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# Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory

## Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04

Fourier Series
Fourier Transform
Laplace Transform
Applications of Laplace Transform
Z-Transform
BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Fourier Series
Fourier Transform
Laplace Transform
Applications of Laplace Transform
Z-Transform
BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
The Fourier series of a periodic function f(t) is a
representation that resolves f(t) into a dc component and
an ac component comprising an infinite series of harmonic
sinusoids.
Given a periodic function f(t) = f(t+nT) where n is an
integer and T is the period of the function.

where
0
=2/T is called the fundamental frequency in

ac
n
n
dc
t n b t n a a t f

=
+ + =
1
0 0 0 0
) sin cos ( ) (
Trigonometric Fourier Series (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
in alternative form of f(t)

where

and a
n
and b
n
are as follow

=
T
o n
dt t n t f
T
a
0
) cos( ) (
2

) ( tan ,
1
n
2 2
n
n
n n n
a
b
b a c

= + =

=
T
o n
dt t n t f
T
b
0
) sin( ) (
2

ac
n
n n
dc
t n c a t f

=
+ + =
1
0 0
) cos( ( ) (
Trigonometric Fourier Series (2)
(Inverse tangent or arctangent)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
) 2 ( ) ( and
2 1 , 0
1 0 , 1
) ( + =

< <
< <
= t f t f
t
t
t f

=
=
= =
= =

even n , 0
odd n , / 2
) sin( ) (
2

and 0 ) cos( ) (
2
0
0
0
0

n
dt t n t f
T
b
dt t n t f
T
a
T
n
T
n

=
= + =
1
1 2 ), sin(
1 2
2
1
) (
k
k n t n
n
t f

=
=
=

=
=
=
even n , 0
odd n , 90
even n , 0
odd n , / 2

n
n
n
A

## Truncating the series at N=11

a) Amplitude and
b) Phase spectrum
Fourier Series Example
Determine the Fourier series of the
waveform shown right. Obtain the
amplitude and phase spectra.
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Three types of symmetry
1. Even Symmetry : a function f(t) if its plot is

In this case,
) ( ) ( t f t f =
0
) cos( ) (
4
) (
2
2 /
0
0
2 /
0
0
=
=
=

n
T
n
T
b
dt t n t f
T
a
dt t f
T
a

## Typical examples of even periodic function

Symmetry Considerations (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
2. Odd Symmetry : a function f(t) if its plot is

In this case,
) ( ) ( t f t f =

=
=
2 /
0
0
0
) sin( ) (
4
0
T
n
dt t n t f
T
b
a

## Typical examples of odd periodic function

Symmetry Considerations (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
3. Half-wave Symmetry : a function f(t) if

) ( )
2
( t f
T
t f =

=
=

even an for , 0
odd n for , ) sin( ) (
4
even an for , 0
odd n for , ) cos( ) (
4
0
2 /
0
0
2 /
0
0
0
T
n
T
n
dt t n t f
T
b
dt t n t f
T
a
a

## Typical examples of half-wave odd periodic functions

Symmetry Considerations (3)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example 1
Find the Fourier series expansion of f(t) given
below.

=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
sin
2
cos 1
1 2
) (
n
t
n n
n
t f

Ans:
Symmetry Considerations (4)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example 2
Determine the Fourier series for the half-wave
cosine function as shown below.

=
= =
1
2 2
1 2 , cos
1 4
2
1
) (
k
k n nt
n
t f

Ans:
Symmetry Considerations (5)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Steps for Applying Fourier Series
1. Express the excitation as a Fourier series.
2. Transform the circuit from the time domain to the
frequency domain.
3. Find the response of the dc and ac components in
the Fourier series.
4. Add the individual dc and ac responses using the
superposition principle.
Circuit Applications (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example
Find the response v
0
(t) of the circuit below when
the voltage source v
s
(t) is given by

( ) 1 2 , sin
1 2
2
1
) (
1
= + =

=
k n t n
n
t v
n
s

## Circuit Applications (2)

Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Amplitude spectrum of the output
voltage
Solution
Phasor of the circuit
For dc component, (
n
=0 or n=0), V
s
= => V
o
= 0

For n
th
harmonic,

In time domain,
s 0
V
2 5
2
V

n j
n j
+
=
)
5
2
tan ( c
4 25
4
) (
1
1
2 2
0

+
=
k
n
t n os
n
t v

s
2 2
1
0
V
4 25
5 / 2 tan 4
V , 90
2
V

n
n
n
S
+

= =

Circuit Applications (3)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Given:

The average power is

The rms value is

=

=
+ = + =
1
Im 0 m dc
1
0 n dc
) cos( I I ) ( and ) cos( V V ) (
m n
Vn
t m t i t n t v
) (
1
2 2 2
0

=
+ + =
n
n n rms
b a a F

=
+ =
1
n n dc dc
) cos( I V
2
1
I V P
n
n n

Average Power and RMS Values (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example
Determine the average power supplied to the
circuit shown below if
i(t)=2+10cos(t+10)+6cos(3t+35) A
Average Power and RMS Values (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
The exponential Fourier series of a periodic function f(t)
describes the spectrum of f(t) in terms of the amplitude and
phase angle of ac components at positive and negative
harmonic.

The plots of magnitude and phase of c
n
versus n
0
are called
the complex amplitude spectrum and complex phase
spectrum of f(t) respectively.

= =

T
t jn
n
T dt e t f
T
c
0
0
/ 2 where , ) (
1
0

=
=
n
t jn
n
o
e c t f

) (
Exponential Fourier Series (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
The complex frequency spectrum of the function
f(t)=e
t
, 0<t<2 with f(t+2)=f(t)

(a) Amplitude spectrum; (b) phase spectrum
Exponential Fourier Series (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Filter are an important component of electronics and communications
system.
This filtering process cannot be accomplished without the Fourier series
expansion of the input signal.
For example,

(a) Input and output spectra of a lowpass filter, (b) the lowpass filter passes
only the dc component when
c
<<
0
Application Filter (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
(a) Input and output spectra of a bandpass filter, (b) the bandpass filter
passes only the dc component when

<<
0
Application Filter (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Fourier Series
Fourier Transform
Laplace Transform
Applications of Laplace Transform
Z-Transform
BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
It is an integral transformation of f(t) from the time domain
to the frequency domain F()
F() is a complex function; its magnitude is called the
amplitude spectrum, while its phase is called the phase
spectrum.
Given a function f(t), its Fourier transform denoted by F(),
is defined by

= ) ( ) ( dt e t f F
t j

## Definition of Fourier Transform (1)

Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example 1:
Determine the Fourier transform of a single
rectangular pulse of wide and height A, as shown
below.
Definition of Fourier Transform (2)
2
sin
2
2
2 /
2 /
) (
2 / 2 /
2 /
2 /

c A
j
e e A
e
j
A
dt Ae F
j j
t j
t j
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

=
=

Solution:
Amplitude spectrum of the
rectangular pulse
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example 2:
Obtain the Fourier transform of the
switched-on exponential function as
shown.
Definition of Fourier Transform (3)
Solution:

j a
dt e
dt e e dt e t f F
e
t u e t f
t j a
t j jat t j
at
at
+
=
=
= =

<
>
= =

1

) ( ) (
Hence,
0 t , 0
0 t ,
) ( ) (
) (
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
F a F a t f a t f a F + = +
Linearity:
If F
1
() and F
2
() are, respectively, the Fourier
Transforms of f
1
(t) and f
2
(t)
Example:
| | ( ) ( ) | | | | ) ( ) (
2
1
) sin(
0 0 0
0 0

+ = =

j e F e F
j
t F
t j t j
Properties of Fourier Transform (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
| | constant a is , ) (
1
) ( a
a
F
a
at f F

=
Time Scaling:
If F

() is the Fourier Transforms of f

(t), then
If |a|>1, frequency compression, or time expansion
If |a|<1, frequency expansion, or time compression
Properties of Fourier Transform (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
| | ) ( ) (
0
0

F e t t f F
t j
=
Time Shifting:
If F

() is the Fourier Transforms of f

(t), then
Example:
| |

j
e
t u e F
j
t
+
=

1
) 2 (
2
) 2 (
Properties of Fourier Transform (3)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
| | ) ( ) (
0
0

= F e t f F
t j
Frequency Shifting (Amplitude Modulation):
If F

() is the Fourier Transforms of f

(t), then
Example:
| | ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) cos( ) (
0 0 0
+ + = F F t t f F
Properties of Fourier Transform (4)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
) ( ) ( s F j t u
dt
df
F =
(

Time Differentiation:
If F

() is the Fourier Transforms of f

(t), then the
Fourier Transform of its derivative is
Example:
( )
j a
t u e
dt
d
F
at
+
=
(

1
) (
Properties of Fourier Transform (5)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
) ( ) 0 (
) (
) (

F
j
F
dt t f F
t
=
(

Time Integration:
If F

() is the Fourier Transforms of f

(t), then the
Fourier Transform of its integral is
Example:
| | ) (
1
) (

+ =
j
t u F
Properties of Fourier Transform (6)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Fourier transforms can be applied to circuits with non-sinusoidal
excitation in exactly the same way as phasor techniques being
applied to circuits with sinusoidal excitations.

By transforming the functions for the circuit elements into the
frequency domain and take the Fourier transforms of the
excitations, conventional circuit analysis techniques could be
applied to determine unknown response in frequency domain.
Finally, apply the inverse Fourier transform to obtain the
response in the time domain.
Y() = H()X()
Circuit Application (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example:
Find v
0
(t) in the circuit shown below for
v
i
(t)=2e
-3t
u(t)
Circuit Application (2)
Solution:
) ( ) ( 4 . 0 ) ( gives ansform Fourier tr inverse the Taking
) 5 . 0 )( 3 (
1
) ( V
Hence,
2 1
1
) ( V
) ( V
) ( is circuit the of function transfer The

3
2
) ( V is signal input the of ansform Fourier tr The
3 5 . 0
0
0
i
0
i
t u e e t v
j j
j
H
j
t t
=
+ +
=
+
= =
+
=

## Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory

Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Fourier Series
Fourier Transform
Laplace Transform
Applications of Laplace Transform
Z-Transform
BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
It is an integral transformation of f(t) from the time
domain to the complex frequency domain F(s)
Given a function f(t), its Laplace transform denoted by
F(s), is defined by

Where the parameter s is a complex number
| |

= =
0
) ( ) ( ) ( dt e t f t f L s F
st
Definition of Laplace Transform
j s + =
, real numbers
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
When one says "the Laplace transform" without qualification,
the unilateral or one-sided transform is normally intended.
The Laplace transform can be alternatively defined as the
bilateral Laplace transform or two-sided Laplace transform by
extending the limits of integration to be the entire real axis. If
that is done the common unilateral transform simply becomes
a special case of the bilateral transform.
The bilateral Laplace transform is defined as follows:

Bilateral Laplace Transform
| |

= = ) ( ) ( ) ( dt e t f t f L s F
st
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Determine the Laplace transform of each of the following functions shown:
Examples of Laplace Transforms (1)
a) The Laplace Transform of unit step, u(t) is given by
| |

= = =
0
1
1 ) ( ) (
s
dt e s F t u L
st
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
b) The Laplace Transform of exponential function, e
-at
u(t), a>0 is given by
| |

+
= = =
0
1
) ( ) (

s
dt e e s F t u L
st t
Examples of Laplace Transforms (2)
c) The Laplace Transform of impulse function, (t) is given by
| |

= = =
0
1 ) ( ) ( ) ( dt e t s F t u L
st

## Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory

Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Examples of Laplace Transforms (3)
s
s F
1
) ( =
+
=
s
s F
1
) ( 1 ) ( = s F
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Table of Selected Laplace Transforms (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
s F a s F a t f a t f a L + = +
Linearity:
If F
1
(s) and F
2
(s) are, respectively, the Laplace
Transforms of f
1
(t) and f
2
(t)
Example:
| | ( )
2 2
) (
2
1
) ( ) cos(

+
=
(

+ =

s
s
t u e e L t u t L
t j t j
Properties of Laplace Transform (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
| | ) (
1
) (
a
s
F
a
at f L =
Scaling:
If F

(s) is the Laplace Transforms of f

(t), then
Example:
| |
2 2
4
2
) ( ) 2 sin(

+
=
s
t u t L
Properties of Laplace Transform (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( s F e a t u a t f L
as
=
Time Shift:
If F

(s) is the Laplace Transforms of f

(t), then
Example:
| |
2 2
) ( )) ( cos(

+
=

s
s
e a t u a t L
as
Properties of Laplace Transform (3)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( a s F t u t f e L
at
+ =

Frequency Shift:
If F

(s) is the Laplace Transforms of f

(t), then
Example:
| |
2 2
) (
) ( ) cos(

+ +
+
=

a s
a s
t u t e L
at
Properties of Laplace Transform (4)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
) 0 ( ) ( ) (

=
(

f s sF t u
dt
df
L
Time Differentiation:
If F

(s) is the Laplace Transforms of f

(t), then the
Laplace Transform of its derivative is
Properties of Laplace Transform (5)
Time Integration:
If F

(s) is the Laplace Transforms of f

(t), then the
Laplace Transform of its integral is
) (
1
) (
0
s F
s
dt t f L
t
=
(

## Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory

Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
) ( lim ) 0 ( s sF f
s
=
Initial and Final Values:
The initial-value and final-value properties allow us
to find f(0) and f() of f(t) directly from its Laplace
transform F(s).
Initial-value theorem
) ( lim ) (
0
s sF f
s
=
Final-value theorem
Properties of Laplace Transform (6)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
In principle we could recover f(t) from F(s) via

But, this formula isnt really useful.
s e s F
j
t f
j
j
st
d ) (
2
1
) (

+

=

## The Inverse Laplace Transform (1)

=
x
F
1
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Suppose F(s) has the general form of

The finding the inverse Laplace transform of F(s)
involves two steps:
1. Decompose F(s) into simple terms using partial
fraction expansion.
2. Find the inverse of each term by matching entries
in Laplace Transform Table.
) (
) (
) (
s D
s N
s F =
The Inverse Laplace Transform (2)
numerator polynomial
denominator polynomial
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example
Find the inverse Laplace transform of

Solution:
4
6
1
5 3
) (
2
+
+
+
=
s s s
s F
0 t ), ( ) 2 sin( 3 5 3 (
4
6
1
5 3
) (
2
1 1 1
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
=

t u t e
s
L
s
L
s
L t f
t
The Inverse Laplace Transform (3)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
The Laplace transform is useful in solving linear
integro-differential equations.
Each term in the integro-differential equation is
transformed into s-domain.
Initial conditions are automatically taken into
account.
The resulting algebraic equation in the s-domain can
then be solved easily.
The solution is then converted back to time domain.
Application to Integro-differential Equations (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example:
Use the Laplace transform to solve the differential
equation

Given: v(0) = 1; v(0) = -2
) ( 2 ) ( 8
) (
6
) (
2
2
t u t v
dt
t dv
dt
t v d
= + +
Application to Integro-differential Equations (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Solution:
Taking the Laplace transform of each term in the given
differential equation and obtain
| | | |
) ( ) 2 1 (
4
1
) (
Transform, Laplace inverse By the
4 2
) (
2 4 2
4 ) ( ) 8 6 (
have we , 2 ) 0 ( ' ; 1 ) 0 ( ng Substituti
2
) ( 8 ) 0 ( ) ( 6 ) 0 ( ' ) 0 ( ) (
4 2
4
1
2
1
4
1 2
2
2
t u e e t v
s s s
s V
s
s s
s
s s V s s
v v
s
s V v s sV v sv s V s
t t
+ + =
+
+
+
+ =
+ +
= + + = + +
= =
= + +
Application to Integro-differential Equations (3)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Fourier Series
Fourier Transform
Laplace Transform
Applications of Laplace Transform
Z-Transform
BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Steps in Applying the Laplace Transform:
1. Transform the circuit from the time domain to
the s-domain
2. Solve the circuit using nodal analysis, mesh
analysis, source transformation, superposition, or
any circuit analysis technique with which we are
familiar
3. Take the inverse transform of the solution and
thus obtain the solution in the time domain.
Circuit Element Models (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04

Assume zero initial condition for
the inductor and capacitor,
Resistor : V(s)=RI(s)
Inductor: V(s)=sLI(s)
Capacitor: V(s) = I(s)/sC
The impedance in the s-domain
is defined as Z(s) = V(s)/I(s)
is defined as Y(s) = I(s)/V(s)
Time-domain and s-domain representations of passive
elements under zero initial conditions.
Circuit Element Models (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Circuit Element Models (3)
Non-zero initial condition for the
inductor and capacitor,
Resistor : V(s)=RI(s)
Inductor: V(s)=sLI(s) + LI(0)
Capacitor: V(s) = I(s)/sC + v(0)/s
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Introductory Example
Charging of a capacitor
v
V(0) = 0
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example 1:
Find v
0
(t) in the circuit shown below, assuming zero initial
conditions.
Circuit Element Models Examples (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Solution:
Transform the circuit from the time domain to the s-domain:
s
L
t u
3
sC
1
F
3
1
s s H 1
s
1
) (
=
=

## Apply mesh analysis, on solving for V

0
(s):
2 2
0
) 2 ( ) 4 (
2
2
3
) ( V
+ +
=
s
s
0 V, ) 2 sin(
2
3
) (
4
0
=

t t e t v
t
Inverse transform
Circuit Element Models Examples (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example 2:
Determine v
0
(t) in the circuit shown below, assuming zero
initial conditions.
V ) ( ) 2 1 ( 8 : Ans
2 2
t u te e
t t

Circuit Element Models Examples (3)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example 3:
Find v
0
(t) in the circuit shown below. Assume v
0
(0)=5V .
V ) ( ) 15 10 ( ) ( v : Ans
2
0
t u e e t
t t
+ =
Circuit Element Models Examples (4)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example 4:
The switch shown below has been in position b for a long
time. It is moved to position a at t=0. Determine v(t) for t > 0.
where 0, t , I ) I V ( ) ( v : Ans
0
/
0 0
RC R e R t
t
= > + =

## Circuit Element Models Examples (5)

Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Circuit analysis is relatively easy to do in the s-domain.
By transforming a complicated set of mathematical
relationships in the time domain into the s-domain where we
convert operators (derivatives and integrals) into simple
multipliers of s and 1/s.
This allow us to use algebra to set up and solve the circuit
equations.
In this case, all the circuit theorems and relationships
developed for dc circuits are perfectly valid in the s-domain.
Circuit Analysis
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example:
Consider the circuit below. Find the
value of the voltage across the
capacitor assuming that the value
of v
s
(t)=10u(t) V and assume that
at t=0, -1A flows through the
inductor and +5V is across the
capacitor.
Circuit Analysis Example (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Solution:
Transform the circuit from time-domain (a) into s-domain (b) using Laplace
Transform. On rearranging the terms, we have

By taking the inverse transform, we get

2
30
1
35
V
1
+

+
=
s s
V ) ( ) 30 35 ( ) ( v
2
1
t u e e t
t t
=
Circuit Analysis Example (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example:
The initial energy in the circuit below is zero at t=0. Assume that v
s
=5u(t) V.
(a) Find V
0
(s) using the Thevenin theorem. (b) Apply the initial- and final-
value theorem to find v
0
(0) an v
0
(). (c) Obtain v
0
(t).
Ans: (a) V
0
(s) =4(s+0.25)/(s(s+0.3)) (b) 4,3.333V, (c) (3.333+0.6667e-0.3t)u(t) V.
Circuit Analysis Example (3)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
The transfer function H(s) is the ratio of the output response
Y(s) to the input response X(s), assuming all the initial
conditions are zero.

h(t) is the impulse response function.
Four types of gain:
1. H(s) = voltage gain = V
0
(s)/V
i
(s)
2. H(s) = Current gain = I
0
(s)/I
i
(s)
3. H(s) = Impedance = V(s)/I(s)
4. H(s) = Admittance = I(s)/V(s)
) (
) (
) (
s X
s Y
s H =
Transfer Functions
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example:
The output of a linear system is y(t)=10e
-t
cos4t when the input is x(t)=e
-t
u(t).
Find the transfer function of the system and its impulse response.
Solution:
Transform y(t) and x(t) into s-domain and apply H(s)=Y(s)/X(s), we get

Apply inverse transform for H(s), we get
16 ) 1 (
4
40 10
16 ) 1 (
) 1 ( 10
) (
) (
) (
2 2
2
+ +
=
+ +
+
= =
s s
s
s X
s Y
s H
) ( ) 4 sin( 40 ) ( 10 ) ( t u t e t t h
t
=
Transfer Functions Example (1)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Example:
The transfer function of a linear system is

Find the output y(t) due to the input e
-3t
u(t) and its impulse
response.
6
2
) (
+
=
s
s
s H
) ( 12e - (t) 2 0; t , 4 2 : Ans
-6t 6 3
t u e e
t t
+

Transfer Functions Example (2)
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Fourier Series
Fourier Transform
Laplace Transform
Applications of Laplace Transform
Z-Transform
BSC Modul 4: Advanced Circuit Analysis
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
In continuous systems Laplace transforms play a unique role. They
allow system and circuit designers to analyze systems and predict
performance, and to think in different terms - like frequency
responses - to help understand linear continuous systems.

Z-transforms play the role in sampled systems that Laplace
transforms play in continuous systems.

In continuous systems, inputs and outputs are related by differential
equations and Laplace transform techniques are used to solve
those differential equations.

In sampled systems, inputs and outputs are related by difference
equations and Z-transform techniques are used to solve those
differential equations.

Introduction
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Fourier, Laplace and Z-Transforms
For right-sided signals (zero-valued for negative time index) the
Laplace transform is a generalization of the Fourier transform of
a continuous-time signal, and the z-transform is a generalization
of the Fourier transform of a discrete-time signal.
Fourier Transform
Laplace Transform
Z-Transform
generalization
continuous-time signals discrete-time signals
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
The Z-transform converts a discrete time-domain signal, which is
a sequence of real or complex numbers, into a complex
frequency-domain representation.
It can be considered as a discrete-time equivalent of the Laplace
transform.

There are numerous sampled systems that look like the one shown below.
discrete-time signals
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Let us assume that we have a sequence, y
k
.
The subscript "k" indicates a sampled time interval and that y
k
is the
value of y(t) at the k
th
sample instant.
y
k
could be generated from a sample of a time function.
For example: y
k
=y(kT), where y(t) is a continuous time function, and T is the
sampling interval.
We will focus on the index variable k, rather than the exact time kT, in all that we
do in the following.
| |
k
k
k k
z y y Z

=
0
Definition of the Z-Transform
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
k
k
a y y =
0
Z-Transform Example
Given the following sampled signal:
| |
a z
z
z
a
z
a
z a a Z
k
k k
k k k

=
|
.
|

\
|
= =

=

1
1
1
0 0
We get the Z-Transform for y
0
= 1
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Z-Transform of Unit Impulse and Unit Step
Given the following sampled signal D
k
:

D
k
is zero for k>0, so all those terms are zero.
D
k
is one for k =0, so that
| | 1 =
k
D Z
| |
1
... 1
3 2 1

= + + + =

z
z
z z z u Z
k
Given the following sampled signal u
k
:

u
k
is one for all k.
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
More Complex Example of Z-Transform
Given the following sampled signal f
k
:

( ) ) sin(bkT e kT f f
akT
k

= =
| |
k
k
akT
k
k
k k
z bkT e z f f Z

= = ) sin(
0 0
Finally:
| |
(

=
*
2
1
c z
z
c z
z
j
f Z
k
jbT aT
e c
+
=
where
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
S- and Z-Plane Presentation
Basics in Systems and Circuits Theory
Michael E.Auer 01.11.2011 BSC04
Inverse Z-Transform
The inverse z-transform can be obtained using one of two methods:

a) the inspection method,
b) the partial fraction method.

In the inspection method each simple term of a polynomial in z,
H(z), is substituted by its time-domain equivalent.

For the more complicated functions of z, the partial fraction method
is used to describe the polynomial in terms of simpler terms, and
then each simple term is substituted by its time-domain equivalent
term.