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Fliess, R. (1949). Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 30:21-..

(1949). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 30:21-30

Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'
Robert Fliess
The present study is devoted to the proposition that the physical act of speaking—to be considered here as a phase of and distinguished from the whole of 'verbalization'—may precipitate the release of quanta of regressive affect collateral to repressed ideation, and that such release is amongst the causes of the failure of the maintenance of repression. The conclusion drawn from this proposition is that the pleasure-physiological function of speaking is therapeutically active, and that, since liberation of affect is dependent upon instinctual discharge, a theory of the 'analytic rule' must account for its 'erotogenic' effects. If it is true that repression can be successful only as long as the affect collateral to the repressed ideation is suppressed—or that, as Freud expressed it, the 'vicissitudes of the affect-quantum of the representation' (in contrast to those of the ideational content) are 'decisive for the evaluation of the success of the repression'—the influence wrought upon repression through direct release of regressive affect in consequence of the pleasure-physiological functioning of the speech-apparatus requires serious consideration. Since the other influences of verbalization upon repression—such as are inherent in the formation of derivatives of repressed unconscious ideation, in the communication of these derivatives to the object of a transference, in the expression of affective experiences in the process of freeassociation, etc.—have been described exhaustively, it is in order to subject the one remaining influence to a selective investigation. The earliest analytic description of speaking per se, as a means of discharging affect we owe to Karl Abraham, who, in his Contributions of Oral Erotism to Character Formation, writes: '… The craving of certain individuals to experience gratification by way of sucking has changed to a need to give by way of the mouth, so that we find in them, besides the constant wish to obtain everything, a perpetual urge to communicate orally with others. This results in an obstinate urge to talk, connected in most cases with a feeling of overflowing. Persons of this kind are under the impression that their fund of thought is inexhaustible, and ascribe to their verbal utterances a special influence or an otherwise unusual value. Their principal relation to other people is consummated through giving out orally (Orale Ausfuhr). The obstinate insisting takes place, of course, mostly through speaking, which at the same time, however, serves the purpose of giving. I could furthermore regularly establish the fact that these individuals were able to control their other activities no more than they could their speaking. Thus, one frequently finds in them a neurotically exaggerated need for urination—a need often manifesting itself simultaneously with an outburst of talking or following it directly …'1 The implications of this first, classical observation can perhaps best be developed if the next fundamental remark on the subject, made by Ella Freeman Sharpe almost twenty years later, is considered. In an investigation of Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language Miss Sharpe observes: '… When the ego stabilizes … (the) achievement of body-control and it becomes automatic, the emotions of anger and pleasure, which heretofore accompanied bodily discharges must be dealt with in other ways. At the same time as sphincter control over anus and urethra is being established, the child is acquiring the power of speech and so an avenue of "outerance" present from birth becomes of immense importance. First of all the discharge of feeling tension, when this is no longer relieved by physical discharge, can take place through speech. The activity of speaking
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1

Karl Abraham: Selected Papers. Hogarth Press, London, 1927. International Psycho-Analytical Library, 13, p. 401. The translation of this and the subsequent quotation from Abraham as well as the italicizations (with the exception of that of the word 'give') are this writer's.
2

Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor', Int. J. Psycho-Anal. XXI (1940), 202. Italics the present writer's.
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is substituted for the physical activity, now restricted at other openings of the body, while words "themselves become the very substitutes for the bodily substances …"'2 If this general principle, formulated by Sharpe, is applied to the specific type of speaking described by Abraham, it becomes evident that, while the libido discharged in the fashion observed by him is undoubtedly oral, the erotogeneity is urethral. It is the
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Speaking. and in particular to the sphincter urethræ to the extent of causing speech to acquire certain characteristics of the excretory product involved. Int. lends itself also to the displacement upon it of anal-erotic instinctual discharge. employ their speech-apparatus for the performance of a regressive urethralerotic instinctual discharge in displacement. It is not partial-libido that reflects itself in the act of speaking but partial-erotogeneity. An alteration in their erotogenicregime does not fail to reflect itself in a corresponding change in their language. characterized by its relative independence from intake.rproxy. diarrhoea. urinary games. in other words. 202.fr/document. and their speech-apparatus appears as conditioned in its performance by the functional characteristics of the excretory activity. The 'unusual value' perceived by them in their utterances reflects therefore.3 Yet the particular kind of excretion emulated in speech by the subjects of his description is urinary. described by Abraham.22 - if and when analysis causes them to relinquish this 'partial-erotic' disturbance or abuse. when put to such purpose. however. p. and describable with the help of certain criteria.org. the instinctual discharge performed by them is urethral-erotic and their procreative intent is understandable only on the basis of the persistence of 'infantile sexual theories'.). XXI (1940). one may add. (The language described by Abraham. and derive an instinctual gratification from speaking that they had once derived. The peculiarities of regressive language are traceable. J. as Abraham later remarks. its two components as 'the incontinence-type of urethral-erotic regressive language' and 'phallic urethral-erotic regressive language'). Italics the present writer's. they are not traceable to the properties of regressive libido. constipation. whose erotogenic rôle it is forced to play. Speaking. and has been described as such by the author. the inhibition or the performance of discharge of libido (and aggression) through a particular erotogenic zone. to the original conscious evaluation by the child of his physical excretory productions. and regressively still derive. 4 Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor'. while doubtlessly a most suitable substitute for urethral-erotic performance. anuria. 202. Psycho-Anal. 'the narcissistic evaluation applied in the unconscious to all physical and psychic productions'—an evaluation equivalent.PEP Web . Hence the 'obstinate urge' to exhibit verbally. originally performed by the oral-erotic zone. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. from urination. Italics the present writer's. Different types of regressive partial-erotic language are observable. or evaluation (Entleerung). yet it is supportable by a simple theoretical consideration. an emulation conditioning speech after the mode of a particular excretory product under conditions of its regressive erotogenic employment. and a 'phallic organization'.sc. and is furthermore. distribute or circulate it in any form. These individuals exhibit the corresponding neurotic symptoms or perversions (pollakisuria. is forced to imitate pleasurephysiological action peculiar to the urethralerotic zone. killing.pep-web. The 'special influence' ascribed by these speakers to their verbalization. . their speech becomes normal. the 'overflowing' with speech at the price of dilution of content. The speech-apparatus. or annihilating as well as that for physical excretion. Such actually is the fact. yet their observation is limited to those individuals in whom certain partial-erotic excretory activities have retained or regained—either permanently or temporarily— their original sexual function.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 excretory nature of urination that explains the reversal of 'vector'-quality—designated by Abraham as 'peculiar displacements in the oral sphere' in the terminology of his time—requisite for the 'gratification by way of speaking' through 'giving by way of the mouth'. would have to be classed as a 'mixed' form.e. verifiable by clinical observation. who writes that 'the urge to talk is in these individuals no less a representation of demanding than of attacking. 5 An insistence upon the distinction between erotogeneity and libido—a distinction not always maintained in analytic discussions—is requisite to the present study. substitutes in these persons altogether or partly for an infantile sexual and aggressive urinary performance.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 2 de 9 . and ————————————— 3 Ella Freeman Sharpe: 'Psycho-Physical Problems Revealed in Language: An Examination of Metaphor'. It is illegal to copy. frequently interfered with by the regressive employment of the speech-apparatus for instinctual discharge. Psycho-Anal. And it must also be possible to describe 'interference-phenomena' caused by the temporary diversion of the oral zone from speaking—a diversion caused by the need for extremely regressive instinctual discharge and productive of an exchange of pre-linguistic expression for verbalization. and oral-erotic regressive language is prohibited by the scope of this communication. in such a description. It must suffice to present here in brief outline the corresponding basic types of silence. Abraham's observation has here been scrutinized in support of the contention that it concerns only one of several forms of pathological speech. To sum up: the individuals. etc.5 A description of the different 'basic' and 'mixed' types of urethral-erotic. including fertilization'. the masturbatory employment of enemas. 402. It must therefore be possible to describe certain types of regressive 'partial-erotic' language by distinguishing certain acoustic qualities indicative of the emulation by the speech-apparatus of a particular phase in the erotogenic performance of a particular erotogenic zone. anal-erotic. i. Theoretically the conclusion is inescapable that if speaking is to http://www.univ-paris-diderot. and the 'inexhaustibility'4 of spurious thought paralleling the frequently copious output of urine. to the functional peculiarities of a 'sphincter' employed regressively. The contention that there are different types of silence may at first appear startling. J. in other words. XXI (1940). Int. is destructive and procreative.

Inception (the fashion in which the patient begins the pause in his speech). is reminiscent of that shown in sub-coma.sc. the speech-apparatus had to imitate.fr/document. etc. and.) This is the most 'normal' form of silence inasmuch as it resembles most closely the silence punctuating ordinary conversation. migraine.PEP Web . In addition to this the performer inserts 'unwritten' pauses in his playing. The patient becomes lost in it. less 'affective' than the first. This again. distribute or circulate it in any form. b. It naturally is to be understood that these different forms of 'partial-erotic' silence are interruptions of 'partial-erotic' language. Temporary cessation of speech must. It is illegal to copy. however. Thus. occasionally. and appears engrossed in his thinking without any visible strain. or the combination of a double bar with a fermata. pauses or breaks in a verbalization of which they are no less an integral part than are the pauses or rests in a piece of music. they are as suggestive of spastic conditions (e. Termination (the patient's reaction to the analyst's admonition to resume verbalization). and occasionally even in physical pain. for example. or in the first degree of hypnosis. who is requested to compensate for the inadequacies of a general. pensively as it were. Throughout its duration—a duration of extremely varying length—the patient exhibits tenseness and struggle. displays the 'quasi-voluntary' and only mildly 'peristaltic' performance of this particular sphincter. no longer a 'normal' appearance. and speech. in contrast to the previous one. whereby the rest is deprived of its time-value. by being purely 'interpretative'—required. in other words.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 be looked upon as a substitute for sphincter-action. ANAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= emulation by the speech-apparatus of closure of the sphincter ani.) This form of silence presents.23 - here been dependent upon the prevention of urethral-erotic instinctual discharge in displacement. . and seems to fetter the speaker. I was just thinking …' followed by an abstract of the omitted thought. d. The degree and the particular kind of interference by silence with speaking and the communication of thought.). c. If typical gestures accompany this form of silence. the 'rest'— characterized by its time value (whole. and gives merely the impression of having 'forgotten' to follow the analytic rule. quarter rest. whereby he notates a still different type of pause without definite time-value and of a nature intelligible only to the expert. Besides the most popular type of pause.) The impression is borne out by the patient's readiness to resume verbalization. The difficulty in following the analytic rule when experienced by the patients characterized above must at times therefore be reducible to a fear of incontinence in displacement. It occurs at odd places in the grammatical structure. under certain conditions be caused by the retention of words as the substitute for an excretory product and it must be possible to identify a particular form of silence as the equivalent of the closure of a particular sphincter. where the head is often held or rubbed in a similar fashion) as are the immobility of the patient or the changes in his position (which are apt to resemble those intended to relieve an abdominal cramp). I. His facial expression as well as his posture.rproxy.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 3 de 9 . half. The termination of analerotic silence is more likely to be followed by a thought-fragment than by a thought.univ-paris-diderot. in interrupting the 'flow of words'. who is no longer capable of either terminating it upon admonition or supplying the missing thought. e. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. reminds the observer of that of an individual in distress. closure of the sphincter urethræ. while the loss of contact.) The control of regressive affect. as it were. appears to interrupt silence more http://www.pep-web. he employs. for phrasing ('rubato') or declamation and often unsuitable for notation. almost invariably a change of subject—a change indicative of the interruption of a trend of thought by another. (The latter contains. silence must be considered as the equivalent of sphincter-closure.6 Their description here without the simultaneous description of the partial-erotic language-types to which they belong is an unavoidable imposition upon the reader. URETHRAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= emulation by the speech-apparatus of closure of the sphincter urethræ.g. (Only occasionally does he remind the observer of an individual under the influence of mild sedation. distinguished from both these types. in doing so. had ————————————— 6 The existence of different types of silence has long been familiar to the musician. but impresses one as productive of an inhibited speech. schematic presentation by contrasting the salient points in the descriptions rendered below with each other. exhibited temporarily by the patient. He displays neither motion nor pantomime. The analyst's question: 'What is on your mind?' is almost immediately answered with a typical: 'Oh. is disruptive of syntax. The behaviour accompanying the period of silence. No struggle accompanies its beginning or its termination.g. the combination of a rest with a 'fermata'. in other words. II.org. is actually the case. The occurrence of three different basic types of silence can be clinically observed and described with the help of the following characteristics: a. collateral to this break in audible ideation.

was obsessed with the phantasy of observing urinary incontinence in a woman. The complete lack of affect. The patient. by exploiting the analytic situation in the service of a transference. The interpolation of oral-erotic silence into verbalization is therefore indicative of the intrusion of a 'primal' transference into the transference-situation. It occurs. its interruptions imitate closure of the powerful sphincter-ani. however. inducing. when eventually distinguished from an ego. 281-297. the word.24 - only if a further complication is kept under consideration. can be accounted for ————————————— 7 Cf. . The clinical picture of anal-erotic silence is. required of the speech-apparatus that it emulate sphincter-action. the strivings discharged through the oral-erotogenic zone become. the resumption of speech when spontaneous occurs against an almost 'physical' resistance. and that the ingestive activity of the child is the model for such identifications. without recognizable motivation. The analyzand exhibits no signs of struggle or conflict whatsoever. cannibalistic. ORAL-EROTIC SILENCE (= diversion of speech-apparatus to the control of oral-erotogeneity). that its nature is that of a 'primary identification'. J. This form of silence is not—as are the others—either an interruption or a disruption of speech but rather a temporary replacement of verbalization by silence. It is part of a struggle for or against verbalization. sometimes puzzling to the patient. The struggle is a more dramatic one. the excretory process displaced upon speaking is pronouncedly 'peristaltic'. Psycho-Anal. before going to sleep. The three basic types of partial-erotic silence shall be illustrated by two clinical examples.PEP Web . bears a resemblance to mutism. The oral-erotic type of silence is. becomes therefore subject to the wish for incorporation. in this instance. one must assume that the passive ingestive function of this zone ('sucking') excludes the excretory performance of speaking. well-structured. its eventual termination is essentially a spontaneous one.fr/document. in other words. but that it revert to its previous existence in an early infantile ego. We have learned from Freud that the earliest relation to the parent-object is not object-libidinal but narcissistic. and felt compelled to induce a bowel movement every night.sc. active as well as passive.. The object. unsuited for analysis since it is almost preclusive of freeassociation. and inhibit 'excreting' it by exhibiting different degrees of 'verbal constipation'. (1932). The control of regressive affect has not.7 The control of regressive affect through silence requires here of the speech-apparatus that it emulate anal-erotogeneity. through the insertion http://www. he has ceased to exist for the moment as an object in the outside world and his suggestive influence is suspended.e. and conveys to the listener the impression that the patient had suddenly physically 'absented' himself.pep-web. an individual who derives. symbolically) of an erotogenic occurrence. lies either perfectly still or is quietly engaged in some form of pantomime. simultaneous with this 'total incorporation of the undivided object' (Abraham). the analytic situation for an 'intra-uterine' existence. an excellent speaker. such language is. Thus the analyst is ingested. The silence appears 'interminable'. Int. and doctrinaire. treat the excretory product. but it is of a different make-up. In the pure type of oralerotic silence. sustaining or accompanying the silent period renders it understandable. his very name from the fact that he is non-speaking. informing either directly or indirectly (e. and that the collateral active and aggressive instinct-component (biting) manifests itself in the abrupt severance of the subject from the object of a very early transference. informs one afterwards.univ-paris-diderot. credibly. The patient. as though it were solid. the patient discharges these strivings. While effective before an audience. practised wetting perversions. however. a more regressive one than that of urethral-erotic cessation of speech.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 often than silence speech. Freud: Female Sexuality. temporarily. when capable of 'working through' his behaviour. naturally. The remaining component of the ingestive instinctual action ('devouring').ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 4 de 9 . in other words. The individual has here lost speech because he has temporarily become an 'infant'. and can indeed rarely be terminated through admonition. as is commonly known. in other words. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. a 'silence malgré lui'. versatile.org.rproxy. If the speech-apparatus is to be thought of as emulating the once dominant oral-erotic zone. EXAMPLE I This example concerns a male patient who exhibited throughout the beginning of his analysis a mixed form of 'phallic-urethralerotic' and 'anal-erotic' language—a combination describable as the speech of the public speaker: fluent. The stoppage appears 'involuntary'. of a genuine and truly unconquerable inability to speak. distribute or circulate it in any form. It is illegal to copy. in other words. i.g. demanding mutual incorporation of both subject and object. not only more regressive than the two previous types. as well as motive. It is in consequence of this radical transformation that the patient is suddenly silent. III. preclusive of speaking and conducive to an erotogenic control of the earliest oral-libidinal and oral-aggressive instinctual strivings. The patient. 13. and when induced is often imitative of the original rage-response to an enema on the part of the child. has exchanged.

The partial displacement of anal-erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus affords manageability of such discharge through verbal continence in the form of regressive anal-erotic silence. feeling that he must leave lest he wet. The patient. as he previously had treated urination. is committed to the drawing of candid pictures. supported by the analytic work. equally advantageous if compared to the employment of the patient's own person. Yet he followed this with an emphatic retraction. yet it offers an economic advantage to the patient. The narrative interrupted so suddenly by silence had concerned a sleep-walking episode of the previous night—an episode representative. The erotogenic employment of words as representatives of the excretory product is. The change in the form of silence. the previous with the present attempt of the patient to resolve the conflict between his urinary urge and the necessity for ————————————— 8 The analytic observer. He resisted one day the analyst's admonition to terminate one of his silent periods. he had actually been fighting a urinary urge.25 - its inhibition. His language reflected thus the same mixture of urethral-erotic and anal-erotic traits that distinguished his erotogenetic régime.univ-paris-diderot. been frightened by the discovery that instead of approaching the bathroom he was moving away from it in exactly the opposite direction towards the door of his one-room apartment. had. to imitate his constipation through spastic anuria. since what had prevented him from verbalization had merely been his concentration upon fighting the urinary urge.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 5 de 9 . while angrily hitting the couch: 'I know I'm not following the analytic rule!'.to the analerotic zone.pep-web. This declaration while obviously repeating the characteristically aggressive response of anal-erotic silence to admonition. had been unable to urinate. a sensation of emptiness in her stomach and a http://www.org.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 of soap into the rectum. by declaring that it was by no means a confirmation but that. giving out on a staircase. it disproved the interpretation. The main symptom was a chronic anorexia. upon waking.9 The cathectic displacement deduced and described by this writer had actually been indirectly experienced and described symbolically by his patient. The change in displacement described here is but a partial one.10 The erotogenetic employment of his speech-apparatus. it appeared expedient to give him a partial interpretation of the erotogenic make-up of his silence. it would. a 'naturalist'. She suffered. displayed by this patient—a change that might have been anticipated for theoretical reasons—occurred unexpectedly and abruptly. Since he had once. In the case referred to in the text. and refused to supply the omitted thought. The quantities of auxiliary cathexis of the anal sphincter that had at that time enabled the patient's urethra. enables the theoretician to compare topographically. therefore.fr/document. with great difficulty. yet upon arriving at the lavatory of a public building.PEP Web . In the first attempt he had followed the urge. To avoid an erroneous inference from the report in the text it may be explicitly stated that such interpretation is but rarely given to a patient by this writer and that it should not in his opinion ever be given in preference to that of any other form of acting-out in the analytic situation. on the contrary. in need for urination. symbolically. EXAMPLE II The female patient whose behaviour illustrates oral-erotic silence felt frequently tongue-tied. have now been displaced on to the speech-apparatus and have enabled the latter to a similar imitation in the course of which sphincter-closure is reflected as anal-erotic silence. It is illegal to copy. of the same displacement of additional quantities of narcissistic cathexis from the urethral. this time. with an impulsion to regressive analerotic instinctual discharge. Her 'erotogenic' symptomatology was entirely oral. but had concealed the matter throughout. and lapsed again into silence. had propelled himself symbolically from the office. of course. who on former occasions. was silent against her will. terminated a session prematurely by jumping up from the couch under a sudden urinary impulse. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. He exclaimed. interrupted the act of expelling himself from the posterior aperture of his room—'posterior' relative to that employed previously under the urge to urinate— through awakening under the same economic conditions that forced him subsequently to interrupt verbalization through silence. not have been given in the absence of the previous acting-out. occasioning this last interruption. yet his silence did not: it was purely urethral-erotic. it concerns merely certain qualities of narcissistic cathexis.rproxy. It exhibited all the characteristics belonging to this type and lacked all those described previously as criteria for anal-erotic silence. and had succeeded only after a lapse of time. in the very beginning of his analysis. as it is if compared to that of the product of itself. walking out of that door.8 He answered this interpretation immediately with the admission that. and walking towards the bathroom. and by eliminating his urine in single drops. I might have killed myself. causing underweight and becoming acute in the presence of either mother or lover. from the beginning of the hour on. and had experienced the effect of his unconscious counteraction as a spastic anuria. now. insured the patient against 'accidents' in the ordinary as well as in the nursery sense of the word. and totally unaware of what had been on her mind. distribute or circulate it in any form.sc. had arisen from bed and had found himself. The peristaltic ('motor') effect of the displacement appears in this episode as somnambulistic ('locomotor') action. whose ego had become endangered through the buoyancy of the repressed. besides—and had done so since early childhood—from a particular syndrome in which a sudden spell of anorexia is accompanied by slight nausea. became aggressive. on to which they had been displaced. in other words.') He had. ('I woke up just in time. . He was told that he was treating speaking in analysis.

Scene 2. in which the analyst is referred to in the second person—'You knelt down next to me. if.univ-paris-diderot. and in speaking. The unconscious infantile dreamwish fundamental to the dream. Sir. It felt good. was a long one. The effects of her treatment. Italics mine. in contrast to those had by children. The patient feels 'warm and cosy'. Hamlet's answer confirms this interpretation and duplicates that of the patient. …' The inability of this patient to associate freely has so far precluded the analysis of her dreams. and of the type where the secondary elaboration is so deceptive that it had once led Freud to the (later tentatively abandoned) belief in a 'nocturnal phantasying' (naechtliches phantasieren). of the instinctual make-up of the pure type of oral-erotic silence. A digest of it. Sir. were due to a 'substitution therapy' by which the persisting influence of a phobic. put your hand between my legs and gave a firm push against my vagina. here reported. not having to speak to the partner and employing mouth as well as vagina for contact. for you yourself. in the analyst's office.rproxy. within one year. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. Polonius' reaction. The description of partial-erotic silence—a phase of regressive partial-erotic language —has been presented here. as has Abraham's clinical observation and the result of Sharpe's genetic investigation. is ordered to be silent. '… The sensation of your naked body (especially your stomach) against me was so thrilling that I was almost numb. as far as it was describable. 28. prohibitive and competitive mother had been replaced by that of the analyst. distribute or circulate it in any form. been consummated so avidly that the mere turning of his back to the patient (for example.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 6 de 9 .) POLONIUS: '… Will you walk out of the air. as one of the most pleasant features of her first sexual experience. rendered previously by the writer.fr/document. (Act II. whereupon the analyst walks back to his chair and addresses the patient: 'Don't say another word!' He then resumes his approach in undress and lies down upon the patient.org. is sufficient for the present purpose. while crossing the room in order to get an ashtray). The dreamer finds herself. she responded with the equivalent of a 'children's dream' (Freud)—a simple wish-fulfilment for an analysis in which one does not have to speak but. quoting the pertinent parts. her leg slips off the couch and hangs down from the side without a shoe. who had actually been afraid of killing himself by 'going backward'. should be as old as I am. The dream is expressive of the pre-oedipal wish to enter the mother. The particular ease with which the young woman became capable of vaginal responses had at first appeared almost incredible until one day her complete satisfaction over a 'big fat orgasm' of the night before made it clear that the vagina had been mobilized so unhesitatingly because it was an organ of alimentation. however. complete inactivity for enjoyable and successful activity in almost all realms of her life. however. precipitated acute depressions.sc. like a crab. inasmuch as the subject refuses to supply the omitted thought. whose unconscious incorporation had from the beginning on. so it appeared. you could go backward. is nevertheless quite transparent because its representation is a typical one and well known. The dream. . is represented by the dreamer as an alternative to verbalization —a representation in full accordance with that. The question is asked in response to Hamlet's lapse into silence—a silence preceded by an allusion to the same change in the subject's cathectic position from the phallic to the anal-erotic zone as was supposed to have occurred in the patient. It was not only a sexual delight but almost a spiritual one. and—to quote from the report. endorsed and in the same breath disowned by Hamlet ('… All of which … though I believe.) To the second serious attempt on the part of the analyst to convince this patient of the interference. my lord?' HAMLET: 'Into my grave ?' Both question and answer are illustrative of the tenets set forth in the text. on the contrary. coincident with her treatment. though I most powerfully and potently believe. of 'being in it'. This mutual incorporation. I woke up then and felt ecstatic. …' Patient and analyst look at each other. yet I hold it not honesty to have it thus set down. In the dream I was led to believe by you that this was some sort of treatment —a part of my analysis. see p. remains incomprehensible unless it is understood as descriptive of the 'peristaltic' occurrence ending in sphincterclosure discussed in the text above and symbolized in the patient's performance.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 ————————————— 9 For a general discussion of the economicgain from the displacement of regressive excretory erotogeneity upon speech. by her frequent interruptions of verbalization. It is illegal to copy. both. late in the evening.PEP Web .pep-web. (She mentioned consequently. The apparent incongruency between the generalization that verbalization in analysis implies regressive instinctual discharge and thereby http://www. HAMLET: '… All of which. are conceived of as phallic and the instinctual action (triebhandlung) appears in its characteristic attenuation to 'touching'. with an analysis. Shakespeare's invention of a text. Nevertheless I had the feeling that you enjoyed the "cure" too. subject and object of the wish. … The thrill was one that passed over my whole being (no specific area).26 - quasi-mood identified to herself as 'that certain feeling'. 10 The locomotor intent acted out somnambulistically by this patient is suggested in the astonishing question put by Polonius to Hamlet in his famous 'diagnostic' interview with him. yet I hold it not honesty to have it … set down. which enabled her to exchange. in the experience of complete motor-inhibition combined with the wish to 'creep into something' or of the phantasy. …') will be appreciated as a means of acquainting the audience with the protagonist's silent thought. The latter consisted. in order to demonstrate that such language exists.' If it is remembered that anal-erotic silence has been characterized as unbreakable.

In other words: if and when the 'infantile' neurosis of the analyzand—the nucleus of his later neurosis—is reactivated through the analytic procedure. and of the neurosis. is not truly indicative of a contradiction. either excretory or ingestive. a disruption of this organization. antagonistic to its concentration in speaking. topographically. sir. which hitherto may have been latent. Yet he might nevertheless not be able to fulfil the demands of this rule if such fulfilment did not offer. Discharge of regressive affect in these activities will be regarded as conducive. to a dilution of affect. in other words. The limitation to verbal expression in analysis requires. is a danger to his ego-organization. cannot be relied upon to avail itself of the economic advantage described previously of verbal over excretory instinctual discharge. The regressiveness of his psychic organization implies a topographical re-differentiation whose extent as well as its nature alters the context in which the displacements of erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. The psychotic's ego. peculiarly defective as it is. will temporarily ————————————— 11 The regressive employment of the excretory product—the word—in the transference (phallic exhibition. symptoms of infantile erotogeneity. the corresponding activity of the object is represented directly and in displacement. sufficient to perform the regressive partial-erotic discharge of certain instinctual quantities (triebquantitaeten) through speaking carries the economic benefit of their mastery by the neurotic. however. or the use of the office toilet. and the restriction of such occurrence to patients displaying an erotogenic disturbance.27 - become manifest11 and productive of partial-erotic language. concerning an excretory exchange. Text consequently becomes mere 'words'. . for its full comprehension. 'gift'. And the liberation of affect-quanta through erotogeneity other than that of the speech-apparatus will be looked upon as preclusive. suggestions infringing upon this restriction will—as far as the analytic treatment of the neuroses is concerned—no longer be entertained. both of whom are 'historical' persons ('… for you yourself. the substratum of thought.pep-web. answered the former's explanatory question 'What is the matter. where Hamlet. Gratifications—such as smoking in analysis. of regressive affect collateral to repressed ideation. content mere 'matter'. The patient's compliance with this rule is due.univ-paris-diderot. to his 'compliance with (the demands of) the analyst—a compliance rooted deeply in the unconscious parent-complex' (Freud). in the very act of the verbal communication of the latter. an excretory or ingestive incontinence. between two partners. It is illegal to copy. upon occasion.) has been omitted from the present study because it is covered by the theory of psycho-sexual development.fr/document. The consequences of this for the technique of the psycho-analytic treatment of the psychotic are equally obvious.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 the liberation. Yet this matter is one 'between' subject and object of a transference which is aggressive ('Slanders. The displacement of quantities of narcissistic cathexis upon the speech-apparatus.) Thought is here treated regressively: cathexis is withdrawn from it and the word. in nature. ultimately. at least a particular economic advantage. to a degree sufficient to insure his ego against such disruption.rproxy. my lord?' with the famous 'Words. will be appreciated as not only economically but also topographically antagonistic to verbalization. as is his willingness to remember. distribute or circulate it in any form. an appreciation of the fact that the transformation of the derivatives of repressed unconscious thought into auditory word-images through verbalization—a transformation that renders these products of internal perception subject to external perception not only by the analyst but also by the patient himself —involves an aperture of the body terminal to an erotogenic zone that permits a regressive erotogenic employment. implied in the insistence upon submission to the demands of the analytic rule. The promotion. my lord?' with 'Between who ?' (Italics mine. engaged in the acting-out of a 'primal phantasy'.PEP Web . The danger implies. on the other. The interference of different forms of partial-erotic silence with verbalization is therefore symptomatic of the struggle for control of instinctual discharge—a struggle engaging the infantile ego of the neurotic in the interest of its preservation. impregnation. For no neurosis lacks such a disturbance. should be as old as I am …' etc. the mutual elimination of matter —occurs.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 7 de 9 . words'. It is http://www. after having replied to Polonius. consequently. etc. If these theoretical considerations permit at all a technical application it is an obvious one. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. economically. however slight and intermittent. 'What do you read. words. and no analysis can be successful without its temporary exacerbation. of a maximum of verbal and a minimum of excretory instinctual discharge will be recognized as a requisite to the obtainment of maximal remembrance and minimal acting-out. It is this fact that enables the patient to cancel the inhibition of affect collateral to repressed ideation. An acknowledgement of the existence of such employment is contained in the dialogue quoted above. Once the unique position of the speechapparatus and the consequences of the restriction to verbalization in the 'talking-cure' are completely understood. the inspection of the patient's literary or artistic products by the analyst. etc. of their displacement upon the latter. sir') and excretory. The indirect and symbolic representation of the subject's excretory activity has been interpreted in the remarks on the same scene contained in the footnote on pl 26. ('Old men('s) … eyes purging thick amber and plumtree gum …'). The displacement of such erotogeneity upon the speech-apparatus is one of the fundamental effects of the enforcement of the 'analytic rule'. on the one hand. The reactivation of infantile erotogeneity in the course of the analytic work.sc. thus. The dialogue—that is. is cathected instead.org.). at times.

g. in turn. a 'trial-acting with small energyquanta' (Freud). which were recognized as dependent upon the erotogenic complexion of the body-ego. instrumental in the appropriation by the ego of unconscious content. bring about a cathectic fusion of speech-apparatus and erotogenic zone instead of precipitating cathectic displacement from the latter upon the former.rproxy. If attainable. He can therefore when requested. self from environment.-Cs. be considered the totality of the 'organ-representations'. . and his later ceding of this topographical position to the 'System Pcpt. In the absence of such alterations a regressive body-ego remains resistive to restitution. These two component-institutions of the ego are reflected in two components of the auditory effect of verbalization. and the infantile subject of pathogenetic pre-genital strivings the owner. expressive of ideation and affect. The aspect. or even only permitted. by requiring greater quantities of cathectic energy and by limiting the displaceability of the latter. The effect is verbal and vocal. 4. The central position of this formation in the whole of the ego was acknowledged by Freud. we are justified in terming 'psychic ego'. will therefore not only tolerate but often indirectly encourage its infringement. a response by (speech-)motility to perception (of thought) is an ego-function and. in certain areas of the psychic organization—a development described by Freud as one 'from perception to mastery of instinct' and dependent upon the 'absorption of the instinct-representation by a (psychic) context'. if the representations of the erotogenic zones contained in it are distinguished from the rest by their particular and direct dependence upon 'pleasure-physiological' processes of instinctual charge and discharge.sc. the more he succeeds in performing it with the help of the erotogeneity of those substitutes for.pep-web. on the other hand. and its subsequent emendation.PEP Web . CONCLUSION The clinical data and theoretical considerations presented here lead to a metapsychological description of the rôle played by verbalization in the therapeutic process: 1. such transformation. following Freud. . of a 'primal-mouth' a 'cloaca'.-Cs' are not merely the equivalent of a statement. His work will. certain elements of the body-ego which (in varying a Freudian expression and its employment) can be described as 'prothetic'. The relation between the function of verbalization and the other topographical institution responsible for occurrence and http://www. in analysis. while re-delimiting. and the analyst. Such content. conditioned by processes of instinctual charge and discharge. and distinguishing from a 'body ego'. a 'phallus'—incapable of relinquishing its position to an adult psychic organization.org.univ-paris-diderot. e. The possibility of distinguishing between two topographical components of the ego proper within the framework of Freud's topography of the psychic apparatus becomes evident if it is acknowledged that his original positing of the 'nucleus of the ego' as 'consisting of word-images'. It is illegal to copy. These are elements of the 'object-world'—animate or inanimate—yet their cathexis is narcissistic. its transformation into an object-libidinal one is a prerequisite. The 'vocal' aspect.ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 8 de 9 . distribute or circulate it in any form. may allow 'ego' to overgrow 'auto-erotic' defects in the individual's erotogenic organization. Economically and dynamically verbalization. and is. describable as the acoustic materialization of these word-images is. a motor activity. as it were.29 - constitution of the body-ego. to verbalize in the fashion expected of the neurotic become incontinent. is. distribute or circulate it in any form. The latter—no less psychic a formation than the former—can. far from enforcing the 'basic rule'.Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 illegal to copy. Topographically verbalization. stimulates ego development. be the more effective. It is the topographical composition of this context and the relations of its components to certain phases of the process of verbalization that require description. when he termed the ego 'predominantly a body-ego'. may well be thought of as nuclear functions of the ego. in the process of its appropriation. as has been shown in the present study. here designated as 'verbal' concerns the absorption of unconscious thought by the nuclear context of the psychic ego. differs from thinking. 'instinct-representative' as it is.fr/document. therefore. and the response of the ego to this form of indirect excretory instinctual stimulation may be disruptive. and bear much resemblance to that which we commonly try to avoid by refraining from penetrating interpretations. 3. or extensions of. The release of regressive affect through the erotogenic employment of the speech-apparatus in verbalization. This dependence is mutual. 2. it consists in the last analysis of an integration of memory-traces of word-images. while word-images may nevertheless be looked upon as the nuclear substratum of that part of the ego which. Premature exercise of the erotogeneity of the speech-apparatus through untrammelled verbalization may. Continence is then threatened instead of insured. The functions ascribed to the system Pcpt. theoretically. to the restoration of the element proper in the body-ego. consequently. economically. capable of intiating alterations in the pleasure-physiological WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared.28 - occur in the case of the normal and the neurotic. a silent process.

Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule' 02-05-13 22:59 maintenance of repression.PEP Web .ph…or%2Cfliess%2C+robert%7Cviewperiod%2Cweek%7Csort%2Cauthor%2Ca#hit1 Página 9 de 9 . as modified in the direction of a capacity for language is to be regarded as the nucleus of the super-ego. . Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing. Silence and Verbalization: A Supplement to the Theory of the 'Analytic Rule'. http://www.univ-paris-diderot. It is illegal to copy.pep-web. (1949). as the 'transformation of the derivatives of repressed unconscious thought into auditory word-images subject to external perception'. 30:21-30 Copyright © 2013.12 In either instance it is the psychosomatic nature of verbalization and the relations involved in the restitutive process. The establishment of this position is the work of Otto Isakower. Int. ten years ago in a study 'On the Exceptional Position of the Auditory Sphere' developed the formula: '… just as the nucleus of the ego is the body-ego. the superego. ————————————— 12 The clinical substantiation of this statement must be reserved for a separate publication. Psycho-Anal. so the human auditory sphere..rproxy.fr/document. that is responsible for these corrective effects. It is operative in a phase of verbalization. J. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the PEPWeb subscriber and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to copy.30 - Article Citation [Who Cited This?] Fliess. described in the text above.sc.org. This transformation results in a stimulation of the auditory sphere of the patient—a sphere whose position in the topography of the psychic apparatus is nuclear to the superego. is no less intimate and no less specific. distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever. distribute or circulate it in any form. Help | About | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Problem WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the subscriber to PEP Web and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared.' The auditory re-entry of certain verbal images into the psychic organization is indeed as precipitative of super-ego-formation as the re-entry of certain erotogenic elements into the context of organ-representations in consequence of the vocal release of regressive affect is originative of body-ego. who. R.

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