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THE BURIAL OF HERODES ATTICUS: LITE IDENTITY, URBAN SOCIETY, AND PUBLIC MEMORY IN ROMAN GREECE Author(s): JOSEPH

L. RIFE Source: The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 128 (2008), pp. 92-127 Published by: The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40651725 . Accessed: 14/01/2014 18:49
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Journal ofHellenicStudies128 (2008) 92-127

THE BURIAL OF HERODES ATTICUS: LITE IDENTITY, URBAN SOCIETY, AND PUBLIC MEMORY IN ROMAN GREECE*
AbstractThis paperdiscussestheburialof HerodesAtticus as a well-attested case of liteidentification through It a close of Philostratus' account of Herodes' end inc. 179(VS 2. 1. 15) alongside the mortuary practices. gives reading evidence of architecture, and topography at Marathon, inscriptions, sculpture, Cephisia and Athens. The intended burial ofHerodes andtheactualburials ofhisfamily on the Attic estates wealth andterritorial while control, expressed hispreference for Marathon fused with civichistory. TheAthenian in Herodes'private intervention personal history whichled to hismagnificent interment at thePanathenaic served as a publicreception fora leading funeral, Stadium, citizen andbenefactor. Herodes'tomb should be identified with a longfoundation on thestadium's easthillthat might haveformed an eccentric whilean elegant klin found havebeenhiscoffin. His altar-tomb, sarcophagus nearby might was a traditional distich that stressed andpoeticallusion hisdeeptiestoMarathon andRhamepitaph through language andhiscelebrity. Also found herewas an altar dedicated to Herodes'theMarathonian hero'with nous,hiseuergetism features II2 The first and last lines ofthetext wereerased ina deliberate effort toremove hisname archaizing (IG 6791). andprobably thenameofa relative. A cemetery ofordinary around Herodes' burial but site, graves developed bythe 250s thesehad been disturbed, This new synthesis of textual and material alongwiththealtarand thesarcophagus. sources for theburial ofHerodescontributes to a richer of status and antiquarianism in Greekurban understanding under theEmpire. Italso examines howthepublic oflites was composite andmutable, society memory shifting through - funeral, - to generate different ofthedead. hero-cult, separate defacement, phasesofactivity biography images

Herodes Atticus is one ofthosefigures who repays notonlyas a luminous study personality with his ownhistory butalso as a mirror to larger historical in theworldaround developments him. In comparison to other Greekaristocrats of theRomanEmpire, we knowa great amount abouthimnotonlyfrom thesubstantial Philostratus but also from the rich biography by (VS 2.1) and archaeological evidenceforhis lifeand family.L. VibulliusHipparchus Ti. epigraphic ClaudiusAtticus Herodes(e. 103-179),1 who was bornto a wealthy with Athenian family deep becamea celebrated orator andteacher, an aristocrat andpolitician with broadconnections roots, at homeand abroad,and a peerlessbenefactor. Like other menof his day,he was prominent andpopular resentment. Whilehe was an outstanding individual and dogged bycruel controversy ofhisaccomplishments weresui generis, Herodesembodied thesocial andcultural values many ofhisage,andhe employed common modesofself-presentation, evenifon a grander scale than hiscontemporaries. One fascinating in his distinguished career is thefinalone in c. 179,as recorded chapter by Philostratus (VS2A. 15):
he died at Marathon and had directed his freedmen to bury himthere, theAthenians Although himawaybythehandsoftheephebes snatched andcarried himtothecity, andpeopleofall ages cameforth to greet thebierwithcrying and applause, likechildren whohave losta good father. buried him in the Panathenaic andinscribed overhimthis brief andnobleepitaph: They Herodes son of Atticusfrom the demeof Marathon,to whom all thisbelongs, lies in thistomb, renownedthroughoutthe world2
* I delivered versions ofthis audiences undertheauspicesof theAmerican School of Classical paperto attentive at theUniversity ofWashington in Seattle atAthens andwith thepermission oftheHellenic (2005) andthe Studies Institute for AdvancedStudy in Princeton ofCulture. (2006). Mar- Ministry 1 GlenBowersock, EwenBowie,Kevin treatment of Billerbeck, garethe Ameling (1983a-b) is theauthoritative Christian ChristoHerodes' career andfamily; see also Byrne Clinton, Habicht, Kaja Harter-Uibopuu, (2003) 114-22. pherJones,MireilleLee, AristeaPapanicolaou-Chris- I followAmelingon Herodes' dates,but Swain (1990) David Potter, andtworeaders for theJournal have showsthat thetraditional dates101-177remain tensen, possible. 2 commented on thisstudy, auTo v tci Mapacovi Kai alwaysto mybenefit.I comrcoGavvTo itat theInstitute for Advanced I con- 7ciaicr|'|/avTo where ekeGaTtxeiv Anvaoi pleted Study, xonekevdpoic, sulted thesqueezecollection oftheMerritt I also xa tcv Library. e(pr|cov xepaiv prcaavTe aerei)rveyicav examinedtheremains east of thePanathenaic Stadium TcpoarcavccovTec tcoii^ei rcaa i'XiKa aicpoiauxx

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intheLivesoftheSophists, Oftheeleven burials this one is secondonlytothe passagesrecording in of Polemo's end detail and its andlaudatory tone, description length.3 Notwithstandingbrevity theaccount of Herodes'deathand burial, liketheothers, is a valuablehistorical sourceforthe manandhistimes.Philostratus, whowas writing thelate230s orearly on 240s,depended during first-hand he knew Athenian institutions from and local monuments sources, personal experience a knowledgeable from andhe wrote for audience in living aboutevents Since autopsy, memory. inthe160s,he mayhaveseenHerodes he was born orevenwatched hisfuneral.4 perform, Thispassage coincides witha bodyof material evidence that can clarify and enlarge Philoin stratus' monuments and artefacts account, Marathon, including inscriptions, Cephisiaand theevidence, Athens.Severalscholars have addressed buttheir discussions of the particularly haveincluded factual errors andincomplete coverPanathenaic Stadium misinformation, repeated itin thefull oftextual andarchaeological andstudied range testimony age. No onehas integrated in in customs Herodes' world. As theoretical research anthroofprevailing thelight mortuary where ritual is a dynamic arenafor communicating identity, funerary pologyhas demonstrated, as a of the deceased is conand spacesareimbued with materials behaviours, memory meaning deal about the contested.5 The study ofdeath andburial canreveala great structed andsometimes ofGreek citiesduring theEmpire. andprocesses socialstructures ofHerodes. oftheliterary andmaterial sources for theburial Thispapergivesa closereading the life and mind of several observations on Thisnewsynthesis extraordinary produces important and his and his his use of Herodes, relationships property benefaction, antiquarianism especially role of The broadergoal is to understand better thecentral and community. withhis family lites and their comin urban and public memory. funerary practices self-presentation, society contexts for andburials as effective intheRomanEastunderstood andutilized funerals munities also in the civic andeminence activities, wealth, funerary they sphere.During nobility expressing the andbehaviour to identify thedeceasedwith andmanipulated selected architecture, landscape fifth art literature of the to fourth Athenian and of Classical cultural Greece, especially legacy showthat thememory as inthecase ofHerodes, further BC. Commemorative centuries practices, creation ofa single mind.Itwas an evolving was nottheimmutable ofa deadaristocrat imageof between andevenobliterated theconfrontation revised that was established, idealstatus through interests. and intentions popular personal I. THE ANCESTRAL HOME AND BURIAL AT MARATHON hisbirthplace with hiswishfor burial atMarathon, account ofHerodes'death Philostratus' begins whichstemmed from home. His family and ancestral belongedto theAtticgenos Kerykes, Theseusand theAeacidae,proudly itsdescent back to Heracles, Hermesand Herseand traced atMarathon, villaswas located initslineMiltiades andCimon.6One ofHerodes'many claiming 1 resided after his 2. . and where he and hosted students where he received (FS 2.5.3; c/ 12), guests in 174. Thehistory is notrecorded, butpresumably atSirmium ofthis estate from thehearing return
aoc rcae %pr'GT0X) Kai veDqyrniowce, rcaxp Kai e'Gayav v xah riava6r|vaiKh XripeaavTe, xe axcoipa%')Kai noXv7cypa|Li(ia Tuypxj/avTec ov xae xxiko Travia, MapaOcovio, 'Hpcrj 7ivxo0ev KexaixcoiE xq>coi, eKiuo The textis Carl LudwigKayser's(Teubner1871), with are inpunctuation onechange (see below);all translations mine. 3 1.22.4,1.25.11,1.26.6,2.1.15,2.16.1,2.20.3,2.22.1, dis2.23.4, 2.25.6, 2.26.6, 2.30.1. Rife (forthcoming) cussesthese passages. 4 On thedate of VS,see Jones (2002) (dedicatedto aimsandhistorical Gordian III, 238-244);onthemethods, value of VS,see Bowersock(1969) 1-16,Jones(1974), Anderson (1986) 23-96,and Swain(1991); on Philostratus' career, see de Lannoy(1997) 2372-91(bornc. 160to thedemeof Steiria). 170,connected 5 E.g. Morris(1992) 1-30; McHugh (1999) 12-17; Parker Pearson (1999) 1-20. 6IG II2 3606.2 IG XIV 1389.30-3 (Trio(Marathon), pion, Via Appia, Rome), VS 2.1.1, Suda H 545; see (1983b) 3-4 on Herodes'family. Ameling

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itfrom his father and possiblyitwas amongthelandsofhis grandHerodesinherited Atticus, which Domitian had confiscated father, (VS 2.1.2). Hipparchus, The Numerous stones andinscriptions indicate that theMarathonian was impressive.7 property intheareacalledMandra tisGrias members ofan inscribed arch(IG II25 189,SEG 23.121) found a precinct northwest oftheplainrevealthat theestate devoted to Regula,Herodes' encompassed he hadgiven thetract as a wedding memtowhom Several wife, perhaps gift. inscriptions naming bersofhis family havebeenfound Vrana at the concentration of near end.8This plain'swestern texts and itsproximity to Regilla's precinct, whichwas onlyc. 2 kmnorthwest up theAvlona the identification of this area with Herodes' estate. At the Valley, strongly support plain'ssouthern endhavebeenfound an elaborate andsanctuary bath all dating tothe displaying Egyptian statuary, second Themainstructure is surely theTemple ofCanopus mentioned century. (VS byPhilostratus first MarcusAurelius and 2.1.7), as Paul Graindor argued.9A portrait groupof Lucius Verus, Herodes Atticus found here links Herodes tothesite, butwhether as owner orneighbour anddonor cannot be determined. Theobvious oftheCanopusinHadrian's villaatTivoliandthedisparallel ofEgyptian on Herodes'villaatLoukoulendsupport totheformer identification. covery statuary The property of Herodesthuscoveredthenorthwestern and western limits of theplain,and it southeast. The distribution of use remains buttheestate would uncertain, mayhaveextended havepossessed bothopenlandfor andcultivation andextravagant structures for enterpasturage tainment andhabitation. Herodes'preference for inthisregion burial ofAttica interms can be understood ofboth lite behaviour andpersonal circumstance. Greekaristocrats, including sophists portrayed by Philooften burial their ancestors andsometimes on estates.10 TheRoman treastratus, preferred among tises on land-surveying record that on rural estates while remote burials graves signalled ownership, couldserve todemarcate their limits veteres (Gromatici pp. 139-40, 271-2). Thisuse offunerary monuments or cemeteries in landdivision is well documented in thenorthwestern provinces.11 inGreecehavealso found tombs on oradjacent to villaerustiArchaeological surveys sumptuous Pass northeast ofArgosandontheLaconian Plainsoutheast ofSparta.12 cae, suchas intheBerbati We can imagine that Herodes'anticipated buriallikewise wouldhave taken theform of a conmonument onhisfamily's that estate communicated territorial control andlanded wealth. spicuous It is unknown whether Herodes'forebears wereburied at Marathon. In anyevent, his choiceof burial there underscored hisclose attachment to a family with a longandprestigious line. Burialat Marathon musthave carried a specialsignificance fora manwho boasteddescent from Miltiades andpreserved theClassicalpastthrough hisintellectual andprofessional achievements.He evencalledhis first so far as we know a name at Roman daughter Elpinice, unique Athens LGPNI but the same as the of Miltiades and later of s.v.), (cf. daughter stepsister, lover, Cimon(Nep. Cim. 1.2, 1.4; Plut.Cim.4.3-8). Herodeswas to lie somewhere nearAthens' most hallowed burial thegreat srosorpoluandrion thecremated war-dead of490. ground, containing
7 Tobin (1997) 241-83 and Galli (2002) 134-8,178203 summarize theestate's remains. 8 IG II2 3973, 13205; Lenormant (1866) 383-4,no. 193; Petrakos (1978) 55-6,fig.18a, d; Ameling (1987); Petrakos (1995) 109-12, fig.52. 9 Graindor (1930) 186-8;cf.Tobin(1997) 261-3 and Galli (2002) 188-93. 10Burial amongancestors:VS 1.25.11 (Polemo at Laodicea ad Lycum);2.25.6 (Hermocrates at Phocaea); ofAntipater ofHierapolis andQuir2.24.2,2.29.1 (burial inusofNicomedia'at home'(oi'koi)meaning in their native land,presumably amongancestors). Philostratus' mention of other sophists dying'at home' (2.4.2, 2.6.1, a similar bur2.9.3,2.17.1,2.18.1,2.27.6) seemstoimply ial location.Burialon estate: 2.23.4 (Damianusburied at not Ephesianestate);cf.2.30.1 (Philiscusemphatically buried atAthenian estate). 11 Behrends (1992) 242-3,254-5;Ferdire ('992>)passim(Gaul); Esmonde VerCleary(2000) 130-2(Britain); meulen andBourgeois (2000) 144-5(Flanders). 12 Pass: (SM 13) nearwestendofBerbati Hypogaeum Wells and Runnels(1996) 295, 336-40, fig. 10. Mausoleum(M334) south ofAphysou, eastof Eurotas River: Shipley(1996) 386, ill. 24.43, (2002) 294, 302, 335-6, and Spawforth 337; Cartledge (2002) 142; Mee and Ca(2005) 10. vanaugh

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in thesouth area oftheplain.13 TheAthenians central tumulus Thisis marked bytheprominent wrote A.D.14 Pausanias in half of the second historic site the second this century recognized and that the with stlai the deceased was adorned theplace phantom bytribe, naming (1.32.4)that monument that there was a separate at night.He also wrote couldstillbe heard ofbattle rumble as a victorious who had died in prison(Plut. Cim. 4.3) butwas remembered forMilitiades, have the and Faustina his foster-son of Fine Younger Polydeucion, portraits Herodes, general.15 Herodes(or his associates)underIn erecting thesesculptures, nearthetumulus.16 been found to be interred Herodeswanted whether of stoodthesite'scommemorative Regardless capacity. nearthe estate on a his burial and the of Miltiades the tombs private hoplites, right alongside to Athenian on his andcemetery revered history. history effectively grafted personal battleground or historical association to drawa topographic with location choiceof sepulchral The deliberate and the lites in the tombs of evident is also burials mbolos, possibly along Ephesian mythical at the Sacred Fig (VS Athenian the graveof Apollonius, sophistand Eleusinianhierophant, 17Travellers ofa memories with saturated a landscape entered Athens to Marathon from 2.20.3). that at once oftexts, vieweda montage civicpast. Herethey continuous imagesandmonuments ofthe the and his ancient ofHerodes, calledto mindthepowerandwealth abiding glory family the have Herodes would for ofa tomb Classical amplified impression. polis. The erection for tobe buried.Itwas notuncommon wanted Herodes for where exists evidence No decisive butwe cannot before andeventobeginconstruction owntombs their toprepare aristocrats death, as a neartheedgeoftheproperty was to stand far.Ifhistomb that went Herodes knowwhether of nearthesite Oino, either tobe located itwas probably orleaving, those for landmark entering near thecoastalroadin or the Plain from the route themaininland where northwest, approached to its of because is more oftheBrexisa.The former thevicinity proximity thethoroughfare likely 1 8 andMarathon. Athens between of ofRomandateis c. 500 m north-northwest for burial evidence has produced One areathat disatOinoa landowner Frankish Church ofRegula. In 1911 neartheso-called thesmallestate in thenameof Herodes'foster-sons withcurseinscriptions coveredtwoherms (IG II2 13195, toa cemetery.19 bonesandstlaiapparently with a marble monument, belonging 13202),together to Herodesand his are lost,butthecursestiethem oftheremains and context The exactnature oftenants a burial this was is that One ground interpretation property. possible(butunprovable) was indeed architecture If marble the northwestern attheestate's orgrounds-keepers extremity.20 suchas an 'administrator' ofrank, to an individual itmayhavebelonged a funerary monument, moreintriguing uncovered estate.21 Greek of the archaeologists 7cpovoot)|LiEvo) (ioiKT|Tr|,
13 Pritchett (1995) 19-22. (1985) 126-9;Petrakos 14 II2 69-70 IG 1006. to 26-7, (123/2BC), According andcomon the theephebes poluandreion placedwreaths (Habicht games in an annualfestival petedin funerary in (2002) 75-7). Thecultwas thriving (1997) 336; Ekroth in Romantimes butitsstatus theLate Hellenistic period, is uncertain. 15 was situthat this monument Somehavespeculated thesiteof a of thesros at Pyrgos, atedc. 500 m north withspolia from tower on Classical foundations nearby structures (1974) 423 n. (Leake (1841) 101; Papachatzis theremains. (1978) 56, fig. 19a describes 2); Petrakos ofhismortal thereturn inGreeceafter Cimonwas buried of from remains (Plut.Cim.19.4),butthelocation Cyprus is unknown. hismemorial(s) 16 Petrakos figs101-3. (1995) 172-4, 17 discussesthesecases of topoRife(forthcoming) inburial placement. antiquarianism graphic 18 comof theEgyptian Locals once called theruins a distant from plex the 'Tomb of Herodes',presumably nearhereoffuandthediscovery ofPhilostratus memory Fauvel(1792) L.-F.-S. stlai (Tobin(1997) 261). nerary as 'The Tombsof the thesesame remains misidentified Athenians' (1995) 68-9,figs26-7). See Dod(Petrakos well(1819) 232-3{stlai)andGalli(2002) 191-3(sanctuofCanopus). tomb monument arycontained 19 Graindor (1914) 355-60;Tobin(1997) 270-1. 20 Cf.e.g. EsmondeCleary(2000) 131-2(cemeteries of Romano-British nearboundaries villas). Von Moock stlaidating that several 85 funerary (1998) 20, proposes foundin thesouthern to thesecondcentury partof the on Herodes'esto freedmen have belonged Plain might in remains tate;see also Galli (2002) 181-8on funerary a single finds cannot thisarea. These scattered represent burial ground. 21 of to theadministrators SEG 29.127 II 49, 82 refers as ioncnxaand7cpovoot)Uvoi. Herodes'estates

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ofunfound a marble Herethey tothenorth. metres inthe1970sa fewhundred remains building Vibullia with to the second function known naming century, together inscriptions dating hydraulic carved andan exquisitely andEucles,oneofHerodes' ancestors, Alcia,Herodes'mother, paternal canbe associated aboutthebuilding Whilenothing secondcentury.22 lidoftheearly sarcophagus with a connection establish theinscriptions ritual or knownsepulchral withfunerary forms,23 a considered area be This lavish burial. to andthesarcophagus Herodes'forebears, might points an ancestral for candidate cemetery. II. THE VILLA AND FAMILIAL BURIALS AT CEPHISIA nearhisproperty members buried severalfamily Herodeshad already By thetimeofhis death, villainthedemeof Herodes usedhispleasant northeast ofAthens.Like hisMarathonian estate, nearand far(Aul. Gel. 1.2.1-2,18.10.1; and to receiveguestsfrom Cephisiato teachstudents can be confidently Philostr. VS2. 1.12). The villacomplex placedalongthebanksofthetranquil have andhisrelatives andnaming Herodes andinscriptions Numerous depicting sculptures Pyrna. m of 500 south bath and columns.24 a in addition to beenfound there, Roughly appointed richly 1 a in 866 found his Builders with remains associated havebeenfound thePyrna family. funerary block An inscribed date.25 four ofAntonine marble vaulted sarcophagi containing hypogaeum that a mournful Herodes Paraskevi states of church into the built Aghia overlying (SEG 26.290) this The chamber tomb that children. dedicated a lockofhairat thegraveofhisthree displayed with an unand mostlikelycontained stoneon itsfaadeor in thedromos26 Regillus Elpinice, known third.27 the andhe wouldhaveselected hischildren hereovera spanoftime, interred Herodes clearly villa the remains of the of this tomb from distance burial. The short form of their suggests specific The notat theestate'sboundary. themainbuildings, itwas easilyaccessiblefrom that perhaps a to or within was located next that the tomb a indicates of fountain recent nearby discovery were favourite and chambers Vaulted subterranean types sepulchral sarcophagi sculpted garden.28 two andtheother was undecorated One sarcophagus amongGreeklitesofthesecondcentury. showed unique mythical motifs conventional (garlandsand ertes),but thethird displayed the hisbow on theother, on one end and Eros with the swan Leda stringing struggling imagery: Ellen has on the back. a Triton and Nereid on the and Dioscuri Helen front, Perry cogently flanking L. herhusband contained that thissarcophagus, whichprobably Elpiniceand perhaps argued The a to was commissioned Vibullius iconographical programme. display particular Hipparchus, of and thecult-statue to Spartancultreliefs scenes of Leda, Helen and theDioscurireferred The creation of was connected.29 Herodes 's both Nemesisat Rhamnous, family placesto which to advertise notonlyhispaternal for Herodes hischildren was an opportunity thistomb for piety butalso hisfamilial history. Vibullius received hisfoster-son ofHerodes'deadchildren, Another exceptional Polydeucion, and herms to the 'hero' Definite or dedications treatment. (np)on three Polydeucion probable
22Marinatos (1974) 242, (1972) 7, pis 2-3; Themelis Travlos 294-301;Pe241-5,figs (1988) 217-18, pis 146-7; no. 107,182no. 38,figs trakos 41, 107; (1995) 95, 177-80 Galli (2002) 199-202, figs81-2,pl. 25.4. 23 Tobin (1997) 269 n.83. Cf. 24 Tobin(1997) 214-19;Galli (2002) 162-74. 25 discussion ofthetomb's Tschira (1948-49)is a filli andform. discovery 26 a visiandpurpose The block'sdimensions require inthetomb's orface. Galli(2002) ble setting entranceway theepigram on thetombwith 153-4,fig.66 reconstructs ofAureliaGe at thefunerary monument thefaadeafter Termessus. 27 no. 140;Tobin(1997) 225(1983b) 143-6, Ameling 76-81; 8; Skenteri (2005) Pomeroy (2007) 138-40. 28Galli (2002) 154-7,160-2,figs64, 67, pis 16-18, the thearea as a icr|7iot(piov and comparing identifying dated147/8 tombof Ti. ClaudiusLycusat Thessalonica, (/GXI.2.608). 29 below on (2001), (2005) 66-76; see further Perry of Nemesis at Rhamnous. Herodes and the Sanctuary thesculpture's archaism. Galli (2002) 158-60stresses

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nearthePyrna havebeenfound marble three altars, bases,possibly (IG II23972,3974), funerary II2 in southern Attica in Cephisia(IG II23975),nearMarkopoulo (IG 3971), on theMarathonian for hiscommemevidence The most II2 13 Plain(IG II23973) andinAthens important 194). (IG c. 180m south-southofAghios into thechurch statue basebuilt is an inscribed oration Demetrios, as thehonorand in Cephisia(IG II2 3968). Thisidentifies for Herodes'children eastofthetomb relative unknown an otherwise Vibullius names as thehero Polydeuces, agnothets Polydeucion, butits hasbeenmuch Thetext andlists ofHerodes, discussed,30 twenty 'umpires' (pocooqxSpoi). heldat involved ofPolydeucion is clear:thehero-cult basicpurpose funerary gamespresumably which to attachment Herodes' reveal inCephisia.Theseinscriptions a heron Polydeucion, special of the existence statues.31 texts and numerous of the erection was remembered Moreover, through at cultinvolving acrosstheregionas well as a funerary dedications competitions posthumous the even and could an lite how demonstrate memory promote preserve family widely Cephisia to who was related one accorded of a deceasedrelative, highstatus.Polydeucion, particularly unusual not rank lineandheldequestrian maternal Herodes' fatherly enjoyed only (IG II24774),32 socialprestige. butalso considerable affection hertragic deathin c. 157 or 160. Her at Cephisiaafter also interred Regula was probably nearSan on twostilai found inscribed of Side Marcellus burialis citedinthefamous poemby = haderected Rome(IG XIV 1389 /Gt/III ontheViaAppiaoutside Sebastiano 1155). Herodes Gods on his suburban Kre and theChthonian to Demeter, thesanctuary attheTriopion, these whichimpliesheroic norimmortal, mortal that The poem states estate.33 Regula was neither v ox a temple'(or''ia 'iev vi'(i KeA,ov resembles and that'hertombat Athens t||lIci status, herowith associated form often eastern was a common lines43-7). The temple-tomb A6r|vr|, the where the on at for a cenotaph also constructed Herodes cult.34 estate, Rome, probably Regula = neither II 34 IGUR XIV 1392 in Greece that shewas buried stated dedication 1).35 Although (IG her altar a marble was located, where recorded text Roman naming funerary exactly Regilla'stomb most andKefisia.Thisstone Marousi modern between church ata ruined (IG II2 13200)was found If the villa on the of south somewhere site her burial from came Pyrna.36 so, nearby, probably inthesouthin a at Cephisia, nearherdeadchildren cemetery perhaps family Regulawas buried this rolecalledfor Hermaternal as theothers. butnotinthesametomb oftheestate ern proxpart heroic and burial individual merited Herodes wife of as the distinction her but singular imity, commemoration. offunerary villaareinmany theCephisian around remains Whilethese practices waystypical from ofRegulaandthechildren oftheburials theseparation oftheEmpire, families inliteGreek becausein It is all themorenoteworthy, is striking. ofHerodesat Marathon burial theintended with burial for hisintention announced Herodes hisowndeath twoinscriptions longbefore posted
(1977); Robert (1979) 160-5; Ameling no. 172;Tobin 166-9, (1997) 229-34;Galli(2002) (1983b) 148-9. 31 with from An inscription Polydeucion Delphinames 'Herodes'hero'( 'Hpcooi) theespecially rpco, personal have been bustsof Polydeucion FD III.3 74). Portrait foundat severalsitesin Greece and elsewhere; Meyer anddiscatalogues (1997) 101-7 provide (1985) andTobin cussion. 32 no. 173. (1983b) 169-71, Ameling 33 Skenteri (2005) 29-65. 34The which poet seemsto have in minda heron, of a temple tooktheform often (Peek (1979) 82, citing inRoman area standard SEG 16.666). Temple-tombs type Asia Minor (Cormack (2004)); several examples are knownin Greece,e.g. at Carystus, Chaeronea, Delphi, 30 Follet SikinosandThera(Goette Messene,Parras, Igoumenitsa, (1994) 296-300;Flmig(2007) 45-51). 35 as Regilla'sceno(2007) 156-8identifies Pomeroy on which at Deus the the Rediculus, taph podium-temple see Kammerer-Grothaus (1974). Calza (1976) 209 imas hercenotheFarnesesarcophagus identifies probably taph. 36 Guarducci (1983b) 160, (1978) 231-2;Ameling Cf. no. 147; Tobin(1997) 125-6,236-7,fig.10; Galli (2002) butsees no thefindspot 147. Pallis (2000-03) confirms thedilapidated evidencethat AghiosIoannesTheologos was surely thealtar was thesiteof a tomb. Nonetheless, despoiled fromRegilla's burial site in the vicinity. thatRegula was (2007) 137-8,158 speculates Pomeroy withHerodesat the eveninterred andperhaps cremated, stadium.

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claims hischildren andwith One might that these (SEG 26.290)37 Regula(IG XIV 1392).38 argue Thetheme werecommonplaces unrelated toHerodes'genuine intentions. ofthebereaved spouse was an established andepitaphic with thebeloveddead inburial Butthe literary topos.39 uniting becauseitresonated with theemotional ofreaders.In erecting inthese toposexisted experience with Herodes well have essential the sentiments scriptions, may sympathized they expressed - without thelonging familial bondssevered torejoin particularly bydeath specific making plans a After in for shared burial. attest andliterature all,he couldnotbe buried both places. Epigraphy toHerodes'excessive andmemorials lamentation thedeaths ofhischildren and vividly following wife.40 ThatPlutarch decried andLucianmocked ostentatious it a that was not mourning proves rare occurrence.41 One might evenargue that Herodesoverplayed hislamentation ofRegulaand that claimed shewouldshare histomb inorder tomaskhisculpability inherdeath late-term during his in was cited defence the of homicide indeed, pregnancy; mourning prominently against charge torecallthat Herodes'commemoration ofRegulaandhisconspicu(VS 2. 1.8). Butitis important resemble hisresponse tothedeaths ofthechildren when andfoster-sons, ous,prolonged mourning there was no hint offoulplay. Thisbehavioural that somepain laybehind the pattern suggests formulaic and the theatrical we can never know how intense or fleetlanguage though gestures, italso involved a nagging senseofremorse overcriminal or ingitwas,andwhether wrongdoing abuseaccidentally turned fatal.42 After around ofloss orconcerns to hideguilt havefaded, and must years, twenty anyfeelings for burial form and well have his wife As anyprior children, expectations placement may changed. andfoster-sons diedduring the150sHerodes a familial was building atCephisia. 160s,43 cemetery But by thelate 170s,thesurviving of Herodesincluded sonAtticus family onlyhis dimwitted and an otherwise unknown L. son Vibullius Bradua,whomhe distrusted (VS 2.1.10), adopted II2 ClaudiusHerodes In the the ordeal that at culminated the (IG 3979). Sirmium, years following haveenjoyed his suburban where he couldcontemplate agingHerodesmust quietude, posterity. Burialon theestate atMarathon wouldshowcase and wealth. it was notunMoreover, ownership usualfor to a aristocrats receive from their and burial, children, exceptional singular apart spouse whenitexpressed a specialplace in thecommunity. Thiswas thecase for C. Julius especially Antiochus inhistomb on theMouseionatAthens andTi. Julius Celsus Philopappus (c. 114-116) Polemaeanusinhis library the mbolos at the Marathonian along Ephesus(c. 120). Although estate was notso publica siteas these, a monumental tomb there wouldhaveconfirmed Herodes'

37'It ofa lockofhair]is a true [sc. theoffering signto Tat.3.5.4; Luc. Tox.43; [Luc] Am.46; Apul.Met.8.7.4, thethree soulsofyouchildren that someday youwillre- 8.13.5;Heliod.2.4.4,5.7.2,5.24.3,5.26.3,5.29.4,5.33.1, ceivethebodyofyour father inthecoffins' VA1.13,4.16. (af||ia eiDuov 6.8.6,8.8.4,8.11.11,10.19.2;Philostr. 40IG IP 12568/9 Ttacov '|fu%o xpiov, c tcotegcouix| ^eaO' v (mourning Elpinice(?) and Regula lines5-6). 0T|Kai ')|ietpoio7caxp, (?) at Cephisia);IG XIV 1389,1392(mourning Regulaat 38'Herodes of bothhis Rome); SEG 23.121 (mourning [built this]to be a memorial Regula at Marathon), ownmisfortune andthevirtue ofhiswife. Butitis nota 26.290 (mourning three children at Cephisia); VS 2.1.8 for herbodyis in Greece, andnowbesideherhus- (mourningRegula), 2.1.10 (mourningPanathenas, tomb, band' ('Hpcori Kai | toto eivai xf|axoO | Elpinice, |Livr|jLieov Achilles, Memnon, Polydeucion).The numerKal ifipe-|TTi curses found on hisestates weredediGuu<pop tyvvaiK. | ecrav o'> ous statues bearing t | yp acoua v zf''EJLi tohisdeadlovedones,especially thefoster-sons xpo| Kai vvvrcaptcp cated (see Herodes' lamentations vop | otiv,lines 1-8). Pomeroy (2007) 158 attributes n.189). MaudGleasonwilladdress thededication to Herodes'son,Bradua,butthecontents as a strategy of selfin a forthcoming fashioning chapter, indicate which shehas generously shown me. Herodes;cf.Ameling surely (1983b) 152. 39On theclose bondof dead husbands 41 and wives in Plut.Mor. 608F,114F;Luc. Luct.12-15,19-20. 42 see Lattimore a cold and conepitaphs, (1942) 275-80; e.g. IMT Kaikos (2007) 119-23imagines Pomeroy 883b (Pergamum, secondcentury Herodescomplicit inmurder. AD). Thejointburial trolling 43The datesof their of loverswas a recurrent in thenovelsandrelated theme deaths are debated; see Ameling worksof literature: 24-5, 168-9andTobin(1997) 231-3. e.g. Char. 1.11.3, 3.3.6, 3.10.3-4, (1983b) 7-9, 16-22, Sat. 112.6;Ach. 4.1.12; Xen. Eph. 3.10.3,5.10.5; Perron.

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WhenHerodeschoseburialat Marathon rather than place in thelongchainofAthenian history. he was not his children or distance from he Cephisia, rejecting seeking Regilla'suglyend; was his ancestral embracing heritage.44 III. DYING WISHES AND A PUBLIC FUNERAL his freedmen to supervise Herodes'directed' hisburial. Heretheverb7tiaicr|7tTC (7CiOKT|'|/ac) has thespecific of expressing one's will at thetimeof death(LSJ s.v. II 2). Imperial meaning ofthecorpse, the usedthewordtoindicate wishesaboutthetreatment Greek dying proseauthors does and nature of burial and the of the verb 87iiaKr|7rxcu not, disposition property.45 Although place tothescopeofresponsitotestamentary ancient willsattest directives,46 strictly speaking, pertain The legal,economic andemotional bonds a dying tohisdependants. bilities impart patron might that heirs or their former owners could be so close were and between they appointed freedpersons slaveson theconintheir wills. Testators sometimes legaciesto former patrons' granted legatees the and thegrave; such as funeral that certain dition services, attending arranging they complete the documents of that their burials.47 Greek dictated often toothey Empire protect freedpersons in theburialof former and themaintenance of owners of freedpersons record theinvolvement had a reputation for abusivetreatment Herodes their tombs.48 (VS 2. 1.4), he developed Although who served as his agents and companions withcertain close relationships freedmen, (e.g. 2.1.8, when Herodes or other benefit received usufruct It unknown whether is anypension, they 2.1.11). out. The sophistHeracleides,for dutiestheywereto carry died,or whichspecificfunerary at to his freedmen his 'farm' (VS 2.26.5). It is unlikely (yr|iiov) Smyrna example,bequeathed hissole survivor, wrote that tohisfreedpersons. Philostratus went that Herodes'vastestates only 'other heirs'(exepoi was allocated to whilehis patrimony his mother's received estate, Bradua, sonClaudius. theadopted 2.1.10),presumably including kXtpovjxoi, to a private burial.According averted his final wishfor the Athenians Herodes' plan, Despite the and friends would have servants and members, custom,49 prepared displayed corpsein family twoto three thebereaved villa,forroughly home,in thiscase theMarathonian days. At some a memory not a funeral and creating hisbodyto thecity, removed theAthenians enacting point of what he to their own notion himself but for what Herodes had to according planned according inherof his defrauded them offended when Herodes had been TheAthenians deserved. paternal the toevery citizen disbursement an annual hadstipulated which itance, (VS 2. 1.4). Nonetheless, in Greekurban and community relations between benefactor that moulded code ofreciprocity and generosity Herodes'longservice that thepeopleacknowledge dictated through pubsociety atAthens. burial inthiscase, an honorary lic ritual,

44 atMarathon was at leastinRegilla'sdeadpresence dicatedby the lugubrious epigram(SEG 23.121) that in the Herodesadded to thegreatarchat theenclosure this Galli Avlona 134-8, (2002) viewing Valley; cf. upper notunlikethe estateon theVia as a funerary precinct (2005) 66-72; Maud Appia. On thepoem,see Skenteri ofthearchin her Gleasonwilldiscussthetransformation (n.40). forthcoming chapter 45 E.g. Luc. Cat. 8, Dial. mort.13; Athen.4.159B; Cass. Dio 56.31.2;Diog. Laert.1.28,1.62;Greg.Nyss.v. usedthesame s. Macr. 13.18;Heliod.2.4.2. Philostratus hisdearonesto entomb Polemobidding verbto describe himalive(VS 1.25.11). 46 contains Butcf.Cass. Dio 56.33.3(willofAugustus Note too thatthe various'injunctions' (7iiaKT|'|/i)).

inthepreparation and ofAtticus wereinvolved freedmen FA' 2. 1.4). ofhiswill(Philostr. execution 47 (1991) 131-6,175-80, esp. p. 135,citing Champlin Dasumii theexamplesof Herodesand thetestamentum (CIL VI 10229,Via Appia,AD 108). 48 Wilhelm (1951) (1913) no. 133,with E.g. Cumont of Praxeas,Acmonia,Roman); Her494-6 (foundation rmann and Polatkan (1969) 7-36,withJ.and L. Robert, first cenBE 1970,no. 512 (will of Epicrates, Nacrason, near Jones Archelais, Cappadocia, (2004) (willfrom tury); c. 50-150). 49 Plut. Mor.95C,608F,609B,609D, 612A;Luc. Coni. duties 22, Luci. 12-15,24, Merc.cond.28. Post-mortem Xen. in the novels: Char. 3.7.1-4; 4.1.6; Eph. portrayed 8.14.3,9.30.7;Hist. Apoll.26.10. Apul.Met.2.23.5-2.24.7,

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The usual procedure forpopularintervention in private in infunerals is well documented C.P. Jones has illuminated the in of funerals' his discussion scriptions. phenomenon 'interrupted ofthree resolutions ofthefirst tosecond centuries from Inthese Cnidus andAphrodisias.50 Caunus, burial ofan literesident was forestalled whenthecouncil, sometimes under cases,theintended from thepeople, a publicfuneral decreed andsometimes an intramural burial.Thecorpse pressure was either detained or seizedfrom thefamily to satisfy will. Thisis howtheAthenians popular the funeral ofHerodesat Marathon. as an official interrupted private Acting bodyoftheAtheniandmos, theephebes'snatched' herePhilostratus usedthesameverb (apnaoavxeq) thecorpse; as was usedfor theseizure ofthedeadTatiaAttalis atAphrodisias.51 The ephebes often served as of in civic honour the role of for or leaders or agents pall-bearers distinguished political military victorious athletes.52 from their official inthefuneral, theyouths ofAthens Apart participation may wellhavefelt a senseofobligation tothegreat manwhohadhosted them for rhetorical performancesat Marathon 1 2. and bestowed on them white II2 chlamudes (VS .12) (IG 2090, VS2. 1.5).53 Ancient funerals couldalso be scenesof confusion and violence. Internal tensions between factions in fierce coulderupt overtheultimate treatment ofpowerful competing dispute yetcontested The locus classicus for such turmoil is the funeral of Julius in Caesar the Roman figures. when the the for cremation rather than it Forum, peoplehijacked corpse spontaneous leaving tothe for formal andthen attacked thehomes oftheassassins magistrates disposal, (Suet.Jul 84-5,Plut. Caes. 68).54In LateAntiquity, the theStylite andTheodoret's Historia LifeofSt Symeon religiosa record interventions the funerals of men mobs and officials, during holy by clashing groups and non-Christians. in partby a desireto neighbouring villages,clergy Theyweremotivated control theprestigious and intrinsically remnants of thedead,butalso by a concern powerful to ensure interment.55 piousandsecure Herodes was a contentious there is no signthat hisfuneral attracted forceful Although figure, or tumultuous The degreeof spontaneity and fervour is difficult to gaugefrom the disruption.56 brief butthescenehas a distinct airofcivicorganization andpeaceful The passage, participation. actionof theephebeson behalfof civic interests, thelongprocession and itsreception, and a oration a renowned orator all a controlled event with broadsupport. IfPhilofunerary by suggest stratus had wishedto enhance theimageofHerodes, he couldnothaveexaggerated or invented these circumstantial details andstill a credible, accurate account.In certain disdain given quarters, was beneath the surface of ritual But this of and probably simmering formality. day honour
50Jones (1999): IKnidos 71, esp. lines 5-13, with Robert c. latefirstwoman, Cnidus, (1968) 91 (anonymous earlysecondcenturies); Reynoldsand Rouech (1992) 153-60,esp. pp. 154, 155, 158-9 column1 lines 14-15 first halfof thesecondcen(TatiaAttalis, Aphrodisias, Herrmann J.andL. tury); (1971) 36-9,esp. lines1-5,with BE 1972,no. 430 (Agreophon, Robert, Caunus,second Theremight be a fourth buta lacuna instance, century). hidesthekeyinterruption: SEG 28.953, esp. lines37-8, with Sve (1979) 338-9andvanBremen (1996) 1-3(Apolfirst lonis, Cyzicus, early century). 51Robert andRouech(1992) (1968) 91-2; Reynolds 155 (column1,line 15), 158. 52 c. 337 E.g. Plut. Tim.39.2 (Timoleon,Syracuse, Paullus, BC), Aem.39.7 (L. Aemilius Rome,160BC); Cic. Flacc. 75 (Castricius, Smyrna, earlyfirst BC); century Bean(1965) 588-91, no.2, lines32-46, with Robert (1968) 89-93 (M. Alfidius, Naples, first century AD); IKyme 49-51(L. VacciusLabeo,AeolianCyme, 19.44-6, Augustan);Gnther (1975) 352, lines14-20(Menogenes, PhrygianAezani,secondcentury). 53Graindor (1930) 133-4;van Bremen (1996) 158-9 n.59. 54One recent beanalogyevokes the same tension tweena riledpublic and rigidofficialdom. A frenzied crowd ofthousands reclaimed thebodyofYasforcefully sirArafat from a helicopter beforeits interment in the andN. MacFarquhar, Maqata'a in Ramallah (S. Erlanger 'The deathof Arafat:the funeral; Arafatis buriedin chaotic sceneintheWestBank,'New York section Times, A, page 1,13 November 2004). 55 E.g. Anton.Hag. v. Sym.Styl.29 (cf. v. Syr.Sym. 133-4trans. Thdt. Hist,rei 26 (Antiochene Lietzmann), bishopspreserved body of Symeonfrom villagersand Arabsstriving to snatch it away,459); variouscontested inthefourth-fifth centuries in e.g. Thdt. Hist,rei corpses 10.8 (Theodosiusthe Cilician), 16.4 + 14.2 (Maro in 17.10 (Abraham in Constantinople), Cyrrhestica), 21.9, 21.30 (James ofCyrrhestica). 56The use of theverb does not connotea apTcaco violent confrontation between theephebesand Herodes' as Tobin(1997) 184 asserts. freedmen,

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as Just to voice their claimsandcomplaints. was notthetimefor Herodes'detractors mourning celebrities tended statesmen and of mass funerals for controversial the atmosphere today, eulogistic a short thepublicmemory ofpastresentments. at leastfor to sanitize, time, butwe can onlyguess wouldhaveinvolved others besidestheephebes, Theprocession many inthefunerals of sometimes andintellectual were. Professional whothey participated colleagues the in Herodes' well have and thinkers,57 sophists procession.Perhaps cortge may joined great in as was typical and age in roughly Athenians included order, descending by office organized fictional and the at for this such as the of funerals Cyzicus Apollonis processions period, public had time theAthenians Itwas notthefirst inChariton's novel.58 ofCallirhoe funeral butrealistic found near to a verse topaytribute toHerodes.According long turned outinnumbers inscription to himhad peaked, from whenopposition Marathon Sirmium, (IG II23606), upon his return to from to Herodeswas receivedat Eleusis by a largecrowdranked office, priests according citof the At such citizens to to events, arrangement (lines 12-29). ephebes Areopagites regular ofan outacclamation theunanimous andlegalstatus ofcivicobligation izensbystrata expressed several has discussed Robert Louis with a individual many parts.59 by community standing in cities eastern of ceremonies of such ')7ca7tvTr|Gi) urcviriai, (rcviriGi, 'greeting' examples and his funeral Herodes' between The eras.60 parallel andRoman theHellenistic pubpublic during usedtheverb is especially earlier a few licreception close,becausePhilostratus TipoaTcavxco years andvxcocouldtake ofthebier.In epigraphic thegreeting todescribe ocvttigi usage,thewords in The variant with no essential onprepositional npo(c)anavx(udoes change meaning. prefixes welcrowds todescribe literature andLateAntique butitdoesinImperial ininscriptions, notoccur Athenians the to Philostratus, at a settlement.61 on arrival an important According person coming wouldan as and withoutpoured bierin largenumbers mettheapproaching emotion, just they ofsuch feature was a stock all of of 'people Themention ages' (naca T|iKa) arriving dignitary. Thefuneral likea leader.62 thevisitor where scenes, (aveixprniouvxec) usually 'applauded' throngs to the the benefactor that returned one of as an ultimate ofHerodesserved ceremony reception, haven. a suburban into after his retreat urban private, sphere public, haveimpressed must itslongandclamourous with totheburial Theprocession train, site, specMarathon thebodyall thewayfrom wouldhavecarried alike. Theephebes tators andparticipants in ofsome35 km,perhaps a distance Parns andPentelicon, thepass between toAthens through came that residents can we went imagine landholdings, pastHerodes'sprawling stages.As they times donemany hadprobably as they notto greet deadlordandbenefactor, outto see their him,
57 v.Proc. 36. Marinus Luc. Demon.67 (fictitious); 58 with Sve (1979) 338SEG 28.953,esp.lines38-47, 9 andvanBremen early Cyzicus, (1996) 2, 159(Apollonis, writfirst (Callirhoe, Syracuse, AD); Char.1.6.3-5 century secondcenturies tenmiddle AD); see also e.g. first-early and family, IPriene 99.20-4, 104.9-15 (Thrasybulus c. 84 c. 100 BC), 113.114-16(Zosimus,Priene, Priene, first Olbia,early century (Niceratus, BC); Syll?730.25-26 wereoften by civicrolein reliorganized BC). Citizens intheRomanEast,suchas theonegengiousprocessions in 104 at of C. VibiusSalutaris erated by thefoundation (1991) 80-126. Ephesus(IEph 27); see Rogers 59 oftheprocession discussion Therecent byF. Skenteri((2005) 97-100, 109-10)missesthispoint, stressing connections. instead itsreligious 60Robert (1984) 470-4,(1985) 523-4,Veyne(1990) visit of AJ11.8.4-5 (fictitious 125,175n.164;e.g.Joseph. to Jerusalem); Alexander Polyb. 16.25-6 (AttalusI at III at Perga246 (Attalus 200 BC); IPergamon Athens, 130sBC); Plut.Cat.Min. 13 (CatoatAntioch, early mum, Polemo 50s BC); Syll? 798 (Tryphaena, Rhoemetalces, AD 37); Apul.Met. 10.19.1(draand Cotysat Cyzicus, De John is second-century maticsetting Corinth); Chrys. inanigloria4-7 ed. Malingrey (latefourth century). 61 of E.g. Hist.Alex.Magni(ree.y) l.*46 (kingdoms VAA. 5 (IoniansrePhilostr. thewestreceive Alexander); VS.2. (Leon goesoutfrom atSmyrna), ceiveApollonius on to meetPhillipII); Heliod. 1.7.1 (bandits Byzantium leaderlikea king),10.6.1(King Nile deltagreet returning Hydaspesreceivedat Mero); Men. Rhet.p. 427.17-19 (townspeoplegreetgovernor);Themist.Or. 20.234C ofgods). received dead father byassembly (Themistius' 62 Men.Rhet. 427.17-19(city comesouttogreet p. Cf. families'(ov A,OK^r|poi 'withentire xo yveai)); Or.20.234C (peoplecomeoutto Heliod. 10.6.1,Themist. their Joseph. (vE-ucpriuowce)); respects' 'shouting greet Titusand hail himas BJ4.2.5 (people of Gischalagreet and liberator, benefactor 69); Hdn. 3.6.8 (whole army late195orearly196),6.4.1 (wholearmy cheers Caracalla, Alexander cheers Severus, 231).

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neweastthecity's Theprocession wouldhavepassedthrough hisparting. buttomourn before,63 conThe Athenians outskirts. on thesoutheast and acrosstheIlissosto thestadium erndistrict it was his Herodes because and to remember the to this sidered greatest building right place bury inmajor wereburied individuals tothem.Other cities, they gavetotheir buildings outstanding gift thestadium, reached Whentheprocession andTrajanin his forum. suchas Celsusin hislibrary oration a compelling delivered Hadrian ofTyre Herodes' student (FS2.10.1), presumably funerary a tomb was itis doubtful that nature ofthefuneral, Becauseoftheimpromptu a multitude. before theevent. before completed IV. THE PANATHENAICSTADIUM AND ITS ENVIRONS of an intramural Herodesdid notreceivetherarehonour burial,like his daughter Although a for was interment the Panathenaic Stadium Athenais (Plate lia)).64 uniqueplace (VS 2.1.10), in gleamwas thismassive to theAthenian additions building landscape AmongHerodes'many the builtin 330/29 BC. He paid for theold Lycurgan stadium which marble, replaced ingwhite he sponitfor in 140,which andcompleted thePanathenaea outofhisfather's estate construction butfellinto disuseduring into LateAntiquity Thebuilding sored.65 centuries, subsequent operated sitebetween sediment. Zillerexcavated theentire andburied under Ernst whenitwas stripped andthereconfurther excavation Metaxasoversaw 1870. Anastasios August1869andFebruary atthe in and modern for thefirst Games struction ofthestadium 1896;digging building Olympic line of the In the 2004 the served as overthefollowing decade. sitecontinued finishing building andtheclosing ceremonies at theAthens marathon andthevenuefor Olympics. archery Itsscalewas 2. 1 at structure. . and Philostratus marvelled the Pausanias (VS .5) (1 19.6) original in to Domitian's in to the Flavian and dimensions similar Roman, capacity amphitheatre Imperial in a natural withitscavea resting at Rome. Butitsdesignwas ClassicalGreek, stadium ravine, thetopofthe Attic thebuilding stone camefrom notonvaulted Moreover, quarries, passageways. and therethepodiumsocle had simplemouldings, a Doric colonnade, displayed sphendone In with Athena's owls and herms. decoration featured strained comparison classicizing sculpted had a stadiaat Perge,Aezani,Aspendus,Ephesusand Sardis,thePanathenaic contemporary appearance.66 decidedly antique A that madea unified The stadium was surrounded by other together programme. buildings with anda propylon arches theIlissosRiver on axiswith thestadium, widebridge onthree spanned Thebridge tiedthewholecomplex enclosed thenorth endoftheracetrack.67 Corinthian columns theHadrianic several athletic andsacred tosoutheastern which Athens, buildings during possessed butthesize of ofthepropylon survives to reconstruct itsdesign, eras.68 Too little andAntonine andopulence.Thefaade decorated with a large Corinthian extant implies monumentality capitals a visualconnection to thenearby colonnade wouldhave drawn Zeus, the Templeof Olympian
63 Plin.Jun. 4. 1.4 atTifemum Tiber(residents Ep. Cf. inumgreetPlinyduring visitsto his Tuscanproperty); travels grandeeDionysophanes Long. 4.13.1 (fictional tohisrural from estate on Lesboswith longretMytilene inue). 64 (1974-75), Tobin(1997) 162-85,Miller Gasparri (2003) sur(2001) 210-22andPapanikolaou-Christensen andtheir Curtius (1869) and veytheremains exploration; on thefirst excavations. Ziller(1870) report 65On thestadium's date,see Ameling (1983a) 61-2, (1983b) 14; cf.Tobin(1997) 163(AD 143); Miller(2001) of 211 ('in theyearsbetween thePanathenaic festivals A.D. 139/40 and 143/4');Shear(2001) 925-7(AD 143/4); and 143/144'). (2007) 103 ('between139/140 Pomeroy 66 (1974-75) 334-67; Classicizingfeatures: Gasparri Tobin(1997) 166-70;Welch(1998) 135. Otherstadia: Welch(1998) 120-1. 67 Tobin(1997) 173(bridge overIlissos);Ziller(1870) 486 and Papanikolaou-Christensen (2003) 113-16,159 n.151,figs98-102 (propylon).The rarepublication by of Alexandras Ambelas(1906) on the 1896 excavations the Corinthian thepropylon foundby Ziller,including has gonevirtually unnoticed. columns, 68 Galli Elals zentrales 26-8 (2002) ('Die Brcke Cf. ement zeremoniellen Kommunikation').

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that forest of was encircled colossal structure by a veritable inaugurated by Hadrianin 131/2 the citypassed through the acanthus. As visitors from columnswitha canopyof bristling to one one ofHellenistic and Romanforms intothestadium, thescenechangedfrom propylon of Classical forms. with Hill westofthestadium was an Ionictemple on a towering On the Ardettos long podium this with the on The of from the east.69 stairs stadium, temple symmetrical alignment ascending andsphendone, showsthat bisects thelength ofthetrack axisthat a perpendicular approximately that Philostratus ofTyche inconception. Thisis theTemple werelinked thetwobuildings placed ofthe was dedicated merchants A base found on one side ofthestadium by nearby (VS 2.1.5). the basis of IF On of the of the cult of as first Peiraeus toRegula City(IG 3607). Tyche priestess that Herodes we canconclude built relative tothestadium, ofthebuilding text andthesituation this that sometime is but before construction or after the stadium's thetemple death, Regilla's during between c. 140 andc. 158. that are on thelowereasthill. It will be argued remains at thestadium The mostenigmatic of thehill. The with his tombalongthecrest theburialsiteof Herodes theserepresent Atticus, arevisiblein several buttraces has never beenexcavated, mainstructure places. Louis-Franoislocated foundation and section ofa long,narrow scientific the first Fauveldrafted Sebastien plan thestructure on hismapsofthe Ittar included thesametimeSebastian here(c. 1800),andaround from Ziller'sexcavations on drawings was also recorded area. The foundation (1870) and on a on excavated who Andreas Plate Travlos the area of John rectified Skias, 7(a)).70 (1967; by plan In 1971-72Carlo thestructure was levelandsizeable.71 that theadjacent slopein 1904,observed it sincethedaysof has deteriorated the remains.72 a of out full carried Although study Gasparri the environmental traffic and and Skias from Ziller erosion, Fauvel,Ittar, pedestrian plundering, the modern that encircles in the trees the can stillbe seen among pine foundation publicpark stadium.73 with base74 a massive, was a single Thebuilding flat, shape. Largesecrectangular elongated nearthefour corarepreserved and sherds ofrubble in a coarseconglomerate tionsof concrete to receive dressed of bedrock is end of thewest side an outcropping ners. Along thenorth oron theground setinto concrete canbe found blocks.Ashlars foundation alongtheeastside. So withconthe core was filled while of quadrangular and walls consisted thefoundation blocks, hill and its western the entire crest of The surface is thetop nowhere slopedown crete; preserved. contheexposed from that haveeroded andsherds with rubble both cavea arelittered summa tothe from have come must the marble At this from marble andwith crete height, stoneworking. chips theconthan from ordespoliation theconstruction atopthehillrather (orboth)ofthemonument mouldwith A marble below. fewlarge ofthestadium orreconstruction struction fragments simple seemsto therefore arenowlost. The structure butthey nearthefoundation, ingshavebeennoted with thedesign which wouldhaveresonated basicdecoration, inmarble with havebeensheathed at c. 9.5 m x 42 thefoundation measured followed ofthestadium. Tobin,75 byJennifer Gasparri, and is arbitrary, corner for thenortheast a pryhole with stone m. Buthischoiceofone cemented the west to corner this blocks foundation for in the bedrock thedistinct putative opposite trough
69 66-77;Dow (1979) (1974-75)367-75,figs Gasparri esp. pp. 43-4; Ameling(1983b) 109-10,no. 90; Tobin (2007) 103-6. (1997) 174-6;Galli (2002) 24-6;Pomeroy 70 Travlos 629-30;Papamkolaoufigs (1971) 498-501, Christensen (2003) 42-52,58-65,figs20-3,36-8. 71Skias (1905) 261. 72 (1974-75)376-83,figs78-88. Gasparri 73 Ziller(1870) 492 noted bylocal plundering ongoing 1996andagain I visited thesiteinlateFebruary residents. inlateMay 2006. 74 The city plans by StamatisCleanthes,Eduard and Leo von Klenze (1833-34) showtwodisSchaubert on thehilleastofthestadium tinct structures (Papanikolaou-Christensen (2003) 48-51,figs26-7). It is uncertain to shown ofthetwostructures that thenorthern belonged thelongfoundation. 75 Tobin(1993) 85-7,(1997) 177-8.

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shows noreturn butextends farther north. ofconcrete atthemonument's actual corLargesections ners lie c. 15-20mmetres tothenorth, which the terrain Morebeyond point slopessteeply away. thepreserved concrete on themonument's sideswouldhavebeenfacedwith blocksup toc. over, 1.5 m intotal width.Themonument therefore wouldhavemeasured c. 11 m x 60 m,which is exwhatZillerandTravlos recorded smaller than whatFauveldid actly (Plate 7(a)) butsomewhat (17.54 m x 62.36 m). also found a widestairway from thecentre ofthemonument's Earlyinvestigators descending ofthestructure is visibletoday.Fauvelrecorded thelength ofthestairway imfaade. No trace at 19.69 Travlos it at measured half that to Travlos's m; plausibly roughly length. According plan, basedon remains that couldoncebe seen,thefoot ofthestairway was notcontiguous apparently withtheuppermost limit of thestadium, between the leavinga gap of c. 20 m overtheincline summa cavea andthestepped ascent.Thefoundation anditsstairway arealigned with the parallel axis of the track and on centred the same axis as the lengthwise approximately perpendicular TempleofTyche. Thesesparse architectural features offer no precise indices.Themanner ofconchronological struction is typically andthequality oftheconcrete matrix is identical tothat usedinthe Roman, oftheTemple ofTyche.Thelongfoundation's with thestadium podium symmetrical relationship andthebroad between them that a single constituted monumental stairway prove they programme. Butitis hard to establish a relative between thetwostructures building sequence.The separation contrasts with theTemple ofTyche, thestairway ofwhich ended much closer tothe summa cavea.16 The greater detachment ofthelongfoundation and stairway from thestadium that might suggest itscompletion, butbyhowlongcannot be known. they postdate Skiasexcavated a cemetery neartheancient onthisslopeduring a four-day stairway campaign inDecember when the road was laid above the newstadium.77 Thearea 1904, perimeter being just has remained buried eversince,andno records, artefacts orbonesfrom hisexcavaphotographs, tionscan be found, theinscriptions and sarcophagus.78 to his short apartfrom According publishedreport, Skias found at leastsix cistgravesconcentrated around themiddle or western end ofthestairway; other wellbe located outside histrench. He discovered graves might fragmentary inthearea,one ofwhich was an epitaph ofRomandate.79 the andset inscriptions Among graves into thebasement ofthestairs was a burial chamber.80 Thistomb hada regular tilepavement but uneven wallsconstructed from stones and more than seven stilai?1 Thepaleorecycled funerary form anddecoration ofthe stilai areconsistent with a dateoflatesecond toearly third cengraphy, turies.Theyare unremarkable tombstones withcommon features Athenians.82 naming average Thetwomostinteresting onesbearfigurai reliefs andverseepitaphs for a midwife anda 'scribe' Since these stones would have come from their date (p0oyp(po).83 burials, neighbouring
76 3-8,70,71. Travlos's Gasparri (1974-75)367-8, figs thefull eastward des-cent plan(Plate 7(a)) doesnottrace ofthestairway. 77 Skias(1905). Forincomplete andsometimes incorrectdiscussions, see Tobin(1993) 83-5,figs2-3, (1997) 181-4,figs34-5,Welch(1998) 139-40,fig.21 and Papanikolaou-Christensen (2003) 117-8, figs103-4. 78 In November 2005 I submitted a request totheHellenicMinistry ofCulture tostudy andpublish Skias 's notebooksand finds.The Third and Ephoreiaof Prehistoric Classical Antiquities, theNationalArchaeological Museumand theArchaeological me that Societyinformed these arenotintheir records. things 79IG II2 3853 262/1BC), 6659, (publicdedication, 12383(epitaph naming Varus). 80 Skias's somewhat confused ofthechamdescription ber'sarchitectural setting ((1905) 261) is clarified byreference tothesubstructure ofthestairs of up totheTemple Tyche (Gasparri (1974-75)367-8,figs70, 71). 81Skias (1905) 261-5; Lambros (1905): IG II2 5924, 12794(scribe). 6299,6418,7858, 11329(midwife), 82 On IG II26299,with a relief ofa mananda woman, see Conze (1911-22) 86-96(TypeK; p. 86, no. 2086,pl. 456 = /GII26299) andvonMoock(1998) 16, 116-17, no. 180 (datedthird ofthethird 'zurZeitGalquarter century, female hairstyle(p. 38, n.483); butcontext liens',from of thechamber in the places it beforethe construction in thesecondquarter ofthethird 250s,probably century, which wouldfit themalehairstyle (cf.p. 45)). 83 Conze(1911-22)42-9(TypeE.B; p. 45,no. 1914,pl. 410 = /GII211329),61-81(TypeH;pp.70-l,no.2011,pl. 438 = IG II2 12794);vonMoock(1998) 16, 149,no. 333, but late pl. 5 Id (IG II2 11329,dated 'sptantoninisch', secondcentury after c. 178 (p. 37 n.473),whichfits the

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were that thegraves succeeded thelongfoundation anditsstairway, around which indicates they into which were built. must the construction of the burial chamber situated. they They predate inPentelic altar marble wallswas an inscribed thespoliainthechamber's (IG II26791; Among in a cyma andits stone85 rested on a shallow finished Plate 7(b)).84Thissubstantial recta, plinth torn off The corners were and a flat surface without acroteria.86 had a crown upper moulding top mutilation. is no pattern ofintentional whenthepiece fellormoved;there in an irregular manner and inGreek oftheHellenistic common burial contexts altar ofa type Thisis a standard funerary andsacrifices. Theonlywords theplacement ofofferings wereusedfor Romaneras. Suchaltars ithas thetextis straightforward, on theblock's mainface. Although on thealtarare centred various editorial suffered manipulations: [fE[pcoei]] pco xah MapaBcovcoi .5 [ Seva] Tobin1993; andAmeling; Kirchner 1 fHpcTi] line;fE[[pcei]] Skias;fE[pcoei] Gaspardomits and Welch Tobin Galli; 1997; fE[pco5i] fE[pco8ei] [^[pcoSei]]Byrne into one= xahMapoccovicoi lines combine these andByrne 3-4Kirchner, Ameling omit andGaspard 5 'x' nXxq line; Graindor, Kirchner, Judeich; Skias;[ fjjio v9t|Kev] v0TiKv] Tobin andGalli;[[ 'jio ccv0Kv]]| 1993;[ 5"p,o v0Kv] ccv0Kv] [ 5"fio Ameling 1997andWelch; Tobin [ ]Byrne theMarathonian to thedead as a hero:'To Herodes, dedication Thisis a conventional hero,[soincludmemorials at in heroic other occurs A similar formula Athens, this)'. and-so](dedicated of a institution attest to the stadium.87 Such found at the the one like an altar inscriptions ing thereafter. or shortly ofthefuneral atthetime hero-cult usually aresharply Theletters restrained state hada crisp, initsoriginal Thealtar formal, appearance.88 One from a distance.89 have been that would inevenlinesofconsiderable inscribed legible height will be which and letter is the of this text features ofthemoststriking forms, spelling archaizing lineabovetheinitial marks below. Two accent discussed appearin thesecondline:a horizontal overthefinaliota circles centred cut and two small, neatly aspiration rough epsilonindicating the second in from trema occurs The diaeresis. on,butthe century inscriptions roughly indicating ofthe in Attic rare is letalone abbreviation, very barfor horizontal epigraphy breathing, rough stroke vertical barwitha descending on thesmallhorizontal it is a variation Empire. Perhaps Athenian in Roman that inscriptions.90 appears
frame ofthearchitectural (p. 52)), 148,no. 327,pl. dating late butsurely 51a,b (IG II2 12794,datedsecondcentury, inthecentury). 84 The Skias(1905) 259-60is theoriginal publication. where I stone remainsnear the site of its discovery, shows itin lateMay 2006. The stone'ssurface examined causedby environrillsand stains numerous cracks, pits, sinceitwas uncovered. overthecentury mental processes 850.929 m 0.592 m wide at base; at maximum; high at base; 0.414 m 0.503 m wide in middle;0.516 m thick inmiddle. thick 86 the andcorners, onthetopsurface Despitefractures itserved is no signthat andthere is clearly stone finished, stone another as a base for (as Skias(1905) 259) ora statue altars ofsimple (1974-75)379 n. 1). Funerary (as Gasparri as bases (cf.e.g. misidentified form are notinfrequently andRaubitschek Benjamin (1959) 65). 87 middlefirst IG II2 3975 (smallaltar, AD), century first-second 10441(oblongbase with century), moulding, Thesame second-third 11909a(stlwith relief, century). Samian IG XII.6.ii 823 (altar, occurselsewhere: formula first Heraion, AD); IG IX.2. 685 (Thessalonica, century secondcentury); IC II.5 39 (Axos,Crete, secondcentury); TAMII375,471,472,475, 531,536,544,545-6,598 (various Lyciansites, Roman). 88 or was not'notwellcarved' theinscription Certainly worked' 'somewhat (Welch(1998) 140). crudely 89 oflines2-4: 0.053-0.057 m, m,0.056-0.061 Heights 0.047-0.052m. 90 Larfeld (1902) 563-4,(1907) 428.

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andfifth lines. Sincethetext was Thetext's other feature is theerasure ofthefirst noteworthy the was a act to delete names obliterated and no letters were the erasure added, purposeful precisely a ofbothdedicator Line 1 was deleted ofclose,shallowgougeswith anddedicand.91 bya swath barand thecentral pick(c. 0.230 m widex 0.060-0.080m highx 0.004-0.007m deep),leaving thevertical stroke of theinitialepsilonfaintly restore thename legible. We can confidently here ofthis Herodes becauseofthesubsequent reference totheMarathonian heroandthelocation altar atthePanathenaic Stadium where he was buried.The archaism also accords with other texts intheHerodean as willbe seen. Line 5 was deleted with a chisel corpus, by systematic scraping overa consistent m highx 0.006-0.007 band(c. 0.385 m widex 0.055-0.060 m deep). Based on thesizesofthis erasure inlines2-3,we canestimate andtheletters that line5 contained sixtonine letters. Suchtexts thenameofthededicator here.The size oftheerasure rulesouttheinrequire clusionofthewordcvOeicev, whichregardless is often omitted from thestandard formula of + dedicator dedicandinthedative inthenominative. The nextquestion is whether thealtar was a private ora publicdedication, andthus whether line5 contained >o orsomeone's name(' ofpublicburialled previous editors to assumethat Herodeswas also eva'). The civichonour heroized a processattested in other citiesoftheAegeanislandsandwestern bypublicsanction, Asia Minor.92The chiefobjectionto thistheory is thatitrequires theintentional erasure of no,whichwouldbe inexplicable and unparalleled. themutilation of a personal However, as inthefirst as an excision from The erection ofthealtar name, line,canbe explained memory. and its subsequent defacement can be placed sometime between Herodes'deathand theconstruction ofthetomb intowhich itwas built.93 Theunimpressive inwhich chamber thestilai andaltar wereimmured contained a large, fine of Pentelic marble.94 Skias that the in had been sarcophagus thought sarcophagus placed the chamber andenclosed the back and left sides of the chest are haphazardly.95 Although only partly thefront andright sidesareexquisitely as a Mineframing twohorizontal worked, sculpted strigillated to a well-known Attic of the late secpanels(Plate 7(c)). Thissarcophagus belongs type ondto early third that centuries recalled Classicalfunerary couches.96 restrained details Simple, thestadium at thebeginning oftheseriesin thelastquarter ofthesecond place thechestfrom It seemsthat thisprefabricated butunfinished was selectedforsudden century.97 sarcophagus onceitwas deposited, in a confined thecarving was never burial; chamber, probably completed. Thiswas a common because most of this have carved fronts scenario, sarcophagi type completely butunfinished backsand sometimes sides.98The lid on thecoffin from thestadium had a lowa common form in thesecondcentury. But itis roughly cutin rawmarble without gabledroof, full itis slightly toolongfor thechest, anditdoes notconform to theklin, which details, always borea lid fashioned as a mattress, sometimes witha reclining between figure.The discrepancy chest andcovermeanseither that thelidwas choseninhaste, which wouldhavegiventhecoffin
91ContraGraindor 96Goette thatinoftheAttic (1930) 135 (suggesting (1991) is theauthoritative study was erased for stone's re-use) and Gasparri series, datedc. 180-230/240; scription pp. 321-2,no. 2, pl. 95 addressesthesarcophagus from thestadium.On thetype, (1974-75)379 n.l (doubting erasures). 92 first E.g. IG XII.7 447 (Aegiale,Amorgos, century see also Rodenwaldt (1930) and Koch and Sichtermann BC); DiehlandHolleaux(1884) 467-9,no. 2 (Samos,Au- (1982)446-50. 97 IGR IV 1276 (Thyateira, IAssos 27 gustan); Augustan); Gasparri (1974-75)383,Wiegartz (1975) 182,n.126, Goette Koch and Sichtermann (Roman);Ilasos 137 (Roman). (1991) 322; contra (1982) 93It is uncertain whether thetwo erasures resulted 449 (first of thethird Guntram quarter century), though from events ordifferent onone Koch lateraccepted thebeginning of thetypein c. 170separate techniques applied occasion. 180 (Goette (1991) 313 n.ll, 316 n.22). 94 98 SinceDecember 1904thesarcophagus hasremained Wiegartz (1974) 352-5;Goette (1991) 313,e.g.322nearthesiteof itsdiscovery on theeast hill,nextto the 3, no. 3, pl. 96.3 (Hephaisteion, latesecondcentury), 323altar to Herodes, I examined where itin lateMay 2006. third decadeofthe 5, no. 4, pis 98.2, 99.2 (south Athens, 95Skias (1905) 261. VonMoock (1998) 16 wrongly third century). states that thesarcophagus camefrom thelongfoundation.

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an incongruous orthat thecoverwas addedto thecoffin at a later date,in a secondappearance, in itcontained for the the of use both stones." When was found chamber, sarcophagus aryphase In that this were intact human a lead-lined woodencoffin was solidly builtwith metalfixtures. nearthe in a shroud of finefabric100 witha gold coin of Decius (249-251)101 remains wrapped as was customary. mouth, and its theuse ofthesarcophagus, itscontents we can retrace On thebasis oftheseremains, on the to an elaborate burialofthelatesecondcentury chamber. The coffin originally belonged Its rich decowith an cover. and hill. It was acquired unfinished, improvised quickly deposited in the area. This common tombstones with the cist and andlarge scalecontrast ration starkly graves in the two in status between thedeceased to a sharp distinction differentiation points qualitative to as well as itsproximity ofthesarcophagus' dateand decoration, forms ofburial. On account If state Atticus. its to Herodes it well have the heroic so, dedication,may incomplete may belonged attended it.102 for that burial inhisfuneral andtherapid thepublicintervention reflect preparations theburialforwhichthe insidethedisplacedsarcophagus The bonesand artefacts represent for which thesarcophaburial in the not the from was constructed chamber 250s, original spolia their on contents cannot be studied the was further, dating numismatic acquired.Although gus toc. 175-200.The on from thechest's tothe250s clearly grounds dating stylistic diverges grounds fate for itsprimary some50 to 85 yearsafter was therefore use,a common recycled sarcophagus an it did have acrosstheRomanEast. Despitethechamber's coffins stone construction, irregular and of a coffin and the use the it was accessible evenpavement, gold sturdy along stairway, easily have interment. ifnotelaborate, a formal, mourners that coinall demonstrate Theymust prepared on theeasthill,becauseitwouldhavebeenmuchtoo somewhere thesarcophagus found nearby it found face. Theyeither itsfinely admired and the haul to sculpted they slope, perhaps up heavy broken. stolen or one had been the because from lidoraddedthat with themisfit elsewhere, original forms a Stadium on theeasthillofthePanathenaic remains ofthearchaeological Thissurvey third centuries second to middle from the middle the area's use of a provisional basis for history ofactivity; at besta relative reconstruction chronology provides (tableoverleaf).The following excafurther until for historical a matter must remain ofevents theabsolute interpretation dating where atthestadium, andburial a publicfuneral diedinc. 179,hereceived Herodes vation.When was commemHerodes after thefuneral, orshortly hismemory. Hadrian ofTyre During praised andstairThe foundation his cult. an altar to serve dedicated andsomeone as a hero, orated long thelatesecond in 140,butnotafter thestadium's after completion waywouldhavebeenerected a of with the the two because symmetcomprised single, Temple Tyche, along buildings, century, was theMinesarcophagus decadesofthesecondcentury, in thefinal ricalplan. At somepoint burial thepublic for totheareain an unfinished state, quitepossibly locallyandbrought acquired
99 butcouldnotbe identi(1975) 182 n.126;Koch and Sichtermann was 'silk-like' (<boelilletoc^ivo) Wiegartz that the 322. The Goette under fied 447, 449; theory (1991) study (pace Tobin(1997) 183). (1982) microscopic 101 intheareais less likely. from Skias's descripa grave from The aureuscan be identified addition lidis a later before thelate tion((1905) 259) according burial to standard on thehillfor Thereis no evidence typology.Obofthe verse: IMP.C. M. Q. TRAIANVSDECIVS AVG.,laureate secondcentury (pace Galli(2002) 21), buttheform onhorse ADVENTVS AVG.,emperor lid shouldbe placed earlier (1975) 209; Koch bust.Reverse: pac(Wiegartz RIC IV.3, handandholding andSichtermann sceptre. (1982) 449). raising right ingleft, 1UU thatcopious p. 121,no. Ila (Mintof Rome,GroupII, AD 249-251). Skias (1905) 258-9,nn. 1-2 reports ofcloth Judeich thecoinas belonging andhairandshreds offlesh human bone,patches (1931) 419 n.5misidentifies because at ina well-preserved to werefound state, (1983a) 161). presumably Trajan(repeated Ameling 102 third ceninlead,woodandstone.Based lites ofthelatesecondtoearly encasement Athenian oftheir triple werein turies unfinished ofthehuman usedsimilarly on Skias's description remains, they (see n.98),and sarcophagi at there not as he speculated notcremated, is no reasonwhyHerodes'publicburialshould all likelihood (repeated to usual practicein thisregard(pace Goette (1991) 322 and Tobin(1997) 183). Thatprocess have conformed incinerated softtissuesand reduced Tobin(1993) 84, (1997) 184). wouldhave rapidly The fabric to small,amorphous theskeleton fragments.

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108 Table:

JOSEPHL. RIFE ofactivity on theeast hillofthePanathenaicStadium History the middle secondto middlethirdcenturies during
Event Datefrom internal evidence 140 c. 179 c. 175-200 c. 179 140 to late2nd century Late 2ndto early 3rdcentury date Proposed 140 c. 179 after Herodes' Shortly death inc. 179 after Herodes' Shortly death inc. 179 after Herodes' Shortly death inc. 179 two-four During after generations in Herodes'death c. 179butbefore 250s

1. Completion andfirst use ofthePanathenaic Stadium 2. DeathofHerodes, from Marathon to the procession with funeral oration Hadrian of stadium, public by and burial there Tyre, 3. Production andfirst use o klinsarcophagus 4. Dedication ofthealtar to Herodes theMarathonian hero 5. Construction ofthelongbuilding andstairway 6. Development with ofcemetery ofcistgraves stilai around stairway

7. Defacement ofthealtar to Herodes theMarathonian c. 179 to early 3rd During two-four hero(no. 4) after century generations in Herodes'death c. 179 butbefore 250s 8. Re-useofsarcophagus ostlai (no. 3), plundering from (no. 6) andaltar graves (no. 7), andconstruction ofburial chamber alongstairway 250s 250s

ofHerodes.Thisis theearliest datable artefact found eastofthestadium. thelate funerary During secondtoearly third a cemetery thestadium andthelong centuries, grew up on theslopebetween several marked At somepoint thestairway. foundation, including graves bystlaiaround during thelatesecondor early third the first and last lines of the heroic were erased dedication century, from thealtar to deletethenamesofHerodesandtheperson whomadethededication. Finally, inthe250s,thesarcophagus was displaced from itsoriginal thecontents wereapparently dissite, anda newburial was added. In this a smallchamber was constructed carded, operation, alongthe from thearea,amongwhichwerethedefacedaltarand several stairway usingstonescollected stlaifrom The inthischamber.103 was deposited adjacent graves. sarcophagus

103 reasonforimplicating theHerulian invaders ofAD 267 in Gasparri (1974-75)316, 379, 383 has no persuasive thedestruction ofthestadium, thedamagetothealtar andthedisturbance ofthesarcophagus.

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The Panathenaic Stadium furnished a specialsetting for theburialofHerodes Atticus.The best oftheremains eastofthestadium is that mark thesiteofhistomb.Early interpretation they topoand excavators this identification with of as have confidence, graphers accepted varying degrees mostscholars whohavestudied theproblem.104 that Philostratus recorded Herodes was buried at thestadium, andtheeasthillis theonlyareawhere evidence offunerary has beenfound. activity In thecontext of Greekcitiesduring theEmpire, a premier citizen and benefactor likeHerodes receive a substantial, and accessible monument. wouldnormally The conspicuous longfoundation that a structure on could be reached from the stadium.The highground easily representsmajor theMarathonian herosignals thecloseness ofhisburial site. Itis therealtar dedicated toHerodes that theelongated structure was thetomb that theAthenians erected fore reasonable to conclude was rivalledat Athensonlyby thetombof Philopappuson the forHerodes. Its prominence Ifthefine which was plainly visiblefrom theeasthillofthestadium. Mouseion,105 sarcophagus itfor use. theAthenians must haveacquired immediate thebodyofHerodes, contained originally not the but this did have erected a tomb and could probably happen posted epitaph quickly, They themonument's size. before thefuneral, considering beneath Tobin that Herodes was interred from this consensus. Onevoicehasdiverged proposed It is a forthePanathenaic thelongfoundation was themooring and that theracetrack ship.106 'in that was interred the Philostratus' statement Herodes an untenable one. but clever First, theory of the is not the equivalentof 'beneaththe drornos Panathenaic'(v tcoi FIava0r|vaiKCui) was either Panathenaic Stadium'. The biographer using'the speaking looselyor,morelikely, area. Although both theeastandwesthillslie outthebuilding's todesignate Panathenaic' general a single the track and therefore constitute the surround sidethecavea,they depression enclosing and the ofthelongfoundation thestairways and orientations feature.Moreover, topographic a tomb of Herodes as stadium. Philostratus' reference to them with the united of Temple Tyche at the burial of the with his reference to 'in thePanathenaic' sophist Dionysius Ephesus compares outside the his sarcophagus has beenfound as 'in theagora'(ev xfji yopai, VS 1.22.4),whereas corner.107 but near its southeast proper Agora Tetrgonos exmonument was discovered is that no funerary with Tobin's Another during theory difficulty of Herodes We know that the burial in late nineteenth racetrack the the entire of cavations century. that couldbe construed no structure butZillerfound marker withan epitaph, had a conspicuous ofashlars, architectural a foundation He uncovered as histomb.108 bases,andpiecesofthemarble latestructure butthis that thesphendone,109 theLateRomanamphitheatre inside occupied parapet banked Excavation ofthe ofthesecondcentury. cannot be a tomb ofunknown seating, purpose north thefront ofthestadium metres from wallsextending several andtheassociated thepropylon monument.110 for a funerary no evidence produced thestadium On theonehand, inside Herodes tohavebeenburied notexpect Weshould proper. as intheracetrack stadium.On theother, ofan ancient for a tomb exists no architectural parallel as a venuefor ofan Imperial thetrack Greekstadium Welchhas observed, Katherine executions,
107 104 see Rife(forthcoming). ofDionysius, On theburial (2003) 30-57 passim Papanikolaou-Christensen 108 oneLateRoman Ziller(1870) 486-8. He found Ziller(1870) 492; Skias(1905) 259epi(early topographers); neartheopening context 60; Kster (1931) taph(IG III 1384) ina secondary (1930) 135;Judeich (1906) 27; Graindor thesoutheast corner ofthestadium into (Cur419; Travlos (1971) 498; Gaspard(1974-75)376-83,392; ofthetunnel (1983a) 161, 212; Welch(1998) 133-45;Galli tius(1869) 118;Ziller(1870) 491). Ameling 109 Ziller(1870) 491. (2002) 18-21;Pomeroy (2007) 143. 110 105 n.67(propylon). Ziller(1870) 488-9(seating), Kleiner (1983). 106 Tobin(1993),(1997) 177-85;cf.Camp(2001) 214; Shear(2001) 926 n.86;Civiletti (2002) 533 n.155;Flmig (2007) 95-6.

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combats andwild-beast showswas a wholly intergladiatorial inappropriate space forhonorific ment.111 Thereis no direct evidence that executions inthePanathenaic occurred as they Stadium did in other wherePolycarp and Pioniusweremartyred majorurbanstadia,suchas at Smyrna, records that Hadrian however, {Marts. Polyc.11,Mart.s. Pion.21). TheHistoria Augusta, sponsoredan elaborate in theLycurgan venatio stadium was also (Hadr. 19.3). ThatthePanathenaic usedfor Roman is proved ofa tallpodium andparapet towhich were blood-sport bythepresence attached netsor fences to shieldthefront rowsofseats.112 The longfoundation eastof thestadium was notforHerodes'ship. In his discussion ofthe Panathenaic Herodes' in Philostratus wrote: have heard 139/40, procession during agnothesia '[I the ran not with animals it but that] [Panathenaic] ship yoked hauling gliding uponunderground andthat, beenlaunched from theKerameikos with a thousand machines, oars,itcameto having theEleusinion, andcameinitscourse beand,goingaround it,theshippassedbythePelasgikon, side thePythion, whereit is now moored'(2.1.5).113 to this the moved According reading, ship theAgora(Eleusinion)to theAcropolis(Pelasgikon)andthePythion. ThisPythion is through either theshrine ofApolloPythios on thenorthwest ortheone south ofthe slopeofthe Acropolis So theshipcametorest either around thebase ofthe where Pausanias saw Olympieion. Acropolis, a shipanchored in thelatesecondcentury or in somewhere southeast Athens.115 The (1.29.1),114 mechanized was an extravagant innovation for theancient a route great ship festival; extending past theAcropolis, ifthat is where theshipwent, wouldhavebeentoo. E.A. Gardner, followed x IIGiov byTobin, gavean alternative reading. Theytranslate rcocp as an adverbial modifier oftheparticiple andremove thecommaafter so that theclause ,0ev, with oi modifies theinfinitive. Thenthey thesubsequent statement beginning interpret byPhilo'and theother sideofthestadium is occupied the of ini stratus, by Temple Tyche'(x axepoc xo oxocoi) tomeanthat theshipwas moored on theeasthill.116 Thisreadve7i%i Tt>xn), more norless preferable on grammatical On account ofbothPhilostraingis neither grounds.117 tus' admiration for Herodes'euergetism andhisspecific of other in designation majorlandmarks thePanathenaic it seems that he would use such and indirect procession, unlikely vague wording to describe theship'sanchorage, ifindeeditwas locatedatthestadium. Welchhas Furthermore, observed that thebiographer's was eastofthestadium, from where he could sensibly vantage point have seen a largeshipstationed to the northwest between the stadium and the Acroanywhere Even if the did reach the the does not the stadium, passage'sobscurity polis.118 ship permit identification ofthemooring with thecrest oftheeasthill. It couldhavebeenalongside thetrack, or outside andjust northeast of thestadium.Thereat leasttheAthenians wouldhave avoidedthe ofmoving theenormous structure thepropylon orup a precipitous incline. hardship through Besidesthisuncertainty overtheship'splacement, aboutthelongfoundation eastof nothing thestadium recommends itas an anchorage. Tobinstated that estimated dimensions of Gasparri's thestructure with thedimensions ofnotonlyClassicalship(c. 9.5 mx 42 m) compare favourably shedsatthePeiraeus, OeniadaeandApollonia inCyrenaica butalso buildings for votive warships
111 Welch(1998) 136-45. 112 Ziller (1870) 491; Welch(1998) 137-8,fig.20. Welch similar totheTheatre (1999) discusses adjustments of Dionysusat Athens and theamphitheatre at Corinth. The amphitheatre thatZiller foundin the sphendone ((1870) 490-1) is a Late Roman construction (Travlos (1971) 498; Welch(1998) 122,n.9). 113 ttvvav ox>% pajLiev yvxcov, ')7io')ycov akV Tcoyeioi urixava 7toA,io0voi)aav,ek KepauiKoi) apaaav %'k'a' Kamnicpevai ni to Kai TcepiaXouaav am 7capa|ie'|/aito 'EA,')oviov, te nap t ITGiov o Mtev, neXaayiKv, KouxCojjivrjv 114 Travlos(1971) 91; Welch(1998) 141, 143 n.l46; Galli (2002) 19. Mansfield three (1985) 74-5 envisions themiddlesecondto late fourth shipsduring centuries, Herodes'andthoseseenbyPausaniasandHimerius (Or. 47.13). 115 Mansfield (1985) 75; cf.Wycherley (1963) 77. 116Gardner (1914) 225; Ameling (1983a) 69-70, (1983b) 212; Tobin(1993) 88, (1997) 179-80;Civiletti (2002) 509-10n.38. 117 Galli Cf (2002) 20, n.78. 118 Welch(1998) 141n.90;cf.Tobin(1993) 88.

V')V COpUlGTOll.

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size is toosmall, ofthefoundation's sinceGasparri's estimate onDelos andSamothrace. However, It is also hardto believethat thesecomparanda.119 on theeasthillwas too largefor thestructure a thousand oarsreplicated with andequipped a parade-ship any bymechanized gliding conveyed trireme.120 standard a disHerodes' furnish with areindeed associated eastofthestadium Iftheremains burial, they was The central monument ritual and of tinct form, publicmemory. mortuary picture sepulchral of ofone particular that was reminiscent ornament elaborate raisedbase without a large, variety The Nemean Sanctuaries.121 and like those at the Isthmian altars sacredarchitecture, elongated onewith wide ofAsia Minor, inthesepulchral architecture form was a traditional altar-tomb though there is no in While exist Greece.122 andRomanexamples LateHellenistic anddiverse variability, itwould atthePanathenaic, likethose narrow foundations on long, for an altar-tomb exact parallel of outforHerodes. The tombs a uniquemonument created iftheAthenians notbe surprising or novel cities sometimes in Greek individuals provincial concepts eccenincorporated standing andNemean theIsthmian after modelled Herodes'tomb IftheAthenians forms. tric specifically The levels. on several form was architectural choice of their antique appearaltars, meaningful Theplacement ofthestadium. character altar wouldhaveechoedtheoverall anceoftheelongated SancofthePanhellenic viewers havereminded Stadium atthePanathenaic ofan altar-tomb might Furin sacredcompetition. altarsaccompanied at similar where glory tuaries, pious sacrifices to have alluded could Sanctuaries and Nemean to the Isthmian reference a structural thermore, side to the mother's on his related was Herodes to the Corinthia. Herodes'close connections dedinumerous HerodesandRegulareceived theVibullii; Corinthian Atticus, family prominent of theodeumand thePeirene in therenovation and Herodeswas involved cationsat Corinth; thesacredstatues, he donated where attheIsthmus, He was also a benefactor possibly Spring.123 a canal.124 theBathsandpondered decorated cutting The two itis hardto knowhowthebodywas interred. moreofthetomb Without preserved, interior bothhad narrow thoseatAlyziaandKenchreai, in Greece, ofaltar-tombs bestexamples in other as in Herodes' a similar We for chambers tomb, compartment sarcophagi.125 mayexpect If theklinsarcophagus of Celsus.126 tombsof theera,like theLibrary belongedto splendid which andantiquated itselegant havechosenitfor must theAthenians form, simplicity Herodes, stadium. andtheentire ofthetomb andclassicism echoedtheausterity

119 is not suffiat the stadium The long foundation itsstructure whether to determine posciently preserved Tobin likethebuildings orkeel-slot sessedan indentation cites. 120 Mansfield (1985) 75, 111-12nn. 89-90 discusses herarguTobinundermines themechanical conveyance. 'sincethisshipwas onlyused in a that ment byadmitting size' ((1997) toanystandard itmaynotadhere then parade, 180n.55). 121 Broneer Welch(1998) 143-5,n.97,citing (1971) c. 40 m x c. 2 m) and altar, 55-6,98-101,103 (Isthmian overc.42mxc.4 Birgeetal. (1992) 5-31(Nemeanaltar, II at Syracuse altar ofHieron thegreat (one m) andnoting stadelong,or 192m). 122 Fedak(1990) 19,25-6,Berns(2003) 143-4,171-4 Rhomaios (1930) (AcarHellenistic-Roman); (AsiaMinor, or first second late nanian BC); Cummer century Alyzia, first Kenchreai, AD); Koldcentury (1971) (Corinthian Lesbos, ewey (1890) 64-5, pl. 28.18-25 (southeastern see Flmig(2007) 42-5. Roman). On theform, Early

123 theeviGalli (2002) 57-63, 86-104 summarizes see Robert ofCorinth, andtheVibullii dence;on Herodes (1978) 258-61. The public (1946) 9-10 and Spawforth in ofTyche ofRegulaina sanctuary ofa statue dedication Forum (CorinthVIII.3 128; Ameling the Corinthian to thecultof (1983b) 120-1,no. 100) drewa connection of Regula (cf. and thepriesthood Tycheat thestadium Galli (2002) 75, 98-102;Pomeroy (2007) 106-12). 124 FS 2.1.5, Sturgeon Paus. 2.1.7-8,Philostr. (1987) Palaimon'sdolof Poseidon, 76-113(statues Amphitrite, of (1996) 5-10, pis 1-3 (two portraits phin); Lattimore VS2A.6 (cutting canal);Tobin(1997) 312Polydeucion); Herodes'activity for Thereis no evidence 14 (summary). base from statue an inscribed but Nemean atthe Sanctuary, ofhisrepa vividlocalknowledge reflects a nearby village andappearance utation (1992) 405-6,ETuypaiLiua (Kritzas B, lines9-10). 125 Rhomaios(1930) 146-7, fig. 5, pl. 1; Cummer (1971) 208-9,229-31,fig.7. 126 etal. (1953) 39-46,figs83-4. Wilberg

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JOSEPHL. RIFE VI. HERODES' EPITAPHAND ALTAR

onthetomb's Theepitaph wouldhavebeendisplayed recorded faade prominently byPhilostratus to whomall this at thetopofthestairway: from thedemeofMarathon, 'Herodesson ofAtticus theworld'(AttikovfHpr| ov lies in thistomb, renowned MccpocGcovio, throughout belongs, The of this is conxEnvxa,| Kevcoci nvxoQev xoie xacpcoi, ')ki|lio). authenticity couplet Athenian stl firmed ofthealmost hexametrical clausulaon a fragmentary unique byan imitation 127 tothelatesecondorthird oneofthe (IG II2 13161). Herodes'epitaph century dating represents + nounsand commonest on gravestones: nameof deceased + vGcxe keitou elegiac formulae modifiers the deceased first and third elements can be This (the adjectival reversed). qualifying formula on ClassicalAthenian stelaiand in literary butitgrewpopular for appeared epigram,128 later Greekepitaphs, the Modern editions of have the VS followed especially during Empire.129 Teubner text no commaat theendofthefirst lineofHerodes' byCarlLudwigKayserinplacing Thiscreates a relative clausebridging thedistich that canbe translated 'ofwhomall that epitaph. remains liesinthis tomb'.130 Thisreading should be rejected becausetheuse oftheabstract phrase 'all these to mean the instead for a with (rae of, instance, phrase things' nvxa) corpse eyava orveKp is stilted. Moresignificantly, ifKeraxi xcoie fallswithin therelative clause,the xcpcoi mainclause lacks a verb. The phraseKexai xcoie is uniquein Greekpoetry,131 butit xcpcoi in stands for which vBe to the main clause in the formula.132 Kexai, obviously alwaysbelongs Theepigram that Philostratus called'brief andnoble'(poc%') Kai nokb)tellsa great dealabout in Herodes a short Herodeswith thetraditional onomastic space. The distich beginsby naming + demotic, formula of personal name+ patronymic thefirst and secondelements have though beenreversed to fit themetre, which the of the ultima in Axxiko requires shortening byepiccorThe use of this name instead of is because the full format reption. something simpler remarkable, inverse occurs with vGae andthen Kexai, very rarely inscriptions onlyinClassicalexamples.133 Thechoiceofthis traditional for Athenian citizens underscores Herodes'membership designation inan ancient while his and attachment toMarathon. community, necessarily indicating parentage The relative clause 'to whomall thisbelongs'(oS xe nvxa) must refer to thephysical enthat and itsmonumental annexes. The assertion of ownership vironment, is, thestadium might - Wilamowitz seemboastful it 'argrenommistisch'.134 considered Butitshould be remembered that thisepitaph was prepared andpostedbytheAthenians, whowanted to celebrate Herodesas
127 Werner Peekhasreconstructed this text as follows: fourth centuries);MAMA VIII.569.1-3 (Aphrodisias, evOekeuch i]r|xr|p, S xe tkxvtoc. 528.2-9 (Kepsut,Mysia,second-third [Io)(pi,o ((1980) Roman);IKyzikos IHadrianoi188.1-4(Tacky, 65, no. 82; SEG 30.306). I cannot accepthis restoration, centuries); Mysia,Roman?); becauseI saw thevery ina secondlineon a SEG 35.1341 (Amastris, topsofletters Paphlagonia, Roman);IPontosfor AdvancedStudy.The second Bithynia 60 (Pompeiopolis, squeezeat theInstitute Paphlagonia, Roman);SEG lineprobably with vGdce Kerccci icihe 6.17.1-4(Ancyra, fourth-sixth began (or Kevcoti centuries); IPaphlag-Capp ifitwas a slavishcopyof Herodes'epitaph), and 22 (Tyana,Cappadocia,second-third IG XIV TKpcoi, centuries); thefirst lineprobably thenameofthedeceased 1589(Rome),2521 (Burdigala, beganwith Gaul). 130 is exempli followed (Peek's Zc(pi,o gratia),perhaps by (1921) 182;Ameling Wright (1983b) 212,no. 192; theIonicnoun'doctor'(irjifip). Civiletti and commentators (2002) 220. Severaleditors 128 IG II25424,6859, thepunctuation I endorse: andmeaning E. 6873;AD 17,B' 1, 1961/62, haveaccepted E.g. Anth. Gr.app. 318; T. Preger, IGM 15; R. Hiller 26; AP 7.60.1-2,7.135.1-2,7.698.1-2,7.747, 8.81.1-2, Cougny, Nonnus17.313,37.10. von Gaertringen, HGE 125; Wilamowitz 8.126.1-2,13.14.1-2; (1928) 223; W. 129 IG XII.6.2 740.1-2 247. Samos,sec- Peek,GVI 391 andIEpitVers E.g. (Pythagorio, 131 ond century Theclosest is an epitaph ofMiddleRoman BC); SEG 27.759[2].5-6(Crete,Late Helparallel IG VIII 1884 IG XII.7 303 date foundat Baphi nearTatoi in Attica, whichbegins lenistic); (Thespiae, Roman); Tcie icevcai (Minoa,Amorgos, Roman);IG XII.7 suppl.326 (Tenos, [v9](xe (IG II2 13153). xpan 132 GVI 361-399. IG V.I 933 (Karyai, Laconia,secearlysecondcentury); Cf. 133 IG II26859 ond-third IG X.2. 5 12. 1-5 seclatefifth-early fourth centuries?); (Thessalonica, (Kerameikos, E.g. ond-third centuries); IGBulg IV 1963 (Serdica, centuries); Peek(1957) 56,no.200 (Kerameikos, Classical). 134 second-third 1964 (Serdica, late third-early Wilamowitz centuries), (1928) 223.

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viewersthatthe benefactor nonpareil. So long as theepitaphwas visible,it would remind to owed its existence Herodes' munificence and extraordinary building ingenuity. as itdoes too. The phrase'all this'(xce is vague,lacking There is a deeper tkxvtoc) meaning rareas a clausula. Presumably for these within thedistich, anditis extremely a concrete referent at of first line and the clause's the comma the end the reasons omitted changed meaning. Kayser on a model.Theonly other occurrence Butthis unusual canbe explained byitsdependence phrase lineofa fragment or contemporary is thefirst ofthisclausulain earlier byAntimachus poetry135 'There is a 13.1.13 131 Nemesis ofColophon Matthews): (Strabo great goddess, =fr. concerning e all this from the Blessed Ones' has obtained who Nemesis, (egti tic Njueai'izyh' 0e,r' and allusionsto them Theirfrequent xe rcvTCx | rcp during quotation jiampaw e,a%ev). mostfamous verses.136 that these wereAntimachus' indicate andRomantimes Hellenistic Georg is The influence on Herodes' their Kaibel first epitaph.137 suggestion particularly proposed ofthe intellectuals was wellknown ofAntimachus notonlybecausethepoetry attractive, among to thecultofNemesis. butalso because Herodeshad a special connection secondcentury,138 show that at Rhamnous of Nemesis the at found and sanctuary great Inscriptions sculptures andposa statue ofhimself andHerodeserected to thecult, sacrificed andPolydeucion Herodes at the Roman villa of Marcellus' there.139 Furthermore, poemdisplayed portraits siblyImperial theAtticcultsofAthenaand Rhamnusian that he had transplanted Herodesand Regula stated XIV NemesistotheTriopion 1389.60-4). {IG who couldapprecithoseviewers wouldhave entertained toAntimachus allusion The subtle them verseson Nemesisreminded tothefamous reference whilethelearned ateClassicalpoetry, was andNemesis Herodes between connection oflocal cult.The sustained ofHerodes' patronage that thePersians wrote Pausanias Nemesis andMarathon. between connection ina mythical rooted butNemesisfellupon a victory marble toGreecetouse for a blockofParian monument, brought atRhamnous to carvethecult-statue usedthemarble Pheidias andlater atMarathon, them (Paus. a nexusofassociations thus traced intheepitaph AP 16.221-3).TheechoofAntimachus 1.33.2-3, Nemesis to Rhamnusian allusion Thiswas notthefirst andMarathon. Nemesis between Herodes, a finely commissioned that he had Itwillbe remembered inHerodes' context ina funerary family. atCephisia.The chest for oneofhischildren, displayed Elpinice, probably sarcophagus sculpted at cult-statue of the like the base ofHelenofTroy, sceneofthefamily theunusual on itsfront just Rhamnous.140 ina single tomb ofHerodes'interment thesmallness Thesecondlineoftheepigram juxtaposes from itexpands so that to finish start ofhisfame.Thepoemis balancedfrom themagnitude with to thewholeworld. The praiseof environment thedead manto his burialand itsmonumental to twowords. The last is restricted a usualepigrammatic Herodes'universal sentiment,141 fame, and official rather havesounded must ofgoodrepute' 'renowned, (e')Ki|io), one,theadjective it also but and in Classical It does occur readers. to belongs tragedy prose, prosaic contemporary and itsmostcommon andRomandecrees,142 ofHellenistic to thehonorific usage is in language
135 a clausewith The clausulaalso occursin a relative Leontius in a referent by sixth-century epigram vague Faustinus thecharioteer Scholasticus (AP 16.363). praising 136 Matthews 131) is a fullcom(1996) 313-21 {Jr. of xe themeaning As in Herodes'epitaph, mentary. anddebated is unclear Antimachus nvxa inthe fragment (pp. 318-19). 137 Kaibel (1880) 459; cj Gasparri(1974-75) 316 di Colofone'), (1983b) 212. Ameling ('Antigono 138 andimitated admired for Hadrian, greatly example, Antimachus (Cass. Dio 69.4.6;Hist.Aug.Hadr. 16.1-2). 139 /GII23969, 13208;Ameling (1983b) 163, 169-70, nos 160, 173;Tobin(1997) 278-80. 140 (2001) 478-83,(2005) 74-5. Perry 141 of Miletus) VS 1.22.4(Dionysius Cf.e.g. Philostr. caelebratus Thuc. 2.43.3; CIL III 124 (uirtute recalling late fourth magnaper orbem:Majorinus,Trachonitis, century). 14/ 288/7BCY); Wnene E.g. SEG 34.207 (Brauron, or Roman);SardisVILI 31 (adHellenistic 137 (Priene, BC-first first verbial: Sardis, AD); IG V.1 century century 595 (superlative: Roman);IG XII.7 406 (superlaSparta, 65 (superlative: tive:Aegiale,Amorgos, Roman);IEryth Roman). Erythrae,

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statements inImperial IfHerodes'epitaph Greek doesnotdisplay sheer laudatory prose.143 poetic a of its and artifice measure creative author ofthe The elegance, economy bespeak sophistication. distich remembered Herodes at once as citizen,benefactor, of local cult intellectual, patron and descendant from men. Presumably thefunerary oration thesesameattributes, great praised itwas delivered whether themonument before or after was finished andtheepitaph was inplain The Athenians a must have who knew Herodes and his to sight. employed poet accomplishments write theverses, suchas Hadrian ofTyre himself or another ofHerodes'sophistic colleaguesor students.144 Either thefuneral orshortly someone thealtar dedicated toHerodes nearthe thereafter, during tomb andstairway. Tablesandaltars werecommonly associated with thecultofthedeadinGreek burial theEmpire.145 Mourners usedthealtar, a much practice during probably perhaps alongwith forsacrificial to commemorate thedead,as is attested at aristocratic altar-tomb, larger offerings burials in literature.146 Therearemanyexamplesofmarble altars ofvariousforms to dedicated individuals to honour. These include thealtar to RegulanearCephisia important express public and HadrianinAthensand to severalemperors and the (IG II2 13200) and altarsto Augustus intellectual Potamonat Mytilene.147 The altarto Herodesdisplayed basic mouldings and no relief other or In embellishment. these it resembles altars of Roman date sculpted respects simple atAthens butdiffers from moreelaborate from acrosstheGreekworld.148 This many examples was appropriate to theatmosphere ofthestadium andthetomb. austerity Whilethealtar'sinscription was whollyseparate from thenearby in form and purepitaph certain features of the heroic dedication the pose,149 complement elegiaccouplet.The inscription onthealtar and(presumably) dedicator intheir givesoneword perlineandthenamesofdedicand forms. Suchconcision this inscribed altar from other at Athens and plainest distinguishes examples elsewhere. Theuse oftheadjective with the article in attributive as the exMapocGvio position modifier of and as demotic liketheuse in theepitaph, underplanatory tpco, not thestandard scored Herodes'specialattachment toMarathon. thephrase 'theMarathonian hero' Furthermore, wouldprima faciehavereminded Athenian readers of a soldier who diedon thePlainunder the of Herodes' Miltiades. The characterization of Herodes as a forefather, generalship striking Marathonian herothus tomind thesignalvictory inAthenian Itwas a latter-day brought history. connection that Herodes himself to advertise strove the overt reminiscence of his ancesthrough his of the cult of Rhamnusian his of choice as a try, through patronage Nemesis, through Elpinice nameforhis daughter, and through his plan forburialin thesame ground wheretheoriginal Marathonian heroes rested. Theinscription also usedletters a much from earlier age (Plate 7 (b)). The skilled epigrapher substituted for in eta with accordance buthe usedthesuperior epsilon pre-Euclidean orthography,
143 147 E.g. Strabo1.4.9; Diod. Sic. Bib. 16.6.2; Diog. Benjaminand Raubitschek (1959) and Benjamin Laert.9.14; Plut.Rom. 15.2,Lye. 17.1, 18.2,Lys. 22.5, (1963), e.g. IG IP 3224-30,3235, 3323-80(Athens); IG Pelop. 14.3, Fab. Max. 21.3, Mor. 667D, 847C; Paus. XII.2 140-201(Mytilene). 148 Athens: 2.20.8; Luc. Imag. 19,Merc.cond.20; Cass. Dio 71.25.3; (1963) 64,68-9,nos 13,44-8,pis Benjamin Philostr.VS 2.10.6; Theon Prog.Rhet. Gr. II, p. 103; 24, 25, 27 (= IG IP 3329-33,to Hadrian);Oliver(1963) iMtf. Gr.VIII, pp. 11,81; Themist. Or. 15.187C, (for ofDomitian).Forthegeneral freedman Sopater form, though 18.216D. often withsculpture, altarsof Late Helcf.rectangular 144 Kaibel andRomandateon Rhodes(Fraser Cf. (1880) 459 (siue ipseHerodessineam- lenistic (1977) 13-45), icorumaliquis, but Herodes is improbable); Ameling inMacedonia (Spiliopoulou-Donderer (2002),e.g.D5, D6, Literatur sichvortrefflich D13 (secondcentury)), inMysia(Robert (1983b)212 ('Das Spielmit fgt (1948) 86-8,nos indenKreisH.s ein'). 30-2,pis 21.8, 23.2-3), and at Acmonia(Robert(1955) 145 Gill (1991) surveys Greekculttables,including 247-56,pis 22, 23 (first halfofthethird century)). 149 several at graves ofRomandate(e.g. pp. 2-3,29, 67, 82, ContraGasparri (1974-75) 379 ('L'iscrizione ... in forma fufig.35, pl. 35); Cormack(2004) 117-18,151, 154 dis- riprende piconcisail sensodell'epigramma cussesfunerary altars inRoman Asia Minor. nerario tramandato da Filostrato'), Tobin (1997) 181('This 146 Luc. Catapl.2,Luct.9, 14,19; [Aristid.] Or.25.25; seemstobe a simplified version oftheepigram quoted by Poll. Onom.8.146. andGalli (2002) 21. Philostratos')

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letter forms He also carved H tomark ofan initial barinstead byearly inspired rough breathing. bar a the with vertical an second nu with elevated The Attic hasta, alpha left-slanting anda script. the base oftheloop imitate from thediagonalextension truncated hasta,andtherhowith right are not The letters to Classical date.150 of Late Archaic inAtticinscriptions forms found letter centuries.151 in Roman the middle their details and certain facsimiles, however, origin betray perfect thequadrate themuandthenu,mirrors oftheletters, blockiness The general shapeof especially for of theperiod. The left-slanting bothGreekand Romanletters apex on thealpha is typical in line in the rho the and to third the second of Athenian centuries, diagonal protracted epigraphy to missedone of theeasiestletters 4 showsa gentlecurve,like a RomanR. The epigrapher Moreor a cartwheel. a instead of bar with a detached he carved which thetheta, point archaize, the did before to expressthelongo, as Athenians than rather adopting over, usingan omicron orClassical likeanArchaic closedcircle, a regular, a novelomegawith he created Ionicalphabet, belowthelettering barat or slightly butalso an inferior plane.152 omicron, ofRomandate(predominantly ofovera dozenAttic to a group Thistext inscriptions belongs the from Thesetexts, forms.153 and letter that contain second mostly archaizing language century) reliand votive but also monuments several include urban dedications, honorary centre, funerary on thealtarto in theinscription forms The letter stones.154 and boundary giousprescriptions has buteachtext nuandrho, thealpha, inthese letters resemble Herodes particularly inscriptions, basic the same forms across these that the so early alpharepresenting variability idiosyncracies, mix often these atthestadium, dedication as intheheroic wide. Moreover, betis quite inscriptions their and are of theEmpire. Manyof thesetexts sacred, withletters letters typical archaizing and that connoted visualimpression an made have must letters venerability arresting antiquated also must texts for indiverse letters Theuse ofarchaizing eveninviolability.155 consumption public theconseritwas through lite. Indeed, ofthecultural haveappealedto theaesthetic sensibility memandevenrevived Greeks cultthat andfunerary ofofficial rituals vative preserved religion like in such archaism andhistorical oriesofthemythical contexts, speech just past. Epigraphic andactiveforce theClassicalpastas a meaningful was a meansofestablishing andarchitecture, intheRomanpresent. not we should andsuccessas a sophist, oftheClassicalheritage Herodes' mastery Considering Herodean in the is nottheonlyarchaizing theheroicdedication that be surprised inscription wereerected marble ofCarystian columns inscribed alongtheVia Appia corpus.Twoidentically disturbance andtoprohibit into theTriopion theentrance tomark (IG XIV 1390= IGUR II 339aon than thetext archaism andthoroughgoing a moremannered Theseinscriptions display b).156 in d Roman a the here even at the thealtar place of stadium, slipsonce,using epigrapher though the stadium and the from in thetexts forms The letter delta.157 Attic Archaic an angular Triopion
150 stones);II2 5007 (oracleof (1961) 66-78 (a5, c. 525-500;vl-2; p4-5, I2 865a-b,II2 2680 (boundary Jeffery from and Harmodius 131-43. Guarducci Thria);I2 400 (copied fifth Aristogeiton latesixth-early centuries); (1967) 151 from ofknights see dedication Acropolis).IG II23396 (dediOn ImperialGreekpalaeography generally, toAntoninus Pius) and 5063 (label on seatat TheGuarduccci comparanda, cation palaeographic (1967) 376-85;for as archaizing ofthelatesecondcentury atre of Dionysos) have been identified documents official seeAthenian inGraindor (1980) 9; Lazzarini(1986) 152 n.24), though (Threatte (1924) 42-54,nos 66-82,pis 51-65. 152 for letter (omicron calles the omega ar- each displays Threatte onlyone pre-Euclidean (1980) 9 wrongly for eta). omega; epsilon chaizing. 155 153 Lazzarini (1986) 152. Guarducci (1980) 9; Laz(1967) 388-90;Threatte 156 Guarducci in archaism (1983b) 148-50, (1978) 233-4;Ameling zarini(1986). Instancesof palaeographic Athens: outside (1986) 151;Galli(2002) 112;Pomeroy RomanGreeceare less common e.g. IG no. 143;Lazzarini Homolle(1896) (2007) 166-7. IG XIV 1391= IGUR II 340 does notdisIV 444-5(funerary Phlius), prohibitions, as Pomeroy and alphabet', to PoseidonandAthena, 721 (dedication play 'thearchaicAtticscript Delphi). 154 to Hadrianat Eleusis); I2 (2007) 166 asserts. IG II2 3380 (dedication 157 Lazzarini Guarducci II2 2478, (1986) (1978) 233 n.5; contra dedications); 1078,II2 5506, 10587 (funerary 151. sacred and 5004 4742, prescriptions); 3121,3194, (votives

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H/horizontal havebothsimilarities rho, bar); (mu,omicron/omega, nu) anddifferences (epsilon, in the interest to an hands. of the are abiding they speak Together they surely products separate and intellectual of Herodes' forms that was an essential revival ofancient publicpersonae.158 part theepigrapher erected thealtar andemployed whoever as inthecase oftheepitaph, Just deliberately was one of The mostlikely dedicator theseidentities. andtext to commemorate chosebothform Thisperson would theadopted Claudius oranother.159 Herodes'survivors, suchas hissonBradua, were heroized members of Herodes' house have knownthatother too, namelyRegula and Polydeucion. in Hellenistic theevolution ofhero-cult andRomanGreek Thistreatment ofHerodesreflects traditional heroes from or earlyhistorical Local communities still recognized mythical society. inthemaintenance andenergy ofold cultsites.Atthesame andthey invested newinterest times, comthelanguageand ritual of heroization becamepotent mediaforpublicand private time, their celebrated and families their loved cities honoured dead remembered memoration, whereby in explicit ones.160 citizens as heroes, sometimes Communities exceptional gratitude recognized forgenerous benefactions or great or in appreciation of intellectual achievement.162 buildings161 References to thedead as rpco also occuron numerous acrosstheeastern tombstones ordinary In to a some cases the word seems have been conventional butin others provinces. designation, itexpressed thespecialstatus ofthedead,whether becauseofyouth, or a close accomplishment emotional thebereaved.Theheroic toHerodes bondwith dedication seemstohavebeenmadeby a relative outofdeeprespect. itwas noterected viewers Furthermore, although by fj^o, might that ithonoured havethought Herodes'contributions tothecity, on account ofitsassociation with a publicburial at thestadium 'forall Athenians' (navoc9r|vaiK). The heroization of Herodesgainedgreater within thecontext of thestadium as significance bothan athletic venueand a monument to Classicalgrandeur. As MarcoGalli has stressed, the combination ofagonistic in Greekstadia, ritual is hardly space and funerary unique, particularly whereongoing sacrifices and heroicbuildings reminded bothspectators and participants of the of the He adduced the of the heron at the end of the stamythical origins games. example grand dium atMessene, which was established inHellenistic times butwas usedfor rich burial wellinto thesecondcentury.163 We knowfrom Pausaniasthat theburial ofheroes at athletic was buildings a venerable institution. Palaimon was buried andworshipped attheIsthmian 1; Stadium 2.2. (Paus. Philostr. Jun. and Phaedra had monuments near the stadium cf. Imag.2.16); Hippolytus funerary atTroezen that was buried nearthestarting lineatthe (Paus. 2.32.3-4);itwas claimed Endymion OlympianStadium(6.20.9); and Pindarhad a 'tomb' ((ivfjiia) at the Theban Hippodrome 164 well withHerodesat Athens, becausehis (9.23.2). The case of Iolaus at Pheneoscompares
158 Two fragmentary stones with Herrmann andPolatkan boundary archaizing Samos,AD 15 orlater); (1969) 7a precinctof Artemis BE 1970, no. 512 (will of scriptmarking Amarysianear 36, withJ. and L. Robert, of Athens, have been erected first Marousi,north Nakrason, might by Epikrates, AD); IG IV2.1 82, 85 (T. century whoseCephisian villawas located ofEpidaurus, Athens and Sparta, midHerodes, (IG I2 Statilius nearby Lamprias IGR IV 779-80,withJ.and L. Robert, 865a-b;Lolling(1880); Tobin(1997) 237-8,fig.72). The dle first century); atCorinth intheform memorial toHerodes of BE 1977,no.489 (Sosia Polla,Apamea, c. 128);IG XII.7 posthumous a herm with a portrait bust (Philadelpheus (1920)) doesnot 53 (AureliusOctavius,Arcesine,Roman); lAssos 27b have archaizing as Gasparri(1974-75) 379, n.3 (Callisthenes, Ilasos 137 (Roman?). Assos,Roman?); script, 162 Puech claims. E.g. (2002) 175-6no. 65 (Sebaste,244/5), 159 Private dedications to heroesare mostfrequently 341-2(Trachonitis, fourth 343-4no. 169(Pergacentury), madebyfamily see n.87. Cf.Welch 469-70no. 258 (Philoppopolis, third members; (1998) 140: mum,153 or later), couldhavebeencommissioned as a votive 357 (Ilion,fourth '[The altar] by century), (2003) century); ErgonAAH a freedman, ordescendant ofHerodes'. client, 31-2,fig.22 (Messene,second-third centuries). 160 163 Galli (2002) 21-4, citingThemelis (1992) on Hughes(1999); Jones (2001a) 146-8. 161 Thuc.5.11 of Hadrianat thestadium of (Brasidas, E.g. 422); Polyb. Messeneand thecenotaph Amphipolis, 8.12.7-8,Plut.Arat.53 (Aratus, Sicyon,213); TAMV.2 Puteoli. 164 1098 (C. Julius latefirst Tobin (1997) 182-3 misreadsPaus. 9.23.1 ('the Xenon,Thyateira, century BC); IG XII.6. 365 (C. Vibius Postumus, near Pythagorio, hero-shrine ofIolauswas under therunning buthe track',

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tomb was situated on a hillnearthestadium, andhewas given as a hero(8. 14.9-10).The offerings cult-site ofPalaimon is oneofthebestunderstood ofthese hero. ThePalaimonion seen excavated a second-century with an underground tunnel thepodium, was monopteros through byPausanias, thetrack was longsincedefunct. The situated attheheadoftheold stadium, time though bythat in which to the involved noctural rites made blood sacrifices cultofPalaimon boyworshippers is theburialof at a place of sacredcompetition Another hero.165 exampleof heroicinterment inPausanias'day(Pind.Ol 1.90-3; was still usedfor sacrifices where thealtar Altis, Pelopsinthe 166 Paus. 5.13.1-3). notonlybefor theburial ofHerodes, andPelopsareaptcomparanda Theburials ofPalaimon Like the rich benefactions.167 to thetwoPanhellenic Sanctuaries cause he was linked through Morewas a sitefor sacrificial theburial ofthehero Herodes andPalaimonion, offerings. Pelopion and in of the Isthmian instrumental the foundation and were Palaimon over, Olympian Pelops whilethelatter from thefuneral werebelieved to derive Games:theformer Palaimon, gamesfor inthechariot-race. ofPelopsoverOenomaus thevictory tocommemorate werebelieved Although in 140,as thedonor of thefirst racesatthestadium andsacrifices didnotprecede burial Herodes' Panathenaic Games. of the festival he was the founder of the the and the inaugural sponsor building that ofPelopsandPalaimon notunlike a place in civichistory he assumed After Herodes'death, at majorathletic All three heroeswerektistic in themythical figures past of thesanctuaries. wouldhavebeen Their association differed. in the of the if roles even their venues, games origin there andthesacrifices his altar thosewho saw Herodes'tomb, all themorevividfor performed andOlympia. at theIsthmus hislavishdonations andrecalled VII. THE SHIFTING MEMORY OF HERODES thepoet ofTyre, his tomb, Hadrian and erected Herodes'funeral who conducted TheAthenians a all helped to create dedication whomadetheheroic andtherelative theepitaph, whocomposed time of at the most vivid was That and benefactor dead for the citizen, memory sophist. memory remained ofburial atthestadium thephysical when andshortly thefuneral thereafter, components which wouldhaveattracted sometime, for A hero-cult havepersisted andconspicuous. intact might evolvedovertimeas of Herodes,however, rituals.The memory forcommemorative visitors effect. andpositive for both andspacesofhisburial materials thewords, negative people changed was a blatant from thealtar anddedicand ofthenamesofbothdedicator The deletion attempt of thestoneforre-use. attributed to thepreparation are often Erasures thismemory. to modify at thebase, forinstance, of statues Thereis ampleevidencefortherecycling by re-inscribing of the over re-casting public Or. 31), and anxiety Athens (Paus. 1.18.3)andRhodes(Dio Chrys. standin manycases, cannot such an But in debate.168 found a voice argument sophistic images ofthe and the there is no new where altar to the Herodes, uniquecontents inscription, including and while a new name not accommodate could text accuracy unity.169 retaining remaining
theProetidian that itwas before wrote Gate)andmisonly 392 pointsout (1974-75) ('Gaspard Gasparri represents buthe doesnot). tombs under for tracks', running parallels the 'tomb' theEleans claimedthat that Pausaniaswrote butitis unwas atthestarting-line, ofEndymion (uvf||j,a) there. he saw anystructure clearwhether 165 et al. (1998) Broneer (1973) 99-112and Gebhard remains on thearchaeological ('Palaimonion fig.8 report andDickie(1999) andGebhard (2005) disV); Gebhard andcultofPalaimon. cussthemyth 166 otPelops themyth Burkert (1983) 93-103discusses and his worshipat Olympia;Ekroth (2002) 190-2 adatthePelopion. thesacrifices dresses 167 see n.124; andtheIsthmian On Herodes Sanctuary, totheOlympian on Herodesandhisdonations Sanctuary, andKre(Paus. 6.21.2) and ofDemeter statues including thegreat and ofHygieia (Luc. nymphaeum 288) (IOlympia VS 2.1.5), see Tobin(1997) 314-23 Peregr.19; Philostr. andGalli (2002) 222-7. 168 deJones(2001b) 17-18; Platt(2007) (sophistic evidence). bate);Shear(2007) (Athenian 169 theusualmethods Kajava (1995) 209-10describes on which was inscribing for among inscriptions, recycling thealtar different faces.Itwouldhavebeeneasytorecycle butthat into another a newtext toHerodes face, bycutting done. was never

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and that for thesemantic for theerasures onthealtar toHerodes account One explanation might Herodes to 'the of 2-4 is that redirected the dedication from coherence lines grammatical they mention heroofMarathon. Pausanias andPhilostratus both Marathonian hero',ortheeponymous the oftheheroMarathon orMarathos, whosecultseemstohave existed during representations As Emily Kearns has shown,171 from suchas TheseusandCecrops, Empire.170 apart figures major theworship of most Attic heroeswas highly localized. This explanation should fortheerasure therefore be rejected, becausethealtar was located on thecity's southeast outskirts. Furthermore, sincethephrase 'theMarathonian hero'identifies a herofrom orat Marathon, itwouldbe an unusualappellation forMarathon or Marathos, who gave his nameto thedeme. As has beensugAthenians who read the would havethought first ofsomeone whofought anddied gested, phrase atMarathon, all themoreso ifthecultofthewar-dead inRomantimes.172 persisted Thefirst andlastlineswouldhavebeendeleted todestroy ofHerodes andtheone thememory who honoured him.173 This sortof mutilation can be identified the term modern damnatio by memoriae as an actsanctioned the state or driven interest to by bypopular forget publicenemies their or inscribed nameson monuments. Whilethebest-known by defacing sculpted depictions were Roman the was not limited to Rome or the circle.174 Such targets emperors, practice Imperial destruction had longoccurred in societies with and a complex political organization competitive theancient NearEast andPharaonic andPtolemaic Thepracpublicdomain, including Egypt.175 ticealso existed inGreeceduring theHellenistic era. TheAthenians numerous destroyed images ofDemetrius ofPhalerum at theendofhisreign in 307, and theAssembly decreed thedestructionofall monuments toPhilip V andtheMacedonian andtheremoval oftheir namesfrom kings all public in200.176 records Theseacts,likeothers outside viewers that reminded Athens,177 tyrannicalcontrol individuals orfamilies hadbeenabolished.During theLateRepublic and bycertain monuments of Roman officials stricken from the record were in defaced Empire, public public GreeceandAsia Minor, as in were RomeandtheWest.178 just they oroffensive citizens couldsuffer similar condemnation within thenarrower realm Dangerous oftheprovincial cities. In communities likeAthens, hardfeelings between rivalsoverpolitics, intellectualism or ancestry found actsofpublicscorn.Manyinscriptions of expression through Romandatefrom Greekcitiesshownamesor titles defaced.Often thecondemned and persons their offences are otherwise unrecorded because they actedon a small,evenpersonal, level of intercourse.179 Thesetargeted erasures ofspecific words with thetechnique usedon the compare altarto Herodes.One famousexampleis C. Julius a wealthy landowner and poetat Nicanor,
170 Paus. 1.32.4(Marathon inpainting inStoaPoikile); (destruction of Macedonian by Scopas and royalstatues VS 2A.I ('cult-statue' Philostr. as theAetolians, Dium,c. 220). (ya^uxx)of Marathos 178 farmer-hero at Marathon). W. Wrede, RE 14.1428 and E.g. SEG 39.1290,withJones(2001b) 17 (letter Kearns(1989) 45, 183 discusstheheroandhiscult. from MarkAntony erasedafter Actium, Sardis);IG XII.6 171 Kearns(1989) 139-207. and L. 364, withKajava (1995) 205-8 (namesof Statilia 172 Kearns(1989) 55, 183, citingThuc. 3.58.4 and Calpurnius Piso erased, SamianHeraion); IEph 413, SEG Paus. 1.32.4;see also n.14. 43.798 (nameandtitle of Domitian erased, Ephesus);IG 173 Skias SamianHeraion). Cf. (1905) 260; Tobin(1993) 84-5,(1997) XII.6.1 425 (nameofGetaerased, 179 182. E.g. Bradeen(1974) 87 no. 359 {stlwithdedi174 On memory sanctions inRoman and social cand BC-first erased, political Agora,first AD), century century see nowFlower(2006). 136no. 717 (blockwith dedicand life, erased, Roman), Agora, 175 Varner monument with line (2004) 12-14,15-16,19-20(concentrating 157 no.872 (= IG II2 11792: columnar on images). centuries erased, Agora,second-first BC); IG II2 11972 176 Demetrius: Strabo Athenian second 9.1.20; Plut.Mor. 820E-F;Dio. {stlwithdedicanderased, Acropolis, Laert. 5.77; Habicht (1997) 67-8. TheMacedonians: Livy century AD), X.2.1 479 (altarwithfourverseserased, third XII.2 547 (slab with 31.44.4;Habicht n.137;Camp(1992) 164- Thessalonica, (1982) 147-8, century), partof lineerased, Broneer 5, fig.138; Flower(2006) 34-41. Eresos, Lesbos,Roman?); (1933) 414, 177 twolineserased, 6-24,withFlower(2006) 30-1 no.39,fig.89 (= SEG 33.221: blockwith E.g. OGIS 2 18c.11 erasure ofnamesof tyrants from fourth-sixth (decreeordering public Athenian Acropolis, centuries). texts,Ilium, earlythird century BC); Polyb. 4.62.1-2

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'theNew Themistocles and theNew Homer'was Athens whose overblown epithet Augustan ofthe who ofhishandling Athenians three from removed disapproved by inscriptions, apparently ofHerodeswhowas is Popillius Another of Salamis.180 Pius,a contemporary example property that had stlwitha sculpted relief a funerary His namewas erasedfrom also a Marathonian. have been The namemight foruse by himand his wifein thelate secondcentury. beenreut for his qualifications thesamemenwho had challenged erasedby Popillius'enemies, perhaps a good at RomanSpartafurnishes textfrom thetheatre One mutilated Athenian citizenship.181 and somewhat is the text altar Herodes.182 the to for considerably longer Although Spartan parallel ofa statue ofthe itrecords thepublicdedication than theHerodean third later text, century) (early names of The M. Aurelius Cleanor. attheexpense of AeliusMetrophanes andorator philosopher excised.Thetext's nearthetopwerecarefully andthededicand nearthebottom thespender both not that letters show added the absence of and the individuals to reference defacement, unique knowbetter is lost without motivation But the the erasure. the of was intention use, secondary andCleanor.183 ofMetrophanes ledgeofthebiographies to destroy a concerted effort of the altarto Herodes likewiserepresents The mutilation conwhat Athenians over certain to The erasures they among antipathy point lingering memory. the Autocratic influence. financial and abuseofpolitical tobe histyrannical sidered swaythrough and orretention offunds thedistribution and sacred inpolitical ofpartisans establishment posts, realities of were construction elaborate of transformation and the publicspacesthrough property, for oratorical theme a fundamental was of The accusation East. in the Roman life urban tyrants sourcesrevealthat and historic to theclassroom: butit was notrestricted epigraphic practice, ofNicias,whomMark The example ofcivicdiscourse.184 was a recurrent Antony subject tyranny deseit involved because ofCos in41/0BC, is especially as tyrant installed sepulchral germane, the snatched into his broke citizens to an epigram cration. tomb, body byCrinagoras, According mutilation ittopunishment' and 'dragged (AP 9.81). presumably (eipuoav rcoiv), lost ofHerodes. His grandfather thefamily also followed oftyranny Hipparchus Allegations the circumstances of a on Domitian land to confiscation his (VS 2.1.2),though charge tyranny by haveledto andhisfamily influence ofHipparchus overtheinordinate arecloudy.185 might Anger ofClaudiaAlcia atEleusis(IG II23604a).186 statue thetoppled ofimages, thedestruction including andSex. QuintilCondianus Sex. Quintilius sides. Thebrothers on many facedcontempt Herodes the held not who aristocrats wereprominent Maximus iusValerius (151) butalso only consulship ofAchaea,Macedoniaand Epirus of thecombined as rulers an Imperial provinces appointment canbe traced andHerodes them between The friction after theraidoftheCostoboci (c. 171-175). later mocked which Herodes after at contest a musical over toa dispute them; purportedly Delphi, 1 2. 1 . oftyranny himtotheemperor inaccusing Athenian 1). Leading (VS Assembly they joinedthe and AeliusPraxagoras with Ti. Claudius oldenemy wereHerodes' theattack Demostratus, together the ofa conspiracy. that he was thevictim countered Herodes Mamertinus. M. Valerius Although at in trial the culminated the conflict are suits unclear, of thecompeting exactterms Sirmium, The hisfreedmen.187 andpenalized ofHerodes'enemies Aurelius Marcus where judgedinfavour Marcus sent in letter the famous illustrated is and Herodes these between tension vividly strongmen
180 IG II2 3786, 3787, 3789; Dio Chrys.Or. 31.116, see withJones (1976) 31-2. On Nicanorand his career, Follet(2004) andJones (2005). 181 Lambert (2000) 495-7,no. E7, pl. 77; SEG 50.254. in 174/5 validated Marcus Aurelius Popillius'citizenship (SEG 29.ill II 30, 52). 182 IG V.I 563; Puech(2002) 350-2,no. 174. 183 that the Puech(2002) 351-2argues unconvincingly re-use. for thestone erasures prepared 184 of Dio theexamples Kennell(1997) 351-6,citing his and at Prusa 47), predecessors (Or. Lysias Chrysostom at Tarsus(Strabo 14.5.14; Dio Chrys.Or. 33.48; Luc. Macr. 21; Athen.5.215B), and Nicias at Cos (Ael. VH 1.29). 185 diPleket(1961) 305-6 and Papaias (1975) offer the to either of Domitian's views motives, protect vergent rivallites;see also Ameling lowerclasses or to support (1983a) 17-18. 186 Ameling (1983b)61,no.28; Tobin (1997) 16,200-1. 187 thewholecon(1983a) 136-51discusses Ameling at Sirmium. andtheevents flict

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tothecity inthemiddle170stosettle various ofresentment legalcases (SEG 29.127).188 Feelings had already common who felt deceived and when Herodes Athenians, spreadamong betrayed rescinded his father's final wish(VS2.1 .3-4). A broader distaste in for hismonuments is evident thetirade ofPeregrinus whodecried theimposing atOlympia Proteus, (Luc. Peregr. nymphaeum toward mencouldbe communicated 20; cf. VS 2.1.13). Suchopenanimosity powerful through channels besidesinvective and litigation. Herodeswas so concerned that his detractors, includthe would mutilate the statues of his beloved Achilles andMemnon that ing Quintilii, Polydeucion, heplacedcurse ontheir bases(VS 2.1.10). Twenty-five ofthese texts havebeenfound, inscriptions a largemajority on theMarathonian andCephisian estates.189 Herodes hadno shortage ofenemies, of whom couldhaveerased thetwolinesonthealtar any in one or twoevents. This textual deletion did notremoveHerodesfrom thepublicrecord; it createda lasting document of his banishment from Viewers of the altar would have memory. known that thenamesof Herodesand his dedicator wereonce there, buttheerasures reminded them toforget these names.190 Theerasure ofHerodes'namewas particularly intheconpoignant text ofa heroic whichimplied theimmortality ofthedeceased. We cannot knowthe dedication, oftheperson whoerasedtheinscription orthecircumstances. It couldhavebeenanyof identity Herodes'known detractors who outlived theQuintilii, whowereexecuted under him,including Commodus to carry out however, (Cass. Dio 73.5.3). We might, expectsuchprominent persons a coordinated of mutilation, and thealtaris theonlyknowntextassociatedwith programme Herodes with deleted lines.Perhaps theperpetrator was an anonymous Athenian whoattacked the altar outofpersonal toward Herodes and his because he found Herodes' unrage family, arrogance bearable orfelt with Atticus' estate.Thedefacement occurred atsome slighted byhisinterference between c. 179 andthe250s butmostlikely within a generation after Herodes'death, when point resentment was stillhot. If itoccurred after the altar's then it reflects the codedication, shortly existence atAthens ofopposing sentiments overthememory ofHerodes, one embracing honour, theother ignominy. A simultaneous inHerodes' was thegrowth ofa cemetery nearhistomb. development memory The choiceofburial locale in all cultures is a conscientious andmeaningful one. TheAthenians who interred their relatives or friends on thelofty haveconsidered thesite'sbenefits slopemust ofhigh andeasyaccessibility; must have the monumental ofthe visibility they appreciated setting and must have known that Herodes rested The character of the Stadium; they nearby. simple and their markers indicates that thedeceaseddidnotbelongtothecity'slite. Theywere graves citizens from different theworking couldhavebeen demes,somerepresented classes,and they None of the an names individual connected to Herodes, but freedpersons.191 epitaphs obviously thepossibility cannot be ruled out.192 Evenifthoseinterred here werenothisfreedpersons, burial nearthegreat HerodesandbesidethePanathenaic a degree ofprestige. It is mayhaveconferred to imagine that theburialsbelongedto admirers of Herodes,who in death tempting joined his socialcircle, ifnothisbiological A similar lineage, through mortuary proximity. pattern emerged inlater when interment nearholymenorecclesiastical leaders andcomfort centuries, gavehonour
188 190 Oliver(1970); Ameling no. 189. Hedrick different forms of (1983b) 182-205, (2000) 89-130discusses Kennell(1997) examines thistext in light ofthepolitical damnatio memoriae and how they remind theviewerto conflict Herodes andthe oftyranny forget; see also Flower(2006) 276-8. engulfing phenomenon 191 vonMoock inImperial Greek cities. Cf. (1998) 84-5. 189 192 IG II2 3970, 13188-13208;IG XII.9 134; SEG Welch(1998) 140 suggests that'tomboccupants descendants ofHerodes and/or mem14.292; Rhomaios(1906) 443-50; Peek (1942) 141, no. couldhaveincluded see bersofhisgreat andslaves'. Itseems 310; AD 33, B'l, 1978, 55-6. For fulldiscussion, familiaoffreedmen that Herodes'descendants in wouldbe interred Ameling(1983b) 23-9, 160-6, nos 147-70 and Tobin unlikely suchmundane itwas coincidental that one (1997)113-60. graves.Perhaps buried came from thedemeof here,Herakleitos, person Cephisia(/GII26418).

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at thetomb ofHerodesgradually endedas the to Christian mourners. Butanyrespectful activity ifithadbelonged to Herodes, The handling ofthealtar and sarcophagus, sitefellintodisrepair. ofhis cultwas short-lived. We can onlyimaginethecondition that his posthumous suggests after 75-85years, whenthechamber was builtintothe monument andepitaph roughly funerary erstwhile of of Philostratus' readers the As the first contemplated greatness generation stairway. at shifted Athens had his Herodes, memory dramatically. already VIII. CONCLUSION: LITE IDENTITY, URBAN SOCIETY AND PUBLIC MEMORY Atticus revealshowrituals, The burial ofHerodes monuments, places andwordscouldbe cominGreek the urban andtocreate liteidentity tocommunicate bined society during publicmemory thewealth, estatewould have expressed Romanera. The plannedgraveon theMarathonian for hischildren and a lavish ofHerodes.He created andaugust territorial control cemetery lineage himself withhis predeto identify buthe preferred his wifeon theCephisian estate, (probably) wish. TheAthenians Marathon. at burial cessors will, however, eclipsed private Popular through hisrole to recognize Stadium at thePanathenaic andburial a publicfuneral seizedhiscorpsefor that of civic like a The was andbenefactor. procession citizen as leading reception drew ceremony andurbanspace. The suburban and traversed a social hierarchy reconstituted outthepopulace, forall Athenihe had erected the stadium tomb in an Herodes of alongside imposing deposition wereheld Panathenaic Games When the the of ans was an appropriate city. by gesture gratitude from where he figuratively see Herodes' couldplainly after c. 179,spectators monument, presided his universal butsophisticated overtheevents. The short fame,and the epitaph pronounced was a specialhonour. ofa hero-cult establishment would atMarathon life.His burial theendofHerodes' to the Classical Connections pastframed tothe ofHerodes'ownlink memories ofAthenian that travellers havereminded landscape through his Marathonian also commemorated Miltiades. Herodes his forebear battle history through great with association His cherished atRhamnous. andbysacrificing hisdaughter Elpinice bynaming in subtle but also on theRomanestate, notonlyin hisveneration Nemesisis apparent funerary from andthequotation thecult-statue that recalled thesculpted references, sarcophagus namely and Herodes contact between of thesespecific in theepitaph.Apartfrom Antimachus points the burial for Herodes' Athenians chose the and the forms ClassicalAthens, displayed settings andthesarthetomb, lites oftheday. The stadium, embraced samearchaizing byeducated style decor. Classicism and marked all were distinguished antiquated simplicity by elegant cophagus ofthealtar andunusual theaustere oftheepitaph, thelanguage and,prepaleography appearance an evoked athletic at an located ofHerodes, oration.The hero-cult Hadrian's building, sumably, who to Athenians wouldhavebeen familiar Suchpervasive institution. ancient antiquarianism of the Late Classical the Attica recalled from Instances knew Herodes' Koo|ir|Tr| type portraiture. 'In the As R.R.R. Smith thana haggard rather intellectual as an elegant wrote, philosopher.193 with ofmodest an image Herodes' atAthens, oflocalpolitics context reserve, then, portrait presents demos'.194 ofa leaderoftheclassicalAthenian andstyle thedemeanour Athens andClassicalAthens, Roman to both tied this of Thepublic integrally memory persona, the burial at thestadium, and funeral the elaborate had an intriguing Through development. This member of their as a leading Herodes andcelebrated avoided Athenians community. dispute anditwas augand the monument of reinforced was epitaph, viewing frequent through impression Herodes' of the the and the hero-cult of the observance mented cemetery. adjacent growth through
193Zanker (1995) 243-4; see Datsoulis-Stavridis (1978) 214-28 and Tobin(1997) 71-6 on Herodes'porfrom traiture atAthens, Cephisiaand including examples Marathon. 194 Smith (1998) 79.

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revised this exalted either disdainful citizens orlong-standing rivals, detractors, imageina derogahis the of Herodes altar. Philostratus further filtered manner the through memory tory bydefacing written not intellectual achievement. The selective and bias toward Life, panegyrical coverage ofthecreeping oblivthere-use ofthesarcophagus, altar andtombstones, givesno hint longbefore andcomion at Herodes'tomb.We couldnotappreciate thesedynamic ofliteburial processes ifwe didnotadopta contextual to thearchaeological andwritten sources memoration approach in butrestricted ourselves to that latestage thegeneration ofmemory, Philostratean biography. JOSEPHL. RIFE Vanderbilt University
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H. (1974) 'Marmorhandel, unddie Lokalisierung derkleinasiatischen Wiegartz, Sarkophagherstellung inMlangesMansel 1 (Ankara) 345-83 Sulensarkophage', - (1975) 'Kaiserzeitliche in derNikolaoskirche', inJ.Borchhardt Reliefsarkophage (ed.),Myra.Eine 161-251 30, lykische (IstForsch Berlin) Metropole U. von(1928) 'Marcellus von Side', SPAW, 2 Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, 1928,3-30= KleineSchriften 192-228 (Berlin1971) M. andEichler, F. (1953) Forschungen inEphesos5.1: Die Bibliothek W.,Keil,J., Theuer, Wilberg, (2ndedn,Vienna) PAA17, 1-107= Akademieschriften zur A. (1951) 'Griechische Inschriften rechtlichen Wilhelm, inhalts', 3 391-501 Inschriftenkunde (Leipzig 1974) griechischen W.C. (1921) Philostratus Mass.) (LCL 134,Cambridge, andEunapius:LivesoftheSophists Wright, atAthens', R.E. (1963) 'The Pythion AJA 67, 75-9 Wycherley, inAntiquity P. (1995) TheMaskofSocrates.TheImageoftheIntellectual trans., Zanker, (A. Shapiro and Los Berkeley Angeles) ampanathenischen E. (1870) 'Ausgrabungen Stadion', Ziller, Zeitschrift frBauwesen20, 485-92

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JHS 128 (2008)

THE BURIAL OF HERODES ATTICUS

PLATE 7

and surrounding Stadium buildings (a) The Panathenaic (Travlos(1971) 501, fig.630) to Herodes'the dedicated (b) Altar hero'(photo Marathonian byauthor) klinsarcophagus (photoby author) (c) Strigillated

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