced upon speaking is pronouncedly 'peristaltic'. preclusive of speaking and conducive to an erotogenic control of the earliest oral-libidinal and oral-aggressive instinctual strivings. Psycho-Anal. The stoppage appears 'involuntary'. inducing. and that the collateral active and aggressive instinct-component (biting) manifests itself in the abrupt severance of the subject from the object of a very early transference. Int. through the insertion http://www. cannibalistic. The struggle is a more dramatic one. EXAMPLE I This example concerns a male patient who exhibited throughout the beginning of his analysis a mixed form of 'phallic-urethralerotic' and 'anal-erotic' language—a combination describable as the speech of the public speaker: fluent. before going to sleep. The control of regressive affect has not.. he has ceased to exist for the moment as an object in the outside world and his suggestive influence is suspended. without recognizable motivation. was obsessed with the phantasy of observing urinary incontinence in a woman. If the speech-apparatus is to be thought of as emulating the once dominant oral-erotic zone. the analytic situation for an 'intra-uterine' existence. when capable of 'working through' his behaviour. in other words. demanding mutual incorporation of both subject and object. distribute or circulate it in any form. ORAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= diversion of speech-apparatus to the control of oral-erotogeneity). has exchanged. The individual has here lost speech because he has temporarily become an 'infant'. unsuited for analysis since it is almost preclusive of freeassociation. informs one afterwards. such language is. The silence appears 'interminable'. but it is of a different make-up.sc. its eventual termination is essentially a spontaneous one. 13. however. sustaining or accompanying the silent period renders it understandable. the word. Freud: Female Sexuality. in other words. i. The oral-erotic type of silence is. 281-297. It occurs. the resumption of speech when spontaneous occurs against an almost 'physical' resistance. and doctrinaire.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 often than silence speech. one must assume that the passive ingestive function of this zone ('sucking') excludes the excretory performance of speaking. practised wetting perversions. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. in this instance. The interpolation of oral-erotic silence into verbalization is therefore indicative of the intrusion of a 'primal' transference into the transference-situation. III. but that it revert to its previous existence in an early infantile ego. The clinical picture of anal-erotic silence is. bears a resemblance to mutism.univ-paris-diderot.e. and felt compelled to induce a bowel movement every night. well-structured. versatile. his very name from the fact that he is non-speaking. and when induced is often imitative of the original rage-response to an enema on the part of the child. treat the excretory product. symbolically) of an erotogenic occurrence. The three basic types of partial-erotic silence shall be illustrated by two clinical examples. In the pure type of oralerotic silence. temporarily.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 4 de 9 . by exploiting the analytic situation in the service of a transference. . The remaining component of the ingestive instinctual action ('devouring'). While effective before an audience.7 The control of regressive affect through silence requires here of the speech-apparatus that it emulate anal-erotogeneity. The patient. It is part of a struggle for or against verbalization. however. as is commonly known. We have learned from Freud that the earliest relation to the parent-object is not object-libidinal but narcissistic. and conveys to the listener the impression that the patient had suddenly physically 'absented' himself. in other words. and can indeed rarely be terminated through admonition. a 'silence malgré lui'. J.rproxy.PEP Web . naturally. in other words. its interruptions imitate closure of the powerful sphincter-ani.g. the patient discharges these strivings. an individual who derives. It is in consequence of this radical transformation that the patient is suddenly silent. of a genuine and truly unconquerable inability to speak. lies either perfectly still or is quietly engaged in some form of pantomime. (1932). The patient. required of the speech-apparatus that it emulate sphincter-action. not only more regressive than the two previous types. as though it were solid. The analyzand exhibits no signs of struggle or conflict whatsoever. and inhibit 'excreting' it by exhibiting different degrees of 'verbal constipation'. can be accounted for ————————————— 7 Cf. The complete lack of affect. It is illegal to copy. informing either directly or indirectly (e. simultaneous with this 'total incorporation of the undivided object' (Abraham). that its nature is that of a 'primary identification'. The object.org. This form of silence is not—as are the others—either an interruption or a disruption of speech but rather a temporary replacement of verbalization by silence. an excellent speaker. active as well as passive.fr/document.24 - only if a further complication is kept under consideration.

on the contrary. The main symptom was a chronic anorexia. His language reflected thus the same mixture of urethral-erotic and anal-erotic traits that distinguished his erotogenetic régime.') He had. insured the patient against 'accidents' in the ordinary as well as in the nursery sense of the word. as it is if compared to that of the product of itself. He resisted one day the analyst's admonition to terminate one of his silent periods. it would. with an impulsion to regressive analerotic instinctual discharge. displayed by this patient—a change that might have been anticipated for theoretical reasons—occurred unexpectedly and abruptly. besides—and had done so since early childhood—from a particular syndrome in which a sudden spell of anorexia is accompanied by slight nausea.rproxy. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. This declaration while obviously repeating the characteristically aggressive response of anal-erotic silence to admonition. from the beginning of the hour on. In the case referred to in the text. upon waking.univ-paris-diderot. The change in the form of silence. symbolically. of the same displacement of additional quantities of narcissistic cathexis from the urethral. distribute or circulate it in any form. yet his silence did not: it was purely urethral-erotic. and walking towards the bathroom. been frightened by the discovery that instead of approaching the bathroom he was moving away from it in exactly the opposite direction towards the door of his one-room apartment. to imitate his constipation through spastic anuria. ('I woke up just in time. Since he had once.sc. To avoid an erroneous inference from the report in the text it may be explicitly stated that such interpretation is but rarely given to a patient by this writer and that it should not in his opinion ever be given in preference to that of any other form of acting-out in the analytic situation. The peristaltic ('motor') effect of the displacement appears in this episode as somnambulistic ('locomotor') action. and lapsed again into silence. The patient. He was told that he was treating speaking in analysis. walking out of that door.8 He answered this interpretation immediately with the admission that. yet upon arriving at the lavatory of a public building. a sensation of emptiness in her stomach and a http://www. EXAMPLE II The female patient whose behaviour illustrates oral-erotic silence felt frequently tongue-tied. on to which they had been displaced. causing underweight and becoming acute in the presence of either mother or lover. feeling that he must leave lest he wet. and totally unaware of what had been on her mind. in need for urination.org. had been unable to urinate.10 The erotogenetic employment of his speech-apparatus.pep-web. giving out on a staircase. terminated a session prematurely by jumping up from the couch under a sudden urinary impulse. in the very beginning of his analysis. it disproved the interpretation. while angrily hitting the couch: 'I know I'm not following the analytic rule!'. was silent against her will. interrupted the act of expelling himself from the posterior aperture of his room—'posterior' relative to that employed previously under the urge to urinate— through awakening under the same economic conditions that forced him subsequently to interrupt verbalization through silence. The change in displacement described here is but a partial one. Her 'erotogenic' symptomatology was entirely oral.25 - its inhibition. by declaring that it was by no means a confirmation but that. as he previously had treated urination. He exclaimed. therefore. who on former occasions. he had actually been fighting a urinary urge.to the analerotic zone. . it concerns merely certain qualities of narcissistic cathexis. The quantities of auxiliary cathexis of the anal sphincter that had at that time enabled the patient's urethra. whose ego had become endangered through the buoyancy of the repressed. and refused to supply the omitted thought. with great difficulty. It exhibited all the characteristics belonging to this type and lacked all those described previously as criteria for anal-erotic silence. The partial displacement of anal-erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus affords manageability of such discharge through verbal continence in the form of regressive anal-erotic silence. not have been given in the absence of the previous acting-out. since what had prevented him from verbalization had merely been his concentration upon fighting the urinary urge. this time. Yet he followed this with an emphatic retraction. became aggressive. of course. the previous with the present attempt of the patient to resolve the conflict between his urinary urge and the necessity for ————————————— 8 The analytic observer. She suffered. yet it offers an economic advantage to the patient. had arisen from bed and had found himself. In the first attempt he had followed the urge.9 The cathectic displacement deduced and described by this writer had actually been indirectly experienced and described symbolically by his patient. it appeared expedient to give him a partial interpretation of the erotogenic make-up of his silence. have now been displaced on to the speech-apparatus and have enabled the latter to a similar imitation in the course of which sphincter-closure is reflected as anal-erotic silence. and had succeeded only after a lapse of time.PEP Web . equally advantageous if compared to the employment of the patient's own person. and by eliminating his urine in single drops. supported by the analytic work. in other words. I might have killed myself. but had concealed the matter throughout. a 'naturalist'. and had experienced the effect of his unconscious counteraction as a spastic anuria.fr/document. enables the theoretician to compare topographically. The erotogenic employment of words as representatives of the excretory product is. is committed to the drawing of candid pictures. occasioning this last interruption. The narrative interrupted so suddenly by silence had concerned a sleep-walking episode of the previous night—an episode representative. had propelled himself symbolically from the office. It is illegal to copy.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 of soap into the rectum. had.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 5 de 9 . now.

The question is asked in response to Hamlet's lapse into silence—a silence preceded by an allusion to the same change in the subject's cathectic position from the phallic to the anal-erotic zone as was supposed to have occurred in the patient. and of the type where the secondary elaboration is so deceptive that it had once led Freud to the (later tentatively abandoned) belief in a 'nocturnal phantasying' (naechtliches phantasieren). is nevertheless quite transparent because its representation is a typical one and well known. inasmuch as the subject refuses to supply the omitted thought. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. The latter consisted. rendered previously by the writer. The patient feels 'warm and cosy'. put your hand between my legs and gave a firm push against my vagina. (She mentioned consequently. HAMLET: '… All of which. so it appeared. for you yourself. Shakespeare's invention of a text. her leg slips off the couch and hangs down from the side without a shoe. though I most powerfully and potently believe. subject and object of the wish. like a crab. not having to speak to the partner and employing mouth as well as vagina for contact. The particular ease with which the young woman became capable of vaginal responses had at first appeared almost incredible until one day her complete satisfaction over a 'big fat orgasm' of the night before made it clear that the vagina had been mobilized so unhesitatingly because it was an organ of alimentation. is sufficient for the present purpose. Sir. 28. late in the evening. with an analysis. Italics mine. who had actually been afraid of killing himself by 'going backward'. precipitated acute depressions.sc. my lord?' HAMLET: 'Into my grave ?' Both question and answer are illustrative of the tenets set forth in the text. while crossing the room in order to get an ashtray). as far as it was describable. The dream. see p. Scene 2. …' The inability of this patient to associate freely has so far precluded the analysis of her dreams. was a long one. quoting the pertinent parts. whereupon the analyst walks back to his chair and addresses the patient: 'Don't say another word!' He then resumes his approach in undress and lies down upon the patient. are conceived of as phallic and the instinctual action (triebhandlung) appears in its characteristic attenuation to 'touching'. yet I hold it not honesty to have it … set down. here reported.) POLONIUS: '… Will you walk out of the air. …' Patient and analyst look at each other. in order to demonstrate that such language exists. . and in speaking. (Act II. It is illegal to copy. by her frequent interruptions of verbalization.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 6 de 9 .fr/document. The dreamer finds herself. in contrast to those had by children. you could go backward. on the contrary. The dream is expressive of the pre-oedipal wish to enter the mother. prohibitive and competitive mother had been replaced by that of the analyst.26 - quasi-mood identified to herself as 'that certain feeling'. were due to a 'substitution therapy' by which the persisting influence of a phobic. within one year. however. of 'being in it'.) To the second serious attempt on the part of the analyst to convince this patient of the interference. …') will be appreciated as a means of acquainting the audience with the protagonist's silent thought. … The thrill was one that passed over my whole being (no specific area). of the instinctual make-up of the pure type of oral-erotic silence.univ-paris-diderot.PEP Web . is represented by the dreamer as an alternative to verbalization —a representation in full accordance with that. whose unconscious incorporation had from the beginning on. yet I hold it not honesty to have it thus set down. 10 The locomotor intent acted out somnambulistically by this patient is suggested in the astonishing question put by Polonius to Hamlet in his famous 'diagnostic' interview with him. '… The sensation of your naked body (especially your stomach) against me was so thrilling that I was almost numb.' If it is remembered that anal-erotic silence has been characterized as unbreakable. and—to quote from the report. The apparent incongruency between the generalization that verbalization in analysis implies regressive instinctual discharge and thereby http://www.rproxy. This mutual incorporation. The effects of her treatment. as has Abraham's clinical observation and the result of Sharpe's genetic investigation. in which the analyst is referred to in the second person—'You knelt down next to me. both.org. A digest of it. however. is ordered to be silent. The description of partial-erotic silence—a phase of regressive partial-erotic language —has been presented here. Sir. In the dream I was led to believe by you that this was some sort of treatment —a part of my analysis. if.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 ————————————— 9 For a general discussion of the economicgain from the displacement of regressive excretory erotogeneity upon speech. distribute or circulate it in any form. which enabled her to exchange. in the experience of complete motor-inhibition combined with the wish to 'creep into something' or of the phantasy. been consummated so avidly that the mere turning of his back to the patient (for example. Nevertheless I had the feeling that you enjoyed the "cure" too. Polonius' reaction. she responded with the equivalent of a 'children's dream' (Freud)—a simple wish-fulfilment for an analysis in which one does not have to speak but. complete inactivity for enjoyable and successful activity in almost all realms of her life. should be as old as I am. as one of the most pleasant features of her first sexual experience. The unconscious infantile dreamwish fundamental to the dream. Hamlet's answer confirms this interpretation and duplicates that of the patient. It felt good. It was not only a sexual delight but almost a spiritual one. in the analyst's office. endorsed and in the same breath disowned by Hamlet ('… All of which … though I believe. I woke up then and felt ecstatic.pep-web. coincident with her treatment. remains incomprehensible unless it is understood as descriptive of the 'peristaltic' occurrence ending in sphincterclosure discussed in the text above and symbolized in the patient's performance.

. The displacement of quantities of narcissistic cathexis upon the speech-apparatus. economically. is cathected instead. answered the former's explanatory question 'What is the matter. ('Old men('s) … eyes purging thick amber and plumtree gum …'). for its full comprehension. Text consequently becomes mere 'words'. And the liberation of affect-quanta through erotogeneity other than that of the speech-apparatus will be looked upon as preclusive. a disruption of this organization. is not truly indicative of a contradiction. in the very act of the verbal communication of the latter. engaged in the acting-out of a 'primal phantasy'. Yet this matter is one 'between' subject and object of a transference which is aggressive ('Slanders. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. and the restriction of such occurrence to patients displaying an erotogenic disturbance.sc.). at least a particular economic advantage. both of whom are 'historical' persons ('… for you yourself. It is http://www. my lord?' with 'Between who ?' (Italics mine. It is illegal to copy. to his 'compliance with (the demands of) the analyst—a compliance rooted deeply in the unconscious parent-complex' (Freud). consequently. in other words. on the one hand. to a dilution of affect. etc.fr/document.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 7 de 9 . will temporarily ————————————— 11 The regressive employment of the excretory product—the word—in the transference (phallic exhibition. topographically. The danger implies. suggestions infringing upon this restriction will—as far as the analytic treatment of the neuroses is concerned—no longer be entertained. symptoms of infantile erotogeneity. implied in the insistence upon submission to the demands of the analytic rule. the mutual elimination of matter —occurs. The reactivation of infantile erotogeneity in the course of the analytic work. the substratum of thought. antagonistic to its concentration in speaking. on the other. The patient's compliance with this rule is due. my lord?' with the famous 'Words. of their displacement upon the latter. In other words: if and when the 'infantile' neurosis of the analyzand—the nucleus of his later neurosis—is reactivated through the analytic procedure. which hitherto may have been latent. The promotion. Once the unique position of the speechapparatus and the consequences of the restriction to verbalization in the 'talking-cure' are completely understood. The displacement of such erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus is one of the fundamental effects of the enforcement of the 'analytic rule'. concerning an excretory exchange. of a maximum of verbal and a minimum of excretory instinctual discharge will be recognized as a requisite to the obtainment of maximal remembrance and minimal acting-out. thus. however slight and intermittent. at times. ultimately. The interference of different forms of partial-erotic silence with verbalization is therefore symptomatic of the struggle for control of instinctual discharge—a struggle engaging the infantile ego of the neurotic in the interest of its preservation.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 the liberation. should be as old as I am …' etc. distribute or circulate it in any form. The psychotic's ego.) Thought is here treated regressively: cathexis is withdrawn from it and the word. upon occasion. sufficient to perform the regressive partial-erotic discharge of certain instinctual quantities (triebquantitaeten) through speaking carries the economic benefit of their mastery by the neurotic. impregnation. after having replied to Polonius. 'gift'. An acknowledgement of the existence of such employment is contained in the dialogue quoted above.org. cannot be relied upon to avail itself of the economic advantage described previously of verbal over excretory instinctual discharge. The limitation to verbal expression in analysis requires. the inspection of the patient's literary or artistic products by the analyst. in nature. It is this fact that enables the patient to cancel the inhibition of affect collateral to repressed ideation. Gratifications—such as smoking in analysis. where Hamlet. The regressiveness of his psychic organization implies a topographical re-differentiation whose extent as well as its nature alters the context in which the displacements of erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. the corresponding activity of the object is represented directly and in displacement. an excretory or ingestive incontinence. The indirect and symbolic representation of the subject's excretory activity has been interpreted in the remarks on the same scene contained in the footnote on pl 26. and of the neurosis. For no neurosis lacks such a disturbance. sir') and excretory. however. or the use of the office toilet. and no analysis can be successful without its temporary exacerbation. words'. peculiarly defective as it is. The consequences of this for the technique of the psycho-analytic treatment of the psychotic are equally obvious. to a degree sufficient to insure his ego against such disruption. of regressive affect collateral to repressed ideation. as is his willingness to remember. either excretory or ingestive. between two partners. Discharge of regressive affect in these activities will be regarded as conducive. will be appreciated as not only economically but also topographically antagonistic to verbalization.pep-web. Yet he might nevertheless not be able to fulfil the demands of this rule if such fulfilment did not offer.PEP Web .) has been omitted from the present study because it is covered by the theory of psycho-sexual development. If these theoretical considerations permit at all a technical application it is an obvious one. The dialogue—that is. words. etc.rproxy. is a danger to his ego-organization. 'What do you read. an appreciation of the fact that the transformation of the derivatives of repressed unconscious thought into auditory word-images through verbalization—a transformation that renders these products of internal perception subject to external perception not only by the analyst but also by the patient himself —involves an aperture of the body terminal to an erotogenic zone that permits a regressive erotogenic employment. sir. content mere 'matter'.univ-paris-diderot.27 - become manifest11 and productive of partial-erotic language.

its transformation into an object-libidinal one is a prerequisite. and the infantile subject of pathogenetic pre-genital strivings the owner. If attainable. on the other hand. Continence is then threatened instead of insured. a response by (speech-)motility to perception (of thought) is an ego-function and. . 2. to the restoration of the element proper in the body-ego. It is illegal to copy. This dependence is mutual. describable as the acoustic materialization of these word-images is. The latter—no less psychic a formation than the former—can.-Cs' are not merely the equivalent of a statement.-Cs. e. These two component-institutions of the ego are reflected in two components of the auditory effect of verbalization.pep-web. 3. as has been shown in the present study. Economically and dynamically verbalization. by requiring greater quantities of cathectic energy and by limiting the displaceability of the latter. The aspect. He can therefore when requested. which were recognized as dependent upon the erotogenic complexion of the body-ego. The relation between the function of verbalization and the other topographical institution responsible for occurrence and http://www. as it were. a silent process. in analysis. It is the topographical composition of this context and the relations of its components to certain phases of the process of verbalization that require description. and his later ceding of this topographical position to the 'System Pcpt. here designated as 'verbal' concerns the absorption of unconscious thought by the nuclear context of the psychic ego. therefore. and the response of the ego to this form of indirect excretory instinctual stimulation may be disruptive. economically. and its subsequent emendation. be the more effective. of a 'primal-mouth' a 'cloaca'. His work will. and distinguishing from a 'body ego'.PEP Web . bring about a cathectic fusion of speech-apparatus and erotogenic zone instead of precipitating cathectic displacement from the latter upon the former.univ-paris-diderot. be considered the totality of the 'organ-representations'. may allow 'ego' to overgrow 'auto-erotic' defects in the individual's erotogenic organization. stimulates ego development. expressive of ideation and affect.fr/document. instrumental in the appropriation by the ego of unconscious content. to verbalize in the fashion expected of the neurotic become incontinent. and the analyst. in the process of its appropriation. Topographically verbalization. such transformation. in turn. conditioned by processes of instinctual charge and discharge.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 illegal to copy.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 8 de 9 . self from environment. will therefore not only tolerate but often indirectly encourage its infringement. differs from thinking. The functions ascribed to the system Pcpt. distribute or circulate it in any form. and is. The release of regressive affect through the erotogenic employment of the speech-apparatus in verbalization. in certain areas of the psychic organization—a development described by Freud as one 'from perception to mastery of instinct' and dependent upon the 'absorption of the instinct-representation by a (psychic) context'. CONCLUSION The clinical data and theoretical considerations presented here lead to a metapsychological description of the rôle played by verbalization in the therapeutic process: 1.g. is. a motor activity. we are justified in terming 'psychic ego'. if the representations of the erotogenic zones contained in it are distinguished from the rest by their particular and direct dependence upon 'pleasure-physiological' processes of instinctual charge and discharge. while re-delimiting. and bear much resemblance to that which we commonly try to avoid by refraining from penetrating interpretations. The possibility of distinguishing between two topographical components of the ego proper within the framework of Freud's topography of the psychic apparatus becomes evident if it is acknowledged that his original positing of the 'nucleus of the ego' as 'consisting of word-images'. . consequently. The central position of this formation in the whole of the ego was acknowledged by Freud. when he termed the ego 'predominantly a body-ego'. or even only permitted. or extensions of. 'instinct-representative' as it is. a 'phallus'—incapable of relinquishing its position to an adult psychic organization. it consists in the last analysis of an integration of memory-traces of word-images.org.sc. certain elements of the body-ego which (in varying a Freudian expression and its employment) can be described as 'prothetic'.28 - occur in the case of the normal and the neurotic. the more he succeeds in performing it with the help of the erotogeneity of those substitutes for. far from enforcing the 'basic rule'. while word-images may nevertheless be looked upon as the nuclear substratum of that part of the ego which. The effect is verbal and vocal. Premature exercise of the erotogeneity of the speech-apparatus through untrammelled verbalization may. Such content.29 - constitution of the body-ego. may well be thought of as nuclear functions of the ego. These are elements of the 'object-world'—animate or inanimate—yet their cathexis is narcissistic. a 'trial-acting with small energyquanta' (Freud). following Freud. capable of intiating alterations in the pleasure-physiological WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. In the absence of such alterations a regressive body-ego remains resistive to restitution. 4. distribute or circulate it in any form. theoretically. The 'vocal' aspect.rproxy.

as the 'transformation of the derivatives of repressed unconscious thought into auditory word-images subject to external perception'. Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing. described in the text above. http://www.fr/document. .org. This transformation results in a stimulation of the auditory sphere of the patient—a sphere whose position in the topography of the psychic apparatus is nuclear to the superego. It is illegal to copy.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 maintenance of repression.pep-web. R. It is illegal to copy.univ-paris-diderot. The establishment of this position is the work of Otto Isakower. (1949).ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 9 de 9 .PEP Web .. Help | About | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Problem WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the subscriber to PEP Web and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. Psycho-Anal.rproxy.12 In either instance it is the psychosomatic nature of verbalization and the relations involved in the restitutive process. ————————————— 12 The clinical substantiation of this statement must be reserved for a separate publication. the superego.30 - Article Citation [Who Cited This?] Fliess.' The auditory re-entry of certain verbal images into the psychic organization is indeed as precipitative of super-ego-formation as the re-entry of certain erotogenic elements into the context of organ-representations in consequence of the vocal release of regressive affect is originative of body-ego. distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever. ten years ago in a study 'On the Exceptional Position of the Auditory Sphere' developed the formula: '… just as the nucleus of the ego is the body-ego. It is operative in a phase of verbalization. that is responsible for these corrective effects.sc. distribute or circulate it in any form. J. 30:21-30 Copyright © 2013. so the human auditory sphere. Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'. is no less intimate and no less specific. as modified in the direction of a capacity for language is to be regarded as the nucleus of the super-ego. Int. who. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared.

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