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MARTE, THE UML standard extension for real-time and embedded systems

Sébastien Gérard (sebastien[dot]gerard[at]cea[dot]fr) – CEA LIST, Laboratory of Mode !ri"en Engineering for E#bedded Syste#s (LISE), $o%te co&rrier '(, Gif s&r )"ette Cede*, +,-..-. +rance/ +ran0ois Terrier (francois[dot]terrier[at]cea[dot]fr) – CEA LIST, Laboratory of Mode !ri"en Engineering for E#bedded Syste#s (LISE), $o%te co&rrier '( , Gif s&r )"ette Cede*, +,-..-. +rance/ $ran Se ic (se ic[at]ac#[dot]org) – Ma ina Soft1are Cor2/, 3e2ean, 4ntario, Canada 5ierre $o& et (2ierre[dot]bo& et[at] if [dot]fr) – LI+L, 6ni"ersité des Sciences et Tec7no ogies de Li e, Cité scientifi8&e, (-'(( 9i ene&"e d:Asc8, +rance

Introduction
T7e 4b;ect Manage#ent Gro&2 (4MG, 111/o#g/org) is one of t7e 2rinci2a internationa organi<ations 2ro#oting standards s&22orting t7e &sage of #ode ,based soft1are and syste#s de"e o2#ent/ T7e 6nified Mode ing Lang&age standard (6ML [.]) is 2robab y t7e #ost re2resentati"e of t7ese and 7as 7ad significant s&ccess in t7e soft1are ind&stry as 1e as in ot7er do#ains s&c7 as IT and financia syste#s/ 6ML is no1 t7e #ost 1ides2read ang&age &sed for #ode ing in bot7 ind&stry and acade#ia/ It 1as designed as bot7 a genera ,2&r2ose #ode ing ang&age as 1e as a fo&ndation for different do#ain,s2ecific ang&ages, &sing its 2rofi e #ec7anis#/ T7e atter ca2abi ity a o1s t7e genera conce2ts of 6ML to be s2ecia i<ed for a s2ecific do#ain or a22 ication/,T7e fie d of rea ,ti#e e#bedded soft1are syste#s is one s&c7 do#ain for 17ic7 e*tensions to 6ML are re8&ired to 2ro"ide #ore 2recise e*2ression of do#ain, s2ecific 27eno#ena (e/g/, #&t&a e*c &sion #ec7anis#s, conc&rrency, dead ines, and t7e i=e)/ T7e 4MG a ready 7ad iss&ed a 6ML 2rofi e for t7is 2&r2ose, ca ed t7e UML profile for Schedulability, Performance and Time (S5T, [>])/ It 2ro"ided conce2ts for dea ing 1it7 #ode , based sc7ed& abi ity ana ysis, foc&sed 2ri#ari y on rate #onotonic ana ysis, and a so conce2ts for #ode ,based 2erfor#ance ana ysis based on 8&e&ing t7eory/ In addition, S5T a so 2ro"ided a fra#e1or= for re2resenting ti#e and ti#e,re ated #ec7anis#s/ ?o1e"er, 2ractica e*2erience 1it7 S5T re"ea ed s7ortco#ings 1it7in t7e 2rofi e in ter#s of its e*2ressi"e 2o1er and f e*ibi ity/ +or e*a#2 e, it 1as necessary to s&22ort t7e design of bot7 7ard1are and soft1are as2ects of e#bedded syste#s and a #ore e*tensi"e s&22ort for sc7ed& abi ity and 2erfor#ance ana ysis, enco#2assing additiona tec7ni8&es s&c7 as 7ierarc7ica sc7ed& ing/ +&rt7er#ore, 17en t7e ne1 "ersion of 6ML, 6ML > 1as ado2ted, it beca#e necessary to &2grade t7e S5T 2rofi e/ Conse8&ent y, a ne1 @e8&est +or 5ro2osa s (@+5) 1as iss&ed by t7e 4MG see=ing a ne1 6ML 2rofi e for rea ,ti#e and e#bedded syste#s, na#ed MARTE (Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time and Embedded systems, [A])/ T7e intent 1as to address t7e abo"e iss&es as 1e as to 2ro"ide a ign#ent 1it7 t7e 6ML 2rofi e for B&a ity of Ser"ice and +a& t To erance (BoS C +T, [D]), 17ic7 enab es s2ecification of not on y rea ,ti#e constraints b&t a so ot7er e#bedded syste#s c7aracteristics, s&c7 as #e#ory ca2acity and 2o1er cons&#2tion/ MA@TE 1as a so re8&ired to s&22ort #ode ing and ana ysis of co#2onent,based arc7itect&res, as 1e as a "ariety of different co#2&tationa 2aradig#s (async7rono&s, sync7rono&s, and ti#ed)/ To res2ond to t7is @+5, a tea# of 4MG #e#bers decided to de"e o2 a ;oint s&b#ission/ T7is consorti&#, ca ed t7e 5roMA@TE consorti&#, consisted of t7e fo o1ing enter2risesE A cate , A@TISA3 Soft1are Too s, Car eton 6ni"ersity, CEA LIST, ESE4, E3SIETA, +rance Te eco#, Internationa $&siness Mac7ines, I3@IA, I3SA fro# Lyon, Loc=7eed Martin, Mat7For=s, Mentor Gra27ics Cor2oration, 3oMagic, t7e Soft1are Engineering Instit&te (Carnegie,Me on 6ni"ersity), Softea#, Te e ogic A$, T7a es, Tri,5acific Soft1are, and 6ni"ersidad de Cantabria/ T7e res& ting

based de"e o2#ent of rea .ti#e and e#bedded syste#s/ It consists of a set of do#ain. or bot7/ In order to satisfy a t7ese re8&ire#ents. 8&antitati"e and 8&a itati"e as2ects and t7ey #ay be a"ai ab e at different e"e s of abstraction/ +ina y. s2ecia i<ations) of a22ro2riate genera 6ML conce2ts 2ro"iding 6ML #ode ers 1it7 first.order connotation s&c7 t7at. is s&b#itted to t7e 4MG:s board of t7e directors for fina a22ro"a / At t7at 2oint. in #any cases.ti#e and e#bedded (@TE) a22 ications/ Many of t7ese e*tensions 2ertain to so. MA@TE is str&ct&red as a 7ierarc7y of (s&b.gat7ering 27ase d&ring 17ic7 feedbac= fro# t7e broader &ser and "endor co##&nities is co ected/ 4f 2artic& ar significance is in2&t fro# co##ercia and ot7er too "endors intending to s&22ort t7e ne1 s2ecifications in t7eir 2rod&cts/ T7e second 27ase is t7en dedicated to so "ing t7e =ey iss&es identified in t7e initia 27ase res& ting in a $eta > "ersion of t7e s2ecification/ T7is "ersion is first screened by t7e 4MG:s arc7itect&re board and.ended. t7e negati"e JnonK 2refi* gi"es it a second. t7ey #ay be defined to s&22ort #ode ing.c ass ang&age constr&cts for #ode ing rea . [']).s&b#ission 1as "oted on and acce2ted by t7e 4MG in G&ne >HHI [(] as a J$eta S2ecificationK/ As 2rescribed by t7e 4MG:s 5o icies and 5roced&res #an&a (5C5. co"ering as2ects 17ic7 are beyond 17at is intended 7ere/ Forse yet.)2rofi es.L #ont7s and its first 27ase (aro&nd ' #ont7s) is a co##ent./H/ In t7e case of MA@TE it is e*2ected t7at t7is 1i be a"ai ab e by t7e first 8&arter of >HH-/ The Structure and Content of MARTE As noted. it is a 2rob e#atic ter#. a22 ications/ 3on. as de2icted in t7e 6ML 2ac=age diagra# in fig&re . fo o1ing ado2tion. since its inter2retation is o2en./ It 7as fo&r #ain 2arts/ igure !" MARTE#s Architecture $escription . a so. ca ed +ina i<ation Tas= +orce (+T+) 1as instit&ted to 2re2are t7e ne1 s2ecification for its for#a iss&e as an officia 4MG tec7no ogy reco##endation/ T7e +T+:s 1or=ing 2eriod is abo&t . 17ic7 in t7e case of @TE syste#s often i#2 ies fai &re/ . ca ed non-functional as2ects of @TE. if dee#ed acce2tab e. t7e s2ecification beco#es for#a y a"ai ab e in its "ersion . Fe c7ose t7is ter# re &ctant y. MA@TE is a 6ML 2rofi e intended for #ode . #ain y beca&se it 7as beco#e "ery 1ides2read/ 6nfort&nate y.s2ecific e*tensions (i/e/. ana ysis. t7ese concerns are on y addressed after t7e Jf&nctiona K concerns 7a"e been addressed – a sit&ation t7at so#eti#es eads to 2oor y engineered syste#s.f&nctiona concerns of an a22 ication can be c assified into t1o categories.

based design of @TE syste#s 1it7 MA@TE 2roceeds #ost y in a dec arati"e 1ay/ ?ence. MA@TE a so defines "ery refined conce2ts t7at enab e &sers to describe its co#2&ting 2 atfor#s (eit7er soft1are or 7ard1are) in a "ery detai ed and 2recise #anner [I. MA@TE inc &des in its anne*es faci ities for #ode ing 4SEO.2rofi e/ +or instance.ti#e feat&res #ay be denoted &sing an e*tension ca ed Mrt6nitN and. 17ic7 is a te*t&a ang&age for s2ecifying a gebraic e*2ressions/ T7e 3+5 s&b. and a22 ying se#antica y 1e . and a so a o1 s2ecification of "a &es for 2ro2erties 17ic7 are needed to carry o&t t7e .re ated a ocation (i/e/. *.based syste# (eit7er soft1are or 7ard1are) engineering t7ro&g7 its s2ecific s&b. MA@TE &sers #ay annotate t7eir #ode s 1it7 rea . #ode . 17ereas t7e ot7er (denoted by t7e JMA@TE ana ysis #ode K 2ac=age). conc&rrent co#2&ting &nits 1it7 rea .for#ed non. and synchronous/  Resource &*RM' – 4ne i#2ortant re8&ire#ent 1it7 regards to @TE syste# #ode ing is to re2resent t7e set of reso&rces &nder ying an a22 ication and a so 7o1 t7e syste# &ses t7e#/ T7e *RM (*eneric Resource Modeling) s&b.2rofi e 2ro"ides #ode ing constr&cts for dec aring. based ana ysis of @TE a22 ications (i/e/ #ore de"oted to t7e "a idation and o2ti#i<ation acti"ities)/ Mode .based co##&nication sc7e#es bet1een co#2onents/ In addition. t7ey can a so indicate 17at is t7e #ode of co#2&tation for t7e conc&rrent &nit/ 3ote a so t7at MA@TE enab es co#2onent.2rofi e consists of an onto ogy of reso&rces enab ing #ode ing of co##on co#2&ting 2 atfor#s (i/e/. and data.M &*eneric .2rofi e t7at enab es a co#2act re2resentation of #& tidi#ensiona reg& ar str&ct&res/ Mode .based design ). logical. to dea effecti"e y 1it7 t7e increasing degrees of 2ara e is# a"ai ab e on c7i2s. MA@TE is t7en s2 it into t1o different categories of e*tensionsE 4ne (denoted in fig&re .based ana ysis &sing MA@TE is done &sing #ain y t7e e*tensions defined eit7er in t7e *eneric -uantitati)e Analysis Modeling 2rofi e &*-AM'. by gi"ing s2ecific "a &es to its 2ro2erties. 17ic7 is t7e fo&ndation on 17ic7 t7e rest of MA@TE is constr&cted. and 7ig7 e"e conce2ts for s2ecifying reso&rce &sage/ T7e e"e of abstraction &sed 7ere is at a genera syste# e"e /  Allocation modeling &Alloc' – T7is s&b.ti#e or e#bedded concerns &sing t7e e*tensions defined 1it7in t7e +LAM &+igh-Le)el Application Modeling' s&b.f&nctiona c7aracteristics #ay be attac7ed to an a ocation descri2tion (e/g/.2rofi e. a set of reso&rces on to2 of 17ic7 an a22 ication #ay be a ocated to be co#2&ted). it is 2ossib e to s2ecify its 1orst case e*ec&tion ti#e)/ Starting fro# t7ese fo&ndationa conce2ts.f&nctiona as2ects of 6ML #ode s/ It is co#2 e#ented by t7e (alue Specification Language &(SL'.based ana yses &ses 6ML stereoty2es/ T7ese ty2ica y #a2 t7e 6ML #ode e e#ents of t7e a22 ication into corres2onding ana ysis do#ain conce2ts. and a so for #ani2& ating t7e &nder ying ti#e re2resentation/ T7e Ti#e e*tension defined in MA@TE 2ro"ides s&22ort for t7ree 8&a itati"e y different #ode s of ti#eE chronometric. dedicated res2ecti"e y to sc7ed& abi ity ana ysis and 2erfor#ance ana ysis/ T7e annotation #ec7anis# &sed in MA@TE to s&22ort #ode . consists of fo&r basics sets of 6ML e*tensions (s&b. MA@TE 2ro"ides in an anne* t7e RSM &Repetiti)e Structure Modeling' s&b.omponent Model'/ GCM s&22orts bot7 #essage. sc7ed& ing) or s2ace a ocation/ It a so tac= es t7e #ore abstract iss&e of refine#ent bet1een #ode s at different e"e s of abstraction/ 3ote t7at non. 2ro"ides s&22ort for #ode . 17ereas 9SL is &sed to s2ecify t7e )alues of t7ose ty2es and t7eir 2otentia f&nctiona re ations7i2s/  Time – T7is consists of conce2ts for defining ti#e in a22 ications.T7e to2 2ac=age. or &sing one of its t1o refine#ents.f&nctiona 2ro2erties as 6ML data ty2es.2rofi e of t7e fo&ndationa ayer 2ro"ides a set of genera conce2ts 2ertaining to a ocation of f&nctiona ity to entities res2onsib e for its rea i<ation/ It #ay be eit7er ti#e. L. -]/ As e*a#2 es. 17en s2ecifying t7e a ocation of a f&nction to a gi"en e*ec&tion engine. as t7e JMA@TE design #ode K) is dedicated to s&22orting t7e acti"ities of t7e eft branc7 of t7e c assica J9K de"e o2#ent cyc e (i/e/.2rofi e s&22orts t7e dec aration of non. 8&a ifying.2rofi es)E  %on-functional properties &% P' – T7is s&b. A@I3C or 54SIP co#2 iant soft1are co#2&ting 2 atfor#s/ +ina y.

H>. 4MG 5o icies and 5roced&res.H(. In 5roceedings of t7e Internationa Conference +or&# on S2ecification and . "..HA.. 2tcQHI. for code 2rod&ction or 8&antitati"e ana ysis 2&r2oses)/ In t7is conte*t.HA/ ['] 4MG.Ti#e @eso&rce Mode ing. 9ersion >/I.ect t7at 2&t MA@TE in t7e center of t7eir concerns (cf/ t7e 4MG 1eb site dedicate to MA@TE. S/ Gérard.2rocessing sc7e#a described in +ig&re >/ 3ote t7at t7is 2rocess can be 7ig7 y a&to#ated. and Ti#e.HL.H>./. for#a QH'./H after 17ic7 t7e 4MG 1i start s&ccessi"e #inor re"ision cyc es ( asting . MA@TE is a"ai ab e in its $eta > "ersion on t7e 4MG 1eb site (111/o#g/org)/ In Marc7 >HH-. it s7o& d be a"ai ab e in its "ersion .HL. 7o1e"er. 7tt2EQQ111/o#g/orgQtec7no ogyQdoc&#entsQfor#a Qsc7ed& abi ity/7t#/ [D] 4MG. in so#e cases. G/ !e ato&r and +rancois Terrier. or #a=e re"isions t7at correct errors/ 3ote.H.binQdocR 2tcQ>HHI.H.H'. 7tt2EQQ111/o#g/orgQs2ecQ6MLQ>/.L #ont7s on t7e a"erage).H(. MA@TE fosters #ode 2rocessing in t7e 1ay t7at it enab es adding se#antics to a gi"en 6ML #ode (e/g/. binQdocR22 [I] +/ T7o#as. 6ML 5rofi e for Mode ing BoS and +T C7aracteristics and Mec7anis#s.H'/ [(] 4MG. Soft1are @ea .Ti#e and E#bedded syste#s (MA@TE) @+5.. 5erfor#ance./. 6ML 9ersion ">/./H. 6ML 5rofi e for Mode ing and Ana ysis of @ea . t7e 4MG needs to iss&e a ne1 @+5/ MA@TE 7as a ready been a22 ied e*tensi"e y in 2ractice bot7 by ind&stry and acade#ia as indicated by t7e ist of ongoing 2ro./>. 6ML 5rofi e for MA@TE. 6ML 5rofi e for Sc7ed& abi ity.Q/ [A] 4MG. for#a QHI.H>. 7tt2EQQ111/o#g/orgQs2ecQB+T5Q./>Q/ [>] 4MG. 7tt2EQQ111/o#g/orgQcgi.H>.. eac7 one re2resenting a ne1 JdotK re ease/ T7e 2&r2ose of a re"ision tas= force is to reco##end c7anges t7at c arify co#2 e* or conf&sing te*t in t7e s2ec. for#a QH(. can e"en e i#inate t7e need for ana ysis do#ain e*2erts 17ic7 are often diffic& t to obtain/ igure . t7at t7ese re"isions cannot add ne1 ca2abi ities or en7ance#ents to t7e 2rofi e/ +or t7at. $eta . one generic &sage of MA@TE enab es t7e #ode ." Schema of the MARTE model-processing frame/or0 Future At t7e ti#e of t7is 1riting. ".ana yses/ +ina y. rea ti#eQH(. 17ic7. 7tt2EQQ111/o#g/orgQcgi. 111/o#g#arte/org)/ Links and References [. 22QHL.] 4MG.

S2ain. An 42en +ra#e1or= for ?ard1are !etai ed Mode ing. A/ @ader#ac7er.A>AA. In 5roceedings of t7e Internationa Conference +or&# on S2ecification and !esign Lang&ages (+!L) >HHI. Se2te#ber >HHI/ [L] S/ Ta7a..L/ !e=ey<er. and G/. IS$3 . and G/. S/Gerard. S/ Gerard. MA@TEE 6ML.HLAH. A/ @ader#ac7er. 5ort&ga . $arce ona.I. Lisbon. S2ain.!esign Lang&ages (+!L) >HHI. Se2te#ber >HHI/ .L/ !e=ey<er. G& y >HHI/ [-] S/ Ta7a. In IEEE 5roceedings of SIES:>HHI.based ?ard1are !esign fro# Mode ing to Si#& ation. $arce ona.