The Audi Technology Magazine 1/2014

Electrifying Results → Page 14 New Toys → Page 24 Show Car → Page 30 And Then There Was Sight → Page 32 Full Speed Ahead → Page 34 Click for the Future → Page 46 Tankful Outcome → Page 52 Showdown → Page 58 Bespoken For → Page 64 Out of Thin Air → Page 74 Happy Anniversary → Page 80 Great Finnish → Page 82 Shell Shock → Page 90

The Audi Technology Magazine 1/2014

Encounter online – The Audi Technology Magazine on the Web
Enjoy the features and videos of this issue on Encounter online – Audi Communication’s information website. You will find plenty more stories there on the subject of technology, brand and environment. Thanks to responsive web design, Encounter online runs on all devices regardless of their technology platform. audi-encounter.com

Encounter – Subscribe to the Audi Technology Magazine
Twice a year, Encounter brings you fascinating stories from the world of Audi technology. You can subscribe to Encounter Magazine – at no cost and with no obligation. Simply send an e-mail containing your address to: encounter-magazine@audi.de

Dear reader,

We kick off 2014 in Las Vegas and Detroit: The Con­ sumer Electronics Show (CES) and the North American Inter­ na­ tional Auto Show provide important impetus for the automotive world of tomorrow. At both shows, we present pioneering show cars, production cars and technical exhibits – in other words, the brainpower of our team. In this new edition of Encounter – The Audi Tech­no­logy Magazine, you will find the highlights of the shows and some most recent projects from Technical Development at Audi. Today and over the next few years, our industry will focus on the mobility of the future – and consequently on the future of mobility. The key areas for us are CO₂ reduction, alternative drive systems, lightweight construction as well as connectivity and the smart networks. With the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron, we bring a plug-in hybrid car to market in 2014. Its electric drive enables it to travel up to 50 kilometers with zero local emissions, and in conjunction with the thrifty combustion engine, the range of the hybrid is extended to 890 kilometers. Audi e-tron is the ideal combination of high-tech and customer expectations, which in effect means: electric car and hybrid car in one – with no compromise and plenty of driving pleasure. Thanks to sophisticated technology, we attain the highest standards of safety, comfort and efficiency. In January 2013, we were the first carmaker in the world to present piloted driving and parking, with a test vehicle for new technology at CES. Twelve months later, the control components have already been compactly integrated into the car. Over the next few years, we will bring these intelligent systems to production readiness and continue to connect the car seamlessly with its environment. To this end we use, for example, the cutting-edge LTE mobile radio standard; in fact, Audi was the first manufacturer to bring LTE to the car. As a result, we are transforming the automobile into a mobile device, enabling our customers to be “always on” in the car.

This connectivity technology was presented a few days ago at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. The interior of the new Audi TT 3, our popular compact sports car, had its world pre­ miere there. Its virtual cockpit, featuring enhanced touchpad and optimized voice control, offers the driver maximum operating convenience with all the information and entertainment functions. The second – and already production-ready – generation of the modular infotainment platform (MIB2) is controlled by a nextgeneration processor. Its minimal power requirements fit in perfectly with our efficiency strategy. This was also demonstrated by our show car, the Audi Sport quattro laserlight concept. Its plug-in hybrid power of 515 kW (700 hp) and its laser light technology show­ cased for the first time, were quite literally highlights of the show. Our innovations are at the same time investments in the future of our company. From 2014 to 2018, we will invest more than 20 billion euros, primarily in new products and new technologies. Also in this regard, we are pushing the boundaries even further. I hope you find this edition of Encounter to be an interesting read. Yours,

Our innovations are at the same time investments in the future of our company. From 2014 to 2018, we will invest more than 20 billion euros, primarily in new products and new technologies. Dr. Ulrich Hackenberg

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Hackenberg Member of the Board of Management of AUDI AG Technical Development

2

Encounter Technology

3

Encounter Technology

Contents
14

Mindset.
14 24
Electrifying Results Audi A3 Sportback e-tron

Skills.
46 52 46
Click for the Future The virtual model of the new Audi factory in Mexico

Passion.
74 80 82
Out of Thin Air How to filter CO₂ out of the air Happy Anniversary Audi milestones

New Toys Next-Generation Infotainment

52

30

Tankful Outcome Audi e-fuels under test

Everywhere You Go The Audi allroad shooting brake show car in Detroit

58

32

Showdown Man vs. machine, eye vs. sensor

Great Finnish Hannu Mikkola won the 1983 World Rally Championship in Patagonia

And Then There Was Sight Laser light – the next step in headlamp technology

64

90

34

Bespoken For Audi exclusive turns a special car into something utterly unique

Shell Shock The Ducati 1199 Superleggera is a work of art on two wheels

Full Speed Ahead DTM and WEC – the motorsport winners of 2013

68

100 102

Magazine Technology news from around the world

Glossary Explanations of terms used in this edition

Imprint

34

32

30

74
50 Meter

58

82

90

160,000
vehicles, ranging from the Audi A1 to the Q7, were individualized by quattro GmbH in 2012 alone – well beyond the already highly extensive standard-equipment offerings. → Page 64

Maximum Individuality More than 100 paint colors, an apparently endless selection of leather types and colors, not to mention trim materials. The specialists at Audi exclusive offer a virtually inexhaustible range of possible ways to make a new car utterly unique.

450
nanometers is the wavelength of the light emitted by Audi’s new laser headlamps. The Audi R18 e-tron quattro race cars will use them at Le Mans in 2014. → Page 32

Maximum Sight With the new laser light, Audi is further extending its lead in headlamp technology. Laser diodes deliver an extremely concentrated light stream and are the perfect addition to the Audi Matrix LED headlamps.

155
kilograms is the dry weight of the new Ducati 1199 Superleggera. With more than 200 hp, it is the fastest road-legal Ducati and an explosive dream. → Page 90

Minimum Weight The ingredients of this work of art on two wheels include titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. The lightweight design specialists at Ducati in Bologna surpassed themselves with the Superleggera – from its forged footrests to the pistons with just two rings.

14

Electrifying Results Audi A3 Sportback e-tron

24

New Toys Next-Generation Infotainment

Everywhere You Go The Audi allroad shooting brake show car in Detroit

30

Full Speed Ahead DTM and WEC – the motorsport winners of 2013

34

Mindset.

Mindset It was the courage to innovate that put Audi at the top. The company wants to expand its lead with a constant stream of new ideas and with a clear approach.

Electrifying Results
The Audi A3 Sportback e-tron – Audi’s first plug-in hybrid is a talented all-rounder. It masters the electric sprint just as well as it delivers amazing endurance with a fuel-sipping TFSI.
Text Josef Schloßmacher Photos Jim Fets

14

Encounter Technology

15

Encounter Technology

What was that? A coyote wanders along the edge of highway, pausing to stretch his head upward and sniff the air. But all he hears is a swoosh, a breath of wind that quickly disperses. Had he looked just a moment sooner, he would have seen a bright red car appearing almost noiselessly over the rise, before disappearing around the next bend. Admittedly, the coyote, too, goes unnoticed at this particular meeting in the Valley of California; because Alexander Pesch, the driver of the red Audi A3 Sportback e-tron, has no mind right now for fauna – assuming it keeps clear of the road, of course. His view shifts from the road ahead to the instruments in front of him, focusing on the large monitor above the center console. What he sees there gives rise to a satisfied smile. Interactive graphics on the display show that the drive unit in his car is doing exactly what the engineer expects of it. The road is running continuously downhill, and the electric motor on board is using the A3’s kinetic energy to charge the battery. Bit-by-bit, the range shown in the display climbs. The gasoline engine remains switched off and not a single drop of fuel is being consumed right now. This is exactly how it should be; this is how customers should be able to experience the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron once it enters series production. Alexander Pesch, Technical Project Manager for the Audi A3, is covering decisive test kilometers with the first plug-in hybrid* to bear the four rings. Under real-life conditions, on the roads of California, his virtually production-ready test car has to demonstrate that the Audi A3 e-tron fulfils the requirements of its creators before it goes into series production mid 2014. Why California? “The state is one of the most important markets worldwide for hybrid vehicles. And virtually nowhere else do we have this many different traffic and climate conditions within such a short distance,” explains Pesch. The Los Angeles rush hour and endless desert highways; mountain serpentines and the damp chill of the legendary Pacific Coast Highway.

The Audi A3 e-tron can cover 50 kilometers on electricity alone and a further 890 kilometers with the gasoline engine, a 1.4-liter TFSI four-cylinder producing 110 kW (150 hp). The combined power of both drives is 150 kW and system torque is 350 Nm. The dash from zero to 100 km/h takes 7.6 seconds and top speed is 222 km/h – not bad at all. The vital statistics of the Audi A3 e-tron don’t sound anything like an “abstinence auto” for the city – the primary accusation levelled at hybrid vehicles. Pesch is aware of this. “In the past, hybrid cars were often an unsatisfactory compromise.” They were fuel-efficient but slow; or sporty, but with no real benefits in either economy or ecology. “With our A3 Sportback e-tron, we are bringing to market a car that offers the whole package instead of either/or. Our customers will have a fully fledged Audi with all the qual­ ities of the brand, a range almost as great as a TDI plus typical Audi performance. And they can drive for a long way on electricity alone, with zero emissions.” Plug-in hybrid technology – it’s the key to this versatility. The option to charge the vehicle battery from a regular power outlet forms the prerequisite for zero-emissions operation of the electric drive with ranges suitable for everyday use – just like a BEV (Battery Electric Vehicle). However, the inherent weak points of the BEV – primarily its unsuitability for long-distance driving and restricted top speed – are compensated in the plug-in hybrid by the combustion engine. It delivers a range that enables even vacation trips without the need for a fuel stop, and comes complete with additional sporting talents. These talents are clearly illustrated by the A3 Sportback e-tron when Alexander Pesch floors his right foot. Initially, it is almost silent as the electric motor delivers impressive acceleration. Then, as kickdown activates the TFSI, it adds its torque to the mix with a rich, snarling tone. The A3 eats up the highway’s uphill gradient and races toward the next bend. “Because the battery is at the back, we have an extremely balanced weight distribution, which is particularly evident in cornering,” says Pesch, as he takes the car through the bend with a gentle steering action.

The power of two hearts – separate displays in the instrument panel show the respective ranges of the electric motor and TFSI.

The Los Angeles rush hour and endless desert highways. Mountain serpentines and the damp chill along the legendary Pacific Coast Highway.

Well placed – the charging socket for the battery is behind the pivoting four rings in the Singleframe grille*. Compact package – alongside the TFSI, the engine bay is also home to the power electronics and the charging device.

16

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

17

Encounter Technology

International Press Feedback

Audi A3 e-tron first drive review Autocar 13.9.2013

Part Electric into the Future auto motor und sport 24.10.2013

A Short Drive in the 2015 Audi A3 e-tron The New York Times 22.11.2013

2015 Audi A3 e-tron Prototype Test Drive Popular Mechanics online 26.11.2013

2015 Audi A3 e-tron Prototype Quick Drive: Combining Plug Sockets and Sportiness Motor Trend 3.12.2013 With the addition of a plug-in hybrid system, the 2015 Audi A3 will have one of the brand’s most varied powertrain lineups. The sedan, for example, can be had with two turbocharged gas I-4s or a diesel engine, while the high-performance S3 will get its own potent inline-four. Thanks to its combination of efficiency, comfort, and a relatively fun-to-drive ­experience, based on our short time driving the A3 e-tron, the car should be a solid seller for the environmentally-minded luxury audience.

Outside an A, Inside Aha! Focus 9.12.2013

Audi’s A3 e-tron is a fascinating car that has the potential to be very cheap to run, especially given its ultra-low, tax-dodging emissions. It also offers ­enter­tainingly strong performance and well-balanced handling to go with it.

The first brisk tap of the drive pedal in the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron shows that full torque is delivered immediately – and electromobility comes silently with it.

Being that this small hybrid wagon was an Audi, it didn’t surprise me that it handled well as I wove in and out of traffic. Its looks didn’t surprise me either. Audi tends to build pretty cars, and the A3 e-tron is no exception.

And that’s the best part about the e-tron: It handles like any other Audi. Bend it into a corner and the car feels composed, capable, and fun. This might be one of the best ­driving plug-in hybrids we’ve ever encountered. So what’s the slickest feature of the A3 e-tron? Push and slide the ­four-ring Audi badge on the nose of the e-tron to the side to reveal the electrical charge port. It’s perhaps the coolest integration of a charging port on any EV. Europe will get these cars in 2014, but Audi stores in the U.S. won’t see them until mid-2015. That may be a long time, but it’s worth the wait.

The Aha effect in the Audi comes when you push the start button – not engine sound, all is quiet. Yet the compact car has the assertive push of a turbodiesel, with 330 Newton meters yanking on the front wheels. That’s an electric car for you – whisper quiet with impressive acceleration from zero revs thanks to high torque.

Long-distance-friendly – a 50-kilometer electric range and a further 890 kilometers with the 1.4-liter TFSI make the A3 Sportback e-tron a perfect touring car.

18

Encounter Technology

Breathtaking – the A3 Sportback e-tron demonstrates its amazing characteristics on the Pacific Coast Highway, too.

The A3 Sportback e-tron already benefits from the refined lightweight design of the current A3 range – starting with the application of aluminum and hi-tech steel in the bodyshell components, through to the magnesium frame for the MMI monitor*. The outcome is that, despite a distinct increase in body size and despite more comfort and electronics on board, the current generation up to 90 kilograms lighter than its predecessor. This benefits more than just performance and handling; a low base weight is even more advantageous to fuel consumption and range. “Electric driving has a dilemma that must be addressed,” says Pesch. “A large and heavy battery may be able to store a lot of energy, but you constantly have to schlep its weight around – and that, in turn, reduces the range.” In the Audi A3 e-tron, the available packaging space limited the volume of the battery from the very start. It is mounted beneath the rear bench, where it is well protected from impact and does not restrict space for the rear-seat passengers. Developed specific­ ally for the automotive sector, it has been designed with a particular eye to longevity in everyday automotive use. Its 96 cells have a capacity of 25 Ampere hours and an energy content of 8.8 kilowatt hours. Project Manager Pesch continues, “Our task was to extract the maximum range from these tech­ni­ cally predefined parameters – while ensuring that the e-tron version of the A3 retains all the positive character­ istics of the conventionally powered models.” This assignment was set to all technical departments involved in developing the vehicle – as priority number one. Alexander Pesch steers the e-tron to the side of the highway and pulls to a halt. He climbs out and points to the air intakes beneath the headlamps. “We pulled the fairing here 10 millimeters further forward. This reduces turbulence and improves aerodynamics.” This is a tiny detail that improves the electric range in the ECE cycle by several hundred meters and reduces the consumption of the TFSI.

The tires, too, contribute to the optimization, “We use low rolling-resistance rubber here. They offer an excellent synthesis of good lateral dynamics and around 10 percent more efficiency” – adding a further kilometer to the electric range. And, by reducing the weight of the battery, its power electronics and wiring by almost 30 kilograms in the course of the development process, this means – in combination with additional weight-optimizing measures – yet another extra kilometer of range. The main contribution, however, comes from the complex operating strategy for the electric motor and combustion engine. It is this that creates the optimum balance between economy, driving fun and comfort. Pesch climbs back in and pushes the start button – not a sound, just the pointer on the power meter moves. “The fundamental start mode is electriconly, unless the battery has previously been fully discharged.” The A3 e-tron can accelerate electrically to a speed of 130 km/h, which is considerably more than the 65 mph permitted on the highway. An unobtrusive whirr is all we hear as the electric motor propels the car forcefully along the road. The display shows that the battery alone is currently supplying the power. If the driver lifts his/her foot from the accelerator, the drive sends no braking force to the wheels – the A3 e-tron “coasts”, using the kinetic energy to maximize range. If required, however, the system uses the momentum of the A3 e-tron intelligently to recover energy. On downhill stretches, the pitch and acceleration sensors in the system control signal that this is a particularly efficient point to activate recuperation*. In practice, this means that the A3 e-tron rolls downhill at a constant speed, while the electric motor works as a generator to convert kinetic energy into electricity with optimum efficiency before feeding it into the battery. Likewise, if the driver brakes, the electric motor handles the initial phase of deceleration. The wheel brakes are activated only when greater pressure is applied to the brake pedal.

Full charge ahead – the e-tron’s own momentum charges the battery via recuperation. Zero emissions – now just the electric motor alone is driving the A3 Sportback e-tron.

Silent power – the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron can accelerate under electric power alone up to a speed of 130 km/h.

The A3 Sportback e-tron eats up the highway’s uphill gradient and races toward the next bend. “Because the battery is at the back, we have an extremely balanced weight distribution.”

Thousands of test kilometers in California – Alexander Pesch drives the A3 Sportback e-tron to perfection.

20

Encounter Technology

21

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

Pesch and the A3 Sportback e-tron pass a huge solar power installation. Thousands of panels soak up the last of the day’s rays and convert them into electricity. Clean electricity.

Pesch uses the illuminated green “EV” button on the center console to call up the various driving modes. He can choose whether the journey should be as much as possible in electric mode, whether the battery charge status should be retained at its current level or if, in the interests of performance, the TFSI should be started. The increase in torque resulting from starting the combustion engine is incredibly gentle – although the subsequent acceleration is extremely emphatic. The A3 Sportback e-tron presents itself during the test drive as an exceptionally accomplished multi-talent. It masters the long-distance discipline just as supremely as the sprint. Its energy consumption and emissions are also exemplary. In the ECE consumption cycle, the compact five-door needs just 1.5 liters of super-grade gaso­ line for 100 kilometers, equating to a CO₂ figure of 35 g/km. The sun slowly begins to sink. Pesch and the A3 e-tron drive past a huge solar power installation. Thousands of panels soak up the last of the day’s rays, converting them into electricity – clean electricity that will charge the plug-in hybrid overnight at the wall. Tomorrow morning it will once again be ready for another 50 kilometers of zero-emissions driving. On the horizon are the first lights of the small coastal town of Morro Bay, which is where today’s test stage will end after more than 700 kilometers. On the drive downhill, the A3 e-tron refilled the battery to the brim with its kinetic energy. As it reaches the city limits, it still has enough range left to glide electrically and almost silently into the picturesque harbor town on the Pacific. This is pure joy for Alexander Pesch – and, in a few months, for the first customers of the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron, too.

Technical Data
Audi A3 Sportback e-tron System power 150 kW (204 hp) System torque 350 Nm Power, 1.4 TFSI 110 kW (150 hp) Torque, 1.4 TFSI 250 Nm from 1,750 to 4,000 rpm Power, electric motor max. 75 kW Torque, electric motor max. 330 Nm Battery capacity / voltage 8.8 kWh / 280 to 390 V 0 – 100 km/h 7.6 s Range in electric mode up to 50 km Total range in the NEDC* up to 940 km Consumption to ECE standard 1.5 l/100 km CO₂ emissions to ECE standard 35 g/km Top speed 222 km/h Length / width / height 4,310 / 1,785 / 1,424 mm Wheelbase 2,630 mm Curb weight 1,540 kg

The Technology
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The key components of the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron 1.4 TFSI Power electronics Battery cooling High-voltage battery module Fuel tank 12v battery High-voltage wiring 6-speed e-S tronic Electric motor Charging point 1 5 10 9 8 2 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 1 5 6 2 3 4 8 7

3

4

The Drive
The drivetrain of the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron 1.4 TFSI Dual-mass flywheel Electric motor Dual clutch High-voltage connections 6-speed e-S tronic Cooling fluid inlet Cooling fuel outlet

Scan the QR code and experience the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron live!

22

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

23

Encounter Technology

N E W T O Y S
Next-Generation Infotainment The Audi virtual cockpit, the new MMI and the Audi Smart Display – Audi is taking a new approach to displays and controls.

The “infotainment” mode Rev counter and speedometer are smaller. The large center window dominates the display.

24

Encounter Technology

25

Encounter Technology

1 The Audi virtual cockpit The fully digital dashboard with high-end technology

2 The new MMI The intuitive, intelligent and innovative operating system

The classic view The dials are larger and have the characteristic Audi look. The center window is correspondingly smaller.

Highly compressed operation The large rotary/push control in the MMI terminal is framed by just a few buttons. Operation is simple and intuitive.

26

Encounter Technology

27

Encounter Technology

3 The Audi Smart Display Infotainment inside and outside the car
1 2

Text Johannes Köbler

Photos Tobias Sagmeister

5 New Audi connect features Attractive services and apps*

2

3

First-class animations, razor-sharp 3D gra­ phics, beautifully detailed mirror and lighting effects – the Audi virtual cockpit* is the fully digital instrument panel of the future. Its 12.3-inch (31.2 centimeter) screen has taken on notebook dimensions; the resolution is 1,440 x 540 pixels. Working in the background is a superfast graphics processor, the Tegra 30 chip from the Tegra 3 series by market leader Nvidia. Using the “view” button on the multifunction steering wheel, the driver can switch between two modes. In the classic view, the center window is smaller, while the instruments are the size of actual, physical dials and display the classic Audi design. The view offers all available information, such as navigation arrows, dynamic vehicle information, camera images and graphics. In “infotainment” mode, the navigation, phone, radio and audio system dominate the scene; the rev counter and speedometer – the latter including a digital readout – appear as small dials. The imagery is extremely precise. For the rev counter, the Nvidia chip generates 60 frames per second, ensuring that the needle runs completely smoothly. The display changes its color theme according to the base menu. Around the outer edge, the readouts for outside temperature, time and mileage, as well as warning and advisory symbols, are permanently on display. Audi has completely redesigned the menu structure and operating terminal for the MMI* – resulting in astonishingly simple and intuitive operation. Its logic is similar to that of smartphones and tablets; all frequently used functions can be controlled directly. The focal point remains the rotary/push control with the touchpad surface (MMI touch). The toggles (skip buttons) for the most important menus are also retained. However, to the left and right of the touchwheel are now just two buttons, one for the new function menu and the other for the new options. Positioned

Car park information The new service lists available parking spots and displays them in the navigation map.

4 The Audi Phone Box Wireless charging

1 Use inside the car The high-quality Audi Smart Display communicates via WLAN with the MMI Navigation plus and Audi connect.

2 Full flexibility After the journey, the display can be removed from the car e.g. to continue listening to music at home.

3 Use at home All applications run very quickly. At the heart of the Audi Smart Display is a state-of-the-art Tegra 4 chip by Nvidia.

Induction charging Electricity flows from a coil in the base of the Audi Phone Box to the receiver coil in the cell phone.

centrally beneath them are the general menu button and the return function. Most of the base menus are allocated a function menu. For the navigation system, for instance, this is favorite destinations; for the radio, it is station lists. A true highlight is the new MMI search, which allows the user to find everything the Audi infotainment system has to offer in double-quick time. The search function recognizes most navigation destinations based on location following the entry of just a few letters. When it comes to a restaurant search, all it needs is the name and the first letters of the city for the system to generate a list of matching results – Europe-wide and complete with address. The search for music titles is similarly straightforward. The rotary/push control combines the functions of a joystick and a smartphone. A gentle push to the left opens the function menu; a push to the right activates the options/settings. Pushing the controller forward launches MMI search. An optical sensor monitors the position of the rotary/push control to the last hundredth of a millimeter. Using the multi-touch function on the touchpad, the driver can quickly scroll through lists or zoom into the map image. The Audi Smart Display*, another brand new feature, is a mobile entertainment system – enabling use inside and outside the car. It communicates with the MMI Navigation plus* via WLAN*, while its touchscreen shows information relating to the radio, navigation, car and audio sources. Although the internal memory serves as a jukebox, the Audi Smart Display can also receive music and video footage from the MMI Navigation plus. One touch of the “more” button provides free internet access. The full functionality of the Android operating system is now available. With the new processor from the Tegra 4 series by Nvidia at the heart of the device, all processing functions are extremely fast. The Audi Smart Display is robust, crash-safe and high quality, with a chassis made from brushed aluminum.

28

Encounter Technology

29

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

Sporty, compact, versatile The Audi allroad shooting brake show car is a crossover for young people – a car for a variety of different road surfaces. Its plug-in hybrid system presents a new form of quattro drive, the e-tron quattro.

EVERY WHERE YOU GO
Text Johannes Köbler

The 4.2-meter Audi allroad shooting brake fuses design elements from future sports car models with the Audi allroad concept and the bodyshell form of a shooting brake. The exterior skin of this two-seater, made from aluminum and CFRP*, looks like it has been modeled from solid, from the three-dimensional Singleframe grille*, through the distinctive tornado line along the side all the way to the crisp rear end. The overhangs are short; the roofline stretches low over the metal skin, running into the powerful C-pillar. The horizontal lines, the high ground clearance and the imposing 19-inch wheels underscore the impression of concentrated energy. There is room inside for four adults, with plenty of space in the back with the rear-seat backrests folded even for larger pieces of sports equipment. The seats are slender and lightweight, the interior design clear and taut. The instrument panel is evocative of

an aircraft wing, while the round air vents are home to the controls for the air conditioning. A 12.3-inch TFT monitor* replaces the classic dials. The position of the center-tunnel console can be shifted to remain level with the driver’s seat. It features a new MMI terminal* with a menu structure based on that of a smartphone – achieve your goal with just a few entries. With a system output of 300 kW (408 hp) and 650 Nm of system torque, the plug-in hybrid drive* in the Audi allroad shoot­ ing brake delivers dynamic performance – from zero to 100 km/h in just 4.6 seconds. The transversely mounted 2.0 TFSI works with an e-S tronic and two electric motors, one of which is located at the rear axle – a concept that transforms the two-door into an e-tron quattro. Over 100 km, the compact crossover consumes just 1.9 liters of fuel according to the applicable ECE standard (45 grams of CO₂ per km). It has an overall range of up to 820 km.

Technical Data Displacement TFSI Power TFSI Torque TFSI Power electric motor f / r Torque electric motor f / r System power System torque 0–100 km/h Top speed Length / width / height Curb weight Consumption to ECE standard CO₂ emissions to ECE standard

Audi allroad shooting brake 1,984 cm³ 215 kW (292 hp) 380 Nm 40 kW / 85 kW 270 Nm / 270 Nm 300 kW (408 hp) 650 Nm 4.6 s 250 km/h 4.20 / 1.85 / 1.41 m ca. 1,600 kg 1.9 l/100 km 45 g/km The drivetrain The 2.0 TFSI works with two electric motors. In some situations, the Audi allroad shooting brake is an e-tron quattro.

30

Encounter Technology

31

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

Text Johannes Köbler

AND THEN THERE WA S SIGH T
The next step Audi is further extending its lead in headlamp technology. The R18 e-tron quattro Le Mans race car presents the next step – laser light.

From the race track to the road – Audi sees motorsport as a test lab for its new technologies. Above all, the 24 Hours of Le Mans, which the brand with the four rings has been dominating for many years, serves as an ideal test bed with its extreme demands on people and materials. Again and again, Audi has tested groundbreaking solutions at La Sarthe, including LED headlamps that provide amazing track illumination by night. They are now available in many series-product­ ion models, where they demonstrate the brand’s leadership in the field of automotive lighting technology.

Scan the QR code and experience an animation of the new laser light!

2014 will see the Audi R18 e-tron quattro LMP1 prototype enter Le Mans with yet another lighting innovation – laser light. Laser diodes* emit a monochromatic, coherent light with a wavelength of 450 nanometers. In its pure form, it has a bluish shimmer, but luminescent phosphor converts it into the familiar white light of road traffic. Just a few micrometers in dia­meter, the laser diodes are even smaller than LED diodes. This brings them extremely close to the theoretical ideal of pinpoint, high-performance light sources in a car. In the Audi Sport quattro laserlight concept show car that Audi presented at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, the high beam of the laser diodes is around three times more powerful than an LED high beam. At almost 500 meters, it has around twice the range – a huge safety benefit for the driver. The finger of light is extremely focused and forms the ideal complement to Audi Matrix LED headlamps*, which use a large number of individual LEDs to generate a highly variable, precisely controllable light. Laser diodes are not yet suitable for generating a broad low beam.

32

Encounter Technology

33

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

Winners The champagne corks were popping for Audi once more in 2013 – at the DTM and the WEC World Endurance Championship with Le Mans as the highlight. The winning R18 e-tron quattro and RS 5 DTM demonstrate not only Audi’s leadership, they also help improve series-production models.

FULL SPEED AHEAD
x9
Audi has won this many championship titles in 16 years of competing in the DTM since 1990.

x 12
Since 1999, Audi has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans a dozen times and the WEC twice since its inception in 2012.

34

Encounter Technology

35

Encounter Technology

1

Text Stefan Kotschenreuther

Photos Manfred Jarisch

2

1 Lap of honor – Dieter Gass and Chris Reinke go head-to-head with their race cars on a toy track. 2 On the button – Dieter Gass has been Head of DTM for Audi Sport since the start of 2013. As a boy, he drove go-karts. 3 All for one – eleven mechanics change the tires on the Audi RS 5 DTM driven by champion Mike Rockenfeller.

19

DTM
Hockenheim I Oschersleben Budapest Norisring Moscow Spielberg Nürburgring Lausitzring Guangzhou Hockenheim II 3

Racing Calendar 2014
May 4 May 18 June 1 June 29 July 13 August 3 August 17 September 14 September 28 October 19

A year of celebration for Audi Motorsport! The brand’s works teams gave their all in 2013, too, and were well rewarded. In the WEC, Audi Sport Team Joest successfully defended its world championship title with the Audi R18 e-tron quattro, and also won the highpoint of the season, the 24 Hours of Le Mans, for no less than the twelfth time. In the DTM, Mike Rockenfeller and Audi Sport Team Phoenix claimed both the drivers’ title and the team championship. The excellent performance is the result of perfect interaction between the race drivers, track teams and the engineers and technicians of Audi Sport. The winning cars, the Audi R18 e-tron quattro and the Audi RS 5 DTM, faced phenomenal challenges during the season and conquered new terrain – the DTM ran for the first time in the Russian capital Moscow and the WEC on a new track in Texas/USA. At the same time, the successes marked a great start for Chris Reinke and Dieter Gass in their new positions with Audi Sport. Since the beginning of 2013, Reinke, as Head of LMP, has been responsible for the races run by the Le Mans sports prototypes; Gass, as Head of DTM, for those run in the Deutsche Touren­ wagen Masters. The passionate motorsport devotees have previously been part of the Audi Sport team – Dieter Gass from 1994 until 2001, before making a stopover in Formula 1, while Reinke was previously Technical Project Manager for the Audi LMP1 project. Since visiting Le Mans for the first time as a student, Reinke has had only one thing on his mind, “To create a Le Mans prototype one day.” With the Audi R18 e-tron quattro 2013, he fulfilled his dream. “I can bring my vision into this,” he says, speaking about the LMP class. The regulations leave engineers a great deal of freedom – no production parts, different kinds of drive, variable cylinder number and lots more. There are a lot of layout options, too, when it comes to chassis and aerodynamics.

Compared with the winning car from 2012, the engin­ eers optimized the R18 e-tron quattro of 2013 in many places. The output of the electric motors rose to more than 80 kW each. The aerodynamics were improved in many details, which had a positive impact on lap times. The Audi RS 5 DTM is based largely on the A5 DTM from 2012. Due to the frozen regulations, all teams were limited in the degree to which they could develop their cars. The Audi Sport DTM team therefore examined everything extremely carefully. Engin­ eers scrutinized more than 4,000 parts, down to the tiniest screw. The technical optimizations to the Audi RS 5 DTM are very much in the minutest details. The name, however, is new, building a bridge to the successful series-production RS models. As was already the case in 2012, the regulations speci­ fied around 50 carry-over parts for the cars entered by the three participating brands. This decreases the costs and manpower involved by 40 percent compared with 2011. However, the same does not apply to the thrill factor. “The DTM means extreme competition,” explains Dieter Gass. “The fans experience spectacular duels and thrilling overtaking maneuvers.” Besides the technical setup, it is the race strategy that determines placing and victory. There is no secret recipe for this; success comes from a mix of driving talent, technology, track condi­ tions and the driver’s form on the day. This is where Audi Sport ben­ efits from its many years of experience in both race series. Over 15 years at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the brand has claimed twelve over­ all victories, and nine championship titles from 16 years in the DTM. “To prepare for a race, we can look back at the data from the previous year,” explains Reinke. Meanwhile, the drivers are getting to know the tracks better in the race simulator. Training and qualifying at the track itself deliver additional information. If possible, Reinke looks for direct contact with the track. “If I manage to fit it in, I walk the track before the race.” Gass, too, inspects the track for unevenness or demanding corners that might present a problem to the driver.

4

We have to read the race and make the right decisions in a short space of time. Dieter Gass

5

x3
In 2007, 2008 and 2009, Audi took the drivers’ title in the DTM. No other manufacturer has achieved so many wins in succession. 4 Rocky rocks – in Zandvoort, Netherlands, 30 year-old Mike Rockenfeller secures his first championship title early. 5 Two's company – Dieter Gass congratulates his champion Mike Rockenfeller. The Audi Sport team is a close-knit family built on trust.

37

Encounter Technology

WEC DTM
Audi R18 e-tron quattro In 2013, the second-generation hybrid race car won six out of eight WEC races.

Audi R18 e-tron quattro
Technical Data Vehicle type Monocoque Battery Combustion engine Displacement TDI Power TDI Torque TDI Power electric motor Top speed Drive Length Width Height Minimum weight Tank capacity

2013

3,474

Le Mans Prototype (LMP1) Carbon-fiber composite (CFRP)* and aluminum Lithium-ion battery Turbocharged V6 TDI 3,700 cm³ > 360 kW (490 hp) > 850 Nm > 2 x 80 kW ca. 330 km/h Rear wheel drive, all-wheel drive e-tron quattro as of 120 km/h 4,650 mm 2,000 mm 1,030 mm 915 kg 58 liters

162.125 km/h

Number of WEC laps driven by all the Audi R18 e-tron quattros in the 2013 season. This equates to a total distance of 17,790.728 kilometers.

35.8 years

Average age of the nine-man Audi WEC/ LMP1 driver team at the time of the finale in Bahrain.

Average speed of the Le-Mans-winning Audi R18 e-tron quattro bearing the number 2.

10,717.273 km

245,000
This many spectators visited the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the WEC's biggest single event.

Total distance driven in the 2013 WEC season by world champions Loïc Duval/Tom Kristensen/ Allan McNish. 4,742.892 kilometers were driven in Le Mans alone.

Audi RS 5 DTM In 2013, the touring car ran in ten DTM races. Eight times, an Audi driver was on the top step of the podium.

Audi RS 5 DTM
Technical Data Vehicle type Chassis Engine Displacement Power Torque Top speed Drive Length Width Height Minimum weight Tank capacity

2013

705,500

28.4 years

DTM Touring Car CFRP* monocoque, CFRP crash elements Naturally aspirated V8 4,000 cm³ ca. 340 kW (460 hp) > 500 Nm 273 km/h Rear drive 5,010 mm (incl. rear spoiler) 1,950 mm 1,150 mm 1,110 kg (incl. driver) 120 liters

156.270 km/h

This is the total number of spectators that attended the ten races of the 2013 DTM season.

Average age of the eight-man Audi DTM driver team at the time of the finale in Hockenheim.

Average speed of the RS 5 DTM driven by champion Mike Rockenfeller in the 2013 DTM season.

4,168
Number of laps driven by all eight Audi RS 5 DTMs. This equates to an overall distance of 13,651.833 kilometers.

1,881.399 km
Overall distance driven by Mike Rockenfeller in the 2013 DTM season.

38

Encounter Technology

39

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

6

6

All nine – Audi racing driver Tom Kristensen has won a total of nine victories at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The Dane has been on the podium a total of 13 times so far.

Not until the evening before the race is the final strategy set and, on race day itself, full concentration is demanded from everyone involved. “The most important part is the start,” says Gass. This is the moment on which the team has the least influence – it’s all down to the driver. Can his perfect reactions move him up the leader board right away? Securing a good starting position in qualifying is always beneficial. The strategy can change at any time if the unexpected happens – if the weather turns, for instance. This happened at August 18 on the Nürburgring. When heavy rain began to fall right after the start, Audi Sport engineers opted for a pit stop outside of the time window set by the regulations. This was a risk that initially cost driver Rockenfeller time. Once back in the race, however, he more than made up for the lost time, working his way up on wet-weather tires from 20th place to the lead in just five laps. “We have to read the race and take the right decision on the spot,” explains Dieter Gass. Audi Sport drove well in the DTM not only on wetweather tires, but also on the new optional tires. “For a few laps, they make the RS 5 DTM around one second faster,” explains Gass. But there is a price to pay. Because they are softer, they wear more quickly, meaning their use has to be perfectly timed. In the WEC, both driver and teams are subjected to extreme conditions. Also the materials from which the race car is built have to withstand considerably higher loads during endurance races run over at least six hours. The R18 e-tron quattro 2013 had to pass its toughest test at the highpoint of the season. The 81st running of the 24 Hours of Le Mans took place under constantly changing weather conditions, plus no fewer than twelve safety-car phases. A change in the regulations meant that the Audi drivers also had to make do with a much smaller fuel tank than their competitors. This meant more than ever that time spent in the pits had to be reduced to a minimum and lap times had to be faster. Despite all this, Audi ultimately spent 344 of 348 laps in the lead. In Fuji, Japan, the thirdlast race of the season, Audi secured the manufacturers’ world championship title. At the second-last race of the season in Shanghai, Audi driver trio Loïc Duval, Tom Kristensen and Allan McNish subsequently succeeded in taking the drivers’ title.

Mike Rockenfeller was likewise able to celebrate winning the drivers’ championship ahead of the finale in Hockenheim. In Zandvoort, where he drove his first ever DTM victory in 2011, “Rocky” took second place, putting him in an unassailable position ahead of BMW and Mercedes. Successes such as those of 2013 in the WEC and DTM provide impressive proof that the “Vorsprung durch Technik” of Audi motorsport is part of the Audi DNA and, as such, not an end in itself. “This is where we can test what is technically possible,” explains Head of LMP Reinke. There are many interesting examples that demonstrate how Audi motorsport technology has successfully made the transition into series production. In 2001, TFSI drive celebrated its Le Mans premiere in the Audi R8 LMP race car. And, since 2006, motorsport has been helping Audi to develop TDI technology. Innovative assistance systems and dynamic programs for chassis, engine and transmission control have also been tested in motorsport. The most recent example of series transfer is the Matrix LED headlamps* from the Audi R18 e-tron quattro, which celebrated their premiere in the new Audi A8 in fall 2013. A major shift in the WEC promises further innovation for 2014. The new regulations place efficiency above pure power. “The energy input is being limited,” explains Reinke. For this reason, a complete new race car is currently being created in Ingolstadt and Neckarsulm. Plus, 2014 will see the return to La Sarthe of 16time Le Mans winner Porsche. “This means more competition for us. It is both a privilege and a challenge.” The DTM cars will undergo greater changes for 2014. At the same time, the race series is becoming more international. A new city track in Guangzhou, China, is waiting to be conquered by the race drivers. Audi has a whole lot of fans in what is now its most important sales market worldwide. Is this a good sign? “We definitely want to defend our title,” states Gass confidently. Reinke, too, sparks eager anticipation commenting, “2014 will be a very special year”.

7 Winning car – the Audi R18 e-tron quattro viewed from above in the pits. 8 Full dedication – As Head of LMP at Audi Sport, Chris Reinke is responsible for the team's involvement in the WEC. It was always his dream to develop a car for Le Mans.

7

9 Winners – Allan McNish, Dr. Wolfgang Ullrich, Tom Kristensen, Loïc Duval and Ralf Jüttner.

8

47:14.799
The winning Audi R18 e-tron quattro bearing the number 2 made 34 pit stops in Le Mans, lasting a total of 47 minutes and 14.799 seconds.

9

19

WEC
2014
Le Castellet, Test Silverstone Spa Le Mans, Test Le Mans, 24 Hours São Paulo Austin Fuji Shanghai Bahrain

Race Calendar

March 29 April 20 May 11 June 1 June 15 August 31 September 21 October 12 November 2 November 16

For us, the 2014 WEC means more competition. It is both a privilege and a challenge. It will be a very special year! Chris Reinke
Scan the QR code and experience the Audi motorsport highlights from the 2013 season!

40

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

WEC 2014
Front wing
The new regulations permit development engineers to use a real wing with flaps. This dispenses with the diffuser beneath the front of the car. 42 Encounter Technology

Audi R18 e-tron quattro 2014 The R18 e-tron quattro for the 2014 season has been completely redeveloped. The hybrid race car is the most complex sports car ever built by Audi.

Lightweight design
Audi’s previous Le Mans prototype weighed 915 kilograms. But, in future, the car’s weight may be reduced to 870 kilograms – taking Audi's lightweight design technology to a whole new dimension.

Monocoque
In line with the regulations, the new R18 e-tron quattro is a little higher and con­ siderably narrower than its predecessor. Its cockpit is now larger, and its monocoque more robust.

Hybrid systems
In addition to the internal combustion engine, the power­ train concept features for the first time the integration of two hybrid systems. As in the past, a Motor Generator Unit (MGU*) recovers kinetic energy at the front axle during braking that then flows into a flywheel energy storage system. For the first time, the engine turbocharger is linked to an electrical generator that enables conversion of the ther­ mal energy from the exhaust gas into electricity, e.g. when the boost pressure limit has been reached. This energy also flows into the flywheel energy storage system. When the car accelerates, depending on the operating strategy, the stored energy can either flow back to the MGU at the front axle or into the innovative electric turbocharger.

43

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

46

Click for the Future The virtual model of the new Audi factory in Mexico

52

Tankful Outcome Audi e-fuels under test

Showdown Man vs. machine, eye vs. sensor

58

Bespoken For Audi exclusive turns a special car into something utterly unique

64

Skills.

Skills Audi’s great strengths include the skills of every single one of its employees. It lays the foundation for perfection and innovation

9,500 kilometers lie between Ingolstadt and San José Chiapa. Nevertheless, Audi planners manage to make the trip across the pond several times a day – they travel virtually through time and space. While, in Mexico, construction work has only just begun on the 460-hectare site, in Germany, the digital ­ factory is almost complete.

CLICK FOR THE FUTURE

On-site – Matthias Müller (right) is Project Manager of the Mexican plant. Together with his colleague Björn Heuschmann, responsible for construction supervision and infrastructure, he inspects construction progress in San José Chiapa.

Through space and time – Meritxell Vilanova, Head of Information Processes Production Preparation, stands in front of the digital factory in Mexico. For the photo-realistic exterior rendering in real time, Audi commissioned the construction of a dedicated computer cluster that links 11,520 computing cores.

46

Encounter Technology

47

Encounter Technology

In 3D, planners can quickly identify and address problems even before construction has begun. Meritxell Vilanova
1 Text Janine Bentz-Hölzl Photos Bernhard Huber Florian Otto 1 Between desert and mountains – large concrete pipes are being laid at the factory site for draining rain and waste water. 2 Construction work is in full swing – the first buildings and the site office are already standing. The equipment, machinery and tools will be delivered in July 2014. 3 Project Manager Matthias Müller – “Thanks to technology, we can already take a look into the future.”

A LOOK IN THE VIRTUAL FACTORY
The Digital Factory provides the Audi planners with a plethora of IT systems and programs. Ultimately, you can see the facility not only from the outside, but also take a virtual tour of every single building.

PRESS SHOP
Free access – overhead cranes carry the tools to the presses. In the digital view, it is soon evident if mid-air collisions are likely.

B odyshell M anufacturing
Neatly in rows – once the bodyshell manufacturing building had been virtually constructed, the digital machinery was “delivered”. The 3D view also enables simulation of robot movements.

2

3

40-ton tools are piled meters high in long rows. Mexican Audi worker Erick Lopez walks past them. He stops in front of one of the large presses. His scrutinizing gaze scans the hall. On the ceiling, silent cranes glide along the rails. But can they transport the tools to the metal presses unhindered? As a planner, Lopez is responsible for making sure things run smoothly in the new press shop at Audi’s Mexican plant in San José Chiapa. “Do you see that big steel beam on the left at the back? It’s in the way; the tool can’t get past it,” explains Lopez. This is reason enough to take a closer look – with the click of a mouse, of course. You see, the plant in Mexico does not yet exist – at least not in the real world. The press shop flickering on Lopez’s screen cur­rently consists only of data. “The virtual factory is months ahead of the real-life construction plans,” says Meritxell Vilanova, Head of Information Pro­ cesses Production Preparation. “We start with 3D visualization before the foundation stone is even laid.” The first step is to determine the buildings and their coordinates – just like in the real world. The virtual construction then progresses pixel by pixel. “The Digital Factory provides a plethora of platforms and IT systems, enabling the facility to be planned down to the tiniest detail,” explains Vilanova. “You can think of it like building a house. The Digital Factory delivers the floor and the tools, the Audi planners on the other hand provide the architects, tradesmen and materials.” By

the end, you can not only look at the plant from the outside, but also take a virtual tour through every single building. “The benefit is obvious. In 3D, planners can quickly identify and address problems even before construction has begun,” says Vilanova. “The virtual factory is professional tool that provides planners with reliable data.” However, it needs a whole lot of computing power – even just for the exterior rendering of the buildings. The plant in Mexico is visualized in real time with photographic reality. The system calculates the nuances of light and shade at up to 25 times per second. The amount of incoming data is so vast that it cannot be pro­­cessed by one computer. Audi has therefore had a computing cluster built specifically for this purpose that links 11,520 computing cores with one another. By way of comparison, a high-end notebook has just eight computing cores. The data is transferred via fiber-optic cable at a speed of ten Gbit/s – 600 times faster than a DSL connection. No less complex is the planning of the respective building systems. Be it bodyshell manufacturing, paint shop or press shop – electricity, water and compressed air lines have to be laid, entrances and windows planned and power outlets and sprinkler systems installed. Only then are the production equipment and tools installed into the virtual mix. The plans are reworked and updated every day. “The 3D visualization means we can quickly identify where collisions occur or supply access is missing,” explains

PAINT SHOP
State your color – be it power lines, compressed air lines or steel beams, in the digital paint shop, too, the focus is on color. Here, however, it serves to improve differentiation between the elements.

COLLISION
Route blocked – the digital image shows an example of a collision. The green media line runs through the gray and yellow lines.

48

Encounter Technology

PRODUCTION SIMUL ATIONS
Be it press shop, bodyshell manufacturing, paint shop or assembly – during detail planning, the systems simulate processes and the movement of parts and materials.

Our objective is to simulate a start-of-production and have the cars roll off the digital production line. Meritxell Vilanova

4 4 Real-life – Mexican Audi employee Erick Lopez works together with his German colleague Volker Knoell to plan the new press shop in Mexico. 5 Does the tool fit into the press? Erick Lopez works with the IT tools provided by the Digital Factory.

5

E R G O N O M IC S
Perfectly adjusted – in assembly planning, the systems simulate the movements made by workers in order to evaluate the stresses and effort involved in the individual process steps.

D E E P -D R AW S I M U L AT IO N S
Checked in advance – in the press shop, Audi Planners simulate the blank forming process to ensure the manufacturability of the part. In the example shown here, the blank is being formed into two wheel arches.

Scan the QR code and experience a video of Audi’s future plant in Mexico!

Meritxell Vilanova. In bodyshell manufacturing, for instance, can all the robots be supplied with electricity? Is there enough space for the plant and equipment? “We use our systems to link our own data with that of the architects and engineers. Equipment, tools, safety guards, conveyer belts – I can see how all of it interacts at the touch of a button.” In the further detail planning stages, simulations will be carried out. There is a range of different IT tools for each system – the assembly planners, for instance, simulate how the individual elements of a certain car are built one after the other during the assembly process. “We can see, for example, that a fastening point is covered and cannot be accessed by a worker with his tool. Every tiny detail matters,” says Vilanova. The movements made by the workers are also virtually rendered and evaluated from an ergonomic standpoint. In the press shop, the focus is primarily on the machines. So-called deep-draw simulations assure the manufacturability of the bodyshell components. The planners “mount” virtual tools into the virtual presses and watch how the sheet steel or aluminum blanks deform during the pressing process – all on the monitor. These simulations allow the planners to identify whether the process causes rips or stresses.

When production of the Audi Q5 begins in Mexico in 2015, the real-life factory will be an exact double of the virtual one. “Our objective is to simulate a start-of-production and have the cars roll off the digital production line,” says Vilanova, describing her plans for the future. For Matthias Müller, Project Manager for the Mexico plant, the Digital Factory is already providing enormous support. “While construction work is still in full swing in San José Chiapa, the technology allows us to take a look into the future.” Nevertheless, there are certain differences to the real world that cannot be avoided, “The logistical complexity is many times greater in reality. 3,500 containers with parts, tools and machines must be shipped from Europe to Mexico,” explains Müller. 1,750 heavy trucks are required to transport the goods from the port to the factory in San José Chiapa – equating to a truck convoy 54 kilometers long. Things are very different in the Digital Factory – delivery and construction of plant and equipment is completed here with just a few mouse clicks.

51

Encounter Technology

Tankful Outcome
Audi e-fuels are a key building block of CO₂-neutral driving. The experts of Audi’s Technical Development are testing these fuels of the future to the nth degree.

52

Encounter Technology

53

Encounter Technology

1

While measurement engineer Guido Grosse monitors the test in the pressure chamber, Peter Senft sets about analyzing the data. The thermodynamics expert studies the print-outs of diagrams and tables and compares the values collected with existing data. “It’s looking really good,” he says, as he directs his gaze toward the pressure chamber, where flashes are still going off every second. “The e-fuels behave exactly the same on injection as conventional fuels. Clean mixture formation in the chamber is the basis for optimum combustion,” he continues. In eager anticipation, he picks up another diagram. On it is a cross-section of the fuel spray from the pressure chamber. “While the fuel is being sprayed out of the injector in the chamber, we cut through it with a laser, taking a photograph at the same time. The whole thing takes just a few milliseconds,” says Senft, explaining the so-called laser light section process. “From the resulting images, I can see the inner structure of the spray.” After looking at the print-out for a while, he comes to a clear conclusion, “Everything is absolutely fine here, too. The individual droplets are evenly distributed.”

2

Chain reaction – Reiner Mangold and Sandra Novak demonstrate with a molecule model. Bespoke micro-organisms directly produce Audi e-ethanol or long-chain alkanes for e-diesel.

At a glance – expert Peter Senft directly analyzes and evaluates all the data from the pressure chamber.

Moments in time
1 The experts from Technical ­Development use light scattering to analyze the behavior of the fuel as it is injected into the pressure chamber. 2 They then send a laser beam through the fuel spray to investigate its inner workings.

Inside the chamber are pressures of up to 15 bar and temperatures of around 350 degrees Celsius. We’re simulating the same conditions that exist inside a real engine. Guido Grosse
Precision injection – just a few milliliters of fuel at a time are i ­ njected into the pressure chamber.

Text Marlon Matthäus

Photos Bernhard Huber

Audi Ingolstadt, Technical Development, Building T06. Behind a steel door several centimeters thick, the engine development experts have their gazes fixed firmly on their computer screens. The blinds on the windows are down, the light in the room has been dimmed, a tense silence fills the air. Then measurement engineer Guido Grosse starts the test program in the pressure chamber. There’s a hissing sound as the injector in the steel ball with the round windows made from hardened quartz glass slides forward and clicks into place. Suddenly, bright flashes dart through the room, throwing long shadows and bizarre patterns onto the walls. Guido Grosse casts a satisfied eye over the first images, which are now appearing at one-second intervals on his monitor. “With every flash, the injector sprays a tiny quantity of fuel into the pressure chamber. We are using a special camera to scan the spray at intervals of 50 microseconds, enabling us to see exactly how the fuel behaves during the injection process,” he says, explaining the so-called light-scattering process. The chamber, which is about the size of a soccer ball, has to withstand quite some forces. Inside it are pressures of up to 15 bar and temperatures of around 350 degrees Celsius. “We’re simulating the same conditions that exist inside a real engine,” adds Grosse. But this is not just any fuel that’s being tested. What we are dealing with today is the future of CO₂-neutral mobility. On the test stand are the liquid representatives of Audi e-fuels, the synthetic fuels of tomorrow. “For about one year, we have been successfully testing the production of Audi e-ethanol* at our demonstration facility in the USA, and hope that e-diesel will follow this year,” explains Reiner Mangold, Head of Sustainable Product Development at Audi. He and Project Manager Sandra Novak brought a few liters of it with them for their co-workers in Technical Development. “We have long proven that we can produce synthetic fuels. Now we are testing them to the nth degree,” is how Mangold explains the purpose of today’s mission.

1

2

Tiny helpers, big results
1 In their cells, the micro-organisms produce fuel molecules that form the basis for Audi e-ethanol and Audi e-diesel. 2 All that the organisms need to ­produce the synthetic fuels are sunlight, CO₂ and water.

54

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

We have long proven that we can produce synthetic fuels. Now we are testing them to the nth degree. Reiner Mangold
Fit for the future – Reiner Mangold and Project Manager Sandra Novak are optimizing the production process for Audi e-fuels.

Fascinating facts about Audi e-ethanol and Aud e-diesel:

Only four elements are required for the production of the Audi e-fuels – water, CO₂, sunlight and tailormade micro-organisms, single-cell organisms just a few thousandths of a millimeter big. Like plants, these organisms use oxygen photo­ synthesis, i.e. they use sunlight and ­ambient CO₂ to grow. All they need as a living environment is brine or waste water. “With our American partner Joule, we have been able to modify and optimize the ­process to make the micro-organisms directly produce either ethanol or long-chain alkanes for diesel,” explains Audi Project Manager Sandra Novak. At the end of this photosynthesis process, the ethanol or the synthetic diesel fuel is separated from the water and cleaned. The character­ istics of Audi e-ethanol* are exactly the same as those of regular ­bio-ethanol and can be used immediately as the basis for E85 fuel (85 percent ethanol, 15 percent gasoline). Audi e-diesel*, too, can be mixed without restriction with fossil diesel. Audi e-ethanol and Audi e-diesel do not need biomass for their pro­ duction and can be made in regions unsuited to agriculture. “This finally puts paid to discussions about ‘food or fuel’,” says Sandra Novak. “Obviously they, too, produce CO₂ when burned. However, our Audi ­e-fuels are climate neutral, as the micro-organisms consumed the same amount of CO₂ from the ­atmosphere. The bottom line is that a car powered by e-fuels has a similarly good carbon footprint to that of a battery-powered car ­driven by electricity from renewable sources,” says Novak.

1

What would otherwise be hidden in the cylinder behind metal walls is made visible to the human eye by our glass engine. Thomas Schladt
Wired – Thomas Schladt prepares the glass engine for testing with Audi e-fuels. 2

However, the pressure chamber is just the first test bed for the Audi e-fuels. A few rooms further along, Thomas Schladt, Team Coordinator for Measurement Technology, monitors the flow and combustion characteristics of the synthetic fuels in the so-called glass engine. What would otherwise be hidden in the cylinder behind metal walls is made visible to the human eye. A ring of quartz glass shows the onlooker how the fuel behaves in the cylinder. With every one of the maximum of 3,000 revs per minute performed by this research engine, a tiny amount of fuel shoots into the glass cylinder, is compressed, ignited and expelled. “We have mixed a tracer, a kind of chemical colorant, into the e-fuels. We stimulate this with the laser and it begins to glow. The places in the glass cylinder that are particularly bright are where most of the fuel is,” says Schladt, explaining the laser-induced fluorescence process. Using a high-speed camera, the combustion process is captured with time-lapse photography. “We examine where and how the fuel ignites in the cylinder,” says Peter Senft as he checks the images. “The blue flame is an indicator that the fuel has been cleanly and fully combusted.” But it doesn’t end there. In contrast to fossil fuels, which have varying compositions depending on their geographical source, Audi e-fuels are absolutely pure. Peter Senft explains, “Thanks to their chemical characteristics, they generate fewer pollutants during combustion. They contain no olefins and no aromatic hydrocarbons.” To sum up – better mixture formation, cleaner combustion and fewer emissions. Test passed! The experts from the Sustainable Product Development department are delighted with the results. “We now know that our e-fuels are the same as or even better than conventional fuels,” says Reiner Mangold. The next task is already lined up and waiting – the production process associated with e-etha­ nol and e-diesel must be further optimized, then these new fuels will be ready to bring to market. “In the near future, we will be in the position to pro­duce several hundred thousand liters of synthetic liquid fuel per day,” says Sandra Novak. This marks a major step toward sustainable mobility.

3

Powerful triptych
1 When the intake valves are open, the fuel is sprayed directly into the cylinder, where it distributes evenly. 2 Combustion is triggered by the ignition sparks, from where the flame front propagates. 3 The increasing pressure generated by combustion pushes the piston downward.

Test passed! Compared with conventional fuels, Audi e-fuels are often better.

56

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

Man vs. Machine, Eye vs. Sensor The second comparison in the Man vs. Machine series sees the Audi A8 step up to the plate. Are the driver assistance systems it uses to identify its surroundings just as good as the human eye? Or even better?

S how
Text Ann Harber and Sabrina Kolb Illustration Carola Plappert

down

“Assistance systems serve to increase com­ fort in a car,” explains Dr. Stefan Wender, who is responsible for the architecture of driver assistance systems at AUDI AG. “The systems must work meticulously together if they are to identify dangers reliably. Depen­d­ ing on the application, cameras, radar and ultrasound systems can be used to classify the surroundings in their own way and to issue alarm signals.” Audi’s driver assistance systems are pure hi-tech. Are they already equal to human beings or per­ haps even superior to them? An attempt, in nine parts, to come up with an answer.

58

Encounter Technology

59

Encounter Technology

1
Over-View Audi A8 – Human [1:0]
Up to five cameras are mounted in the Audi A8 when the customer orders perimeter cameras. The driver assistance camera is mounted on the rear-view mirror, while the parking cameras are beneath the exterior mirrors, close to the Audi rings at the front and on the trunk. This affords the Audi A8 the perfect view in all situations. Based on the parking cameras, a control unit generates a virtual plan view of the car and its surroundings, which is shown in the MMI display*. When maneuvering into a parking space, the driver has an overview of the entire situation. In addition, four ultrasound sensors in the front and rear bumpers measure the distance to obstacles in front of and behind the vehicle; their signals warn the driver with increasingly urgency as the sedan moves closer to one of them. When it comes to overview, the Audi A8 is therefore ahead of the human eye in a few areas. The bird’s eye perspective, the simultaneous overview in all directions and the precise estimation of distances are things that a human being cannot achieve to the same degree on his own.

3
Far Sight Audi A8 – Human [3:1]
With long-distance vision of up to five kilometers, human beings are far better than cars. The special parking cameras in the car can see for just a few meters, albeit across a wide horizontal field of vision of 180 degrees. The driver-assistance camera pointing forward has a horizontal field of vision of just 46 degrees. However, the comparison between car and human in this chapter ends in a draw, as the front radar of the adaptive cruise control gives the Audi A8 a major advantage. Thanks to its precise measurements, the sedan can adapt its speed to maintain a constant distance to the vehicle in front. The human being is inferior when it comes to precision. In order to estimate the speed of an oncoming vehicle or one driving in front, the brain compares the size of the image of the car on the retina at intervals of around 30 milliseconds. The changes in such a short time are very small, making it difficult to estimate speed. Human perception is therefore based on estimated values and not on the precise measurement conducted by the Audi A8.
5 km

View to the front – the Audi A8 with its driver assistance camera.

Far-sighted – human beings can see up to five kilometers in front of them, taking in an angle of more than 180 degrees. The upward and downward angles are 60 and 70 degrees respectively.

2
Hind-Sight Audi A8 – Human [2:0]
The Audi A8 is also well ahead when it comes to hindsight. In order to look rearward, Audi side assist uses two rear radar sensors in the bumper. At speeds upward of 30 km/h, they keep an eye on an area up to 70 meters behind the sedan. As well as the blind spot, this also covers the so-called approach zone, which is considerably larger. By scanning the approach zone, Audi side assist can make the driver aware of potential dangers. The system meas­ ures the distance and speed of other vehicles off the Audi's rear corner. In the first stage – the information stage – the LEDs in the exterior mirror illuminate. Their brightness, however, is muted and only noticeable when viewed directly. If the system identifies an intention on the part of the driver to change lane when the distance is too short, the LEDs flash brightly as the second warning stage. The rear-view benefits of the Audi A8 are also evident when maneuvering into a parking spot. The reversing camera captures the area behind the vehicle and shows it in the MMI display. The associated control unit automatically calculates the path that the Audi A8 will take with the given steering angle and presents this likewise in the display. Human beings would have a tough time beating the Audi A8 rear-view systems. If a person is looking forward, he/she can see a little more than 90 degrees to either side, giving a total field of vision of around 180 to 200 degrees. Although he/she can and should also be checking the area behind the car with regular glances over the shoulder, potential danger situations in this area are far more difficult to see than for the Audi A8 with its direct rearward view.

5
View Point Audi A8 – Human [3:3]
The human being scores in this test, too. One eye alone can see only in 2D. Two eyes working together, however, make that 3D. Thanks to the distance between them, each of our two eyes sees things from a slightly different angle. The slight difference in the perspective of the two images enables the human brain to determine distances and the spatial positioning of objects. This becomes easier as the distances involved become closer. The greater the distance, the more this capability diminishes. From distances upward of one kilometer, the brain can no longer determine differences in distance from the images conveyed by the two eyes. The pinpointing of certain objects is instead determined from an individual’s experience of scale and proportion. The driver assistance camera in the Audi A8 cannot provide 3D vision. However, Audi is already working to develop a new generation of cameras that will also enable a vehicle to observe its surroundings in three dimensions. So, in future, the car will be able to match this point.

Sharp focus – the concentration of photoreceptors is at its greatest in the area around the fovea on the retina.

360-degree view – four dedicated cameras make parking easier.

4
Clarity Audi A8 – Human [3:2]
When it comes to clarity of vision, the human being cuts the better figure. In the fovea area of the retina, a person can see up to six times more clearly than the driver assistance camera in the Audi A8. In an ideal scenario – i.e. with 20/20 vision and rested eyes – human vision in this central area is equal to a resolution of around 8 megapixels. However, resolution is not the same all over the eye. It dissipates toward the edge, which is why people can only see things out of focus on the outer edges of their field of vision. This is where the brain comes into play – it completes the fuzzy images from its memory and experiences. These are based, for instance, on what we had previously noticed on looking around. The outer edges are out of focus in camera systems, too. But here, the pixels are distributed more evenly so that the camera can see clearly in a larger section of it field of vision than a human being can.

Field of vision – the outer line of the circle describes the field of vision of the human eye. The two inner lines mark the zones in which the eye can recognize the colors blue and red.

Three dimensions – the distance between the eyes enables the brain to generate threedimensional images.

60

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

61

Encounter Technology

6
Alertness Audi A8 – Human [4:3]
When it comes to alertness, the luxury car is once again out it front. With a reaction capacity of considerably less than 100 milliseconds, the Audi A8 is well ahead of the human being, whose reaction capacity is between 300 and 500 milliseconds. In the car, the driver assistance camera prepares information as quickly as the computing power permits. If we assume that the camera can process 36 images per second, it therefore needs 1/36 seconds, i.e. 27.7 milliseconds, to recognize something. Although, in the interests of reliability, the car usually evaluates several images, its reaction time is still considerably less than that of a human being. Recognition time varies among individuals and is largely dependent on attentiveness. The effects of inactivity and distraction have a negative impact on reaction capacity, while the Audi A8 is constantly at the top of its game. Nevertheless, with maximum concentration, the human being can beat the camera. However, this means that, when driving, he/she must concentrate fully on absolutely nothing else but the road ahead and the traffic round about.
60 meters
Nighttime vision – the infrared camera can see five times farther than the human eye. 300 meters

50 meters

8
Looking ahead – Audi active lane assist uses the driver assistance camera with its 50-meter visual range.

50 meters

Fore-Sight Audi A8 – Human [6:3]
Both people and machines drive in an anticipatory manner. The camera, however, is more precise. In contrast to people, who see distances only as rough approximations, the two radar sensors in the adaptive cruise control calculate distance down to the last meter. The system can see up to 250 meters ahead, meaning it can estimate far more precisely than a human being when braking is necessary. The Audi A8 also helps the human being to stay in the correct lane. If the driver is distracted and deviates from the lane, Audi active lane assist kicks in and pulls the sedan back into the correct lane with a computer-controlled steering maneuver. To do this, the camera monitors the road for 50 meters ahead and through an angle of around 40 degrees. If the indicator is activated or the steering maneuver is so definite that the lane change is clearly intentional, the system takes no action. In non-transparent situations such as a construction zone on a multi-lane highway, the assistant switches automatically to passive mode. In order to activate the system, the speed of the car must be at least 65 km/h. The human being would win from this point of view, as he/she is ready for action at any speed.

Final Score Audi A8 – Human [6:4]
In this comparison, both man and machine demonstrate a compelling array of individual qualities. The driver assistance systems in the Audi A8 take first place primarily when it comes to reliability. Monitoring traffic consistently and without distraction, estimating distances with precision and maintaining a close eye on the area behind the car – these systems are perfect for such tasks. Human beings, however, have a more colorful view of the world. They see it in three dimensions and have no problem classifying even long distances. Above all, human beings are still well ahead of the car when it comes to understanding a situation. They understand interrelationships, can draw definite conclusions from the information presented to them and adapt themselves flexibly to the respective situation. In-car assistance systems can send signals triggered by a specific stimulus. However, this process is based only on algorithms – a car is not intelligent in the true sense of the word. Assistance systems may be able to identify and react to predefined dangers, but they are currently unable to interpret unknown, more complex situations. In case of doubt, they must adopt a conservative approach. Audi is working hard to make its assistance systems more powerful. The models of the future will be able to park themselves in garages and car parks without the driver having to be in the car. They will also be able to take the pressure off the driver in slow-moving traffic by steering, braking and accelerating at speeds of up to 60 km/h. They will depend fully on their sensors – thinking, on the other hand, remains the preserve of the human being.

7
Night Vision Audi A8 – Human [5:3] 50 m
The Audi is in the lead by night. In the dark, a human being can see only in black-and-white and with a considerably lower resolution than in bright daylight. With the help of low beam, he can identify obstacles on the near side of the road from a distance of up to 60 meters, and from up to around 40 meters on the off side. However, at speeds of more than 70 km/h, these distances are usually insufficient to come to a complete halt in time in a dangerous situation. The Audi has the advantage in the dark due to its infrared camera, the core element of the night view assist system. The system generates a thermal image of the situation in front of the car. The thermal image highlights warm objects, while cold objects appear blue. People and animals, which the eye would normally perceive as dark outlines, can be seen brightly lit in the dashboard display thanks to their body heat. Furthermore, the infrared camera is also able to show the course of the road and building outlines. It can see up to 300 meters ahead, beyond the range of the full beam. Drivers have two handicaps by night. One is so-called afterimages that form in the eye as soon as another road user approaches from the other direction with full beam activated. The human being has difficulty seeing directly afterward. The second disadvantage is so-called dysphotopsia, which makes it difficult to see around a bright light source.

100

milliseconds

300–500

9
Color Vision Audi A8 – Human [6:4]
A human being’s perception of his surroundings is far more colorful than that of the in-car camera. In human eyes, three sets of so-called cones enable the recognition of at least 270,000 colors. The eye identifies around 300 spectral colors and can differentiate between around 30 gradients of light and 30 of shade, i.e. paler and darker tones of a particular color. The in-car camera, on the other hand, can only differentiate variations of intensity in the colors red and white, concentrating on the colors most critical in traffic situations. For instance, it can differentiate red rear lights and brake lights from white front headlamps and recognize the red outlines of traffic signs. This technology guarantees good night vision. In the R18 e-tron quattro Le Mans race car, which has no rear window, the rear view is provided by a camera/monitor system. The digital rear-view mirror, made up of organic lightemitting diodes (AMOLEDs*), shows what is going on behind the car in a brilliant and detailed image. The data are prepared to ensure that the image remains colorful and bright even in low light conditions, and that the headlamps of other cars don’t dazzle the driver in the dark.

milliseconds

Information processing – the chip beats the brain in this criterion, too.

S

M

L

The photoreceptors in the eye – the three different kinds of cones are sensitive to different wavelengths in the light spectrum, i.e. different color ranges. S, M and L means short, medium and long.

62

Encounter Technology

63

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

B espoken F or
N atural E legance
Trim elements in Tamo ash natural dark brown set natural accents in the alabaster white interior.

Individualization by quattro GmbH How do you turn a special car into something highly personalized? The experts at Audi exclusive offer a virtually inexhaustible array of options to make a new car utterly unique.

Text Annika Jochheim

Photos Daniel Wollstein, Robin Wink

Mugello blue – named for the Italian race track. Even the name of the color of this unique Audi A8 L W12 conveys style, Mediterranean flair and sporting character. The deep blue paintwork shimmers, the exquisite tone bringing a very particular elegance to the luxury sedan. The interior is dominated by leather in alabaster white with night blue accents. Trim elements in open-pored Tamo wood grown in Japan or Russia round off the beautifully balanced color combination. With the waving lines of its grain, it gives the interior a note of natural authenticity. “These colors complement one another perfectly,” comments Audi exclusive Customer Advisor Stefan Bach. “Both interior and exterior have a maritime feel and interpret the elegance of the Audi A8 in a highly distinctive way.” Bach should know; after all, he has been advising Audi customers on their personalized cars for the last ten years. Audi exclusive, quattro GmbH’s individualization division, which equipped the Mugello blue Audi A8 L W12, offers a range of options that is virtually limitless. “With our color combinations, leather sorts, trim and more than 100 paint colors, we start where the series range leaves off,” is how Bach describes the spectrum on offer. “People who drive an Audi model are looking for something special. With the Audi exclusive program, we offer our customers the chance to take something special and turn it into something utterly individual.” In 2012, quattro GmbH individualized around 160,000 vehicles across the entire model range – from the Audi A1 to the Q7. A host of leather varieties, fine trim elements and specialist paint colors are, of course, also available for the brand’s flagship, the Audi A8. “For the A8 and the A8 L, our customers can choose from sixteen leather colors in addition to the series-production shades,” explains Bach. “Plus there is a vast range of exterior colors, such as pearlescent saddle brown or pearlescent palais blue, which are only available through Audi exclusive.”
Scan the QR code and experience the new generation of the Audi A8!

64

Encounter Technology

65

Encounter Technology

No compromises
The elegant lines continue into the rear of the Audi A8 L W12 with precision-crafted materials.

I n the best of hands
Audi exclusive Customer Advisor Stefan Bach has a feel for the many color combinations offered by the ­individualization specialist.

Besides paint and leather colors, the stitching and the colored leather piping that edges the foot mats, quattro GmbH also offers a range of exquisite luxury features for the Audi A8. They include the likes of personalized entry sills, a cool box in the rear, a bar cubby and office solutions like a folding table. “Customers who buy an Audi A8 are usually business people who spend a lot time in the car,” says Bach. “The car is their office. It’s stands to reason that they want to make it as appealing and comfortable as possible.” But how does the customer know what really suits him and, more importantly, what works together? This is where the Audi exclusive advisor comes in with his/her in-depth knowledge of all the combination options. “You have to know the materials, but also the vehicles and their equipment options,” says Bach. A good advisor needs a good feel for his opposite number if he is to work together with him to determine his wishes and preferences. Is the customer a calm type, a classic individual or does he have a more experimental nature? In their work in this field, Stefan Bach and his colleagues benefit from the power of their imaginations and from many years of experience. At the end of the day, what matters to them is that the customer is suitably delighted when he takes delivery of the car. “We take every detail into consideration,” assures the expert. “And we obviously make sure that the customer’s wishes deliver a coherent and harmonious overall effect in their application.” Purple leopard print or pink trim elements with orange Alcantara? Bach and his colleagues take the liberty of advising their customers against such ideas. Customers from around the world take advantage of the advice service. Some of them travel to the Audi Forum in Neckarsulm to see the range on offer in the Audi exclusive studio there. These Audi fans receive detailed advice, want to sample the feel of the different leather sorts and run their fingers along the stitching on the seats and steering wheels. Others arrive for their appointment with a very precise idea of what they want. “I enjoy the contact with so many people, to meet them and to advise them,” says Stefan Bach. “I love the creativity and freedom of expression that comes from my work.” These are aspects than can be exercised to the full with one-offs like the Mugello blue Audi A8 L W12. Models such as this are built for events like motor shows or customer experience days and are configured by Audi exclusive advisors; they demonstrate to the customers the countless options offered by the individualization studio. “We have had customers who liked a one-off so much that they used it as a template for the design of their own car,” reveals Bach. “This is great affirmation for us.” With its fine colors and maritime character, this Audi A8 L W12 may well be an exhibition piece that finds favor with many. But Audi exclusive offers one thing above all – to design their car to be as individual as they are themselves.

S howcase
The Audi A8 L W12, the Audi flagship, shimmers elegantly in deep Mugello blue.

66

Encounter Technology

67

Encounter Technology

 Magazine 
 Only those prepared to look beyond their horizons   can evaluate and build on their own progress. Technology   news from around the world. 
Text: Marlon Matthäus
Image source: Georgia Institute of Technology

Artificial sense of touch – special films allow robots to feel.

Robots with Feelings

The Power of Thought

Telekinesis is becoming reality. With the help of a Brain Computer Interface (BCI), scientists have succeeded in flying a drone by the power of thought. In order to capture the activities of the brain’s movement center – the motor cortex – the pilots have to wear a cap equipped with electrodes. If the wearer now thinks of specific movements, he is able to steer the drone through the air. To do this, the researchers first had to use EEG and MRT to determine where in the brain neurons are being activated. For people suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, BCI could help provide control over bionic prosthetics or wheelchairs.
Further information: www.umn.edu Completely detached – the pilot controls the drone using only his thoughts.

Good reception – windows provide a stable mobile network.

From close up – the structure of the firefly shell makes LEDs even brighter.

Image source: www.shutterstock.com

As Clear as Glass Fly by Night

Scientists from the Georgia Ins­ ti­ tute of Tech­ nology in Atlanta have used bundled zinc-oxide nano wires to develop a sensor film that closely mimics the sense of touch of human finger tips. It takes ad­ van­ tage of the piezo-electric effect that generates elec­ tric pulses from mechanical pressure exerted on the bundle of zinc-oxide nano wires. The scientists were able to apply 8,464 of these bundles to one square centimeter of film. The human fingertip, by comparison, accommodates “only” around 240 touch receptors on the same area.
Further information: www.gatech.edu

We all know the problem – you may have no difficulty using your mobile phone outside on the street, but reception inside build­ ings is often poor. Swedish company Ericsson may have found the solution. The “Windows of Opportunity” project uses windows to provide the perfect connection. Transparent films on the glass function as antennas to boost the network.
Further information: www.ericsson.com

Angular, rough and chaotically ordered. This is the conclusion reached by researchers when they examined the external structure of the light organs of a species of Panamanian firefly. If you use this structure as an added layer on LEDs, the light output of the semi-conductor can be raised significantly. A large proportion of the LED light is still reflected back into the diode. “This drastically lowers their level of efficiency,” says Annick Bay from the University of Namur in Belgium. Lab experiments have confirmed that the rough surface of the firefly shell lets out more light.
Further information: www.unamur.be

68

Encounter Technology

69

Encounter Technology

LED

Image source: University of Minnesotat

Image Bildquelle: source: Research Research Group Group forfor Photonics Photonics in Living in Living Organisms Organisms, , University University of of Namur Namur

Image source: Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

1000
No Outlet
Powerful – the new batteries are up to 30 times more powerful than previous models.

Power Pack

Recent years have seen our electronic devices become ever smaller and more powerful. When it comes to their batteries, however, relatively little has changed. However, it appears that researchers at the University of Illinois have achieved the breakthrough. They have developed a technology that makes batteries 30 times more powerful and 1,000 times faster to charge than at present. To achieve this, the anode and cathode have been reduced considerably in size and arranged in a new kind of 3D structure. The researchers believe that, in future, it will be possible to jump start a car with a smartphone battery.
Further information: illinois.edu

Smarthone and e-book reader displays could soon themselves become power sources – making the need for a charging outlet a thing of the past. Solar films from the French SunPartner Group are just 0.5 millimeters thick and virtually transparent. Built into the display, they can lighten the load on device batteries. The energy generated is currently 2.5 milliwatts per square centimeter, with a ten minute charge being sufficient for two minutes more talk time. The hope is to double this figure this year through the use of new photovoltaic materials such as organic semi-conductor polymers. What makes these films to special is that they also work with artificial light.
Further information: www.sunparterngroup.com

Sent through the air – radio relay links transfer data just as quickly as fiber-optic cable.

High-Speed Transfer

3D
3D Fabrics Cool and Heat the Car

Stuck on – a new kind of sensor monitors patient health.

Thanks to their extremely good breathability and cushioning characteristics, 3D fabrics are predestined for use in vehicle interiors. Researchers are working on integrating electrically conductive threads into their structures. These could be used to heat, cool or even operate vehicles – without the need for a wiring loom.
Further information: www.titv-greiz.de

Healthy Tattoos

John Rogers, Professor of Materials Science at the University of Illinois, and his team have developed special health sensors that can be applied to the body like removable tattoos. The prototypes are made from ultra-thin electrodes, sensors, a wireless power supply and communications technology, and can measure the temperature and dampness of the skin. Doctors can use this, for example, to monitor wound healing following an operation. A wireless connection to the hospital allows the patient to remain in the comfort of his/her own home.
Further information: www.mc10inc.com

New world record – researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid-State Physics (IAF) and the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) have succeeded in wirelessly transferring the data equivalent of an entire DVD in less than one second. With a transfer rate of up to 40 Gbit/s, this is the power of modern fiber-optic cable. This kind of radio relay link could be used to close the gaps in the supply of broad-band internet, primarily in rural areas and places that are difficult to reach. The transfer has zero losses even in bad weather such as rain or fog.
Further information: www.iaf.fraunhofer.de

Image source: mc10Inc

70

Encounter Technology

71

Encounter Technology

40

Image source: Fraunhofer IAF

Image source: KIT

Charged up – super-thin solar films support smartphone and e-book reader batteries.

Image source: Fred Bruneau

74

Out of Thin Air How to filter CO₂ out of the air

80

Happy Anniversary Audi milestones

Great Finnish Hannu Mikkola won the 1983 World Rally Championship in Patagonia

82

Shell Shock The Ducati 1199 Superleggera is a work of art on two wheels

90

Passion.

Passion Passion is a driving force of Audi’s development work. Passion means love, sometimes lust and always full commitment.

From Pollutant to Resource Zürich start-up company Climeworks has developed a technology that filters carbon dioxide out of ambient air. Audi is involved in the project.

Out

of

Thin Air

74

Encounter Technology

75

Encounter Technology

Text Johannes Köbler

Photos Manfred Jarisch

3

Scan the QR code and experience an animation of how CO₂ is collected from the air!

Zürich, Technoparkstrasse 1, a large office building, home to more than 250 hi-tech companies and research institutes. On the second floor of the “Einstein” wing is the space occupied by Climeworks AG. A couple of rather unremarkable looking offices, a laboratory and just ten employees – a small start-up company. But it is one with a concept that could change the world of mobility, with some major input from Audi. “Climeworks has created the first manmade system in the world able to extract CO₂ continuously from the air,” explains Dr. Hagen Seifert, who is Audi’s officer for carbon footprint, future materials and renewable energies. “We reckon that this idea holds enormous potential. A year ago, we entered into an exclusive cooperation with Climeworks that we now want to expand significantly.” The technology is extraordinarily efficient – 80 percent of the CO₂ molecules that flow through the Climeworks equipment with the ambient air are filtered out. The basic principle is astonishingly simple – the carbon dioxide is first bonded with a sorbent material, then released again and, finally, prepared for further use as a pure gas. CO₂ makes up around 0.04 percent of the air, and rising, and is distributed very evenly through the atmosphere; which is why this new technology is achieving very similar results around the world. The principle of direct air capturing* is not new, but Climeworks is the first to achieve a significant reduction in its energy requirements – with new approaches in the layout of the cellulose matrix and the chemistry of the materials. This has transformed this start-up into extremely hot property among environment companies. Established four years ago as a spin-off from the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, Climeworks attracted backers from Switzerland and around the world. In the “Virgin Earth Challenge”, a climate competition sponsored by Richard Branson and Al Gore that comes with a first prize of 25 million dollars, the Zürich company was among eleven finalists selected from 10,000 entrants.

1

The Climeworks Demonstration Unit
4

1

5 2

3

4 6

5

6 2

Compact and powerful 1 Valve 2 Air intake blowers 3 Adsorption chamber 4 Air evacuation blowers 5 Heating 6 Heating control unit

3 The CO₂ molecules settle on the filter material … 4 … and are desorbed under heat at regular intervals. 5 The CO₂ serves as a resource for facilities like the Audi e-gas plant … 6 … and makes its way into the fuel tank as part of the synthetic fuel.

At the heart of the demonstration unit is the adsorption chamber. This is where the CO₂ settles on ­cellulose granules coated with certain amine groups. The cellulose matrix presents a large surface area to the air flowing through it, while restricting its flow only slightly. After around three hours of operation, ­desorption takes place at about 95 ­degrees Celsius and reduced pressure. The CO₂ molecules are released from the cellulose and col­ lected by a ­vacuum pump. The next cycle can then begin.

Filter material – cellulose granules 1 serve as the carrier material. Know how – Climeworks’ strength lies 2 in the chemistry of the materials.

76

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

77

Encounter Technology

The Climeworks technology has two great benefits, it cleans the air and serves as one element in the manufacture of synthetic fuels. Dr. Hagen Seifert

“What we find so compelling is the closed circuit”

The demonstration unit that the Swiss company has been operating since the start of 2013 marks an increase in scale to the magnitude of 1,000 compared with the previous lab unit. Its task is to demonstrate the efficiency of the Climeworks technology. It has been running continuously and soundly for the last twelve months at temperatures ranging from minus five to plus 35 degrees Celsius, with a quiet swooshing noise like that of a conventional airconditioning system. A single operating cycle takes around six hours, with the end result being one kilogram of CO₂ with a purity of 99.5 percent. The cellulose material in the adsorption chamber is changed after four years of operation; otherwise, the maintenance requirements are minimal. But what happens to the extracted CO₂? “Carbon dioxide is not a pollutant, but a resource,” says Dr. Hagen Seifert. “Plant nurseries can use it, as can drinks companies, or soon perhaps even car companies for the air conditioning systems in their vehicles. And we at Audi have a very particular interest in this – we can make excellent use of it at our e-gas facility in Werlte.” The plant in Emsland produces synthetic methane (Audi e-gas*), which serves as fuel for cars like the A3 Sportback g-tron. The hydrogen necessary for this is extracted from water via electrolysis using eco-electricity. CO₂, the second raw material, currently comes from a neighboring biogas facility; 2.7 kilograms are required to make one kilogram of e-gas. In future, Audi could generate the CO₂ itself. “With one large Climeworks facility, we would be able to cover the current CO₂ demand in Werlte,” reckons Seifert. “This would enable us to make around 1,500 cars CO₂-free.” A process that cleans the air and is also an important element in the manufacture of synthetic fuels – “the Climeworks technology unites two great benefits,” says Dr. Hagen Seifert. “For us at Audi, this can become a central element on the path to CO₂-neutral mobility.”
7

Dr. Hagen Seifert (Audi) in conversation with Jan Wurzbacher (standing) and Christoph Gebald. The two 30 year-old Climeworks founders come from Germany and studied mechanical engineering at ETH Zürich.

Dr. Seifert: What we find so compelling about the Climeworks technology is the closed circuit. The CO₂ available on the market today is fossil based, generated from the combustion of fossil fuels. CO₂ extracted from the air, on the other hand, is renewable – similar to a biofuel, derived from plants that extracted carbon dioxide from the air during their growth. Just that the Climeworks extraction cuts out the middle man. Wurzbacher: We are utterly convinced by our process and its energy efficiency. In the short term, you can, of course, also capture CO₂ at the chimney of a coal-fired power station, where the concentration is naturally far higher. However, the energy required would significantly reduce the efficiency of the power station. There is no closed circuit independent of fossil fuels…

Gebald: … and besides, you would then have to transport the CO₂ to where you need it. Our technology, on the other hand, has the major benefit of freedom of choice in its location. Above all, we can position our equipment wherever there is the waste heat necessary for its operation. We firmly believe that we can offer renewable CO₂ at market prices. Dr. Seifert: With a large Climeworks facility in Werlte, we could significantly increase the overall efficiency of our Audi e-gas facility. The heat that we need for desorption comes for free from the available waste process heat. Thinking on a large scale, we wouldn’t be able to operate without this new technology, because there wouldn’t be enough biogas facilities in Germany to generate synthetic fuel. Audi e-gas and our other efuels are also suitable for further processing – in future, they could be used to produce sustainably generated plastic parts, which could be of great interest to us. We see atmospheric CO₂ as a critical factor in this completely loss-free cradle-to-cradle cycle.

Site inspection in Zürich – the 7 demonstration unit at the foot of the Hard­ brücke close to company headquarters.

Extraction of atmospheric CO₂ is a critical step in the sustainable mobility of the future. Dr. Hagen Seifert

78

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

79

Encounter Technology

40
Less is More
Text Janine Bentz-Hölzl Photo Ulrike Myrzik Even in 1974, it was possible for small to be beautiful – the Audi 50 was an extremely modern and finely crafted automobile, like the Audi A1 is today.

25
Diesel Dash
Sluggish was yesterday – with the first turbodiesel featuring direct injection, Audi revolutionized the image of compression-ignition drives. Since 1989, the TDI has stood for driving fun and exceptional power delivery – and for the world’s most successful fuelsaving and efficiency technology.

80
Hat Trick

20
FiRSt
The Audi RS 2 Avant was launched in 1994. Its message was that of outstanding performance in a whole new segment. Its legacy is a broad lineup of Audi RS models, each one of them endowed with stunningly refined power.

In 1934, the new Auto Union Grand Prix cars set three world speed records on the Avus track in Berlin – then turned the world of motorsport on its head. At the wheel was racing legend Hans Stuck.

100
Three, Two, One … gotcha
At the age of just three years, the Audi brand began a winning streak in 1912 that delivered it three consecutive wins at the Austrian Alpine Race. As a result, the challenge trophy was given permanently to the company from Zwickau – marking the start of Audi’s amazing motorsport history. In the photo, August Horch sits at the wheel of the Audi Type C, his wife Anneliese on the back seat.

20
The Art of Aluminum
Geneva Motor Show 1994 – the birth of the Audi A8. For the new luxury-class model, Audi developed a highly inno­ vative aluminum technology, thereby estab­lishing its clear leadership in lightweight design.

Happy Anniversary
Honor Roll Audi has every reason for celebration in 2014, too. Be it 100 years of motorsport tradition or 25 years of TDI, 80 years of the Silver Arrows or 20 years of the Aluminum Space Frame – Vorsprung durch Technik has been anchored in the Audi DNA from the very start.

80

Encounter Technology

81

Encounter Technology

Hannu Mikkola in Patagonia There were five quattros on the starting grid at the deciding race of the 1983 World Rally Championship, run in the depths of the Argentinean winter. At the wheel of one of them was Audi works driver Hannu Mikkola from Finland. His victory secured him the only world championship title of his long career. 30 years later, he returned to Patagonia.

82

Encounter Technology

83

Encounter Technology

From another planet – in their first years, the quattros competed mainly with themselves. No competitor could come close to them, particularly under difficult road conditions.

Every centimeter counts – in the battle for the world championship crown, Hannu Mikkola could not afford to make any mistakes on scree and water, snow and ice.

Text Thomas Wirth

Photos Stefan Warter

Hannu Mikkola is Finnish – one of those fast Finns who dominated international rallying from the 1960s on. They didn’t say much, but were insanely fast behind the wheel. Their fine sense of humor was so deeply hidden behind motionless expressions that the inexperienced needed a moment or two to notice the twinkle in their eyes. Hannu Mikkola is one of those Finns. After 30 years, he is returning to the place where, in 1983, he drove the most important bend of his career. He already had everything else behind him. The tracks of the 1,000-Lakes Rally in his Scandinavian homeland and the intricately woven serpentines of the Maritime Alps near Monaco, the tight mountain roads of Corsica and Greece and the narrow lanes winding though the estates of the English aristocracy. He defied the rough conditions in Africa at consistently high speeds, as is the want of a dedicated Finn. Yet, even after 20 years, he was still without a title. Break­ downs, accidents and competitors were always getting in his way. But 1983 looked better for him. Just as well, because Hannu Mikkola, engineer and self-taught rally driver, was determined to become World Rally Champion at the age of 41.

Not at all tired – even at 71 years old, Hannu Mikkola is perfectly in control of the quattro. He is fast, he is precise and, of course, he is completely relaxed.

Audi quattro Group B A2 (1983/1984)
Engine Inline five-cylinder with overhead camshaft, 2,144 cm³, bore x stroke 79.5 x 86.4 mm, compression 6.5:1, maximum torque 450 to 491 Nm at 4,000 rpm; maximum power 265 to 294 kW (360 to 400 hp) at 7,000 rpm, fuel supply: electronic injection (Bosch), KKK turbocharger, dry-sump lubrication Transmission All-wheel drive, single-plate clutch, five-speed gearbox Chassis McPherson strut suspension front and rear, power-assisted rack-and-pinion steering Dimensions L / W / H: 4,404 / 1,733 / 1,344 mm Wheelbase: 2,524 mm Track f / r: 1,465 / 1,502 mm Weight: 1,100 kg Performance Top speed: more than 190 km/h Consumption 35 to 47 l/100 km in competition

Today, in the Argentinean winter of 2013, he stands in San Carlos de Bariloche, a small town deep in the heart of Patagonia that is best understood by Europeans when they envisage the phenomenon of St. Moritz. A not particularly pretty destination for sportsmen and women, built on a lake, framed by rocky mountain peaks and graced by a small harbor and ski lifts. Bariloche even has a tradition of chocolate making. Settlers brought their recipes from the once sparse Swiss countryside. Hannu Mikkola casts his eye around the landscape and says, “It was pretty easy to make a mistake here.” Next to him is an Audi quattro, albeit a model from 1984. The correct 1983 version is not currently roadworthy, but the differences are tiny. Hannu Mikkola, on the other hand, is utter­ ly original. He has flown in from Miami, where he lives for the part of the year when his home in Finland is too dark, even for him. Now he wants to drive, pulls on his helmet and sets off. He is now 71 years old. He shifts gear with precision and puts his foot down. Everything is fast, very fast. He knows exactly what to do. But what about that bend up ahead? The quattro approaches it at breakneck speed and he doesn’t back off. Does he still know what he’s doing? He certainly does. Again and again, he drives along this stretch of Patagonian countryside that ardent rally fans have closed specially for the return of the world champion. Hannu Mikkola’s face is without expression when he drives. The car is loud, it booms and vibrates. Hannu calls out that it would get quieter if he drove faster. Perhaps he is laughing just a little to himself. The quattro has become no less familiar to him in the 30 years since his victory. He knows exactly how to use it, knows its limitations, doesn’t need to feel his way. He uses the options with supreme control without overstretching them. This car belongs in a museum – this turbo-whistling five-cylinder with its massive battery of headlamps – but Hannu Mikkola still loves the kick he gets when his car does exactly what he wants it to at high speed.

A little later, he stops on a ridge. After all, this is not a race. “It was critical back then,” says Hannu Mikkola now. “I had to win in Bariloche if I was to become world champion.” In elite sport, such plans are not easily postponed until next year when you are already the wrong side of 40. Not even for a Finn. Audi knew this of course, and thus took to the track on the other side of the world with an armada of five Audi quattros. The regulations stipulated that this many Group B race cars had to start a rally if full points were to be awarded at the end. In order to minimize the risks in this far-flung land, Audi had chartered two military helicopters at short notice for the 14 technicians. The service professionals used them to follow behind their quattro troupe – repairing whatever needed repairing along the way, including the helicopters. It was August 2, 1983, when the Rally Argentina began in Buenos Aires at ten o’clock at night. The city was dancing; hordes of people crowded the track. 94 teams raced from here into the wintery night for exactly 1,362 kilometers across the plains, interrupted only by the first two special stages. The rally had never been this fast. The average speed stood at 189 km/h. And, now in Pata­ gonia at the foot of the Andes, a phenomenon occurred over the next three stages: “I’ve never again seen so many people,” recalls Mikkola. “They were absolutely crazy about motorsport.” The World Rally Champion speaks in a tone of voice that indicates a degree of surprise at this passion for driving fast on gravel and asphalt.

As of the 1982 season, rallying was interested only in letters, not numbers. In the new Group B were thoroughbred race cars based on special road-going sports cars. For their homologation, at least 200 had to be built over twelve months. Ten percent of them could be developed into rally cars. After the “long” quattro, Audi developed the Sport quattro especially for Group B.

86

Encounter Technology

We want more – water or ice, gravel and snow did not count as adverse conditions. On the contrary, they were welcome aids to proving quattro superiority.

Gerardo F. Viegener and his friends were amazed. They had sought out a section of the gravel track right on a bend. The quattros were whistling off in the distance – then they appeared, so quickly, in such an unearthly surge that Viegener and his pals dived for cover behind the trees. “We were sure they weren’t going to make it,” he says today. “There was no way they were going to make it.” But made it they did. In glorious slides, Mikkola, Blomqvist, Mouton and Austrian Franz Wurz, who drove a Group A Audi 80 quattro, wound their way through the many bends. The Lancia drivers were far less at home in Argentina. Although they started the race in August 1983 at the top of the constructors’ table, the light-footed rear-wheel drive cars got stuck in the mud, were overtaken downhill on special stages even by local Renault 18 GTXs, or rolled ten times after an accident, like the car driven by Adartico Vudafieri – fortunately without injuring anyone.

Hannu Mikkola, on the other hand, was plagued by problems like flat tires and defective brakes. In the end, Stig Blomqvist was faster, but team orders reined him in. Mikkola’s championship title had priority over Blomqvist’s victory – he was in only fourth place in the drivers’ championship in August 1983. Following his success at the Rally Argentina, Hannu Mikkola came within just two points of Walter Röhrl at the top of the leader board. In 1983 he was still driving for Lancia, but didn’t want to enter in South America. Going on the record with magazine sport auto, he said at the time, “Driving in snow and mud in the Rally Argentina is a waste of money.” Not for Mikkola. This is where he secured his only title. He looks on as the mechanics from Audi Tradition load up the wild all-wheel-drive veteran. “You know,” he says, “when I began rally driving in 1963, I lived only for this one dream.” And there it is after all, the emotion without which motorsport would not exist, not even for stoical Finns.

Alongside Mikkola were Stig Blomqvist, Michèle Mouton, Shekar Mehta and Rubén Luis de Palma, an Argentinean businessman, stuntman and racing hero. For 15,000 dollars, the amateur driver had rented a training quattro for the race on his home turf. To begin with, the rally novice held up well, but in the seventh special stage, he slid out of the race on his roof. However, the fans loved him despite of this, and perhaps even because of it. There were onlookers everywhere. 30 years later, there is just one – Gerardo F. Viegener, an attorney from Bariloche. He doesn’t believe his eyes when he sees the colorfully decaled Audi quattro from a distance at the side of the road with Hannu Mikkola, his former idol, alongside. In 1983, Viegener was 27 years old and the Rally Argentina offered him and his motorsport-crazy friends an unrepeatable chance: This would be the one and only time that the global rally circus would come to the Argentinean hinterland. The group of ten fans piled into a small motorboat and traveled for two hours across the ice-cold Lake Nahuel-Huapi from Bariloche to the final stage of the rally. It rained on August 6, 1983. Then after the rain came snow, a lot of snow. The tracks were made up of ice, mud and gravel. These nasty Patagonian conditions seemed just perfect for the Bavarian all-wheel technology.

Hannu Mikkola
Hannu Olavi Mikkola (born May 24, 1942) is a former rally driver from Finland. In 1981, alongside Michèle Mouton, he was the first driver to enter a WRC rally in an Audi quattro. In 1983, he and his co-driver Arne Hertz became World Rally Champions in an Audi quattro. It was the first car to win the World Rally Championship with all-wheel drive. At the Rally Argentina in 1985, driving a Group B Audi quattro, Mikkola dominated what was the fastest rally to date in motorsport history. This record was to stand for fifteen years, before being broken several times by current world rally cars.

Scan the QR code and experience Hannu Mikkola’s marathon sprint for the 1983 world championship!

Ducati has crowned the Panigale model range with a special edition limited to just 500 units – in the 1199 Superleggera, more than 200 hp meet just 155 kilograms. The lightweight specialists in Bologna applied their spirit of innovation to create the fastest ever road-legal Ducati.
↓ Lean and Mean Beneath the tight-fitting CFRP bodywork is concentrated high-end technology.

Text Michael Harnischfeger

Photos DUCATI Manfred Jarisch

Shell Shock

In October 2013, 300 people traveled to Bologna from all around the world. With heart rates elevated to varying degrees, they climbed into taxis at the airport, traveled the few kilometers to Via Antonio Cavalieri Ducati 3 – and stood there in amazement. These committed motor­ cycle fans were given the opportunity to meet a true supermodel on two wheels in advance of its world premiere at the Milan Motorcycle Show. Ducati had piqued their curiosity, perhaps even given one or two of them a few sleepless nights. With the help of its dealerships, the Ducati management had sought out its best and most loyal customers worldwide and directed them to a secure website filled with some very vague insinuations – teaser videos spoke of magnesium, titanium and carbon. Mention was even made of the exotic material tungsten, which is known as an extremely dense heavy metal with the highest melting point of all pure metals. With great dramatic skill, the potential cus­ tomer base was carefully primed on the lead-up to this October day in Bologna, to this first encounter with the 1199 Superleggera, this manifest beauty of technol­ ogy; the first tactile contact with its exquisite compo­ nents and, ultimately, the question of whether this wonderfully crafted sculpture from the very limits of the technically feasible is actually worth the price of a serious sports car – about 65,000 Euros in total.

Most of these fans – each of whom have more than just one Ducati in their own garage – answered without hesitation with a very resounding yes. A large proportion of the Superleggera’s 500 units, which will be built by hand in true Ducati fashion, were therefore already sold by the show premiere in November. All 500 contracts have now long been signed and production is scheduled to commence at the start of 2014. According to Ducati, several hundred more contracts could have been sealed, but, despite the tempting demand, the rules of engagement remain unchanged. First come, first served – the exclusivity of the lean supermodel is cast in stone at 500. And it comes with an absolute explosion of technology, materials and aesthetics that continue to present new facets the more intensely you look at this motorcycle. When Ducati presented the 1199 Panigale R, CEO Claudio Domenicali answered the question of what could possibly come next with a wink and a smile, “We have a few ideas, just you wait and see.” The Pani­ gale R is itself a mind-blowing dream machine with a dry weight of just 165 kilograms, an output of 143 kW (195 hp) and a top speed well over the 300 km/h mark, as of which the speedometer shows just flashing lines due to a gentlemen’s agreement with other manufacturers.

90

Encounter Technology

91

Encounter Technology

Racing Technology for the Road The Superleggera is even lighter than the works superbike.
↓ 1 2 3 Numbers game – rear tires are 200 mm wide for a good 200hp. Adapted – aerodynamically designed bodywork. Single fun – pillion passengers are not envisaged. ↓ 4 Color theory – if it glitters like gold, it’s made of magnesium. 5 As in racing – 520 chain and Ergal sprockets. 6 Short and sweet – the exhaust ends at the footrest. ↓ Marco Sairu and his team pushed the twin-cylinder over the 200 hp mark.

1

4

2

Marco Sairu, Engine Project Manager, sees the ­pistons as the technical highlight of the Super­ leggera’s drive. These are the first pistons in a road-­ going 4-strike motorcycle to run with just two rings. “Dispensing with the third oil-scraper ring allows a shorter piston skirt with a ­cor­responding re­structuring of the whole piston. This reduces weight from 600 to 500 grams, which, in turn, ­allows for lighter piston pins,” says Sairu. In add­i­ ti­on, more power output comes from increased compression and a redesigned piston crown that optimizes the form of the combustion chamber.

3

5

Domenicali and his engineers kept their word. Marco Sairu, Engine Project Manager, and his colleague Cristian Gasparri, who drove the Superleggera project as Vehicle Project Manager Sportsbike, report that the Superleggera was already fixed in their minds when work began on the new Panigale range. It was launched in 2011 and revolutionized the way superbikes are built the world over, with a whole new level of refinement in lightweight design and functional integration, as illustrated by its new kind of monocoque frame and the short stubs of its exhaust system. Once development of the 1199 Panigale R was complete, the time came for attention to turn toward the project with the cryptic name of RSM. This was the internal acronym for Racing Special Magnesium and means nothing more than turning the screw of lightweight design a little further, through the application of lightweight materials and technologies used in the World Superbike & MotoGP Championship. One route was in the more extensive use of carbon-fiber reinforced polymer, or CFRP* for short. On the 1199 Panigale R, the hi-tech material is already used in guards for the swing arm, clutch cover and heels, covers for the ignition lock and dampers, plus the fend­ ers. The Superleggera, however, features CFRP in far larger areas, as well as in structural applications. Mag­ ne­sium and titanium are also used to a greater extent, while the 2.7-kilogram battery in the series-production models makes way for a 700-gram lithium-ion unit. Even items one might consider secondary did not escape scrutiny, from the forged footrests to the radiator plug. According to Cristian Gasparri, the original intention was to carry this over from the seriesproduction model. However, if you make it from aluminum, you save another six grams! The engine designers took a similarly sys­ tematic approach. Thus, in the Superquadro twin-cylinder, not only are the intake valves made from titanium, but the exhaust valves, too, are made from this exceptionally light and robust material. In the L-twin’s crank­ shaft, on the other hand, a large proportion of the inertial mass is made up of tungsten inserts. The engine development engineers on Marco Sairu’s team used the high density of this metal to reduce the overall mass of the shaft through careful positioning of the tungsten inserts, while achieving a perfect mass balance. A further contributor to weight and friction reduction is pis­ tons with just two piston rings. This saves almost 17 percent of the weight per piston, which, when combined with other measures, enables an increase in maxi­ mum revs from 12,000 (Panigale R) to 12,300 rpm. Together with a compression ratio raised from 12.5 to 13.3, this delivers not only freer high-revving character­ istics with even more sensitive throttle response, but also an increase in peak power output from 143 kW to more than 149 kW (200 hp).

6

92

Encounter Technology

93

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

Sporty Design and Outstanding Precision The Superleggera’s alloy wheels come from motorsport supplier Marchesini.
↓ Flyweight – forged nine-spoke magnesium wheel.

94

Encounter Technology

95

Encounter Technology

Rendezvous with the Supermodel The Ducati 1199 Superleggera in Detail.
↓ The 1199 Superleggera is packed with systematically thought through and masterfully executed technical solutions. Many components feel wonderful to the touch and all are classic examples of the beauty of exquisite technology, underscoring the Ducati motto: “Authentic Italian Performance”. 1 Monocoque Main Frame For the 1199 Superleggera, Ducati is producing the monocoque from aluminum-magnesium alloy. This re­ duces its weight by 1.1 kilograms compared with the aluminum frame of the 1199 Panigale R. 2 Main Bodywork and Add-On Parts Not just the main bodywork, but also other add-on parts like the seat mount and smaller bodywork ­elements are made from ultra-lightweight and extremely resilient CFRP, resulting in a weight saving of 1.0 kilograms. The 1199 Super­ leggera is painted in exclusive Ducati Corse red. 3 Front Brake The Superleggera is the first roadgoing motorcycle to feature a ­new-generation Brembo front brake system. Not only can the rider adapt the lever travel, he can also modulate braking characteristics to suit his preferences by adjusting the effective piston diameter. ↓ World Premiere: The Superleggera is the first ­road-going motorcycle in the world to feature a suspension unit with a titanium spring. Chain For friction-optimized power transmission, instead of a 525 chain, the Superleggera runs with a 520 chain of the type typical in racing, complete with the associated front and rear Ergal sprockets. This saves 0.8 kilograms. 7 Front Forks The FL916 upside-down fork from Öhlins has some high-end features such as a load-optimized outer tube, titanium-nitrided inner tube and fully forged undersides – technologies transferred from racing for a 1.1 kilogram weight saving. Compression, rebound and compression are all ­adjustable. Compression and rebound are adjustable. Valves The intake valves on the 1199 Pani­ gale R are already made from titanium, and the Superleggera uses this lightweight material for the exhaust valves, too. This delivers a weight reduction of 24 grams per valve. 12 Conrods Also made from titanium are the ­conrods that connect the pistons to the crankshaft. Here, lightweight ­design means low rotating and oscillating masses, fast rev response and incredible power delivery. 13 Pistons This is the first road-going 4-stroke motorcycle to use pistons with just two piston rings. Friction is thus considerably reduced compared with the usual three rings. Plus the piston walls and piston pins can now be thinner, reducing weight from 600 to 500 grams – not insignificant at more than 12,000 rpm. 4 Wheels Marchesini, outfitter to many race teams, casts and machines magnesium alloy wheels for the Superleggera sized 3.50 x 17 at the front and 6.00 x 17 at the rear. They are clad in 120/70-ZR 17 and 200/55-ZR 17 tires. The two wheels have a combined weight of just 5.6 kilograms – one kilogram less than the wheels on the 1199 Panigale R. 5 Fasteners Many of the screws and fasteners on the cladding and engine are made from titanium. 6 8 Rear Suspension The Öhlins TTX36 rear suspension, too, brings racing technology to the road with the first application of a titanium spring. It weighs 300 grams less than one made from steel. Compression and rebound are adjustable. 9 Top Clamp The motorcycle’s limited edition number is engraved into the upper fork bridge. 10 Cylinder Head As usual for Ducati, the valves are precisely opened and closed using desmodromic control* – guaranteeing maximum performance combined with low fuel consumption and clean exhaust gases. The maximum engine speed has been increased to 12,300 rpm, compared with 12,000 rpm for the 1199 Panigale R. 11 16 Clutch The finely tuned clutch is equipped with reinforced racing springs. This raises the operating forces a little, but guarantees functionality even under extreme race track conditions. 17 Exhaust System The short exhaust system, including the manifolds, is made entirely from titanium. The road-legal system weighs a total of just 6.2 kilograms, making it 2.5 kilograms lighter than the system in the 1199 Panigale R. 14 Crankshaft The crankshaft is made from forged steel and is finely balanced with tungsten inserts. This means that the masses necessary to ensure optimum concentricity and smooth running can be so perfectly positioned that the overall mass of the crankshaft can be reduced. Expressed in figures, the conventionally structured crankshaft in the 1199 Panigale R weighs 4,800 grams, while the one in the Superleggera weighs just 4,400 grams – marking a highly effective reduction in rotating masses and, as a side note, a better figure than for even the Ducati superbikes. In accordance with regulations, their crankshafts must be series-production and therefore weigh 4,700 grams. 15 Rear Subframe On the Superleggera, the rear subframe, too, is made from CFRP, instead of the aluminum used in the 1199 Panigale R. This means just 900 grams compared with 2.1 kilograms.

Ducati 1199 Superleggera Stretching the limits of possibility for ultimate performance.
↓ From the radiator plug (minus six grams), through screws and small parts in lightweight materials to the titanium exhaust system (minus 2.5 kilograms) – the weight reduction compared with the already remarkably lean 1199 Panigale R was only possible through a great many individual ↓ measures. And 155 instead of 165 kilograms is not even the whole truth: Dry weight is calculated without the battery. On-the-road, the lightweight lithium-ion battery actually makes the Superleggera twelve kilograms lighter than the 1199 Panigale R. i Technical Data Ducati 1199 Superleggera Manufacturer: Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. Production period: starting early 2014 Class: superbike Engine data: liquid-cooled, two-cylinder, ­four-stroke, 90° engine. Four valves per cylinder, electronic injection, ­regulated catalyst 2 3 2 2 Displacement: 1,198 cm³ Power: more than 149 kW (> 200 hp) at 11,500 rpm Torque: 134 Nm at 10,200 rpm Transmission: six-speed 2 5 Drive: chain Brakes: two discs at the front, one disc at the rear, ABS Wheelbase: 1,437 mm Dry weight: 155 kg 17 10 9 Top speed: > 270 km/h

1

2

15

1 8 2

6

Less is more – at the start of the ­Superleggera, the question was, ‘Where can we save weight with justi­fiable effort?’ The development ­engineers analyzed every single ­com­ponent and ­assembly.

7

10

11

16 4 17 13 12 14 4

Electronic driving aids help on the road and the raceway – alongside ABS, traction and engine ­braking control, the Superleggera also has a new kind of Wheelie Control. These systems can be calibrated to suit personal pre­ferences.

96

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 100 –101

97

Encounter Technology

Ducati 1199 Superleggera A gem that would be wasted in a collector’s garage.
↓ 1 2 3 No choice – every Superleggera comes in Corse red. Hidden innovation – monocoque main frame. Exclusive – top clamp with serial number. ↓ Cristian Gasparri and his colleagues have been pondering the Superleggera ideas for years.

1

2

Should the customer make use of the race kit delivered as standard equipment, the engine power rises by a further five hp due to the less dampened exhaust sys­ tem from Akropovič, and the weight of the Superleggera drops by a further 2.5 kilograms – due in part to machined covers for the mirror recesses and kits for the remo­ val of the license plate holder and side stand. Also part of the race kit are paddock stands for front and rear and a higher race fairing. This project involved a great deal of work and enormous attention to the tiniest detail. But how many Superleggeras will ever leave their place of honor in the living room or collector’s garage? Gasparri laughs, “More than we thought. Many of our customer stress that they want to ride their Superleggeras. Also and especially on the race track.” This is where, assisted by the ad­ justable Ducati Wheelie Control, adjustable eight-stage traction control and the Ducati Quick Shift for changing gear on full throttle without using the clutch, they can ride like the professionals in the superbike series. And in the pits, the DDA+ data mea­ s­ u­ ring system with GPS and lean-angle sensors en­ ables precise analysis of their riding style. The first Superleggeras are scheduled for delivery in spring 2014. Leaving just a little time for eager anticipation.

3

For Cristian Gasparri, Vehicle Poject Manager Sportsbike, the monocoque main frame is his personal highlight in the 1199 Superleggera. The use of a particularly stiff yet lightweight and vibration-absorbing aluminum-magnesium alloy reduces its weight by 1.1 kilograms com­ pared with the aluminum component in the ­1199 Panigale R. “And don’t forget, the alu­ minum monocoque in the series-production Panigale is already a five-kilogram weight saving compared with our classic trellis frame design. That’s a real milestone,” says Gasparri.

10
A weight saving of 10 ­kilograms is an amazing ­technical feat when the ­starting point is just 165 kilograms. In a ­package with ­increased ­engine output, it gives the Super­leggera a power-to-­weight ratio of 0.77 kg/hp.

Scan the QR code and experience the beauty of the technology in a Ducati 1199 Superleggera!

99

Encounter Technology

Technical terms explained Brief definitions of the terms used in this issue.

Audi Smart Display The Audi Smart Display is an active touch display for use inside and outside the car. Its users can tap into the data stream from MMI Navigation plus and go online as they wish. Its craftsmanship is exceptionally high quality, as ever with Audi.

Desmodromic valve control After opening, the intake and exhaust valves of an internal combustion engine are normally closed via valve springs. Desmodromic valve control does not use these springs. Instead, the valves are closed via additional closing lobes on the camshaft. This technology facilitates high revs, thus increasing engine power. The desmodromic technique was developed for Ducati by Fabio Taglioni, and still remains a feature of the specialist motorcycle brand. Direct Air Capturing Direct air capturing refers to the separation of carbon dioxide. It occurs today at power stations using a variety of different processes. With support from Audi, Swiss start-up company Climeworks has developed a technology that extracts CO₂ from ambient air.

Matrix LED headlamps At Audi, the term Matrix LED refers to an intelligent headlamp that uses a large number of LEDs to generate light. If necessary, the control unit switches some of them off to prevent dazzling other road users. The rest of the carriageway remains very well illuminated.

NEDC NEDC means New European Driving Cycle. It is used in Europe for the objective evaluation of vehicle fuel consumption, and consists of four consecutive city drives and a cross-country drive. The total driving time is 1,200 seconds. OLED Technology The abbreviation OLED stands for “Organic Light Emitting Diode”. It refers to a thin-film lighting element that, in contrast to conventional LEDs, contains an organic semi-conducting material. The material characteristics enable the construction of flat and flexible lighting elements. Plug-in hybrid (PHEV) A plug-in hybrid is a vehicle with hybrid drive where­by the battery can also be charged externally by plugging it into the electricity grid.

Glossary

AMOLED Display AMOLED technology is a further development of OLED technology. In a display that functions using an active matrix (AMOLED), all the pixels are controlled individually. AMOLED displays are already on the rise in the cell phone sector. Apps This or app is the abbreviation of “application”, which is a small program for use in devices such as smartphones or tablet computers. Audi e-diesel/Audi e-ethanol One of the avenues being pursued by Audi in the development of CO₂-neutral fuels is that of cyanobacteria. Instead of using photosynthesis to produce new cells, they generate synthetic ethanol (Audi e-ethanol) and synthetic diesel (Audi e-diesel). 10.2-inch – the Audi Smart Display is perfectly suited to mobile communication. Audi virtual cockpit The Audi virtual cockpit is a digital dashboard. Its large TFT display has brilliant graphics generated by an ultra-fast Tegra processor from Audi partner Nvidia. The driver can switch between different screens and call up all relevant information onto the display.

The future of the headlamp – Audi’s Matrix LED technology. MGU The Motor Generator Unit (MGU) is at the front axle of the Audi R18 e-tron quattro sports prototype. Its two electric motors convert energy recuperated under braking into direct current. It is stored for a short time inside a flywheel, for use under subsequent acceleration. Direct Air Capturing – the adsorption of the carbon dioxide takes place under heat. Downsizing In automotive engineering, downsizing refers to the reduction in the displacement of an engine that, due to efficiency-increasing measures, subsequently generates a level of power comparable to that of an engine with greater displacement.

Recuperation Recuperation means the use of kinetic energy recovered under deceleration. In trailing throttle and braking phases, the generator converts the kinetic energy into electrical energy, which is temporarily stored in the battery. Recuperation reduces fuel consumption and is an important aspect of all hybrid and electric drives. Singleframe grille The term Singleframe grille refers to the distinctive design of the radiator grille on Audi models that has become such a powerful feature of the brand. The design of the Singleframe grille differs depending on the model family (Q, A and R models), with fine differentiation also existing within the individual model ranges.

Biofuel – cyanobacteria are used in the production of the Audi e-fuels. Audi e-gas Audi e-gas is derived from water and carbon dioxide using electricity from renewable sources; the end product is synthetic methane – Audi e-gas. The powerto-gas facility built by Audi in Werlte, Emsland, produces Audi e-gas for the new Audi A3 Sportback gtron, delivering a ground-breaking well-to-wheel balance.

Display instrument of the future – the Audi virtual cockpit in “infotainment” mode. Car-to-X communication Car-to-X communication refers to a communications technology whereby vehicles can communicate with each other, with their owners and with the traffic infrastructure via wireless networks. This benefits fuel efficiency and safety and enables services such as cash-free refueling.

Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) are materials in which fibers, such as carbon fibers, are embedded into a poly­mer in several layers for reinforcement. GRP The acronym GRP refers to glass-fiber reinforced plas­ tic, commonly referred to as fiberglass. Audi is promoting the application of GRP in many areas, in­ cluding suspension coil springs. HMI (Human Machine Interface) HMI refers to a user interface between man and machine – such as a keyboard, a touchscreen or gesturecontrol technologies, whereby the user no longer makes contact with the equipment. Laser Diode With a diameter of just a few thousandths of a millimeter, laser diodes are extremely small and lightweight – they are almost pinpoint light sources. Further benefits are their relatively low production costs, good efficiency rate and simple modularity.

Electric power station – the MGU in the 2013 Audi race car delivers more than 160 kW. MMI MMI is the abbreviation for “Multi Media Interface” and is an Audi term for a user interface that facilitates the operation of all infotainment components in a single display and control system, and the simple, quick and intuitive use of a wide range of functions and technologies. MMI Navigation plus MMI Navigation plus is a high-end media center. It combines a hard-drive navigation system with an audio system and further infotainment elements. In some Audi models, this can be expanded to MMI touch, where a touchpad facilitates the input of letters, characters and numbers with the index finger. Audi connect is a further technical enhancement to MMI Navigation plus: It generates the connection to the internet and brings tailor-made Audi connect services into the car.

The evolution of the Singleframe grille – the Audi RS7 Sportback with a honeycomb insert. TFT-Display TFT technology is used in flat-screen monitors. It is based on the control of liquid crystals that change their behavior when subjected to an electric field. This control is affected by thin-film transistors (TFT). UMTS UMTS is the acronym for Universal Mobile Tele­com­ mu­ nications System, a standard for the wireless trans­­mission of data. Well-to-wheel Well-to-wheel refers to the examination of the entire process involved in producing and using energy carriers, from the source to the transmission of power to the wheels of a vehicle. Well-to-wheel analyses serve to measure total energy consumption. WLAN WLAN is the abbreviation for Wireless Local Area Network, a localized network system that enables computers and phones to access the internet wirel.

Networked – Audi Car-to-X systems are creating completely new communication structures. Power-to-gas – the Audi e-gas facility in Werlte (Emsland) produces environmentally friendly fuel. CFRP CFRP is the acronym for “carbon-fiber reinforced poly­mer”, whereby carbon fibers are embedded into a polymer in several layers for reinforcement. Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria (also known as blue algae) are one of the oldest lifeforms, having existed on earth for more than 3.5 billion years. Audi is working on using their photosynthesis capabilities for the production of syn­ thetic fuels – Audi e-diesel and Audi e-ethanol.

LTE (Long Term Evolution) The acronym LTE stands for Long Term Evolution and refers to a new mobile communication standard that transmits data five to six times faster than the current UMTS network. Transmission rates of up to 100 Mbit/s make data-intensive infotainment functions like HD television or video conferencing possible while on the move.

The MMI operating terminal in the Audi A3 – with MMI touch at its heart.

100

Encounter Technology

101

Encounter Technology

Imprint AUDI AG 85045 Ingolstadt Responsible for content: Toni Melfi, Head of Communication, I/GP Editor: Christoph Lungwitz Concept and Realization: reilmedia Graphic Concept and Layout: stapelberg&fritz Authors: Janine Bentz-Hölzl Ann Harder Michael Harnischfeger Annika Jochheim Stefanie Kern Johannes Köbler Sabrina Kolb Stefan Kotschenreuther Marlon Matthäus Josef Schloßmacher Thomas Wirth Copy editing: Winfried Stürzl Translation from German: Elaine Catton

Photography: Jim Fets Bernhard Huber Manfred Jarisch Ulrike Myrzik Florian Otto Tobias Sagmeister Stefan Warter Robin Wink Daniel Wollstein Illustrations: Carola Plappert Steven Pope Organization: Eva Backes Sabrina Kolb (Video) Fabian Ullmann (Photography) Post Production: Wagnerchic – Digital Artwork Printing: Druck Pruskil Subscription: You can subscribe for free to the Encounter magazine series. Simply send a brief e-mail with your mailing address to: encounter-magazine@audi.de

Gold Winner

Gold Winner