You are on page 1of 203

"#$%&$' (#%$)* +, %-##.

/0$.($*) 1''+2(1*'# -+
302+'+(# 4 1*( 5



61.#*-$*+% 7#+89:-+0 ;3*)< ="'





!"#$ &'()


>?+2@#( #A1&8.#% B C1*( '1.'0.1-$+*%

3DE;" &1*01.

Page 2
ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT


This publication provides a concise compilation of selected rules in the Eurocode 8, together
with relevant Cyprus National Annex, that relate to the design of common forms of concrete
building structure in the South Europe. It id offers a detail view of the design of steel framed
buildings to the structural Eurocodes and includes a set of worked examples showing the
design of structural elements with using software (CSI ETABS). It is intended to be of
particular to the people who want to become acquainted with design to the Eurocodes. Rules
from EN 1998-1-1 for global analysis, type of analysis and verification checks are presented.
Detail design rules for steel composite beam, steel column, steel bracing and composite slab
with steel sheeting from EN 1998-1-1, EN1993-1-1 and EN1994-1-1 are presented. This
guide covers the design of orthodox members in steel frames. It does not cover design rules
for regularities. Certain practical limitations are given to the scope.

Due to time constraints and knowledge, I may not be able to address the whole issues.

Please send me your suggestions for improvement. Anyone interested to share his/her
knowledge or willing to contribute either totally a new section about Eurocode 8 or within
this section is encouraged.


For further details:

My LinkedIn Profile:
http://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=125833097&trk=hb_tab_pro_top

Email: valentinos_n@hotmail.com

Slideshare Account: http://www.slideshare.net/ValentinosNeophytou


Page 3
List of contents


1.1 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS EXAMPLE OF STEEL FRAME WITH CONCENTRIC
BRACING ................................................................................................................................. 7
1.1 LAYOUT OF STRUCTURE ............................................................................................... 7
1.2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN................................................................................................... 9
1.2.1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COLUMNS AND BEAMS ............................................ 9
1.3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES .............................................................................................. 11
1.3.1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE ............................................................... 11
1.3.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL ........................................................................ 12
1.3.3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL AND CONCRETE AS DEFINE IN ETABS 13
1.3.4.1 MODELING REQUIREMENTS OF EC8 FOR CONCRETE MEMBERS ............... 15
1.3.4.2 MODELING REQUIREMENTS OF EC8 FOR FLOOR DIAPHRAGMS ................ 15
1.3.4.3 MESHING OF SLABS ................................................................................................ 16
1.4 JOINT MODELING (EN1993-1-1,CL.5.1.2) ................................................................... 17
2.0 MODAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS ............................................................. 20
2.1 STRUCTURAL TYPES AND BEHAVIOR FACTOR ACCORDING TO EN1998-1-
1,CL.6.3 ................................................................................................................................... 20
2.2 DEFINE DESIGN HORIZONTAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM ........................................ 24
2.2.1 VERTICAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM (EN1998-1-1,CL.3.2.2.3) ................................ 24
2.2.2 HORIZONTAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM (EN1998-1-1,CL.3.2.2.5) .......................... 24
2.2.3 PARAMETERS OF ELASTIC RESPONSE SPECTRUM (EN1998-1-1,CL.3.2.2.5) .. 25
2.2.3.1 GROUND INVESTIGATION CONDITIONS ........................................................... 29
2.2.3.2 IMPORTANCE FACTOR ........................................................................................... 29
2.2.3.3 DUCTILITY CLASS ................................................................................................... 30
2.3 ANALYSIS TYPES .......................................................................................................... 31
2.3.1 MODAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS .......................................................... 31
2.3.1.1 ACCIDENTAL ECCENTRICITY .............................................................................. 32
2.3.2 LATERAL FORCE ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS .................................................... 34
2.3.4 ESTIMATION OF FUNDAMENTAL PERIOD T
1
...................................................... 35
2.3.5 AUTOMATIC LATERAL FORCE ANALYSIS USING ETABS ................................ 36
2.3.6 USER LOADS - LATERAL FORCE ANALYSIS USING ETABS ............................. 38

Page 4
2.3.7 TORSIONAL EFFECTS ................................................................................................ 45
2.3.8 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS PROCESS IN SEISMIC DESIGN SITUATION ........... 46
3.0 DEFINE STATIC LOADS ................................................................................................ 47
4.0 SEISMIC MASS REQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TO EC8 ......................................... 48
4.1 MASS SOURCE OPTION ................................................................................................ 49
5.0 WIND LOADING ON STRUCTURE (EN1991-1-4:2004) .............................................. 51
5.1 CALCULATION OF WIND LOAD ACCORDING TO EN1991-1-4:2004 .................... 51
5.2 APPLICATION OF WIND LOADING USING ETABS ................................................. 54
6.0 LOAD COMBINATION ................................................................................................... 59
7.0 DESIGN PREFERENCES ................................................................................................ 61
8.0 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCENTRICALLY BRACED
FRAMES ACCORDING TO EN1998-1-1,CL.6.7.2 .............................................................. 64
8.1 STEPS OF THE DESIGN DETAIL OF CONCENTRIC STEEL FRAMES ................... 65
8.2 CLASSIFICATION OF STEEL SECTIONS .................................................................... 66
8.3 DESIGN OF COMPOSITE SLAB UNDER GRAVITY LOADS .................................... 68
8.4 DESIGN OF COMPOSITE BEAM (WITH STEEL SHEETING) UNDER GRAVITY
LOADS .................................................................................................................................... 72
8.5 DETAIL DESIGN OF STEEL COLUMNS UNDER GRAVITY LOADS ...................... 79
8.6 DETAIL DESIGN RULES OF STEEL CONCENTRIC BRACED FRAMES (CBF)
ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 8 .......................................................................................... 87
8.6.1 DETAIL DESIGN RULES OF STEEL BRACING ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 8
.................................................................................................................................................. 87
8.7 DETAIL DESIGN RULES OF STEEL COLUMNS AND BEAMS ACCORDING TO
EUROCODE 8 ......................................................................................................................... 88
8.8 DETAIL DESIGN RULES OF STEEL COMPOSITE MEMBERS ACCORDING TO
EUROCODE 8 ......................................................................................................................... 89
8.9 DETAIL DESIGN RULES OF STEEL MOMENT RESISTANCE FRAMES (MRF)
ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 8 .......................................................................................... 90
8.9.1 DETAIL DESIGN RULES FOR MRF - DESIGN CRITERIA .................................... 90
8.9.2 DETAIL DESIGN RULES OF STEEL BEAM FOR MRF ........................................... 90
8.9.3 DETAIL DESIGN RULES OF STEEL COLUMN FOR MRF ..................................... 91
9.0 DESIGN OF STEEL FRAMES ......................................................................................... 92
9.1 DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBER OVERWRITES DATA ................................................. 92

Page 5
9.2 DESIGN OF COLUMNS / BEAMS USING ETABS GRAVITY LOAD ANALYSIS
ONLY ...................................................................................................................................... 97
9.3 DESIGN OF STEEL COLUMN (GRAVITY DESIGN SITUATION) HAND
CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................................. 105
9.4 DESIGN OF STEEL COLUMN (SEISMIC DESIGN SITUATIONN) ......................... 118
9.4.1 DESIGN OF STEEL COLUMN (SEISMIC DESIGN SITUATION HAND
CALCULATION) .................................................................................................................. 124
9.5 DESIGN OF COMPOSITE BEAMS - HAND CALCULATIONS ................................ 128
9.5 DESIGN OF STEEL BRACING ..................................................................................... 145
9.5.1 MAIN CONFIGURATION OF DESIGN OF STEEL BRACING .............................. 145
9.5.2 SIMPLIFIED DESIGN OF FRAMES WITH X BRACING (EXTRACT FROM
DESIGN GUIDANCE TO EC8) ........................................................................................... 147
9.5.3 MODEL IN ETABS ..................................................................................................... 148
9.5.4 DESIGN OF STEEL BRACING (GRAVITY/SEISMIC DESIGN SITUATION)
HAND CALCULATION ....................................................................................................... 156
10.0 MODAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS ......................................................... 170
10.1 SET THE ANALYSIS OPTIONS ................................................................................. 170
10.2 EVALUATE THE ANALYSIS RESULTS OF THE STRUCTURE ACCORDING TO
THE MODAL ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS ................................................................... 171
10.2.1 ASSESS THE MODAL ANALYSIS RESULTS BASED ON THE EN1998 ........... 172
11.0 SECOND ORDER EFFECTS (P ! EFFECTS) ACCORDING TO EN1998-1-
1,CL.4.4.2.2 ........................................................................................................................... 173
11.1 DISPLACEMENT CALCULATION ACCORDING TO EN1998-1-1,CL.4.4.2.2 ..... 174
11.2 INTERSTOREY DRIFT ................................................................................................ 174
11.3 CALCULATION OF SECOND ORDER EFFECT USING ETABS ........................... 175
11.3.1 INTERSTOREY DRIFT DISPLACEMENT ............................................................. 176
11.3.2 TOTAL GRAVITY LOAD P
TOT
................................................................................ 178
11.3.2 TOTAL SEISMIC STOREY SHEAR V
TOT
............................................................... 180
12.0 DAMAGE LIMITATION ACCORDING TO EN1998-1-1,CL.4.4.3 .......................... 184
12.1 CALCULATION OF DAMAGE LIMITATION .......................................................... 185
ANNEX - A .......................................................................................................................... 186
ANNEX A.1 - ASSUMPTIONS MADE IN THE DESIGN ALGORITHM (MANUAL OF
ETABS EC3 & EC8) .......................................................................................................... 186

Page 6
A1.1:LIMITATION MADE IN THE DESIGN ALGORITHM (MANUAL OF ETABS
EC3&EC8) ............................................................................................................................. 187
ANNEX B: STEEL DESIGN FLOWCHARTS .................................................................. 188



Page 7
1.1 Design and analysis example of steel frame with concentric bracing

1.1 Layout of structure

Figure 1.1: Plan view

Figure 1.2: Side Elevation (4) & (1)


Page 8

Figure 1.3: Side Elevation (A) & (D)


Table 1.1: Dimensions of the building

Dimensions Symbol Value Units
Storey height h 3.0 m
Total height of the building H 9.0 m
Beam length in X-direction lx 5.0 m
Beam length in Y-direction ly 5.0 m
Building width in X-direction Lx 15.0 m
Building width in Y-direction Ly 15.0 m














Page 9
1.2 Preliminary design

Table 1.2: Seismic design data

Data Symbol Value Units
Seismic zone - 3 -
Reference peak ground acceleration on type A
ground, agR.
a
gR
0.25 m/s
2
Importance class !
I
1.0 -
Design ground acceleration on type A ground a
g
0.25 m/s
2

Design spectrum - Type 1 -
Ground type - B -
Structural system Steel frame with concentric bracing
Behavior factor q 4.0 -
1.2.1 Preliminary design of columns and beams




















Preliminary design of steel beam
Design data:
Span of beam
Bay width
Overall depth of slab
Loading data:
Density of concrete
Loads of floor per meter
Live load
Live load per meter
Partial factor for actions:
Safety factor are obtain from Table A.1(2)B EN1990

Permanent actions, !
G


Variable actions, !
Q

Total load
L
x
5000mm :=
w
bay
5000mm :=
h 130mm :=
!
c
25kN m
3 "
# :=
g
floor
!
c
h " L
x
" 16.25 kNm
1 #
" " = :=
q
office
2kNm
2 !
" :=
q
service
q
office
L
x
! 10 kNm
1 "
! ! = :=
!
G
1.35 :=
!
Q
1.5 :=
E
d
!
G
g
floor
" !
Q
q
service
" + 36.94 kNm
1 #
" " = :=

Page 10






























Material properties:
Young Modulus of Elasticity
Structural steel (clause 6.1(1) EN 1993 1-1)
Structural steel properties:
Yield strength, f
y

Ultimate strength, fu
Yield strength of reinforcement, f
yk

Deflection limitation:
Deflection limit - General purpose

Second moment area required
Second moment area provided (IPE240)


Moment resistance check:
Design moment (Fixed end)

Plastic modulus required

Plastic modulus provided (IPE240)


Weak Beam - Strong column -Capacity design:
Plastic modulus of column required
Plastic modulus of column provided (HE220A)


E
s
210kNmm
2 !
" :=
!
M0
1.0 :=
f
y
355N mm
2 !
" :=
f
u
450N mm
2 !
" :=
f
yk
500N mm
2 !
" :=
F
L
x
300
:=
I
req
300 E
d
! L
x
3
!
384 E
s
!
1.718 10
3
" cm
4
! = :=
I
prov
3892cm
4
:=
Check_1 if I
prov
I
req
> "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_1 "OK" =
M
Ed
E
d
L
x
2
!
12
76.953kNm ! ! = :=
W
pl.y.req
M
Ed
f
y
216.769cm
3
! = :=
W
pl.y
324.4cm
3
:=
Check_2 if W
pl.y
W
pl.y.req
> "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_2 "OK" =
W
pl.y.c.req
1.3 W
pl.y
! 421.72cm
3
= :=
W
pl.y.c
515cm
3
:=
Check_3 if W
pl.y.c
W
pl.y.c.req
> "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_3 "OK" =

Page 11
1.3 Material properties

ETABS: Define > Material properties
1.3.1 Material properties of concrete

Design requirement

Poisson ratio is equal to v = 0 (cracked concrete) and v = 0.2 (un-cracked concrete) as
(EN1992-1-1,cl.3.1.3).

Table 1.3: Concrete properties (EN 1992, Table 3.1)

Property Data for concrete
C16/20
(N/mm
2
)
C20/25
(N/mm
2
)
C25/30
(N/mm
2
)
C30/37
(N/mm
2
)
Mass per unit Volume 2,5E-09 2,5E-09 2,5E-09 2,5E-09
Weight per unit volume 2,5E-05 2,5E-05 2,5E-05 2,5E-05
Modulus of Elasticity 29000 30000 31000 33000
Poissons Ratio (cracked concrete) 0 0 0 0
Coeff. of thermal expansion 10E-06 10E-06 10E-06 10E-06
Charact. ConcCyl. Strength, fck 16 20 25 30
Bending Reinf. Yield stress, fyk 500 500 500 500
Shear Reinf. Yield stress, fyk 500 500 500 500



Page 12
1.3.2 Material properties of steel


Table 1.4: Material properties of steel

Material Properties Symbol Value Units References
Mass per unit Volume "
s
7.85E-09

kg/mm
3
EN1991-1-1,table A.4
Weight per unit
Volume
"
s
7.70E-05

N/mm
3
EN1991-1-1,table A.4
Modulus of Elasticity E
s
210,000

N/mm
2
EN1993-1-1,cl.3.2.6(1)
Poissons ratio # 0.3 - EN1993-1-1,cl.3.2.6(1)
Coeff of Thermal
Expansion
(Steel structures)
$ 1.2x10
-5
per K (for T % 100
o
C) K EN1993-1-1,cl.3.2.6(1)
Coeff of Thermal
Expansion
(Composite Concrete-
Steel structures)
$ 1.2x10
-5
per K (for T % 100
o
C) K EN1993-1-1,cl.3.2.6(1)
Shear Modulus G &81,000

N/mm
2
EN1993-1-1,cl.3.2.6(1)
Characteristic yield
strength of steel profile
f
y
275 N/mm
2

EN1993-1-1,table 3.1
Ultimate strength f
u
430 N/mm
2
EN1993-1-1,table 3.1


Table 1.5: Strength vales of steel sections (EN1993-1-1,table 3.1)


Steel grade
Nominal thickness of the element t (mm)
t ! 40mm 40mm < t ! 80mm Grade
reference f
y
(N/mm
2
) f
u
(N/mm
2
) f
y
(N/mm
2
) f
u
(N/mm
2
)
S235 235 360 215 360 EN 10025-2
S275 275 430 255 410 EN 10025-2
S355 355 510 335 470 EN 10025-2
S450 440 550 410 550 EN 10025-2
Note: You may use the product standard instead of those given in EN1993-1-1




Page 13
1.3.3 Material properties of steel and concrete as define in ETABS


Figure 1.4: Material properties of concrete (C25/30)



Figure 1.5: Material properties of steel (S275)

1.3.4 Slab modeling


Page 14
Table 1.6: Slab properties
Data Symbol Value Units
Slab depth h
s
170 mm
Diameter of stud d

19 mm

Height of stud h
aw
152 mm
Tensile strength of stud f
u
430 N/mm
2


ETABS: Define > Wall/Slab/Deck Sections/Add new deck

Figure 1.6: Deck section properties






Press Set Modifier in order
to modify the slab properties

Page 15
1.3.4.1 Modeling requirements of EC8 for concrete members

1. Unless a more accurate analysis of the cracked elements is performed, the elastic
flexural and shear stiffness properties of concrete and masonry elements may be taken
to be equal to one-half of the corresponding stiffness of the un-cracked elements
(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.1(7)).
Figure 1.7: Modified Stiffness Modifiers

1.3.4.2 Modeling requirements of EC8 for floor diaphragms

ETABS: Select > Wall/Slab/Deck section > Select Deck
ETABS: Define > Diaphragms
ETABS: Select D1 (Rigid diaphragms)

2. When the floor diaphragms of the building may be taken as being rigid in their planes,
the masses and the moments of inertia of each floor may be lumped at the centre of
gravity (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.1(4)).



Page 16
1.3.4.3 Meshing of slabs

ETABS: Select > Wall/Slab/Deck section > Select Deck
ETABS: Assign > Shell area > Auto Object Auto mesh option

When you have a composite beam floor system, ETABS, by default, automatically meshes
(divides) the deck at every beam and girder. This allows ETABS to automatically distribute
the loading on the deck to each beam or girder in an appropriate manner.
Figure 1.8: Meshing of composite slab

Figure 1.9: Meshing of normal slab

Page 17

1.4 Joint modeling (EN1993-1-1,cl.5.1.2)


(1) The effects of the behavior of the joints on the distribution of internal forces and
moments within a structure, and on the overall deformations of the structure, may
generally be neglected, but where such effects are significant (such as in the case of
semi-continuous joints) they should be taken into account, see EN 1993-1-8.

(2) (2) To identify whether the effects of joint behavior on the analysis need be taken into
account, a distinction may be made between three joint models as follows, see EN
1993-1-8, 5.1.1:
simple, in which the joint may be assumed not to transmit bending
moments.
continuous, in which the behavior of the joint may be assumed to have no
effect on the analysis.
semi-continuous, in which the behavior of the joint needs to be taken into
account in the analysis.




Page 18
Table 1.7: Example of joint types

Simple joint Continuous Fixed joint Semi- continuous joint









ETABS: Pin joint in ETABS

The pin-joint in ETABS can be achieved by selecting the members that you assumed to be
pinned in the analysis process. This can be done as follow:

Select member > Assign > Frame/Line > Frame Releases Partial Fixity

Figure 1.10: Pinned joint (both ends)




Page 19
ETABS: Fixed joint in ETABS

The fixed-joint in ETABS can be achieved by selecting the members that you assumed to be
fixed in the analysis process. This can be done as follow:

Select member > Assign > Frame/Line > Frame Releases Partial Fixity

Figure 1.11: Fixed joint

Page 20
2.0 Modal Response Spectrum Analysis

2.1 Structural types and behavior factor according to EN1998-1-1,cl.6.3
Table 2.1: Structural types and behavior factor
Structural Type
q-factor
DCM DCH
Moment resisting frames (MRF)



$
u
/ $
1
=1.1 $
u
/ $
1
=1.2 (1 bay)
$
u
/ $
1
=1.3 (multi-bay)

dissipative zones in beams and column bases
4 5$
u
/ $
1


Concentrically braced frames (CBF)




Dissipative zones in tension diagonals
4 4
V-braced frames (CBF)



2 2.5

Page 21

Dissipative zones in tension and compression diagonals


Frames with K-bracing (CBF)




Not allowed in
dissipative design
Eccentrically braced frame (EBF)



$
u
/ $
1
=1.2
dissipative zones in bending or shear links
4 5$
u
/ $
1
Inverted pendulum system



$
u
/ $
1
=1.0 $
u
/ $
1
=1.1

dissipative zones in column base, or column ends (N
Ed
/N
pl,Rd
< 0.3)
2 2$
u
/ $
1
Moment-resisting frames with concentric bracing (MRF) + (CBF)


4 4$
u
/ $
1

Page 22



$
u
/ $
1
=1.2
dissipative zones in moment frame and tension diagonals
Moment frames with
infills




Unconnected concrete or masonry infills,
in contact with the frame


2 2

Connected reinforced concrete
Infills


See EN1998-1-1,table
5.1

Infills isolated from moment frame


4 5$
u
/ $
1
Structures with concrete cores or walls







See EN1998-1-1,table
5.1

Note: If the building is non-regular in elevation (see EN1998-1-1,cl.4.2.3.3) the upper limit
values of q listed above should be reduced by 20 %


Page 23
Table 2.2: Values of behavior factor for regular and irregular structure

Structural type Regular in plan
and elevation
Irregular in
plan / Regular
in elevation
Regular in plan
/ Irregular in
elevation
Irregular in
plan &
elevation
Irregular in
plan / Regular
in elevation
Regular in plan
/ Irregular in
elevation
Irregular in
plan &
elevation
DCM DCH DCM DCM DCM DCH DCH DCH
Moment resisting frame
Single storey portal 4.0 5.5 3.2 3.2 3.2 5.25 4.4 4.2
One bay multi-storey 4.0 6.0 3.2 3.2 3.2 5.5 4.8 4.4
Multi-bay, multi-storey 4.0 6.5 3.2 3.2 3.2 5.75 5.2 4.6
Concentrically braced frame
Diagonal bracing 4.0 4.0 3.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.2 3.2
V-bracing 2.0 2.5 1.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0
Frame with masonry infill
panels
2.0 2.0 1.6 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.6


Page 24
2.2 Define design horizontal response spectrum

2.2.1 Vertical response spectrum (EN1998-1-1,cl.3.2.2.3)

The vertical component of the seismic action should be taken into account if the avg>0.25g
(2.5m/s2) in the cases listed below:
for horizontal structural member spanning 20m or more,
for horizontal cantilever components longer than 5m,
for horizontal pre-stressed components,
for beams supporting columns,
in based-isolated structures.
2.2.2 Horizontal response spectrum (EN1998-1-1,cl.3.2.2.5)

For the horizontal components of the seismic action the design spectrum, S
d
(T), shall be
defined by the following expressions:

! ! ! ! !
!
! !
!
! ! !
!
! ! !
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!!!
!
!
!
!
(!"1998-1-1,Eq. 3.13)
!
!
! ! ! !
!
! !
!
! ! !
!
! ! !
!!!
!
(!"1998-1-1,Eq. 3.14)
!
!
! ! ! !
!
! !
!
! ! !
!
! ! !
!!!
!
!
!
!

! ! ! !
!
(!"1998-1-1,Eq. 3.15)
!
!
! ! ! !!! !
!
! ! !
!
! ! !
!!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

! ! ! !
!
(!"1998-1-1,Eq. 3.5)
Design ground acceleration on type A ground: a
g
=#
I
a
gR
Lower bound factor for the horizontal spectrum: !=0.2
Note: the value of q are already incorporate with an appropriation value of damping viscous,
however the symbol " is not present in the above expressions.

Page 25
2.2.3 Parameters of elastic response spectrum (EN1998-1-1,cl.3.2.2.5)

Table 2.3: Parameters of Type 1 elastic response spectrum (CYS NA EN1998-1-1,table
3.2)
Ground
Type
S T
B
(s) T
C
(s) T
D
(s)

A 1.0 0.15 0.4 2.0
B 1.2 0.15 0.5 2.0
C 1.15 0.20 0.6 2.0
D 1.35 0.20 0.8 2.0
E 1.4 0.15 0.5 2.0
Note: For important structures (#
I
>1.0), topographic amplification effects should be taken
into account (see Annex A EN1998-5:2004 provides information for topographic
amplification effects).




ETABS: Define > Response spectrum function




1. Peak ground acceleration agR=0,25g,
2. Type C or D for building within category of importance I and II,
3. Define two response spectrum cases if the factor q is different in each direction,
Select EUROCODE8
Spectrum
Add New Function

Page 26
4. Modify the existing values of elastic response spectrum case in order to change it into
the design response spectrum.


Figure 2.1: Response Spectrum to EC8

!"#$%& !""#$#%!&'() ( + )*+, ,-./01

1 Sd(1) = 0.2 -
0.0000 0.2000 So||1ype = 8 -
0.1000 0.1917 q = 4.00 -
0.1300 0.1873 o
gk
= 0.2S -
0.2000 0.1873 S = 1.20 -
0.4000 0.1873 1
8
= 0.1S sec
0.6000 0.1363 1
C
= 0.S0 sec
0.8000 0.1172 1
u
= 2.00 sec
1.0000 0.0938 1 = 0.S0 sec
1.3000 0.0623


2.0000 0.0469 Data for so|| type - 1ype Spectrum 1
2.3000 0.0300 |ndex So|| 1ype S 18 1C 1D
3.0000 0.0300 1 A 1 0.13 0.4 2
4.0000 0.0300 2 8 1.2 0.13 0.3 2
3.0000 0.0300 3 C 1.13 0.2 0.6 2
6.0000 0.0300 4 u 1.33 0.2 0.8 2
8.0000 0.0300 3 L 1.4 0.13 0.3 2
10.0000 0.0300
Convert the existing elastic response
spectrum case to design response
spectrum case

Page 27





















Page 28
Figure 2.2: Amendment Response spectrum (q = 4)













Page 29
2.2.3.1 Ground investigation conditions
Table 2.4: Geological studies depend on the importance class (CYS NA EN1998-1-1, NA
2.3 / cl.3.1.1 (4))
Importance class of buildings
Ground
Type
I II III IV

A NRGS NRGS RGS RGS
B NRGS NRGS RGS RGS
C NRGS NRGS RGS RGS
D NRGS NRGS RGS RGS
E NRGS NRGS RGS RGS
NRGS: Not required geological studies
RGS: required geological studies if there is not adequate information
2.2.3.2 Importance factor

Table 2.5: Importance classes for buildings (!"1998-1-1,table.4.3 and CYS NA EN1998-
1-1,cl NA2.12)
Importance
class
Buildings Important
factor #
I
Consequences
Class
I
Buildings of minor importance for public
safety, e.g. argricultural buildings, etc.
0.8 CC1
II
Ordinary buildings, not belonging in the other
categories.
1.0 CC2
III
Buildings whose seismic resistance is of
importance in view of the consequences
associated with a collapse, e.g. schools,
assembly halls, cultural institutions etc.
1.2 CC3
IV
Buildings whose integrity during earthquakes
is of vital importance for civil protection, e.g.
hospitals, fire stations, power plants, etc.
1.4 CC3



Page 30









CC1: Low consequence for loss of human life, and economic, social or environmental
consequences small or negligible.
CC2: Medium consequence for loss of human life, economic, social or environmental
consequences considerable.
CC3: High consequence for loss of human life, or economic, social or environmental
consequences very great
2.2.3.3 Ductility class











Table 2.6: Requirement for importance class relate to ductility class (CYS NA EN1998-
1-1,cl NA2.16 & cl.5.2.1(5))
Importance
class
Zone 1 Zone 2

Zone 3
I DCL DCL DCL
II DCM/DCH DCM/DCH DCM/DCH
III DCM/DCH DCM/DCH DCM/DCH
IV DCH DCH DCH



















DCL: Ductility class low.
DCM: Ductility class medium.
DCH: Ductility class high.




























Page 31
2.3 Analysis types

2.3.1 Modal Response spectrum analysis

Table 2.7: Requirements of modal response spectrum analysis according to Eurocode 8
Requirements Values References
Regular in plan YES / NO !"1998-1-1,table 4.1
Regular in elevation NO !"1998-1-1,table 4.1
Sum of the effective
modal masses
$ 90%
EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.1(3)
$ 5% of total mass
Minimum number of
modes
k $3.%n
k: is the number of modes
n: is the number of storey
EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.1(5)
Behaviour factor q
T
k
& 0.20sec

T
k
: is the period of vibration of
mode k.
EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.1(5)
Fundamental period
T
j
& 0.9 T
i
SRSS
EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.1(2)
T
j
$ 0.9 T
i
CQC
Accidental eccentricity See section 2.1.1.1 EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.2


1. Independently in X and Y direction,
2. Define design spectrum,
3. Use CQC rule for the combination of different modes (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.3.2(3))
4. Use SRS rule for combined the results of modal analysis for both horizontal directions
(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.5.1(21)).
5. Modal Combination: Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) can be used if the T
j

& 0,9 T
i
(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.3.2(3)P).




Page 32
2.3.1.1 Accidental eccentricity

Accidental eccentricity of each storey cause of uncertainties location of masses have been
taken into account 5% (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.2). Moreover, if there are masonry infills with a
moderately irregular and asymmetric distribution in plan, is doubled further in Eurocode 8
(i.e., to 10% of the storey orthogonal dimension in the baseline case, or 20% if accidental
torsional effects are evaluated in a simplified way when using two separate 2D models).

Table 2.8: Summary of accidental eccentricity
Percentage of
accidental
eccentricity
Geometry
of model
(3D/2D)
Asymmetric
distribution of mass
(Regular/Irregular)
Masonry infills
(Regular/Irregular)

5% 3D Regular Regular
10% 3D Irregular Irregular
20% 2D - -

Note: Accidental eccentricity is automatically included during response-spectrum analysis in
ETABS, though equivalent static-load procedures are also available for manual evaluation.
Note that floor diaphragms must be rigid, otherwise torsional effects are not substantial.
ETABS implements an efficient and practical approach while formulating dynamic response
from accidental eccentricity. After the response-spectrum load case is run, the X and Y
acceleration at each joint location is determined, then multiplied by the tributary mass and the
diaphragm eccentricity along either Y or X. The larger absolute value of these resultant
moments (m*Xacc*dY or m*Yacc*dX) is then applied as torsion about the joint location.
Static response is then added to response-spectrum output to account for the additional design
forces caused by accidental eccentricity.






Page 33

Define > Response spectrum cases
Note: Add two response spectrum cases: EQX and EQY as showing below (figure 9).


Figure 2.3: Response Spectrum case Data for EQY& EQX









Page 34
2.3.2 Lateral force analysis requirements

Table 2.9: Requirements of lateral force analysis according to Eurocode 8
Requirements Values References
Regular in plan YES / NO !"1998-1-1,table 4.1
Regular in elevation YES !"1998-1-1,table 4.1
Ground acceleration 0.10-0.25g
CYS NA EN1998-1-
1:Seismic zonation map
Spectrum type 1 EN1998-1-1,cl.3.2.2.2(2)P
Ground type
A,B,C,D,E
Normally type B or C can be used
normal condition
EN1998-1-1,cl.3.1.2(1)
Lower bound factor for
the horizontal design
spectrum
' = 0.85 if T
1
& 2T
C
and more than
2 storey
'=1.0 in all other case
EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.2(1()
Behaviour factor q
Concrete DCM q= 1.5 3.90 EN1998-1-1,cl.5.2.2.2(2)
Concrete DCH q= 1.6 5.85 EN1998-1-1,cl.5.2.2.2(2)
Steel DCM q= 2.0 4.00 EN1998-1-1,cl.6.3.2(1)
Steel DCH q= 2.0 5.85 EN1998-1-1,cl.6.3.2(1)
Fundamental period
T
1
&4T
c

T
1
&2,0s
EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.1(2)
Accidental eccentricity See section 2.1.1.1 EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.2


Table 2.10: Equivalent Static Force Case
Load case name Direction and Eccentricity % Eccentricity
EQXA X Dir + Eccen. Y 0.05
EQYA X Dir Eccen. Y 0.05
EQXB Y Dir + Eccen. X 0.05
EQYB Y Dir Eccen. X 0.05






Page 35
2.3.4 Estimation of fundamental period T
1


Table 2.11: Estimation of fundamental period T
1

Reference structure Period T
1
Exact formula for Single Degree of Freedom
Oscillator. Mass M lumped at top of a vertical
cantilever of height H. Cantilever mass M
B
= 0.
!
!
! !!
!!
!
!!"

Exact formula for Single Degree of Freedom
Oscillator. Vertical cantilever of height H and of
total mass M
B
.
!
!
! !!
!!!"!
!
!
!
!!"

Exact formula for Single Degree of Freedom
Oscillator. Mass M lumped at top of a vertical
cantilever of height H and of total mass M
B
.
!
!
! !!
!!!!!"!
!
!
!
!!"

Approximate Relationship (Eurocode 8).
C
t
= 0,085 for moment resisting steel space frames
C
t
= 0,075 for eccentrically braced steel frames
C
t
= 0,050 for all other structures

!
!
! !
!
!
!!!

H building height in m measured from
foundation or top of rigid basement.
Approximate Relationship (Eurocode 8).
d : elastic horizontal displacement of top of
building in m under gravity loads applied
horizontally.
!
!
! ! !



Page 36
2.3.5 Automatic Lateral force analysis using ETABS

ETABS: Define > Static load cases

Figure 2.4: Apply the Equivalent Static Force Case


Figure 2.5: Modify the Equivalent Static Force Case







Note: The seismic forces
should be applied only
above the top of the
basement

Page 37


































Fundamental period (EN1998-1-1,Eq.4.6)
T
1
=C
t
H
3/4
(For heights up to 40m)


Value of C
t
(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.2(3))
C
t
= 0.085 (for moment resisting steel frames)

C
t
= 0.075 (for moment resisting concrete frames)

C
t
= 0.05 (for all other structures)
(EN 1998-1-1:2004, cl. 4.3.3.2.2(3))

C
t
= 0.075/%)A
c
(for concrete/masonry shear wall
structures)
(EN 1998-1-1:2004, Eq. 4.7)

A
c
= )[A
i
*(0,2+(l
wi
/H
2
))]
(EN 1998-1-1:2004, Eq. 4.8)
Fundamental period requirements
(EN1998-1-1,Eq.4.6)
T
1
&4T
C
T
1
&2sec
IF this



YES



LATERAL FORCE
ANALYSIS



RESPONSE SPECTRUM
ANALYSIS



Correction factor $(EN1998-1-
1,cl.4.3.3.2.2(1())
'=0.85 if T
1
&2T
C
and more than 2 storey
'=1.0 in all other case


Design spectrum
S
d
(T)(EN1998-1-
1,cl.3.2.2.5)
0&T&T
B
T
B
&T&T
c
T
C
&T&T
D
T
D
&T





Seismic mass(EN1998-1-
1,cl.3.2.4)
)G
k,j
/g+)+
E,i
.Q
k,i
/g
(EN 1998-1-1:2004, Eq.3.17)





Base shear(EN1998-1-
1,cl.4.3.3.2.2)
F
b
=S
d
(T
1
).m.'
(EN 1998-1-1:2004, Eq. 4.5)





Horizontal seismic forces
(according to displacement of
the masses)
!
!
! !
!
!
!
!
! !
!
!
!
! !
!

(EN 1998-1-1:2004, Eq. 4.10)





Horizontal seismic forces
(according to height of the
masses)
!
!
! !
!
!
!
!
! !
!
!
!
! !
!

(EN 1998-1-1:2004, Eq. 4.11)




NO




Page 38
2.3.6 User loads - Lateral force analysis using ETABS

Geometrical data


Span of the longitutinal direction

Span of the transverse direction
Span of each beam

Span of each bracing

Height of each column

Total heigh of building

Area of floor for each storey

Number of floors

Number of beams IPE240 at each floor

Number of beams IPE180 at each floor

Number of columns HE280A at each floor

Number of TUBE sections D127-4 at each floor

L
x
15m :=
L
y
15m :=
L
b
5m :=
L
t
5.831m :=
h
c
3m :=
H 9m :=
A
f
L
y
L
x
! 225m
2
= :=
N
f
3 :=
N
b
24 :=
N
s
9 :=
N
c
16 :=
N
t
8 :=

Page 39


Dead load
Weight of steel column HE280A

Weight of primary beams IPE240

Weight of secondary beams IPE180

Weight of steel beams TUBE-D127-4

Slab thickness

Weigth of concrete


Weight of slab

Weigth of finishes
Total dead load

Total dead load

Live load
Combination coefficient for variable action

Live load


Total live load
Total gravity load per storey
(EN1998-1-1,cl.3.2.4(2)P)

Total gravity load per storey
(EN1998-1-1,cl.3.2.4(2)P)

Seismic mass

g
c
76.4kg m
1 !
" :=
g
p
30.7kg m
1 !
" :=
g
s
18.8kg m
1 !
" :=
g
t
12.38kg m
1 !
" :=
h
s
170mm :=
!
c
25kN m
3 "
# :=
g
slab
!
c
h
s
" 4.25 kNm
2 #
" " = :=
g
fin
1kN m
2 !
" :=
G
k.storey
g
c
N
c
! h
c
! g
p
N
b
! L
b
! + g
s
N
s
! L
b
! + g
t
N
t
! L
t
! +
( )
g g
slab
A
f
! + g
fin
A
f
! +
"
#
$
%
1.267 10
3
& kN ! = :=
G
k
g
c
N
c
! h
c
! g
p
N
b
! L
b
! + g
s
N
s
! L
b
! + g
t
N
t
! L
t
! +
( )
g g
slab
A
f
! + g
fin
A
f
! +
"
#
$
%
N
f
! 3.802 10
3
& kN ! = :=
!
Ei
0.3 :=
q
k
2kN m
2 !
" :=
Q
k
q
k
A
f
! 450 kN ! = :=
F
Ed.storey
G
k.storey
!
Ei
Q
k
"
( )
+ 1.402 10
3
# kN " = :=
F
Ed
G
k
!
Ei
Q
k
"
( )
N
f
" + 4.207 10
3
# kN " = :=
S_mass
F
Ed
g
4.29 10
5
! kg = :=

Page 40

Horizontal design response Spectrum (EN1998-1-1,cl.3.2.2.5)
Behaviour factor q
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.3)

Lower bound factor
(EN1998-1-1,cl.3.2.2.5(4)P)

Seismic zone
(CYS NA EN1998-1-1,
zonation map)


Importance factor
(CYS NA EN1998-1-1,cl. NA2.12)


Design ground acceleration on type A
(EN1998-1-1,cl.3.2.1(3))

Value of C
t

(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.2(3))


Fundamental period of vibration
(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.2(3))

Type of soil
(EN1998-1-1,cl.3.1.2(1))

Value of parameters describing the Type 1 elastic response spectrum (EN1998-1-1,table 3.2)
Soil factor, S
q 1.5 :=
! 0.2 :=
Seismic_zone "3" :=
a
gR
0.15g Seismic_zone "1" if
0.2g Seismic_zone "2" if
0.25g Seismic_zone "3" if
2.452
m
s
2
= :=
Importance_factor "II" :=
!
I
0.8 Importance_factor "I" if
1.0 Importance_factor "II" if
1.2 Importance_factor "III" if
1.4 Importance_factor "IV" if
1 = :=
a
g
!
I
a
gR
" 2.452
m
s
2
= :=
Value_C
t
"OTHER" :=
C
t
0.085 Value_C
t
"MRSF" if
0.075 Value_C
t
"MRCF" if
0.05 Value_C
t
"OTHER" if
0.05 = :=
T
1
C
t
H
m
!
"
#
$
%
&
3
4
'
(
)
)
)
*
+
,
,
,
-
s 0.26s = :=
Soil_type "B" :=
S 1.0 Soil_type "A" if
1.2 Soil_type "B" if
1.15 Soil_type "C" if
1.35 Soil_type "D" if
1.2 = :=

Page 41

Lower limit of the period, T
B

Upper limit of the period, T
C

Constant displacement value, T
D

Corection factor '
(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.2(1)P)

Check the fundamental period of vibration requirements
(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.1(2))


Design spectrum for elastic analysis (EN1998-1-1,cl.3.2.2.5(4)P)






T
B
0.15s Soil_type "A" if
0.15s Soil_type "B" if
0.20s Soil_type "C" if
0.20s Soil_type "D" if
0.15s = :=
T
C
0.40s Soil_type "A" if
0.50s Soil_type "B" if
0.60s Soil_type "C" if
0.80s Soil_type "D" if
0.5s = :=
T
D
2.0s Soil_type "A" if
2.0s Soil_type "B" if
2.0s Soil_type "C" if
2.0s Soil_type "D" if
2s = :=
! 0.85 T
1
2T
C
" N
f
2 > # if
1 otherwise
0.85 = :=
Check_1 if T
1
4T
C
! T
1
2s ! " "Lateral force analysis" , "Response spectrum analysis" ,
( )
:=
Check_1 "Lateral force analysis" =
S1
e
T
1
( )
a
g
S !
2
3
T
1
T
B
2.5
q
2
3
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
! +
)
*
+
,
-
.
! :=
S1
e
0 ( ) 1.961 m s
2 !
" " =
S2
e
T
1
( )
a
g
S !
2.5
q
! := S2
e
T
B
( )
4.903 m s
2 !
" " =
S3
e
T
1
( )
a
g
S !
2.5
q
!
T
C
T
1
! a
g
S !
2.5
q
!
T
C
T
1
! " a
g
! # if
" a
g
!
( )
" a
g
! a
g
S !
2.5
q
!
T
C
T
1
! # if
:=
S3
e
T
C
( )
4.903 m s
2 !
" " =
S4
e
T
1
( )
a
g
S !
2.5
q
!
T
C
T
D
!
T
1
2
!
"
#
#
$
%
&
&
'
a
g
S !
2.5
q
!
T
C
T
D
!
T
1
2
! ( a
g
! ) if
( a
g
!
( )
a
g
S !
2.5
q
!
T
C
T
D
!
T
1
( )
2
! ( a
g
! * if
:=

Page 42





Design spectrum acceleration

Seismic base shear
(EN1998-1-1,cl.4.3.3.2.2(1))

Seismic base shear on each bracing
Note: 2 bracing on each direction

S4
e
T
1
( )
72.642
m
s
2
=
S
e
T ( ) if T T
B
< S1
e
T ( ) , if T T
C
< S2
e
T ( ) , if T T
D
< S3
e
T ( ) , S4
e
T ( ) ,
( )
,
( )
,
( )
:=
T 0.01sec 0.02sec , 4sec .. :=
0 1 2 3 4
0
2
4
6
8
S
e
T ( )
T
S
e
S1
e
0 ( ) 0 T
1
! T
B
! if
S2
e
T
B
( )
T
B
T
1
! T
C
! if
S3
e
T
C
( )
T
C
T
1
! T
D
! if
S4
e
T
1
( )
T
D
T
1
! 4s ! if
4.903
m
s
2
= :=
F
b
S_mass S
e
!
T
1
s
! " ! 464.519kN ! = :=
F
b.bracing
F
b
2
232.259kN ! = :=

Page 43












Table 2.12: Summary table of the lateral force results








!"#$%
&'()"*
,(
-./
0122
.(
-34/
,(5.(
67
-34/
6867-,(5.(/9
:,(5.(
0#.';"
0865,(
-34./
<';)"* #=
=>##$ <?8<%
@AA(B';"1>
'AA';"$(A("%
'(8CDCE<
F#$2(#;1>
.#.';"
0865'(
-34./
0#.';" BG' "#
!H!!
0!H!8I0?JKL0%JK
-34./
!"#$%& ' &()* &*+&, (+(-.* */*-*+ *)')-/( &. )-0. &0(-&'. *(+-/(,'/&.
!"#$%* + &()* ,(&* (+(-.* &.(-,( '*'-)( &. )-0. &&+-&/ &+(-*/*+*&
!"#$%/ / &()* (*)+ (+(-.* 00-(* */*-*+ &. )-0. .,-)+. ,*-&&+/&).
FMF@< NKCO KEKPO NONDEK PKEQDON
Mass per storey

Heigth at roof level

Heigth at level 2

Heigth at level 1

Total mass:

Lateral force at roof level
(EN1998-1-1,Eq.4.11)

Lateral force at level 2
(EN1998-1-1,Eq.4.11)

Lateral force at level 1
(EN1998-1-1,Eq.4.11)


Check lateral force per storey


m
i
F
Ed.storey
1.402 10
3
! kN = :=
z
3
9m :=
z
2
6m :=
z
1
3m :=
!mi_zi F
Ed.storey
z
3
" F
Ed.storey
z
2
" + F
Ed.storey
z
1
" + 2.524 10
4
# kNm " = :=
F
3
m
i
z
3
!
"mi_zi
F
b
! 232.259kN ! = :=
F
2
m
i
z
2
!
"mi_zi
F
b
! 154.84kN ! = :=
F
1
m
i
z
1
!
"mi_zi
F
b
! 77.42kN ! = :=
F F
3
F
2
+ F
1
+ 464.519kN = :=
Check_2 if F F
b
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_2 "OK" =

Page 44

ETABS: Define > Static load case >

Figure 2.6: Define manually the lateral forces



Figure 2.7: Define manually the lateral forces/moments per storey






Page 45
2.3.7 Torsional effects

FLOW CHART OF TORSIONAL EFFECTS































Carry out Lateral force analysis/
Response spectrum analysis
!
!
! !
!
!
!


!
!
! !
!
!
!


!
!
! !!!!" ! !
!


!
!
! !!!!" ! !
!



!
!
! !!!!" ! !
!


!
!
! !!!!" ! !
!



SRSS rule

!
!"!!
! !
!
!
! !
!
!




Page 46
2.3.8 Summary of analysis process in seismic design situation

































Importance class/Ductility class
I II III IV
DCL DCM
DCH
DCM
DCH
DCH
Ignore topographic
amplification effects
Consider topographic
amplification effects
IF
Slopes <15
o

Cliffs height
<30m

Slopes <15
o

Cliffs height
<30m

Ignore

Consider

Regular in plan: YES
Regular in elevation YES

Regular in plan: NO
Regular in elevation YES

Regular in plan: YES
Regular in elevation NO

Regular in plan: NO
Regular in elevation NO

Type of soil:
A , B ,C ,D, E, S1, S2
Type 1 elastic response
spectrum
0&T&T
B
T
B
&T&T
C
T
C
&T&T
D

T
D
&T&4s

LATERAL
FORCE

MODAL
ANALYSIS

Displacement
d
s
=qd*de

P-% effects
,&0.1 Ignore
0.1&,&0.2 Consider
0.2&,&0.3 Consider
,$0.3 Not Permitted


Interstorey drift
d
r
v&0.005h - Brittle
d
r
v&0.0075h - Ductile
d
r
v&0.010h - Other

Frame joint
)MR
C
$1.3)MR
B
Storey $ 2

Page 47
3.0 Define static loads

Here define as many load cases for your model as you need e.g. dead loads, live loads, wind
loads, seismic loads, thermal loads etc. To be simple define only one dead load with self
weight multiplier 1(including finishes, dead, walls etc) and one live load.

Figure 3.1: Static load cases



















Page 48
4.0 Seismic mass requirements according to EC8

Combination of the seismic action with other actions (EN 1998-1-1,cl.3.2.4):
1. Define the category of building (EN 1991,Table 6.1),
2. Define the reduce factor (EN 1991, Table A.1.1).

Combination of seismic mass

!
!!!
! !
!"
!
!!!
(!"1998-1-1,Eq. 3.17)

Combination coefficient for variable action is: !
!"
! ! ! !
!"
(!"1998-1-1,Eq. 4.2)
Table 4.1: Values of & for calculating !
!"
(CYS NA EN1998-1-1:2004)
Type of Variable
action
Storey &

Categories A-C
1
Roof
Storeys with correlated occupancies
Independently occupied storeys
1,0
0,8
0,5
Categories A-F
1
1.0

Table 4.2: Values of ' coefficients
Category Specific Use
'
(
'
1
'
2

A Domestic and residential 0.7 0.5 0.3
B Office 0.7 0.5 0.3
C Areas for Congregation 0.7 0.7 0.6
D Shopping 0.7 0.7 0.6
E Storage 1.0 0.9 0.8
F Traffic < 30 kN vehicle 0.7 0.7 0.6
G Traffic < 160 kN vehicle 0.7 0.5 0.3
H Roofs 0.7 0 0
Snow, altitude < 1000 m 0.5 0.2 0
Wind 0.5 0.2 0

Page 49
4.1 Mass Source Option

In ETABS, the user has the option of choosing one of three options for defining the source of
the mass of a structure. Click the Define menu > Mass Source command to bring up the
Define Mass Source form. The following options appear on the form:

1. From Self and Specified Mass:

Each structural element has a material property associated with it; one of the items specified
in the material properties is a mass per unit volume. When the From Self and Specified
Mass box is checked, ETABS determines the building mass associated with the element
mass by multiplying the volume of each structural element times its specified mass per unit
volume. This is the default. It is also possible to assign additional mass to account for
partitions and cladding, etc. ETABS adds any additional mass assignments to the element
mass to derive a total mass. You cannot have a negative mass in ETABS.

2. From Loads:

This specifies a load combination that defines the mass of the structure. The mass is equal to
the weight defined by the load combination divided by the gravitational multiplier, g. This
mass is applied to each joint in the structure on a tributary area basis in all three translational
directions.

3. From Self and Specified Mass and Loads:

This option combines the first two options, allowing you to consider self- weight, specified
mass, and loads in the same analysis.

It is important to remember when using the From Self and Specified Mass and Loads
option, NOT to include the Dead Load Case in the Define Mass Multiplier for Loads
box. This will account for the dead load of the structure TWICE.




Page 50

Figure 4.1: Seismic source




















Page 51
5.0 Wind loading on structure (EN1991-1-4:2004)

5.1 Calculation of Wind load according to EN1991-1-4:2004

Step by step procedure

Figure 5.1: Fundamental Basic wind velocity, v
b,0

(CYS NA EN1991-1-4,Fig.1)


Season factor
(CYS EN1991-1-4,NA 2.4)
c
season
=1.0


Directional factor
(CYSEN1991-1-4,NA 2.4)
c
dir
=1.0
(Conservative value for all direction)


Basic wind velocity
(EN1991-1-4, Eq. 4.1)
v
b
=c
dir
.c
season
v
b,0



National Annex to CYS EN 1991-1-4:2005 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
Part 1-4: General actions Wind actions
Eurocodes Committee Page 4 oI 9 02 April 2010

Figure 1 Isotach contours of the fundamental value of the basic wind velocity v
NA 2.5 CIause 4.3.1 (1) - Mean wind - Variation with height
b,0
Note 1 The orography Iactor, c
o
(z), is taken as 1,0 unless otherwise speciIied in 4.3.3
Note 2 Design charts or tables Ior v
m
NA 2.6 CIause 4.3.2 - Mean wind - Terrain roughness
(z) are not provided
(1) The r oughness Iactor, c
r
NA 2.7 CIause 4.3.3 (1) - Mean wind - Terrain orography
(z), i s de termined b y e quation ( 4.4) oI C YS E N 1991 -1-
4:2005
(2) The value oI the angular sector is deIined as the 30 a ngular sector within +15 Irom
the wind direction. The upstream distance is obtained Irom Annex A.2
The orography Iactor, c
o
NA 2.8 CIause 4. 3.4 (1) - Mean w ind - Large an d c onsiderabIy higher
neighbouring structures
, is determined using the procedure oI Annex A.3
The eIIect oI large and considerably higher neighbouring structures on the wind speed may be
taken into account using the procedure oI Annex A.4
NA 2.9 CIause 4.3.5 (1) - Mean wind - CIoseIy spaced buiIdings and obstacIes
The eIIect oI closely spaced bui ldings and ot her obstacles on t he wind speed may be t aken
into account using the procedure oI Annex A.5

Page 52

Table 5.1: Terrain category and terrain parameters (EN1991-1-4, Tab.:4.1)
Terrain
category
Description z
0
(m) z
min
(m)
0
Sea, costal area exposed to the open
sea.
SEA 0.003 1

I
Lakes or area with negligible
vegetation and without obstacles.
COUNTRY
0.01 1

II
Area with low vegetation such as
grass and isolated obstacles trees,
buildings) with separations of at least
20 obstacle height.
0.05 2

III
Area with regular cover of vegetation
or buildings or woth isolatd obstacles
with seperations of maximum 20
obstacle height (such as villages,
suburban terrain, permanent forest).
TOWN
0.3 5

IV
*
Area in which at least 15% of the
surface is covered with building and
their average height exceeds 15m.
1.0 10

*
For buildings in terrain category IV, displacement height h
dis
should be consider and information can be found
in Aneex A.5 of EN1991-1-4:2005.











Roughness factor, c
r
(z)
(EN1991-1-4,Eq.4.3-4.5)
c
r
(z)=k
r
. ln(z/z
0
) for z
min
)z)z
max
c
r
(z)=c
r
. (z
min
) for z)z
min

z
0
: is the roughness length
Maximum height, z
max

(EN1991-1-4, cl. 4.3.2)
z
max
=200m
Orography factor c
o
(z)
c
o
(z)=1

Terrain factor,
(EN1991-1-4,cl.4.4)
k
r
=0.19(z
0
/z
0,II
)
0.07


Mean wind velocity, v
m
(z)
(EN1991-1-4 cl.4.3.1 )
v
m
(z)=c
r
(z).c
o
(z).v
b

Wind turbulence, I
v
(z)
(EN1991-1-4,Eq.4.7)
I
v
(z)=-
v
/v
m
(z)=k
l
/c
o
(z)ln(z/z
0
) for
z
min
&z&z
max

I
v
(z)=I
v
(z
min
) for
z&z
min

Turbulence factor: k
l
=1.0
(NA CYS EN1991-1-4, cl. NA 2.10)
Note: for c
o
(z)=1 I
v
(z) is not
important
Peak velocity pressure, q
peak
(z)
(EN1991-1-4 Eq.4.8 )
q
peak
(z)=[1+7 I
v
(z)]0.5* v
m
2
(z)=c
e
(z)+0.5+*+v
b
2
Air density:.=1.25kg/m
3


Page 53
























Table 5.3: Values of external pressure coefficient for vertical walls of rectangular plan building
(EN1991-1-4, Tab.:4.1)
ZONE A B C D E
h/d c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
5 -1.2 -1.4 -0.8 -1.1 -0.5 +0.8 +1.0 -0.7
1 -1.2 -1.4 -0.8 -1.1 -0.5 +0.8 +1.0 -0.5
&0.25 -1.2 -1.4 -0.8 -1.1 -0.5 +0.7 +1.0 -0.3
Note: Values for c
pe,1
are intended for the design of small elements and fixings with an element of 1m
2
or
less such as cladding elements and roofing elements. Values for c
pe,10
may be used for the design of the
overall load bearing structure of buildings. The external pressure coeffiecient c
pe,1
and c
pe,10
is using for
loadaded area of 1m
2
and 10m
2
respectively.

Key for vertical walls Flat Roof
(EN1991-1-4, Fig.7.5)

Key for vertical walls Mono&dual pitch
Roof
(EN1991-1-4, Fig.7.5)

Pressure on surface &Wind force (EN1991-1-4, Eq. 5.1&5.5)
w
e
=q
p
(z
e
).(c
pe +
c
pi
) & F
w
=c
s
c
d
+,w
e
+A
ref

Table 5.2: Reference height ze, depending on h and b, and corresponding velocity pressure
profile (EN1991-1-4, Fig. 7.4)



Page 54
5.2 Application of wind loading using ETABS

Table 5.4: Wind load assumptions
Data Symbol Value Units
Basic wind velocity v
b,0


24 m/s
Terrain category -

II -

Structural factor c
s
c
d
1 -
Turbulence factor k
l 1 -
Orography factor c
o
(z) 1 -

ETABS: Clink on
ETABS: Select from first drop-down menu
ETABS: Click on select NONE and draw rectangular cover all side of plan view




Draw walls in plan

Page 55

ETABS: Select the area of elevation A-A
ETABS: Assign > Shell/Area loads > Wind pressure coefficients
Figure 5.2: Wind load areas

Table 5.5: Wind pressure coefficient applied on walls
Wind pressure coefficient for load case WINDX
Windward load Area D Leeward load Area E


Side load Area A & B Side load Area A & B

Page 56



Wind pressure coefficient for load case WINDY
Windward load Area D Leeward load Area E

Side load Area A & B Side load Area A & B









Page 57
WIND LOADING ACCORDING TO
EN1991-1-4:2005
Job No.:
Sheet No.:
Date: December 2012 Check by:


CALCULATION OF WIND LOADING TO EN 1991-1-4:2005.
Loading available for rectangular, clad buildings with flat
roofs only.


Obstruction height, have = 7.5 m
Distance to nearest adjacent building, x = 50 m
Height of building, h = 9 m
Longitudinal length of the building
,
d = 15 m
Transverse length of the building, b = 15 m
Edge distance, (Wind direction - !=90) e = 15

Basic Wind Velocity, Vbo = 24 m/s ( Figure1)
Season Factor, Cseason = 1.0 (cl.NA2.4)
Directional Factor, Cdir = 1.0 (cl.NA2.4)
Basic Wind Velocity, Vb0=CdirCseasonVb,o Vb = 24 m/s (Eq.4.1)
Structural factor, CsCd = 1.0 (cl.6.2)
Orography factor, Co(z) = 1.0 cl.4.3.1(1))
Turbulence factor, kI = 1.0 (cl.NA2.10)
z
0
z
min
("able 4.1)
Terrain Category Define terrain category II 0.05 2
Max heigh, zmax = 200 m (cl. 4.3.2)
Height above ground, z = 100 m
Dispacement height, hdis = 4.5 m (Annex A.5)
Clear height of
building,
h-hdis = 4.5
Define height z
5




Page 58

"-./0123 !0/4450/ 67/889:9/1.4 ;2334 6</


W|nd d|rect|on
0=0

WldLh b = 13 m
PelghL h = 9 m
uepLh d = 13 m
Edge distance, (Wind direction - 0=0) e = 15 m
AcLual h/b (lor zone u - wlndward face) h/b = 0.60

LengLh ln
Zone A
2ones A & 8
ex|st
3 m
LengLh ln
Zone 8
12 m
LengLh ln
Zone C
0 m

W|nd d|rect|on
0=90

WldLh b = 13 m
PelghL h = 9 m
uepLh d = 13 m
Edge distance, (Wind direction - 0=90) e = 15 m
AcLual h/b (lor zone u - wlndward face) h/b = 0.60

LengLh ln
Zone A
2ones A & 8
ex|st
3 m
LengLh ln
Zone 8
12 m
LengLh ln
Zone C
0 m


1able 7.1 values of Cpe for
wlnd on

lronL (0=90) lronL (0=0) Zones (0=90) Zones (0=0)
u 0.747 0.747 A 3 m A -1.2 m
L -0.367 -0.367 8 12 m 8 -0.8 m
A -1.2 -1.2 C 0 m C 0 m
8 -0.8 -0.8
C 0 0




Page 59
6.0 Load combination

Table 6.1: Load combination factors and coefficients
Data Symbol Value Reference
Permanent action #
G


1.35 EN1990,cl.6.4.3.2
Variable action #
Q


1.5 EN1990,cl.6.4.3.2

Office areas (Type B), $
0
0.7 CYS NA EN1990:2002, Table A1.1
Roofs $
0
0.7 CYS NA EN1990:2002, Table A1.1
Wind loads $
0
0.5 CYS NA EN1990:2002, Table A1.1

Persistent and transient design situation STR/GEO Equation 6.10
E
d
=!"
G
G
k
+"
Q
Q
k1
+ "
Q
#
0,2
Q
k2
Ultimate limit state (ULS)

Static load combination
STATIC 2. 1.35DL + 1.5LL
STATIC 3. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 0.75WINDX
STATIC 4. 1.35DL + 1.5LL - 0.75WINDX
STATIC 5. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 0.75WINDY
STATIC 6. 1.35DL + 1.5LL - 0.75WINDY
STATIC 7. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 1.05LL
STATIC 8. 1.35DL - 1.5WINDX 1.05LL
STATIC 9. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 1.05LL
STATIC 10. 1.35DL - 1.5WINDY 1.05LL

Seismic load combination for Modal Analysis
SEISMIC 2. DL + 0.3LL + EQX + 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 3. DL + 0.3LL + EQX 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 4. DL + 0.3LL - EQX + 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 5. DL + 0.3LL - EQX 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 6. DL + 0.3LL + EQY + 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 7. DL + 0.3LL + EQY 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 8. DL + 0.3LL - EQY + 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 9. DL + 0.3LL - EQY 0.3EQX





Page 60


Seismic load combination for Lateral force Analysis

SEISMIC 10. DL + 0.3LL + EQXA + 0.3EQYA
SEISMIC 11. DL + 0.3LL + EQXA 0.3EQYA
SEISMIC 12. DL + 0.3LL - EQXA + 0.3EQYA
SEISMIC 13. DL + 0.3LL - EQXA 0.3EQYA
SEISMIC 14. DL + 0.3LL + EQYA + 0.3EQXA
SEISMIC 15. DL + 0.3LL + EQYA 0.3EQXA
SEISMIC 16. DL + 0.3LL - EQYA + 0.3EQXA
SEISMIC 17. DL + 0.3LL - EQYA 0.3EQXA

SEISMIC 18. DL + 0.3LL + EQXB + 0.3EQYB
SEISMIC 19. DL + 0.3LL + EQXB 0.3EQYB
SEISMIC 20. DL + 0.3LL - EQXB + 0.3EQYB
SEISMIC 21. DL + 0.3LL - EQXB 0.3EQYB
SEISMIC 22. DL + 0.3LL + EQYB + 0.3EQXB
SEISMIC 23. DL + 0.3LL + EQYB 0.3EQXB
SEISMIC 24. DL + 0.3LL - EQYB + 0.3EQXB
SEISMIC 25. DL + 0.3LL - EQYB 0.3EQXB


Serviceability limit state (SLS)

STATIC 1. DL + LL


















Page 61
7.0 Design preferences

ETABS: Options > Preferences > Steel frame design

Figure 7.1: Steel frame design preferences













2
3
4
1
5
6

Page 62
Table 7.1: Steel frame design parameters

Note 1: Reliability class

Class section classification according to EN1998-1-1,cl.6.5.3(2)

1. Depending on the ductility class and the behavior factor q used in the design, the
requirements regarding the cross-sectional classes of the steel elements which
dissipate energy are indicated in table below (EN1998-1-1,cl.6.5.3(2).

Ductility class Reference q factor Cross-Section Class
Lower
limit
q factor Upper
limit
DCM
1.5< q & 2 Class 1, 2 or 3
2.0< q & 4 Class 1 or 2
DCH 4.0< q Class 1

Note 2: Frame type
See section 2.0 of this manual

Note 3: Gamma factors
Partial factors Values Reference
Resistance of cross-sections whatever the
class
#
%0
=1.00 EN1993-1-1,cl.6.1(1)
Resistance of members to instability assessed
by member checks
#
%1
=1.00 EN1993-1-1,cl.6.1(1)
Resistance of cross-sections in tension to
fracture
#
%1
=1.25 EN1993-1-1,cl.6.1(1)

Note 4: Behavior factor
See section 2.0 of this manual

Note 5: System Omega
Omega Factor (System Overstrength Factor) axial load member: (! ! !
!"!!"
!!
!"
)
Omega factor may different for each diagonal member.

Page 63
1. Run the design analysis with the /=1
2. Find the N
pl,Rd
and N
Ed
of the bracing member and then overwrite the omega factor for
each diagonal member separately and then re-run the analysis.(/=1).
Note: Omega factor should be limited to the following for all diagonal members


Note 6: Vertical deflection limits
STEEL MEMBERS
(CYS NA EN1993-1-1,table NA.1)
Vertical deflection Limits
w
max

Cantilevers L/180

Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish L/360
Other beams (except purlin and sheeting
rails)
L/250
Purlins and sheeting rails To suit cladding
General use L/300
ETABS deflection limits
DL limit, L/ 360
Super DL+LL Limit, L/ 360
Live load Limit, L/ 360
Total Limit, L/ 360
Total Camper Limit, L/ 360











Check_16 if !
max
1.25!
min
" "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=

Page 64
8.0 Analysis and design requirements for Concentrically braced frames according to
EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.2

Analysis requirements according to EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.2


Beams & Columns

1. Under gravity load conditions, only beams and columns shall be considered to resist
such loads, without taking into account the bracing members (EN1998-1-
1,cl6.7.2(1)P).
Diagonal members

2. The diagonals shall be taken into account as follows in an elastic analysis of the
structure for the seismic action:

a) in frames with diagonal bracings, only the tension diagonals shall be taken into
account,
b) in frames with V bracings, both the tension and compression diagonals shall be
taken into account (EN1998-1-1,cl6.7.2(2).

3. Taking into account of both tension and compression diagonals in the analysis of any
type of concentric bracing is allowed provided that all of the following conditions are
satisfied:
a) a non-linear static (pushover) global analysis or non-linear time history analysis is
used,
b) both pre-buckling and post-buckling situations are taken into account in the
modeling of the behavior of diagonals and,

c) background information justifying the model used to represent the behavior of
diagonals is provided (EN1998-1-1,cl6.7.2(3).











Page 65
8.1 Steps of the design detail of Concentric steel frames

Table 8.1: Detail steel frame design

Design step
number
Description
Step 1 Design of slab under gravity loads (without CBF bracings) considering columns
as fixed supports
Step 2 Design columns under gravity loads (without CBF bracings)
Step 3 Design beams under gravity loads (without CBF bracings)

Step 4 Check concentric bracings under gravity loads combination
Step 5 Accidental torsional effects
Step 6 Second order effects (P-0) (P loads are those taken in the definition of the
seismic mass m)
Step 7 Check of beams and of concentric bracings under gravity loads combination
Step 8 Design of concentric bracing under seismic combination of loads with the
accidental torsional effects and P-0 effects taken into account
Step 9 Check of beams and columns under seismic combination of loads with bracings
overstrength factors / and with second order effects taken into account
Step 10 Re-run the analysis with the modified overstrength factors /
















Page 66
8.2 Classification of steel sections


Table 8.2: Section classification (EN1993-1-1,cl.5.5)
Classes Analysis type Description
Class 1 Plastic analysis Section can form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity
required from plastic analysis, without reduction of the resistance
Class 2 Plastic/ Elastic analysis Section can develop its plastic moment capacity, but has limited
rotation capacity.
Class 3 Elastic analysis Section in which the stress in the extreme compression fiber of the
section, assuming an elastic distribution of stresses, can reach the
yield strength, but local buckling is likely to prevent the
development of the plastic moment capacity.

Description of detail
requirements
Equations References
Reduction of yield and
ultimate strength of sections





EN10025-2
1 - Factor

EN1993-1-1,Table 5.2
Depth of a part of section for
internal compression
(I-sections)
EN1993-1-1,Table 5.2
Section classification for web
element

EN1993-1-1,Table 5.2
f
y.
f
y
t 16mm < if
f
y
10N mm
2 !
" ! 16mm t < 40mm < if
f
y
20N mm
2 !
" ! 40mm t < 80mm < if
:=
f
u.
f
u
t 16mm ! if
f
u
10N mm
2 "
# " 16mm t < 40mm ! if
f
u
20N mm
2 "
# " 40mm t < 80mm ! if
:=
!
235
f
y
:=
c
w
h 2 t
f
! " 2 r ! " :=
Class_type
web
"CLASS 1"
c
w
t
w
72 ! " # if
"CLASS 2" 84 ! "
c
w
t
w
< 83 ! " # if
"CLASS 3" 105 ! "
c
w
t
w
< 124 ! " # if
:=

Page 67
Depth of a part of section for
oustand flange
(I-sections)

EN1993-1-1,Table 5.2
Section classification for
flange element

EN1993-1-1,Table 5.2



























c
f
b t
w
! 2.r !
( )
2
:=
Class_type
flange
"CLASS 1"
c
f
t
f
9 ! " # if
"CLASS 2" 9 ! "
c
f
t
f
< 10 ! " # if
"CLASS 3" 10 ! "
c
f
t
f
< 14 ! " # if
:=

Page 68
8.3 Design of composite slab under gravity loads

Table 8.3: Detail design of composite slab (with steel sheeting)
Partial factor Value References
Partial factor of longitudinal shear in composite slabs !
vs
= 1.25 CYS EN1994-1-
1cl.2.4.1.2(6)P
Partial factor for shear connector !
v
= 1.25 CYS EN1994-1-
1cl.2.4.1.2(5)P
Partial factor for steel reinforcement !
s
= 1.15 CYS EN1992-1-1,table 2.1
Partial factor of concrete !
c
= 1.5 CYS EN1992-1-1,table 2.1
Partial factor of structural steel !
M0
= 1.0 CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1)

Description of detail requirements Equations References
Minimum nominal thickness of profile steel sheets t ! 0.70mm CYS EN1994-1-1,cl.3.5(2)
Minimum depth of slab h ! 90mm EN1994-1-1,cl.9.2.1(2)
Depth of concrete slab above steel sheeting h
c
! 50mm EN1994-1-1,cl.9.2.1(2)
Minimum steel reinforcement in both direction A
s.prov
!80mm
2
/m EN1994-1-1,cl.9.2.1(4)
Spacing of the reinforcement bars
s = min{2h,350mm}
EN1994-1-1,cl.9.2.1(5)
Maximum height of steel decking h
p
" 85mm EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.2(3)
Minimum width per ribs b
0
! h
p
EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.2(3)
Diameter of stud that welded in the sheeting d " 20mm EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.2(3)

Page 69
For holes provided in the sheeting, the diameter of the stud d " 22mm EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.2(3)
Maximum overall height of stud h
sc
" h
p
+75mm EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.1(2)

Design
stage
Description of checks Equations References
Resistance verifications of metal decking at the construction stage
Construction Stage
Moment resistance of steel sheeting
From manufacture data
-
Concrete compressive strength
f
cd
= f
ck
/ !
c

EN1994-1-1,cl.2.4.1.2(2)P
Design yield strength
f
yo,d
= f
yp
/ !
M0

-
Bending resistance of metal decking
M
Ed
/ M
Rd
<1.0
EN1993-1-3,cl.6.1.1
Shear resistance of metal decking
!
!!!"
!
!
!
!"#$
! !
!"
!
!!
EN1993-1-3,cl.6.1.5(1)
Deflection of metal decking
!
!"#
!
!"
!
!"#!"
(W in kN/m
2
) -
#
max
"

min {L

/ 180,20mm) EN1994-1-1,cl.9.6(2)
Resistance verifications of composite slab at the composite stage
Composite Stage
Area of concrete
A
c
= b h
c
(b=1m)
-
Compression design force of concrete
N
c
= 0.85 f
cd
A
c EN1994-1-1,cl.6.2.1.2
Tensile resistance of profiles steel sheeting
N
p
= f
yp,d
A
p EN1994-1-1,cl.6.2.1.2

Page 70
Location of neutral axis Neutral axis=if{N
p
< N
c
Lie above steel sheeting, Lie
below steel sheeting}
EN1994-1-1,9.7.2(5) & (6)
Depth of concrete in compression x
pl
= A
pe
f
yp,d
/ 0.85 b f
cd
EN1994-1-1,fig.9.6
Moment resistance (full shear connection) M
pl, Rd
= A
p
f
yd
(d
p
0.5 x
pl
) -
Bending resistance of slab
M
Ed
/ M
pl,Rd
<1.0
-
The design values of m and k Should be obtain from the manufacture -
Shear span (for UDL load) L
s
= L / 4 EN1994-1-1,cl.9.7.3(5)
Shear span (for UDL & point load) L
s
= 3L/8 EN1994-1-1,cl.9.7.3(5)
Shear resistance (in longitudinal direction) V
l,Rd
= bd
p
/$
vs
[(mA
p
/ bL
s
) + k]

EN1994-1-1,Eq. 9.7
Longitudinal shear resistance of slab V
Ed
/ V
l,Rd
-
Coefficient factor k k = 1+(200 / d
p
)
1/2
EN1992-1-1,cl.6.2.2(1)
Value of v
min
v
min
= 0.035k
3/2
f
ck
1/2
CYS EN1992-1-1,Eq.6.3
Design vertical shear resistance V
v,Rd
=

v
min
b
s
d
p
1
EN1992-1-1,Eq.6.2b
Vertical shear resistance check V
Ed
/ V
v,Rd
< 1.0 -
Serviceability limit state (SLS) - Deflection
Calculation of deflection (simply supported slab)
!
!"#
!
!"
!
!"#!"
(W in kN/m
2
) -
Deflection limits (imposed load) L / 350 (not greater than 20mm)
Deflection limits (total load) L / 250 (not greater than 30mm) EN1992-1-1,cl.7.4.1(4)
Serviceability limit state (SLS) - Cracking
Minimum amount of steel ratio (un-propped) A
s
= 0.2% A
c
EN1994-1-1,cl.9.8.1(2)
Minimum amount of steel ratio (propped) A
s
= 0.4% A
c
EN1994-1-1,cl.9.8.1(2)

Page 71
Serviceability limit state (SLS) Floor vibration
Floor vibration limits f = 18 / %#
a

SCI-P-076 : Design guide
on the vibration of floors
Note 1: Although in reality the slab is continuous, it is normally convenient to design it as simply supported. As a consequence of this, the beneficial effect of
compression from the hogging moment at the support is neglected, such that "
cp
= 0.


















Page 72
8.4 Design of composite beam (with steel sheeting) under gravity loads

Table 8.4: Detail design of composite beam

Minimum height of stud

EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.2(1)
Nominal diameter of stud


EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.2(1)
Ultimate strength of shear connector

EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.2(1)
Check the minimum spacing of studs

EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.5.5(3)
Preliminary depth of beams

EN1994-1-1,cl.6.4.3(1)
Ultimate limit state







Bending Resistance of the steel section (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5)
Moment resistance of steel
section Y-Y axis
M
c,Rd,y
=M
pl,Rd,y
= W
pl,y
f
y
/ $
M0
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(2)
Vertical Shear resistance of the steel section (cl.6.2.2) & (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6)
Factor for shear area & = 1.0 (conservative value)

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(3g)
Shear area
1
A
v
= A -2 b t
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r) t
f
! & h
w
t
w
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(3a)
Shear resistance of steel V
pl,Rd y
= A
v
(f
y
/ %3) / $
M0
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(2)
h
min
if h
sc
4d ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
d
lim
if 16mm d < 25mm < "OK" , "NOT OK" , ( ) :=
f
us
450N mm
2 !
" :=
s
lim
if s
prov
5 d ! " s
prov
6 h ! < # "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
h
max
600mm f
y
235N mm
2 !
" # if
550mm 235N mm
2 !
" f
y
< 275N mm
2 !
" # if
400mm 275 N " mm
2 !
" f
y
< 355N mm
2 !
" # if
270mm 355 N " mm
2 !
" f
y
< 460N mm
2 !
" # if
:=

Page 73







Construction
Stage
section Y-Y axis
Check if the verification of
shear buckling resistance
required or not

(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(6))
Bending and shear interaction check (cl.6.2.2.4)
Area of web A
w
= h
w
t
w
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5)
Coefficient of interaction v
y
=V
Ed
/ V
pl.Rd,y
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5)
Reduced yield strength ' = [(2V
Ed
/ V
pl.Rd,y
) 1]

2
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(3)
Reduced design plastic
resistance moment Y-Y axis

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5)
Lateral torsional buckling of the steel beam
It is assumed that the steel beam is laterally restrained by the steel sheeting during construction. In order to provide restraint, the sheeting is
fixed to the beam either by the action of through-deck welding or by short-fired pins





Effective width of composite beam (cl.5.4.1.2(5))
Effective width of composite
beam


(EN1994-1-1cl. 5.4.1.2(5))
Plastic resistance moment of composite section with full shear connection (cl.6.2)
h
w
t
w
72
!
"
# <
M
a.pl.Rd.
W
pl.y
! A
w
2
"
4t
w
#
$
%
%
&
'
(
(
)
f
y
"
*
M0
v
y
0.5 > if
M
a.pl.Rd
v
y
0.5 < if
:=
b
eff
b
o
2 min
L
1
2
L
2
2
+
L
e
8
,
!
"
#
$
%
&
!
"
#
$
%
&
+ :=

Page 74









Composite
Stage










Tensile resistance of steel
section

(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(2))
Compression resistance of
concrete slab


(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.2.1.2(1d)
Tensile resistance in web of
steel section

-
Location of neutral axis

(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.2.1.2(1))
Bending resistance with full
shear connection

(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.1.2)

Bending resistance
check checks
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(1))
Vertical Shear resistance of the composite steel section (cl.6.2.2) & (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6)
Design of shear
resistance check
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(1)P)
Check if the verification of
shear buckling resistance

(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(6))
N
pl.a
f
y
A !
"
M0
:=
N
c.f
0.85 f
cd
! b
eff
! h
c
! :=
N
pl.w
f
y
t
w
! h
a
2 t
f
! "
( )
! :=
Location_neutral
axis
"Lies in the concrete slab" N
c.f
N
pl.a
> if
"Lies in the top flange of the beam" N
c.f
N
pl.a
! if
"Lies in the web of the beam" N
c.f
N
pl.w
< if
:=
M
pl.Rd
N
pl.a
h
a
2
h +
N
pl.a
N
c.f
h
c
2
! "
#
$
%
&
'
(
! Location_neutral
axis
"Lies in the concrete slab" if
N
pl.a
h
a
2
! N
c.f
h
c
2
h
p
+
#
$
%
&
'
(
! + Location_neutral
axis
"Lies in the top flange of the beam" if
M
a.pl.Rd
N
c.f
h
c
h
a
+ 2h
p
+
2
#
$
%
&
'
(
! +
N
c.f
2
N
pl.w
h
a
4
! " Location_neutral
axis
"Lies in the top flange of the beam" if
:=
Check_7 if M
Ed
M
pl.Rd
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_8 if V
Ed
V
pl.Rd
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_9 if
h
w
t
w
72
!
"
# < "Not required shear buckling resistance" , "Required shear buckling resistance" ,
$
%
&
'
(
)
:=

Page 75










Composite
Stage








required or not
Design resistance of shear stud connector (cl.6.6.3.1(1))
Upper limit of reduction
factor k
t


(EN1994-1-1,Table:6.2)
Reduction factor k
t


Ribs transverse to the supporting beams
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.2)
Limitation of k
t


(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.2(2))
Reduction factor k
t


Ribs parallel to the supporting beams
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.1)
Minimum height of shear stud (EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.2(1))
Limitation of stud diameter

(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.2(1))
Factor #

(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.3.1(1))
k
t.max
0.85 n
r
1 1mm t
s
! " d 20mm < " if
1.0 n
r
1 1mm t
s
< " d 20mm < " if
0.75 n
r
1 1mm t
s
! " 19mm d # 22mm < " if
0.75 n
r
1 1mm t
s
< " 19mm d # 22mm < " if
0.70 n
r
2 1mm t
s
! " d 20mm < " if
0.80 n
r
2 1mm t
s
< " d 20mm < " if
0.60 n
r
2 1mm t
s
! " 19mm d # 22mm < " if
0.60 n
r
2 1mm t
s
< " 19mm d # 22mm < " if
:=
k
t
0.7
n
r
b
o
h
p
!
h
sc
h
p
1 "
#
$
%
&
'
(
! :=
Check_10 if k
t
k
t.max
< "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
k
t
0.6
b
o
h
p
!
h
sc
h
p
1 "
#
$
%
&
'
(
! 1.0 ) :=
h
min
if h
sc
4d ! "Ductile" , "Not Ductile" ,
( )
:=
d
lim
if 16mm d < 25mm < "Ductile" , "Not ductile" , ( ) :=
! 0.2
h
sc
d
1 +
"
#
$
%
&
'
( 3
h
sc
d
) 4 ) if
1
h
sc
d
4 > if
1 = :=

Page 76










Composite
Stage
Design shear resistance of a
headed stud


(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.3.1(1))
Degree of shear connection (cl.6.6.1.2(1))
Ratio of the degree shear
connection

(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.2.1.3(3))
Minimum degree of shear
connection for equal flange

(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.2(1))
Check the degree of shear
interaction within the limits
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.2(1))
Number of shear connector
required

-
Stud spacing

-
Check the minimum
spacing of studs
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.5.7(4))
Adequacy of the shear
connection


(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.3(3))
Design of transverse reinforcement (cl.6.6.6.2) & (EN1992-1-1,cl.6.2.4)
Length under consideration

-
P
Rd
k
t
min
0.8 f
us
! " !
d
2
4
!
#
v
0.29 $ ! d
2
! f
ck
E
cm
! !
#
v
,
%
&
&
&
'
(
)
)
)
*
! :=
!
N
c.f
N
pl.a
:=
!
min
1
355
f
y
N mm
2 "
#
$
%
%
%
&
'
(
(
(
)
0.75 0.03
L
e
m
# "
$
%
&
'
(
)
# " L
e
25m < if
1.0 L
e
25m > if
:=
Check_11 if ! !
min
> ! 0.4 " # "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
n
2 N
pl.a
!
P
Rd
:=
s
prov
L
e
N
stud
:=
s
lim
if s
prov
5 d ! " s
prov
6 h ! < # "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_12 if M
pl.Rd
2.5 M
a.pl.Rd
! < "Uniform spacing" , "Not uniform spacing" ,
( )
:=
!
x
L
e
2
:=

Page 77
Longitudinal shear stress (EN1992-1-1,cl.6.2.4(3))
Strength reduction factor
(EN1992-1-1,Eq.6.6N)
Area of transverse
reinforcement required

(EN1992-1-1,cl.6.2.4(4))
Check the crushing
compression in the flange
(EN1992-1-1cl.6.2.4(4))
Serviceability limit state
Vertical deflection
Construction
Stage
Maximum deflection at
construction stage

-
Vertical deflection limit

(CYS NA EN1993-1-1,table
NA.1)




Composite
Stage
Short term elastic modular
ration


(EN1994-1-1,cl.7.2.1)
Second moment of area of the
composite section

-
Deflection with full shear
connection

-
Vibration of floor (Simplified analysis) (EN1990 A1.4.4)
v
Ed
N
pl.a
2 h
c
! "
x
!
:=
v 0.6 1
f
ck
250 N ! mm
2 "
!
"
#
$
$
%
&
'
'
(
! :=
A
s.req
v
Ed
h
c
! s
f
!
f
yd
sin "
f
( )
cos "
f
( )
!
:=
Check_14 if v
Ed
v f
cd
! sin "
f
( )
! cos cos "
f
( ) ( )
! # "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
!
c
5 G
k.c
Q
k.c
+
( )
" L
e
4
"
384 E
s
" I
yy
"
:=
Check_15 if !
c
L
e
250
< "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
n
o
E
s
E
cm
:=
r
A
b
eff
h
c
!
:=
I
c
A h 2 h
p
! + h
c
+
( )
2
!
4 1 n
o
r ! +
( )
!
b
eff
h
c
3
!
12 n
o
!
+ I
yy
+ :=
!
com
5 G
k
Q
k
+
( )
" L
e
( )
4
"
384 E
s
" I
c
"
:=

Page 78
Total load on beam is

EN1990,A1.4.4
Increase the inertia, I
c
by 10% to allow for the
increased dynamic stiffness of the composite beam
-
Instantaneous deflection caused by re-application of
the self weigth of the floor and the beam to the
composite beam

-
Natural frequency

SCI P354
Check natural frequency limitation

-

















F
v
G
k
!
1
Q
k
" + :=
I
cl
I
y
I
y
0.1 !
( )
+ :=
!
"
5 F
v
L
e
#
( )
# L
e
3
#
384 E
s
# I
cl
#
:=
f
18 Hz !
"
#
mm
:=
Check_17 if f 4Hz < "OK" , "NOT OK" , ( ) :=

Page 79
8.5 Detail design of steel columns under gravity loads

Table 8.5: Detail design of composite beam
Partial factor Value References
Partial factor of cross-sections whatever the class
is
!
M0
= 1.0
CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1)
Partial factor of member to instability assessed by
member checks
!
M1
= 1.0
CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1)

Description of detail requirements Equations References
Design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section N
pl,Rd
= A f
y
/ $
M0
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(2)
Compression resistance of steel section N
c,Rd
=A f
y
/ $
M0
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.4(1)
Bending interaction check
Moment resistance of steel section Y-Y axis M
c,Rd,y
=M
pl,Rd,y
= W
pl,y
f
y
/ $
M0
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(2)
Moment resistance of steel section Z-Z axis M
c,Rd,z=
M
pl,Rd,z
= W
pl,z
f
y
/ $
M0
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(2)
Shear interaction check
Factor for shear area & = 1.0 (conservative value)

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(3g)
Shear area
1
A
v
= A -2 b t
f
+ (t
w
+ 2r) t
f
! & h
w
t
w
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(3a)
Shear resistance of steel section Y-Y axis V
pl,Rd y
= A
v
(f
y
/ %3) / $
M0
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(2)
Shear resistance of steel section Z-Z axis V
pl,Rd,z
= 2b t
f
(f
y
/ %3) / $
M0
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(2)
Bending and shear interaction check
Area of web A
w
= h
w
t
w
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5)

Page 80
Coefficient of interaction v
y
=V
Ed
/ V
pl.Rd,y
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5)
Reduced yield strength ' = [(2V
Ed
/ V
pl.Rd,y
) 1]

2
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(3)
Reduced design plastic resistance moment Y-Y axis

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5)
Coefficient of interaction v
z
=V
Ed
/ V
Rd,y
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5)
Reduced yield strength ' = [(2V
Ed
/ V
pl.Rd,z
) 1]

2
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(3)
Reduced design plastic resistance moment Z-Z axis

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5)
Check combination of axial and bending EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.1(7)
Bending and axial interaction check
Criteria 1 Y-Y axis c
1
=N
Ed
" N
pl,Rd
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(4)
Criteria 2 Y-Y axis c
2
=N
Ed
" (0.5 h
w
t
w
f
y
)/ $
M0
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(4)
Check criteria
c= max(c
y1
, c
y2
)

Factor a
a = min {(A-2 b t
f
) / A) ,0.5}
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(5)
Factor n
n = N
Ed
/ N
pl,Rd EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(5)
Factor $

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(6)
Reduced design value of the resistance to bending
M
N,y,Rd
= M
pl,y,Rd
(1-n)/(1-0,5a) if c>1.0
and
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(5)
M
c.Rd.y
W
pl.y
! A
w
2
"
4t
w
#
$
%
%
&
'
(
(
)
f
y
"
*
M0
v
y
0.5 > if
M
c.Rd.y
v
y
0.5 < if
:=
M
c.Rd.z
W
pl.z
! A
w
2
"
4t
w
#
$
%
%
&
'
(
(
)
f
y
"
*
M0
v
z
0.5 > if
M
c.Rd.z
v
z
0.5 < if
:=
Check_1 if
N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
M
Ed.y
M
c.Rd.y
+
M
Ed.z
M
c.Rd.z
+ 1.0 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
! 5n 5n 1 " if
1 otherwise
1 = :=

Page 81
moments making allowance for the presence of
axial forces (Y-Y axis)
M
N,y,Rd
= M
pl,y,Rd
if 0 " c " 1.0
Reduced design value of the resistance to bending
moments making allowance for the presence of
axial forces (Z-Z axis)
M
N,z,Rd =
M
pl,z,Rd
for n<a
and
M
N,z,Rd =
M
pl,z,Rd
[1-(n-a/1-a)
2
]

for n>a
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(5)
Check combination of bi-axial bending

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(6)
Buckling interaction check
Buckling length See: Figure 1: Effective length columns Design Guidance of EC3)
Elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the
gross cross sectional properties
!
!"!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!"!!
!
-
Non dimensional slenderness
!
!
!
!!
!
!
!"!!

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)
Buckling curve


EN1993-1-1,table 6.2
Imperfection factor a

EN1993-1-1,table 6.1
Check_1 if
M
Ed.y
M
N.y.Rd
!
"
#
$
%
&
a
M
Ed.z
M
N.z.Rd
!
"
#
$
%
&
'
+
(
)
)
*
+
,
,
-
1.0 . "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
(
)
)
*
+
,
,
-
:=
Buckling_class_Y
"a" t
f
40mm < if
"b" 40mm t
f
< 100mm < if
h
b
1.2 > if
"b" t
f
100mm ! if
"d" t
f
100mm > if
h
b
1.2 ! if
:=

Page 82

Value to determine the reduction factor % ( = 0.5 [1 + ) (* 0.2) + *
2
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)
Reduction factor %
! !
!
! ! !
!
! !
!
! !!!
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)
Design buckling resistance of a compression member
!
!!!"
!
!!!
!
!
!!
!

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.1(3)
Buckling length See: Figure 1: Effective length columns Design Guidance of EC3)
Elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the
gross cross sectional properties
!
!"!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!"!!
!
-
Non dimensional slenderness
!
!
!
!!
!
!
!"!!

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)
Buckling curve


EN1993-1-1,table 6.2
Imperfection factor a

EN1993-1-1,table 6.1
!
y
0.1 Buckling_class_Y "ao" if
0.21 Buckling_class_Y "a" if
0.34 Buckling_class_Y "b" if
0.49 Buckling_class_Y "c" if
0.76 Buckling_class_Y "d" if
:=
Buckling_class_Y
"a" t
f
40mm < if
"b" 40mm t
f
< 100mm < if
h
b
1.2 > if
"b" t
f
100mm ! if
"d" t
f
100mm > if
h
b
1.2 ! if
:=

Page 83

Value to determine the reduction factor % ( = 0.5 [1 + ) (* 0.2) + *
2
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)
Reduction factor %
! !
!
! ! !
!
! !
!
! ! ! !!!
EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)
Design buckling resistance of a compression member
!
!!!"!!
!
!!!
!
!
!!
!

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.1(3)
Non dimensional slenderness

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)
Check the bukling effects if can be ignored and only cross
section check is adequate

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(4)
Lateral torsional buckling interaction check
Elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling

NCCI: SN003a-EN-EU
Effective length factor (Pinned End) k = 1.0 NCCI: SN003a
Factor for end warping k
w
= 1.0 NCCI: SN003a
Coefficient factor C
1
(Load condition: UDL)



NCCI: SN003a
Coefficient factor C
2
C
2
= 1.554 NCCI: SN003a
Distance between the point of load application and the
shear centre (load applied on centre)
z
g
= 0m
NCCI: SN003a
!
z
0.1 Buckling_class_Z "ao" if
0.21 Buckling_class_Z "a" if
0.34 Buckling_class_Z "b" if
0.49 Buckling_class_Z "c" if
0.76 Buckling_class_Z "d" if
:=
! max !
y
!
z
,
( )
:=
Check if ! 0.2 < "Ignored buckling effects" , "Consider buckling effects" , ( ) :=
M
cr
C
1
!
2
E
s
" I
zz
"
k L
cr
"
( )
2
"
k
k
w
#
$
%
&
'
(
2
I
w
I
zz
"
k L
cr
"
( )
2
GI
t
"
!
2
E
s
I
zz
"
+ C
2
z
g
"
( )
2
+ " C
2
z
g
" ) :=
C
1
1.88 1.40! " 0.52!
2
+ :=
Check_5 if C
1
2.7 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=

Page 84
Lateral torsional buckling curves

EN1993-1-1,table 6.4
Imperfection factors for lateral torsional buckling curves

EN1993-1-1,table 6.3
Non dimensional slenderness for lateral torsional buckling

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1)
Value to determine the reduction factor %
LT

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1)
Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling

EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1)
Check if the lateral torsional buckling
can be ignored



EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(4)



Moments due to the shift of the centroidal axis for
class sections 1,2 & 3


EN1993-1-
1,cl.6.3.3(4)/table 6.7
Characteristic resistance to normal force of the
critical cross-section

EN1993-1-
1,cl.6.3.3(4)/table 6.7
Characteristic moment resistance of the critical
cross-section


E1993-1-1,cl.6.3.3(4)/table
6.7)
Buckling_curve_Z "a"
h
b
2 ! if
"b"
h
b
2 > if
:=
!
LT
0.21 Buckling_curve_Z "a" if
0.34 Buckling_curve_Z "b" if
0.49 Buckling_curve_Z "c" if
0.76 Buckling_curve_Z "d" if
:=
!
LT
W
pl.y
f
y
"
M
cr
:=
!
LT
0.5 1 "
LT
#
LT
0.2 $
( )
% + #
LT
2
+
&
'
(
)
% :=
!
LT
1
"
LT
"
LT
2
#
LT
2
$ +
:=
Check_6 if !
LT
!
LTO
< "Ignored torsional buckling effects" , "Consider torsional buckling effects" ,
( )
:=
Check_7 if
M
Ed.y
M
cr
!
LTO
2
< "Ignored torsional buckling effects" , "Consider torsional buckling effects" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
!M
Ed.z
0 :=
!M
Ed.y
0 :=
N
Rk
f
y
A ! :=
M
y.Rk
f
y
W
pl.y
! :=
M
z.Rk
f
y
W
pl.z
! :=

Page 85
Ratio of end moments



EN193-1-1,Table B2)
Equivalent uniform moment factor


EN1993-1-1,table B.1&B.2
Interaction factors










EN1993-1-1,table B.1&B.2
Combined bending and axial compression

EN1993-1-1,Eq.6.61
!
y
M
Ed.y1
M
Ed.y2
1 "
M
Ed.y1
M
Ed.y2
# 1 # if
M
Ed.y2
M
Ed.y1
1 "
M
Ed.y2
M
Ed.y1
# 1 # if
:=
!
z
M
Ed.z1
M
Ed.z2
1 "
M
Ed.z1
M
Ed.z2
# 1 # if
M
Ed.z2
M
Ed.z1
1 "
M
Ed.z2
M
Ed.z1
# 1 # if
:=
C
my
0.6 0.4 !
y
" + :=
C
mz
0.6 0.4 !
z
" + :=
k
yy
min C
my
1 !
y
0.2 "
( )
N
Ed
#
y
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
%
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
C
my
1 0.8
N
Ed
#
y
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
,
-
-
-
.
/
0
0
0
1
% ,
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
:=
k
zz
min C
mz
1 2!
z
0.6 "
( )
N
Ed
#
z
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
%
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
C
mz
1 1.4
N
Ed
#
z
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
,
-
-
-
.
/
0
0
0
1
% ,
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
:=
k
yz
0.6k
zz
:=
k
zy
0.6k
yy
:=
N
Ed
x
y
N
Rk
!
"
M1
k
yy
M
Ed.y
#M
Ed.y
+
$
LT
M
y.Rk
"
M1
!
! + k
yz
M
z.Ed
#M
Ed.z
+
M
z.Rk
"
M1
! +

Page 86
Combined bending and axial compression

EN1993-1-1,Eq.6.62
Note: This equations is applicable only for I and H sections with section class 1 and 2
Note 1: The shear area is for rolled I and H sections, load parallel to web





















N
Ed
!
z
N
Rk
"
#
M1
k
zy
M
Ed.y
$M
Ed.y
+
!
LT
M
y.Rk
#
M1
"
" + k
zz
M
Ed.z
$M
Ed.z
+
M
z.Rk
#
M1
" +

Page 87
8.6 Detail design rules of steel Concentric Braced Frames (CBF) according to Eurocode 8

8.6.1 Detail design rules of steel bracing according to Eurocode 8


Description Value References
Overstrength factor used in design !
ov
= 1.25 CYS EN1998-1-1cl.6.2(3)P
Non-dimensional slenderness (X bracing)

EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(1)
Non-dimensional slenderness (one diagonal) * " 2.0 EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(2)
Non-dimensional slenderness (V bracing) * " 2.0 EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(3)
Non-dimensional slenderness (V,X & one bracing)

EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(4)
Yield resistance check

EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(5)
Check & factor EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(8)
Check & factor

EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(8)
Ductility class require for seismic design


EN1998-1-1,cl.6.5.3(2)

Check_6 if 1.3 !
y
< 2 < "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_5 if N
s
3 ! "Consider limitation (As EC8)" , "Ignore limitation (As EC3)" ,
( )
:=
Check_15 if N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
!
.
N
pl.Rd
N
Ed
:=
Check_16 if !
max
1.25!
min
" "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Class_type_req "CLASS 1 , 2 or 3" 1.5 q < 2 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " if
"CLASS 1 or 2" 2 q < 4 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " if
"CLASS 1" q 4 > Ductility_class "DCH" " if
:=

Page 88
8.7 Detail design rules of steel columns and beams according to Eurocode 8

Description Value References
Overstrength factor used in design !
ov
= 1.25 CYS EN1998-1-1cl.6.2(3)P
Yield resistance check

EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(5)
Check & factor

EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(8)
Minimum resistance requirement, N
Ed


EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.4(1)
Ductility class require for seismic design


EN1998-1-1,cl.6.5.3(2)


Check_15 if N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
!
.
N
pl.Rd
N
Ed
:=
N
Ed.
N
Ed.G
1.1 !
ov
" # " N
Ed.E
" + :=
Class_type_req "CLASS 1 , 2 or 3" 1.5 q < 2 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " if
"CLASS 1 or 2" 2 q < 4 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " if
"CLASS 1" q 4 > Ductility_class "DCH" " if
:=

Page 89
8.8 Detail design rules of steel composite members according to Eurocode 8


Description Value References
Minimum concrete strength C20/25 C40/50 CYS EN1998-1-1cl.7.2.1(1)
Steel reinforcement class
B or C

EN1998-1-1,cl.7.2.2(2)
Minimum degree of connection
& " 0.8
EN1998-1-1,cl.7.6.2(3)
Reduction factor

k
t
= 0.75

EN1998-1-1,cl.7.6.2(4)
Profiled steel sheeting with ribs transverse to the
supporting beams is used, the reduction factor
k
t
= k
t
* k
r


EN1998-1-1,cl.7.6.2(6)
Yield strength of steel



EN1998-1-1,cl.7.6.2(8)
Ductility class require for seismic design


EN1998-1-1,cl.6.5.3(2)
f
y
"fy=355" 1.5 q < 4 ! Ductility_class "DCM" "
x
d
0.27 ! " if
"fy=235" 1.5 q < 4 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " 0.27
x
d
< 0.36 ! " if
"fy=355" q 4 > Ductility_class "DCH" "
x
d
0.20 ! " if
"fy=235" q 4 > Ductility_class "DCH" " 0.20
x
d
< 0.27 ! " if
:=
xx
Class_type_req "CLASS 1 , 2 or 3" 1.5 q < 2 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " if
"CLASS 1 or 2" 2 q < 4 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " if
"CLASS 1" q 4 > Ductility_class "DCH" " if
:=

Page 90
8.9 Detail design rules of steel moment resistance frames (MRF) according to Eurocode 8

8.9.1 Detail design rules for MRF - Design criteria


Description Value References
Below design criteria apply to (Bottom Top) Single/Multi-story buildings EN1998-1-1cl.6.6.1(1)
Moment capacity (where fixed support is provided) 'M
Rc
( 1.3M
Rb

EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.2.3(4)

8.9.2 Detail design rules of steel beam for MRF


Description Value References
Moment capacity verification
!
!"
!
!"!!"
! !!! EN1998-1-1,cl.6.6.2.(2)
Design shear force
V
Ed
= V
Ed.G
+ V
Ed.M


Where

V
Ed.M
= (M
pl.Rd.A
+ M
pl.Rd.B
)/L

EN1998-1-1,cl.6.6.2.(2)
Shear capacity verification
!
!"
!
!"!!"
! !!!

EN1998-1-1,cl.6.6.2.(2)
Axial capacity verification
!
!"
!
!"!!"
! !!!"

EN1998-1-1,cl.6.6.2.(2)

Page 91
8.9.3 Detail design rules of steel column for MRF


Description Value References
Overstrength factor used in design !
ov
= 1.25 CYS EN1998-1-1cl.6.2(3)P
Check & factor (derivate from all beam with
moment connection)
!
!"#
!
!
!"!!"
!
!"!!


M
Ed.E
: Lateral force

EN1998-1-1cl.6.6.3(1P)
Design axial compression force N
Ed
= N
Ed.G
+1.1$
vo
+ N
Ed.E
N
Ed.E
: Lateral force EN1998-1-1cl.6.6.3(1P)
Design bending moment M
Ed
= M
Ed.G
+1.1$
vo
+ M
Ed.E
M
Ed.E
: Lateral force EN1998-1-1cl.6.6.3(1P)
Design shear force V
Ed
= V
Ed.G
+1.1$
vo
+ V
Ed.
V
Ed.E
: Lateral force EN1998-1-1cl.6.6.3(1P)
Design shear force verification
!
!"
!
!"!!"
! !!!
EN1998-1-1cl.6.6.3(4)

Page 92
9.0 Design of steel frames

9.1 Design of steel member overwrites data


Figure 9.1: Steel design result of the member

Overwrites

Page 93

Figure 9.2: Steel frame design overwrites for Eurocode 3



























3
2
1
4
7
8
9
10
11
12
5
6

Page 94
Table 9.1: Steel frame design overwrites for Eurocode 3
Explanation of Steel frame design overwrites for Eurocode 3
Note No. Parameter Values
1
Effective length
factor

2 Moment coefficient




kyy





kzz

Page 95
3
Bending Coefficient
(C1)

4
Moment coefficient

5
Overstrength factor
used in design
1

6
Omega gamma
factor
!
ov
= 1.25
7
Compressive/Tensile
capacity
8
Major bending
capacity, Mc3Rd

9
Minor bending
capacity, Mc2Rd

10
Buckling resistance
moment

!
.
N
pl.Rd
N
Ed
:=

Page 96








11
Major shear
capacity, Vc3Rd

12
Minor shear
capacity, Vc2Rd

Notes:
1
" is not calculated automatically by the program. Rather, its value can be overwritten by the user through design Preference and Overwrites.

Page 97
9.2 Design of columns / beams using ETABS Gravity load analysis only

STEP 1: Analyze > Run Analysis

STEP 2: Design > Steel frame design > Select design combo

Note: Under gravity load conditions, only beams and columns shall be considered to resist
such loads, without taking into account the bracing members (EN1998-1-1,cl6.7.2(1)P).


Design combination at ULS

STATIC 1. 1.35DL + 1.5LL
STATIC 10. 1.00DL + 0.3LL

Figure 9.3: Gravity load combination at ULS



Design combination at SLS

DSTLD 1. DL + LL
DSTLD 2. DL









Page 98

Figure 9.4: Gravity load combination at SLS


Figure 9.5: Steel design under gravity load ONLY



Write click on each
member in order to check
it individually
Column name: C2
Storey level: Storey 1

Page 99



Figure 9.6: Steel design result of the member

Figure 9.7: Ultimate moment results under worst case combination

ETABS: Display > Show tables


Worst case combination

Page 100





Take the ultimate moment and shear force from the above table and place them into the Excel
spreadsheet or Mathcad file in order to verify the steel design results of ETABS.




Table 9.2: Summarize of design values required to carry out the design of steel member

Design value Symbol
Results
(kN)
Design axial force for gravity load combination (G+0.3Q) N
Ed.GV
344.75
Design moment at y-y at end 1 (seismic load combination) M
Ed.GV.y1
-1.293
Design moment at y-y at end 2 (seismic load combination) M
Ed.GV.y2
3.195
Design moment at z-z at end 1 (seismic load combination) M
Ed.GV.z1
-0.173
Design moment at z-z at end 2 (seismic load combination) M
Ed.GV.z2
-0.142
Shear forces at y-y at end (seismic load combination) V
Ed.GV.y
-0.01
Shear force at z-z at end 1 (seismic load combination) V
Ed.GV.z
-1.63
Press the button summary

Page 101
Design results of ETABS

ETABS/HAND
Description of
comparison
Results
ETABS
Equation 6.62 in EC3
0.160
HAND (see section 9.3) 0.135


Page 102

ETABS/HAND N.c.Rd N.t.Rd N.pl.Rd
ETABS 2675.75 2675.75 2675.75
HAND (see section 9.3) 2675.75 2675.75 2675.75

ETABS/HAND
Curve Alpha LambarBar Phi Chi Nb.Rd
y-y z-z y-y z-z y-y z-z y-y z-z y-y z-z y-y z-z
ETABS b c 0.340 0.490 0.268 0.454 0.548 0.66 0.976 0.868 2610 2322
HAND (see section 9.3) b b 0.340 0.340 0.248 0.42 0.539 0.625 0.983 0.918 2630 2534






Page 103

ETABS/HAND
M.c.Rd M.v.Rd
M.b.rd
y-y z-z y-y z-z
ETABS 305.8 142.45 305.8 142.45 302.05
HAND (see section 9.3) 305.8 142.45 305.8 142.45 305.80

ETABS/HAND Curve AlphaLT LambdaBarLT PhiLT ChiLT C1 Mcr
ETABS a 0.21 0.255 0.538 0.988 2.532 4694
HAND (see section 9.3) b 0.34 0.24 0.535 0.986 2.532 4679

ETABS/HAND kyy kyz kzy kzz
ETABS 0.442 0.582 0.964 0.970
HAND (see section 9.3) 0.441 0.576 0.265 0.96




Page 104

ETABS/HAND
V.c.Rd
V.pl.Rd !
y-y z-z
ETABS 504 1234 504 1.2
HAND (see section 9.3) 504 1156 504 1.0












Page 105
9.3 Design of steel column (Gravity design situation) Hand calculations


1. Rolled I - section
2. Limit to class 1 and 2 section
3. Column not susceptible to torsional deformations
Length of column

Total axial load on column, N
Ed


Shear force y-y axis

Shear force z-z axis

Design moment y-y axis

Design moment y-y axis

Maximum moment

Design moment z-z axis

Design moment z-z axis

Maximum moment

Section properties:

Depth of section,h:

Width of section,b:

Thickness of web, t
w
:

Thickness of flange, t
f
:

Thickness of element

Second moment of area z-z:

Second moment of area y-y:

Cross section area, A:
Radius of section:
Heigth of web, h
w


h
c
3m :=
N
Ed
344.798kN :=
V
Ed.y
0.011kN :=
V
Ed.z
1.626kN :=
M
Ed.y1
3.195kNm ! :=
M
Ed.y2
1.293 ! kNm " :=
M
Ed.y
max M
Ed.y1
M
Ed.y2
,
( )
3.195kNm ! ! = :=
M
Ed.z1
0.142 ! kNm " :=
M
Ed.z2
0.173 ! kNm " :=
M
Ed.z
max M
Ed.z1
M
Ed.z2
,
( )
0.142 ! kNm " " = :=
h 270mm :=
b 280mm :=
t
w
8mm :=
t
f
13mm :=
t max t
w
t
f
,
( )
13 mm ! = :=
I
zz
47630000mm
4
:=
I
yy
1.367 10
8
! mm
4
:=
A 9730mm
2
:=
r 24mm :=
h
w
h 2t
f
! 2r ! 196 mm " = :=

Page 106

Area of the web

Warping Constant, I
w
:

Torsional Constant, I
T
:

Plastic Modulus, W
ply


Plastic Modulus, W
plz


Elastic modulus, E:

Yield strength of steel , fy:

Ultimate strength, f
u
:

Shear modulus



Reduction of yield and ultimate
strength of sections EN10025-2


Partial safety factor
Resistance of cross-sections whatever the class
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1))

Resistance of members to instability
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1))

Resistance of cross-section in tension
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl.6.1(1))

Section classification

For section classification the coefficient ! is:
For a flange element:
A
w
h
w
t
w
! 1.568 10
3
" mm
2
! = :=
I
w
753.7 10
9
! mm
6
! :=
I
t
635000mm
4
:=
W
pl.y
1112000mm
3
:=
W
pl.z
518000mm
3
:=
E
s
210kNmm
2 !
" :=
f
y
275N mm
2 !
" :=
f
u
430N mm
2 !
" :=
G 81kNmm
2 !
" :=
f
y
f
y
t 16mm ! if
f
y
10N mm
2 "
# " 16mm t < 40mm ! if
f
y
20N mm
2 "
# " 40mm t < 80mm ! if
:=
f
y
275 N mm
2 !
" " =
f
u
f
u
t 16mm ! if
f
u
10N mm
2 "
# " 16mm t < 40mm ! if
f
u
20N mm
2 "
# " 40mm t < 80mm ! if
:=
f
u
430 N mm
2 !
" " =
!
M0
1 :=
!
M1
1 :=
!
M2
1.25 :=
!
235
f
y
N mm
2 "
#
0.924 = :=

Page 107



For a web element:






Tension resistance (cl.6.2.3)
Design plastic resistance of the cross section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(2)

Design ultimate resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(2b))

Design tension resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(2))

Check tension capacity


c
f
b t
w
! 2.r !
( )
2
112 mm " = :=
Class_type
flange
"CLASS 1"
c
f
t
f
9 ! " # if
"CLASS 2" 9 ! "
c
f
t
f
< 10 ! " # if
"CLASS 3" 10 ! "
c
f
t
f
< 14 ! " # if
:=
Class_type
flange
"CLASS 2" =
c
w
h 2 t
f
! " 2 r ! " 196 mm ! = :=
Class_type
web
"CLASS 1"
c
w
t
w
72 ! " # if
"CLASS 2" 84 ! "
c
w
t
w
< 83 ! " # if
"CLASS 3" 105 ! "
c
w
t
w
< 124 ! " # if
:=
Class_type
web
"CLASS 1" =
Class_type if Class_type
flange
Class_type
web
Class_type
flange
, "ADD MANUALY" ,
( )
:=
Class_type "ADD MANUALY" =
N
pl.Rd
A f
y
!
"
M0
2.676 10
3
# kN ! = :=
N
u.Rd
0.9A f
y
!
"
M2
1.927 10
3
# kN ! = :=
N
t.Rd
min N
u.Rd
N
pl.Rd
,
( )
1.927 10
3
! kN " = :=
Check1 if
N
Ed
N
t.Rd
1.0 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
Check1 "OK" =

Page 108

Compression resistance (cl.6.2.4)
Compression resistance of steel section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.4(1))

Check compression capacity
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.4(1)P)


Bending resistance (cl.6.2.5)
Moment resistance of steel section at Y-Y
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(2)

Moment resistance of steel section at Z-Z
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(2)

Shear resistance (cl.6.2.6)
Factor for shear area
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(g))

Shear area of steel section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(3))



Shear resistance of steel section Y-Y
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(2))

Shear area of steel section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(3))

Shear resistance of steel section Z-Z
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(2))

N
c.Rd
N
pl.Rd
2.676 10
3
! kN " = :=
Check2 if
N
Ed
N
c.Rd
1.0 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
Check2 "OK" =
M
c.Rd.y
W
pl.y
f
y
!
"
M0
305.8kNm ! ! = :=
M
c.Rd.z
W
pl.z
f
y
!
"
M0
142.45kNm ! ! = :=
! 1 :=
A
vy
A 2 b ! t
f
! " t
w
2r +
( )
t
f
! + :=
A
v
A
vy
A
vy
! t
w
" h
w
" > if
! t
w
" h
w
" A
vy
! t
w
" h
w
" < if
:=
A
v
3.178 10
3
! mm
2
" =
V
pl.Rd.y
A
v
f
y
3 ( )
1 !
"
#
M0
" 504.575kN " = :=
A
vz
2 b ! t
f
! 7.28 10
3
" mm
2
! = :=
V
pl.Rd.z
2 b ! t
f
!
f
y
3 ( )
1 "
!
#
M0
! 1.156 10
3
$ kN ! = :=

Page 109

Check if the verification of shear
buckling resistance required or not
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(6))


Bending and shear interaction check (cl.6.2.8)
Strong axis Y-Y
Interaction check 1

Reduced yield strength

Reduced design plastic resistance moment
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5))


Weak axis Z-Z

Interaction check 1

Reduced yield strength
Reduced design plastic resistance moment
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5))


Check if
h
w
t
w
72
!
"
# < "Not required shear buckling resistance" , "Required shear buckling resistance" ,
$
%
&
'
(
)
:=
Check "Not required shear buckling resistance" =
v
y
V
Ed.y
V
pl.Rd.y
2.18 10
5 !
" = :=
!
2V
Ed.y
V
pl.Rd.y
1 "
#
$
%
&
'
(
2
1 = :=
M
c.Rd.y
W
pl.y
! A
w
2
"
4t
w
#
$
%
%
&
'
(
(
)
f
y
"
*
M0
v
y
0.5 > if
M
c.Rd.y
v
y
0.5 < if
:=
M
c.Rd.y
305.8kNm ! ! =
v
z
V
Ed.z
V
pl.Rd.z
1.407 10
3 !
" = :=
!
2V
Ed.z
V
pl.Rd.z
1 "
#
$
%
&
'
(
2
0.994 = :=
M
c.Rd.z
W
pl.z
! A
w
2
"
4t
w
#
$
%
%
&
'
(
(
)
f
y
"
*
M0
v
z
0.5 > if
M
c.Rd.z
v
z
0.5 < if
:=
M
c.Rd.z
142.45kNm ! ! =

Page 110

Check combination of axial and bending
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.1(7))


Unity factor

Bending and axial force interaction check (cl.6.2.9)
Factor a

Factor n


Factor "
Coefficient 1

Coefficient 2

Coefficient check

Strong axis Y-Y

Reduced design value of the resistance to
bending moments making allowance for the
presence of axial forces
(EN1993-1-
1,cl.6.2.9.1(5))

Check_1 if
N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
M
Ed.y
M
c.Rd.y
+
M
Ed.z
M
c.Rd.z
+ 1.0 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
M
Ed.y
M
c.Rd.y
+
M
Ed.z
M
c.Rd.z
+ 0.138 =
Check_1 "OK" =
a min
A 2b t
f
! "
( )
A
0.5 ,
#
$
%
&
'
(
0.252 = :=
n
N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
0.129 = :=
! 5n 5n 1 " if
1 otherwise
1 = :=
c
1
N
Ed
0.25N
pl.Rd
0.515 = :=
c
2
N
Ed
0.5h
w
t
w
! f
y
!
1.599 = :=
c max c
1
c
2
,
( )
1.599 = :=
M
N.y.Rd
M
c.Rd.y
1 n ! ( ) "
1 0.5a !
c 1 > if
M
c.Rd.y
0 c # 1 # if
:=
M
N.y.Rd
304.764kNm ! ! =

Page 111

Weak axis Z-Z

Reduced design value of the resistance to
bending moments making allowance for the
presence of axial forces
(EN1993-1-
1,cl.6.2.9.1(5))

Check combination of bi-axial bending
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(6))


Unity factor

Bucking interaction check (cl.6.3)
Strong axis Y-Y
Status of effective length
Effective length factor
(Guidance of EC3)

Buckling length of column
(fixed end)

Euler Buckling at y-y axis
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)

M
N.z.Rd
M
c.Rd.z
n a ! if
M
c.Rd.z
1
n a "
1 a "
#
$
%
&
'
(
2
"
)
*
+
,
-
.
/ n a 0 if
:=
M
N.z.Rd
142.45kNm ! ! =
Check_1 if
M
Ed.y
M
N.y.Rd
!
"
#
$
%
&
a
M
Ed.z
M
N.z.Rd
!
"
#
$
%
&
'
+
(
)
)
*
+
,
,
-
1.0 . "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
(
)
)
*
+
,
,
-
:=
M
Ed.y
M
N.y.Rd
!
"
#
$
%
&
a
M
Ed.z
M
N.z.Rd
!
"
#
$
%
&
'
+ 0.316 =
Check_1 "OK" =
Effective_Length " Pinned Fixed" :=
k 0.7 Effective_Length "Fixed Fixed" if
0.85 Effective_Length "Partial restraint" if
0.85 Effective_Length " Pinned Fixed" if
1 Effective_Length "Pinned Pinned" if
0.85 = :=
L
cr
k h
c
2.55m = :=
N
cry
E
s
I
yy
! "
2
!
L
cr
2
4.357 10
4
# kN ! = :=

Page 112

Slenderness parameter at y-y axis
(for class 1,2 and 3 cross-section)
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)

Buckling curve
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.2)



Imperfection factor
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.1)

Value to determine the reduction factor #
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1))

Reduction factor #
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1))

Reduction factor # check


Design buklcing resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.1(3))

Buckling resistance of compression member
check (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.1(1))


!
y
A f
y
"
N
cry
0.248 = :=
Buckling_class_Y
"a" t
f
40mm < if
"b" 40mm t
f
< 100mm < if
h
b
1.2 > if
"b" t
f
100mm ! if
"d" t
f
100mm > if
h
b
1.2 ! if
:=
Buckling_class_Y "b" =
!
y
0.1 Buckling_class_Y "ao" if
0.21 Buckling_class_Y "a" if
0.34 Buckling_class_Y "b" if
0.49 Buckling_class_Y "c" if
0.76 Buckling_class_Y "d" if
:=
!
y
0.34 :=
!
y
0.5 1 "
y
#
y
0.2 $
( )
% + #
y
2
+
&
'
(
)
% 0.539 = :=
!
y
1
"
y
"
y
2
#
y
2
$ +
0.983 = :=
Check1 if !
y
1.0 " "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check1 "OK" =
N
b.Rd.y
!
y
A " f
y
"
#
M1
2.63 10
3
$ kN " = :=
Check2 if
N
Ed
N
b.Rd.y
"OK" , "NOT OK" ,
!
"
#
$
%
&
:=
Check2 "OK" =

Page 113

Weak axis Z-Z
Buckling length of column
(fixed end)

Euler Buckling at y-y axis
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)

Slenderness parameter at y-y axis
(for class 1,2 and 3 cross-section)
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)

Check if the buckling may be ignored
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(4))
Slenderness parameter

MinimumEuler Buckling



Buckling curve
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.2)


Imperfection factor
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.1)


L
cr
k h
c
! 2.55m = :=
N
crz
E
s
I
zz
! "
2
!
L
cr
2
1.518 10
4
# kN ! = :=
!
z
A f
y
"
N
crz
0.42 = :=
! max !
y
!
z
,
( )
:=
N
cr
min N
cry
N
crz
,
( )
:=
Check_2 if ! 0.2 <
N
Ed
N
cr
0.04 < " "Ignored buckling effects" , "Consider buckling effects" ,
#
$
%
&
'
(
:=
Check_2 "Consider buckling effects" =
Buckling_class_Z
"a" t
f
40mm < if
"b" 40mm t
f
< 100mm < if
h
b
1.2 > if
"b" t
f
100mm ! if
"d" t
f
100mm > if
h
b
1.2 ! if
:=
Buckling_class_Z "b" =
!
z
0.1 Buckling_class_Z "ao" if
0.21 Buckling_class_Z "a" if
0.34 Buckling_class_Z "b" if
0.49 Buckling_class_Z "c" if
0.76 Buckling_class_Z "d" if
:=
!
z
0.34 :=

Page 114

Value to determine the reduction factor #
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1))

Reduction factor #
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1))

Reduction factor # check


Design buklcing resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.1(3))

Buckling resistance of compression member
check (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.1(1))


Lateral torsional buckling check (cl.6.3.2)
Effective length factor, k
(SN003a-EN-EU)

Factor for end warping, k
w

(SN003a-EN-EU)


Ratio of the smaller and larger moment
Coefficient factor C
1

(SN003a-EN-EU)

Coefficient factor C
1
check
(SN003a-EN-EU)


Coefficient factor C
2

(SN003a-EN-EU)

Distance between the point of load
application and the shear centre

!
z
0.5 1 "
z
#
z
0.2 $
( )
% + #
z
2
+
&
'
(
)
% 0.625 = :=
!
z
1
"
z
"
z
2
#
z
2
$ +
0.918 = :=
Check_3 if !
z
1.0 " "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_3 "OK" =
N
b.Rd.z
!
z
A " f
y
"
#
M1
2.457 10
3
$ kN " = :=
Check_4 if
N
Ed
N
b.Rd.z
"OK" , "NOT OK" ,
!
"
#
$
%
&
:=
Check_4 "OK" =
k 0.85 =
k
w
1.0 :=
!
M
Ed.y2
M
Ed.y1
0.405 " = :=
C
1
1.88 1.40! " 0.52!
2
+ 2.532 = :=
Check_5 if C
1
2.7 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_5 "OK" =
C
2
1.554 :=
z
g
0m :=

Page 115

Elastic critical moment for lateral
torsional buckling (SN003a-EN-EU)

Lateral torsional buckling curve
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.4)


Imperfection factor for lateral torsional
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.3)


Non dimensional slenderness
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1))

Value to determine the reduction
factor (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1))

Reduction factor for lateral-torsional
buckling
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1))



Parameter $
LTO

(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.3(1))

Design buckling resistance moment
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.1(3))


M
cr
C
1
!
2
E
s
" I
zz
"
L
cr
( )
2
"
k
k
w
#
$
%
&
'
(
2
I
w
I
zz
"
L
cr
( )
2
GI
t
"
!
2
E
s
I
zz
"
+ C
2
z
g
"
( )
2
+ " C
2
z
g
" ) 4.679 10
3
* kNm " " = :=
Buckling_curve_Z "b"
h
b
2 ! if
"c"
h
b
2 > if
:=
Buckling_curve_Z "b" =
!
LT
0.21 Buckling_curve_Z "a" if
0.34 Buckling_curve_Z "b" if
0.49 Buckling_curve_Z "c" if
0.76 Buckling_curve_Z "d" if
:=
!
LT
0.34 =
!
LT
W
pl.y
f
y
"
M
cr
0.256 = :=
!
LT
0.5 1 "
LT
#
LT
0.2 $
( )
% + #
LT
2
+
&
'
(
)
% 0.542 = :=
!
LT
1
"
LT
"
LT
2
#
LT
2
$ +
0.98 = :=
Check_6 if !
LT
1 " !
LT
1
#
LT
2
" $ "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
%
&
&
'
(
)
)
*
:=
Check_6 "OK" =
!
LTO
0.4 :=
M
b.Rd
!
LT
W
pl.y
"
f
y
#
M1
" 299.741kNm " " = :=
Check_7 if
M
Ed.y
M
b.Rd
1 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=

Page 116

Check if the lateral torsional buckling
be ignored
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(4))



Combine bending and axial compression cl.6.3.3
Moments due to the shift of the centroidal axis
for class sections 1,2 & 3
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.3(4)/table 6.7)


Characteristic resistance to normal force
of the critical cross-section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.3(4)/table 6.7)

Characteristic moment resistance
of the critical cross-section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.3(4)/table 6.7)



Ratio of end moments
(EN1993-1-1,Table B2)

Equivalent uniform moment factor

Equivalent uniform moment factor

Check_7 "OK" =
Check_8 if !
LT
!
LTO
<
M
Ed.y
M
cr
!
LTO
2
< " "Ignored torsional buckling effects" , "Consider torsional buckling effects" ,
#
$
%
&
'
(
:=
Check_8 "Ignored torsional buckling effects" =
!M
Ed.z
0 :=
!M
Ed.y
0 :=
N
Rk
f
y
A ! 2.676 10
3
" kN ! = :=
M
y.Rk
M
c.Rd.y
305.8kNm ! ! = :=
M
z.Rk
M
c.Rd.z
142.45kNm ! ! = :=
!
y
M
Ed.y1
M
Ed.y2
1 "
M
Ed.y1
M
Ed.y2
# 1 # if
M
Ed.y2
M
Ed.y1
1 "
M
Ed.y2
M
Ed.y1
# 1 # if
:=
!
z
M
Ed.z1
M
Ed.z2
1 "
M
Ed.z1
M
Ed.z2
# 1 # if
M
Ed.z2
M
Ed.z1
1 "
M
Ed.z2
M
Ed.z1
# 1 # if
:=
C
my
0.6 0.4 !
y
" + 0.438 = :=
C
mz
0.6 0.4 !
z
" + 0.928 = :=

Page 117






















Interaction factors
(EN1993-1-1,table
B.1&B.2)



EN1993-1-1,Equation 6.61


Unity factor

EN1993-1-1,Equation 6.62


Unity factor

k
yy
min C
my
1 !
y
0.2 "
( )
N
Ed
#
y
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
%
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
C
my
1 0.8
N
Ed
#
y
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
,
-
-
-
.
/
0
0
0
1
% ,
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
0.441 = :=
k
zz
min C
mz
1 2!
z
0.6 "
( )
N
Ed
#
z
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
%
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
C
mz
1 1.4
N
Ed
#
z
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
,
-
-
-
.
/
0
0
0
1
% ,
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
0.96 = :=
k
yz
0.6k
zz
0.576 = :=
k
zy
0.6k
yy
0.265 = :=
Check_9 if
N
Ed
!
y
N
Rk
"
#
M1
k
yy
M
Ed.y
$M
Ed.y
+
!
LT
M
y.Rk
#
M1
"
" + k
yz
M
Ed.z
$M
Ed.z
+
M
z.Rk
#
M1
" + 1.0 % "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
:=
N
Ed
!
y
N
Rk
"
#
M1
k
yy
M
Ed.y
$M
Ed.y
+
!
LT
M
y.Rk
#
M1
"
" + k
yz
M
Ed.z
$M
Ed.z
+
M
z.Rk
#
M1
" + 0.135 =
Check_9 "OK" =
Check_10 if
N
Ed
!
z
N
Rk
"
#
M1
k
zy
M
Ed.y
$M
Ed.y
+
!
LT
M
y.Rk
#
M1
"
" + k
zz
M
Ed.z
$M
Ed.z
+
M
z.Rk
#
M1
" + 1.0 % "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
:=
N
Ed
!
z
N
Rk
"
#
M1
k
zy
M
Ed.y
$M
Ed.y
+
!
LT
M
y.Rk
#
M1
"
" + k
zz
M
Ed.z
$M
Ed.z
+
M
z.Rk
#
M1
" + 0.142 =
Check_10 "OK" =

Page 118
9.4 Design of steel column (Seismic design situationn)














Column name: C2
Storey level: Storey 1

Page 119

Step 1: Option > Preferences > Steel frame design



Step 2: Design > Steel frame design > Select design combo



Figure 9.7: Lateral/gravity load combination at ULS

Modify the existing System
Omega. The omega factor is equal
to the minimum section overstrength
factor of concentric bracing. See
below:

Note: the minimum value of % is
calculate over all the diagonals of the
braced frame system

Page 120


Figure 9.8: Gravity load combination at SLS



Ultimate limit state (ULS)

Static load combination
STATIC 1. 1.35DL + 1.5LL
STATIC 2. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 0.75WINDX
STATIC 3. 1.35DL + 1.5LL - 0.75WINDX
STATIC 4. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 0.75WINDY
STATIC 5. 1.35DL + 1.5LL - 0.75WINDY
STATIC 6. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 1.05LL
STATIC 7. 1.35DL - 1.5WINDX 1.05LL
STATIC 8. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 1.05LL

Page 121
STATIC 9. 1.35DL - 1.5WINDY 1.05LL
STATIC 10. DL + 0.3LL

Seismic load combination for Modal Analysis
SEISMIC 1. DL + 0.3LL + EQX + 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 2. DL + 0.3LL + EQX 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 3. DL + 0.3LL - EQX + 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 4. DL + 0.3LL - EQX 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 5. DL + 0.3LL + EQY + 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 6. DL + 0.3LL + EQY 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 7. DL + 0.3LL - EQY + 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 8. DL + 0.3LL - EQY 0.3EQX


Serviceability limit state (SLS)

DSTLD 1. DL + LL
DSTLD 2. LL

ETABS: Display > Show Tables


Table 9.3a: Analysis results of gravity load combination (STATIC 10: G + 0.3Q)
SLory Column Load Loc v2 v3 1 M2 M3
S1C8?1 C2 S1A1lC10 0 -243.17 -0.28 -0.27 0 -0.43 0.001
S1C8?1 C2 S1A1lC10 1.38 -244.13 -0.28 -0.27 0 -0.033 0.389
Select all
combinations

Page 122
S1C8?1 C2 S1A1lC10 2.76 -243.1 -0.28 -0.27 0 0.321 0.776
noLe: = n
Ld.C


Table 9.3b: Analysis results of seismic action (MODAL EQX / EQY)
SLory Column Load Loc v2 v3 1 M2 M3
S1C8?1 C2 LCx 0 38.99 29.66 0.49 -0.001 0.884 38.02
S1C8?1 C2 LCx 1.38 38.99 29.66 0.49 -0.001 0.202 17.094
S1C8?1 C2 LCx 2.76 38.99 29.66 0.49 -0.001 -0.48 -23.833
S1C8?1 C2 LCx 0 33.61 26.3 1.13 0.001 1.917 31.189
S1C8?1 C2 LCx 1.38 33.61 26.3 1.13 0.001 0.332 14.928
S1C8?1 C2 LCx 2.76 33.61 26.3 1.13 0.001 1.236 21.431
S1C8?1 C2 LC? 0 3.33 2.72 8.97 0.003 14.692 3.227
S1C8?1 C2 LC? 1.38 3.33 2.72 8.97 0.003 2.313 1.468
S1C8?1 C2 LC? 2.76 3.33 2.72 8.97 0.003 10.076 2.297
S1C8?1 C2 LC? 0 2.6 1.89 10.93 0.002 17.899 3.709
S1C8?1 C2 LC? 1.38 2.6 1.89 10.93 0.002 2.813 1.097
S1C8?1 C2 LC? 2.76 2.6 1.89 10.93 0.002 -12.273 -1.316
noLe: = n
Ld.L


Results of Seismic load combination (SEISMIC 1-8)



Select all the seismic load
combinations

Sort out the highest values
of P, V and M

Page 123
Table 9.4: Analysis result of design values of V and M based on worst case seismic design
combination
SLory Column Load Loc v2 v3 1 M2 M3
S1C8?1 C2 SLlSMlC1 Mln 0 -279.84 -27.4 -4.11 -0.002 -6.733 -32.736
S1C8?1 C2 SLlSMlC1 Mln 1.38 -278.8 -27.4 -4.11 -0.002 -1.081 -14.979
S1C8?1 C2 SLlSMlC1 Mln 2.76 -277.77 -27.4 -4.11 -0.002 -3.938 -21.344






Table 9.5: Summarize of design values required to carry out the design of steel member

Design value Symbol
Results
(kN/kNm)
Design axial force for gravity load combination (G+0.3Q) N
Ed.G
245
Design axial force for the design seismic action alone N
Ed.E
39
Design moment at y-y at end 1 (seismic load combination) M
Ed.SC.y1
52.8
Design moment at y-y at end 2 (seismic load combination) M
Ed.SC.y2
21.3
Design moment at z-z at end 1 (seismic load combination) M
Ed.SC.z1
6.8
Design moment at z-z at end 2 (seismic load combination) M
Ed.SC.z2
4.0
Shear forces at y-y at end (seismic load combination) V
Ed.SC.y
27.4
Shear force at z-z at end 1 (seismic load combination) V
Ed.SC.z
4.1











Page 124
9.4.1 Design of steel column (Seismic design situation Hand calculation)


Detail design of steel column using Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 8
1. Rolled I - section
2. Limit to class 1 and 2 section
3. Column not susceptible to torsional deformations
Design data
Length of column

Overstrength factor
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.1.3(2))

Omega factor of bracing members
at storey 1


Behavior factor q
Ductlity class
Total axial force due to the non-seismic actions
(G+&
Ei
Q)

Total axial force due to the non-seismic actions
(seismic)

Design shear force due to
Eurocode requirement
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.4(1))

Design shear force due to
Eurocode requirement
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.4(1))

Design moment y-y axis
(seismic combination)

Design moment y-y axis
(seismic combination)

Design moment y-y axis
(seismic combination)

Design moment y-y axis
(seismic combination)

Maximum moment

Maximum moment
h
c
3m :=
!
ov
1.25 :=
! 2.5 :=
q 4 :=
Ductility_class "DCM" :=
N
Ed.G
245.17kN :=
N
Ed.E
39kN :=
V
Ed.y
4.11kN :=
V
Ed.z
27.4kN :=
M
Ed.y1
52.76kNm ! :=
M
Ed.y2
21.34kNm ! :=
M
Ed.z1
6.75kNm ! :=
M
Ed.z2
3.96kNm ! :=
M
Ed.y
max M
Ed.y1
M
Ed.y2
,
( )
52.76kNm ! ! = :=
M
Ed.z
max M
Ed.z1
M
Ed.z2
,
( )
6.75 kNm ! ! = :=

Page 125

Design shear force due to
Eurocode requirement
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.4(1))

Section properties:

Depth of section,h:

Width of section,b:

Thickness of web, t
w
:

Thickness of flange, t
f
:

Thickness of element

Second moment of area z-z:

Second moment of area y-y:

Cross section area, A:
Radius of section,r:
Heigth of web, h
w


Area of the web

Warping Constant, I
w
:

Torsional Constant, I
T
:

Plastic Modulus, W
ply


Plastic Modulus, W
plz


Elastic modulus, E:

Yield strength of steel , fy:

Ultimate strength, f
u
:

Shear modulus

N
Ed
N
Ed.G
1.1 !
ov
" # " N
Ed.E
" + 379.233kN " = :=
h 270mm :=
b 280mm :=
t
w
8mm :=
t
f
13mm :=
t max t
w
t
f
,
( )
13 mm ! = :=
I
zz
47630000mm
4
:=
I
yy
1.367 10
8
! mm
4
:=
A 9730mm
2
:=
r 24mm :=
h
w
h 2t
f
! 2r ! 196 mm " = :=
A
w
h
w
t
w
! 1.568 10
3
" mm
2
! = :=
I
w
753.7 10
9
! mm
6
! :=
I
t
635000mm
4
:=
W
pl.y
1112000mm
3
:=
W
pl.z
518000mm
3
:=
E
s
210kNmm
2 !
" :=
f
y
275N mm
2 !
" :=
f
u
430N mm
2 !
" :=
G 81kNmm
2 !
" :=

Page 126



Reduction of yield and ultimate
strenght of sections EN10025-2


Partial safety factor
Resistance of cross-sections whatever the class
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1))

Resistance of members to instability
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1))

Resistance of cross-section in tension
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl.6.1(1))

Section classification

For section classification the coefficient ! is:
For a flange element:



f
y
f
y
t 16mm ! if
f
y
10N mm
2 "
# " 16mm t < 40mm ! if
f
y
20N mm
2 "
# " 40mm t < 80mm ! if
:=
f
y
275 N mm
2 !
" " =
f
u
f
u
t 16mm ! if
f
u
10N mm
2 "
# " 16mm t < 40mm ! if
f
u
20N mm
2 "
# " 40mm t < 80mm ! if
:=
f
u
430 N mm
2 !
" " =
!
M0
1 :=
!
M1
1 :=
!
M2
1.25 :=
!
235
f
y
N mm
2 "
#
0.924 = :=
c
f
b t
w
! 2.r !
( )
2
112 mm " = :=
Class_type
flange
"CLASS 1"
c
f
t
f
9 ! " # if
"CLASS 2" 9 ! "
c
f
t
f
< 10 ! " # if
"CLASS 3" 10 ! "
c
f
t
f
< 14 ! " # if
:=
Class_type
flange
"CLASS 2" =

Page 127






















Note: The column now has to be check using the resistance verification checks of Eurocode
3 as shown in section 9.3 of this document.

For a web element:





Requirements on cross-sectional class of dissipative elements depending on
Ductility class (EN1998-1-1,cl.6.5.3(2))
Section classification rule for EC8
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.5.3(2))


c
w
h 2 t
f
! " 2 r ! " 196 mm ! = :=
Class_type
web
"CLASS 1"
c
w
t
w
72 ! " # if
"CLASS 2" 84 ! "
c
w
t
w
< 83 ! " # if
"CLASS 3" 105 ! "
c
w
t
w
< 124 ! " # if
:=
Class_type
web
"CLASS 1" =
Class_type if Class_type
flange
Class_type
web
Class_type
flange
, "ADD MANUALY" ,
( )
:=
Class_type "ADD MANUALY" =
Class_type_req "CLASS 1 , 2 or 3" 1.5 q < 2 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " if
"CLASS 1 or 2" 2 q < 4 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " if
"CLASS 1" q 4 > Ductility_class "DCH" " if
:=
Class_type_req "CLASS 1 or 2" =

Page 128
9.5 Design of composite beams - Hand calculations

ETABS: Define > Wall/Slab/Deck sections

Figure 9.9: Define deck section Comflor60 -Corus

Figure 9.10: Modified Stiffness Modifiers (crack-sections)


Page 129

ETABS: Analyze > Run analysis
ETABS: Display > Show Tables >




















Select all
combinations

Page 130




Assumptions - Design and analysis
This design process is envisaging a analyzed to determine the forces and moments in the
individual structural members.

Simple design approach:

This method applies to structures in which the connections between members will not
develop any significant restraint moments. Members forces and moments are calculated
on the basic of the following assumptions:

1. Simply supported beam.
2. The steel sheeting with ribs is placed transverse to the beam.
3. Limited only to I abd H rolled sections with equal flanges
4. Ignored any contribution of steel sheeting to the transverse reinforcements
Length of beam

Spacing of the secondary beams (LHS)

Spacing of the secondary beams (RHS)

Loading length

Slab design data
Comfloor 60

Overall depth of slab
Steel sheeting deck profile
(Comflor 60)

Depth of concrete slab above steel sheeting

Rib width at top

Rib width at bottom

L
e
5m :=
L
1
5m :=
L
2
5m :=
L
L
1
2
L
2
2
+ 5m = :=
h 150mm :=
h
p
60mm :=
h
c
h h
p
! 90 mm " = :=
b
1
131mm :=
b
2
180mm :=

Page 131

Distance between shear connector
(Assume single shear connector)

Space of each troughs
Thickness of steel sheeting

Structural steel properties
Depth of section, h:

Width of section,b:
Thickness of web, t
w
:

Thickness of flange, t
f
:

Thickness of element

Radius of section,r:
Heigth of web, h
w


Area of the web

Radious of gyration

Second moment of area z-z:

Second moment of area y-y:

Cross section area, A:

Torsional Constant, I
T
:

Warping Constant, I
w
:

Plastic Modulus, W
ply


Plastic Modulus, W
plz


Yield strength

Ultimate strength

Modulus of Elasticity

Shear modulus

b
o
b
1
b
2
+
2
155.5mm ! = :=
e 300mm :=
t
s
1mm :=
h
a
240mm :=
b 120mm :=
t
w
6.2mm :=
t
f
9.8mm :=
t max t
w
t
f
,
( )
9.8 mm ! = :=
r 15mm :=
h
w
h
a
2t
f
! 2r ! 190.4mm " = :=
A
w
h
w
t
w
! 1.18 10
3
" mm
2
! = :=
i
z
26.9507mm :=
I
zz
2840000mm
4
:=
I
yy
38920000mm
4
:=
A 3910mm
2
:=
I
t
130000mm
4
:=
I
w
753.7 10
9
! mm
6
! :=
W
pl.y
367000mm
3
:=
W
pl.z
73900mm
3
:=
f
y
275N mm
2 !
" :=
f
u
430N mm
2 !
" :=
E
s
210kNmm
2 !
" :=
G 81kNmm
2 !
" :=

Page 132

Concrete properties
Yield strength of reinforcement

Cylinder strength

Modulus of Elasticity

Shear connector properties
Diameter

Overall height before welding
Ultimate strength of shear connector

Number of stud per in one rib

Material partial factors for resistance
Resistance of cross-sections whatever the class
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1))

Resistance of members to instability
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1))

Partial factor for concrete
(EN 1992 1-1 Table 2.1N)

Partial factor for reinforcing steel
(EN 1992 1-1 Table 2.1N)

Partial factor for design shear
resistance of a headed stud
(CYS EN1994-1-1,cl.2.4.1.2(5)P)

Partial factor for design shear
resistance of a composite slab
(CYS EN1994-1-1,cl.2.4.1.2(6)P)

Partial factor for permanent action

Partial factor for variable action

Design value of the cylinder
compressive strength of concrete
(EN1992-1-1,cl.

f
yk
500N mm
2 !
" :=
f
ck
25N mm
2 !
" :=
E
cm
31kN mm
2 !
" :=
d 19mm :=
h
sc
95mm :=
f
us
450N mm
2 !
" :=
n
r
1 :=
!
M0
1.0 :=
!
M1
1.0 :=
!
c
1.5 :=
!
s
1.15 :=
!
v
1.25 :=
!
vs
1.25 :=
!
G
1.35 :=
!
Q
1.5 :=
f
cd
f
ck
!
c
16.667N mm
2 "
# # = :=

Page 133

Design value of the yield strength
of structural steel

Loading at construction stage
Dead load
Weight of steel deck (Comfloor 60)

Weight of wet concrete

Weight of steel beam (IPE240)

Live load
Construction live load

Total load at construction stage

Moment at construction stage

Shear force at construction stage

Design moments and shear forces
Shear force at composite stage

Design moment at composite stage

Shear force at composite stage

Design moment at composite stage

f
yd
f
yk
!
s
434.783N mm
2 "
# # = :=
g
k.deck
0.114kN m
2 !
" :=
g
k.c.wet
2.79kNm
2 !
" :=
g
k.b
0.8kNm
1 !
" :=
q
k
0.75kNm
2 !
" :=
F
Ed
!
G
g
k.deck
L " g
k.c.wet
L " + g
k.b
+
( )
" !
Q
q
k
" L " + 26.307kNm
1 #
" " = :=
M
Ed.c
F
Ed
L
2
!
8
82.209kNm ! ! = :=
V
Ed.c
F
Ed
L !
2
65.767kN ! = :=
V
Ed.c
65.767kN ! =
M
Ed.c
82.209kNm ! ! =
V
Ed
55.5kN :=
M
Ed
132kNm ! :=

Page 134

Ultimate limit state verification
Construction stage
Section classification (EN19931-1,cl.5.6(6))


Reduction of yield and ultimate
strength of sections EN10025-2


For section classification the coefficient ! is:

For a flange element:



f
y
f
y
t 16mm ! if
f
y
10N mm
2 "
# " 16mm t < 40mm ! if
f
y
20N mm
2 "
# " 40mm t < 80mm ! if
:=
f
y
275 N mm
2 !
" " =
f
u
f
u
t 16mm ! if
f
u
10N mm
2 "
# " 16mm t < 40mm ! if
f
u
20N mm
2 "
# " 40mm t < 80mm ! if
:=
f
u
430 N mm
2 !
" " =
!
235
f
y
N mm
2 "
#
0.924 = :=
c
f
b t
w
! 2.r !
( )
2
41.9 mm " = :=
Class_type
flange
"CLASS 1"
c
f
t
f
9 ! " # if
"CLASS 2" 9 ! "
c
f
t
f
< 10 ! " # if
"CLASS 3" 10 ! "
c
f
t
f
< 14 ! " # if
:=
Class_type
flange
"CLASS 1" =

Page 135

For a web element:





Bending Resistance of the steel section (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5)
Design resistance for bending
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(2))

Bending resistance check
checks
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(1))


Vertical Shear resistance of the steel section (cl.6.2.2) & (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6)
Factor for shear area
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(g))

Shear area of steel section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(3))



Shear resistance of steel section Y-Y
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(2))

c
w
h
a
2 t
f
! " 2 r ! " 190.4mm ! = :=
Class_type
web
"CLASS 1"
c
w
t
w
72 ! " # if
"CLASS 2" 84 ! "
c
w
t
w
< 83 ! " # if
"CLASS 3" 105 ! "
c
w
t
w
< 124 ! " # if
:=
Class_type
web
"CLASS 1" =
Class_type if Class_type
flange
Class_type
web
Class_type
flange
, "ADD MANUALY" ,
( )
:=
Class_type "CLASS 1" =
M
a.pl.Rd
W
pl.y
f
y
!
"
M0
100.925kNm ! ! = :=
Check_1 if M
Ed.c
M
a.pl.Rd
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_1 "OK" =
! 1 :=
A
v1
A 2 b ! t
f
! " t
w
2r +
( )
t
f
! + :=
A
v
A
v1
A
v1
! t
w
" h
w
" > if
! t
w
" h
w
" A
v1
! t
w
" h
w
" < if
:=
A
v
1.913 10
3
! mm
2
" =
V
pl.Rd
A
v
f
y
3 ( )
1 !
"
#
M0
" 303.691kN " = :=

Page 136

Design of shear resistance
check
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(1)P)


Check if the verification of shear
buckling resistance required or not
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(6))


Bending and shear interaction check (cl.6.2.2.4)
Strong axis Y-Y
Interaction check 1

Reduced yield strength

Reduced design plastic resistance moment
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5))


Lateral torsional buckling resistance of steel beam (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2)
Status of effective length
Effective length factor
(Guidance of EC3)

Check_2 if V
Ed
V
pl.Rd
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_2 "OK" =
Check_3 if
h
w
t
w
72
!
"
# < "Not required shear buckling resistance" , "Required shear buckling resistance" ,
$
%
&
'
(
)
:=
Check_3 "Not required shear buckling resistance" =
v
y
V
Ed
V
pl.Rd
0.183 = :=
!
2V
Ed
V
pl.Rd
1 "
#
$
%
&
'
(
2
0.403 = :=
M
a.pl.Rd.
W
pl.y
! A
w
2
"
4t
w
#
$
%
%
&
'
(
(
)
f
y
"
*
M0
v
y
0.5 > if
M
a.pl.Rd
v
y
0.5 < if
:=
M
a.pl.Rd
100.925kNm ! ! =
Effective_Length "Pinned Pinned" :=
k 0.7 Effective_Length "Fixed Fixed" if
0.85 Effective_Length "Partial restraint" if
0.85 Effective_Length " Pinned Fixed" if
1 Effective_Length "Pinned Pinned" if
1 = :=

Page 137

Effective length (pinned)

Factor for end warping, k
w

(SN003a-EN-EU)

Coefficient factor C
1

(SN003a-EN-EU)

Coefficient factor C
2

(SN003a-EN-EU)

Distance between the point of load
application and the shear centre

Elastic critical moment for lateral
torsional buckling (SN003a-EN-EU)

Lateral torsional buckling curve
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.4)


Imperfection factor for lateral torsional
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.3)


Non dimensional slenderness
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1))

Parameter introducing the effect of
biaxial bending
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.3.2.3(1))

Parameter $
LTO

(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.3(1))

L
cr
k L
e
! 5m = :=
k
w
1.0 :=
C
1
1.348 :=
C
2
0.454 :=
z
g
0m :=
M
cr
C
1
!
2
E
s
" I
zz
"
L
cr
( )
2
"
k
k
w
#
$
%
&
'
(
2
I
w
I
zz
"
L
cr
( )
2
GI
t
"
!
2
E
s
I
zz
"
+ C
2
z
g
"
( )
2
+ " C
2
z
g
" ) 176.744kNm " " = :=
Buckling_curve_Z "b"
h
b
2 ! if
"c"
h
b
2 > if
:=
Buckling_curve_Z "b" =
!
LT
0.21 Buckling_curve_Z "a" if
0.34 Buckling_curve_Z "b" if
0.49 Buckling_curve_Z "c" if
0.76 Buckling_curve_Z "d" if
:=
!
LT
0.34 =
!
LT
W
pl.y
f
y
"
M
cr
0.756 = :=
! 0.75 :=
!
LTO
0.4 :=

Page 138

Value to determine the reduction
factor (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1))

Reduction factor for lateral-torsional
buckling
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1))



Design plastic resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.1)

Section verification for lateral torsional
buckling
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.1(1))


Composite stage
Effective width of composite beam (cl.5.4.1.2(5))
Total effective width at mid-span
(EN1994-1-1cl. 5.4.1.2(5))

Plastic resistance moment of composite section with full shear connection (cl.6.2)
Tensile resistance of steel section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(2))

Compression resistance of concrete slab
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.2.1.2(1d)

Tensile resistance in web of steel section

!
LT
0.5 1 "
LT
#
LT
#
LTO
$
( )
% + & #
LT
2
%
'
(
)
*
+
+
,
-
.
% 0.775 = :=
!
LT
1
"
LT
"
LT
2
# $
LT
2
% +
0.841 = :=
Check_5 if !
LT
1 " !
LT
1
#
LT
2
" $ "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
%
&
&
'
(
)
)
*
:=
Check_5 "OK" =
M
b.Rd
!
LT
W
pl.y
f
y
"
#
M1
" 84.882kNm " " = :=
Check_6 if
M
Ed.c
M
b.Rd
1 < "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
!
"
#
$
%
&
:=
Check_6 "OK" =
b
eff
b
o
2 min
L
1
2
L
2
2
+
L
e
8
,
!
"
#
$
%
&
!
"
#
$
%
&
+ :=
N
pl.a
f
y
A !
"
M0
1.075 10
3
# kN ! = :=
N
c.f
0.85 f
cd
! b
eff
! h
c
! 1.792 10
3
" kN ! = :=
N
pl.w
f
y
t
w
! h
a
2 t
f
! "
( )
! :=

Page 139

Location of neutral axis
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.2.1.2(1))


Bending resistance with full shear connection
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.1.2)


Bending resistance check
checks
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(1))


Vertical Sheat resistance of the composite steel section (cl.6.2.2) & (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6)
Shear resistance of steel section Y-Y
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(2))

Design of shear resistance
check
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(1)P)


Location_neutral
axis
"Lies in the concrete slab" N
c.f
N
pl.a
> if
"Lies in the top flange of the beam" N
c.f
N
pl.a
! if
"Lies in the web of the beam" N
c.f
N
pl.w
< if
:=
Location_neutral
axis
"Lies in the concrete slab" =
M
pl.Rd
N
pl.a
h
a
2
h +
N
pl.a
N
c.f
h
c
2
! "
#
$
%
&
'
(
! Location_neutral
axis
"Lies in the concrete slab" if
N
pl.a
h
a
2
! N
c.f
h
c
2
h
p
+
#
$
%
&
'
(
! + Location_neutral
axis
"Lies in the top flange of the beam" if
M
a.pl.Rd
N
c.f
h
c
h
a
+ 2h
p
+
2
#
$
%
&
'
(
! +
N
c.f
2
N
pl.w
h
a
4
! " Location_neutral
axis
"Lies in the top flange of the beam" if
:=
M
pl.Rd
261.285kNm ! ! =
Check_7 if M
Ed
M
pl.Rd
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_7 "OK" =
V
pl.Rd
303.691kN ! =
Check_8 if V
Ed
V
pl.Rd
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_8 "OK" =

Page 140

Check if the verification of shear
buckling resistance required or not
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(6))


Design resistance of shear stud connector (cl.6.6.3.1(1))
For sheeting with ribs transverse to the beam


For sheeting parallel to the beam see Equation 6.22 of
EC4

Upper limit of reduction factor k
t

(EN1994-1-1,Table:6.2)


Reduction factor k
t

(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.2)

Limitation of k
t

(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.4.2(2))

Minimum height of shear stud
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.2(1))


Check_9 if
h
w
t
w
72
!
"
# < "Not required shear buckling resistance" , "Required shear buckling resistance" ,
$
%
&
'
(
)
:=
Check_9 "Not required shear buckling resistance" =
k
t.max
0.85 n
r
1 1mm t
s
! " d 20mm < " if
1.0 n
r
1 1mm t
s
< " d 20mm < " if
0.75 n
r
1 1mm t
s
! " 19mm d # 22mm < " if
0.75 n
r
1 1mm t
s
< " 19mm d # 22mm < " if
0.70 n
r
2 1mm t
s
! " d 20mm < " if
0.80 n
r
2 1mm t
s
< " d 20mm < " if
0.60 n
r
2 1mm t
s
! " 19mm d # 22mm < " if
0.60 n
r
2 1mm t
s
< " 19mm d # 22mm < " if
:=
k
t.max
0.75 =
k
t
0.6
b
o
h
p
!
h
sc
h
p
1 "
#
$
%
&
'
(
! :=
k
t
k
t
k
t
k
t.max
< if
k
t.max
otherwise
0.75 = :=
h
min
if h
sc
4d ! "Ductile" , "Not Ductile" ,
( )
:=
h
min
"Ductile" =

Page 141

Limitation of stud diameter
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.2(1))


Factor '
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.3.1(1))

Design shear resistance of a headed stud
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.3.1(1))

Degree of shear connection (cl.6.6.1.2(1))
Ratio of the degree shear connection
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.2.1.3(3))

Minimum degree of shear connection
for equal flange
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.2(1))


Check the degree of shear interaction
within the limits
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.2(1))


Number of shear connector required

Numper of stud provided

Stud spacing

d
lim
if 16mm d < 25mm < "Ductile" , "Not ductile" , ( ) :=
d
lim
"Ductile" =
! 0.2
h
sc
d
1 +
"
#
$
%
&
'
( 3
h
sc
d
) 4 ) if
1
h
sc
d
4 > if
1 = :=
P
Rd
k
t
min
0.8 f
us
! " !
d
2
4
!
#
v
0.29 $ ! d
2
! f
ck
E
cm
! !
#
v
,
%
&
&
&
'
(
)
)
)
*
! 55.298kN ! = :=
!
N
c.f
N
pl.a
1.667 = :=
!
min
1
355
f
y
N mm
2 "
#
$
%
%
%
&
'
(
(
(
)
0.75 0.03
L
e
m
# "
$
%
&
'
(
)
# " L
e
25m < if
1.0 L
e
25m > if
:=
!
min
0.225 =
Check_11 if ! !
min
> ! 0.4 " # "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_11 "OK" =
n
2 N
pl.a
!
P
Rd
38.889 = :=
N
stud
40 :=
s
prov
L
e
N
stud
0.125m = :=

Page 142

Check the minimum spacing
of studs
(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.5.7(4))


Adequacy of the shear connection

(EN1994-1-1,cl.6.6.1.3(3))


Design of transverse reinforcement (cl.6.6.6.2) & (EN1992-1-1,cl.6.2.4)
Length under consideration

Longitudinal shear stress
(EN1992-1-1,cl.6.2.4(3))

Strength reduction factor
(EN1992-1-1,Eq.6.6N)

Angle between the diagonal strut
(EN1992-1-1,cl.6.2.4(4))

Assume spacing of the bars

Area of transverse reinforcement required
(EN1992-1-1,cl.6.2.4(4))

Area of transverse reinforcement provided



Check the crushing compression
in the flange
(EN1992-1-1cl.6.2.4(4))


s
lim
if s
prov
5 d ! " s
prov
6 h ! < # "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
s
lim
"OK" =
Check_12 if M
pl.Rd
2.5 M
a.pl.Rd
! < "Uniform spacing" , "Not uniform spacing" ,
( )
:=
Check_12 "Not uniform spacing" =
!
x
L
e
2
2.5m = :=
v
Ed
N
pl.a
2 h
c
! "
x
!
:=
v 0.6 1
f
ck
250 N ! mm
2 "
!
"
#
$
$
%
&
'
'
(
! :=
!
f
45deg :=
s
f
200mm :=
A
s.req
v
Ed
h
c
! s
f
!
f
yd
sin "
f
( )
cos "
f
( )
!
:=
A
s.prov
193mm
2
:=
Check_13 if A
s.req
A
s.prov
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_13 "OK" =
Check_14 if v
Ed
v f
cd
! sin "
f
( )
! cos cos "
f
( ) ( )
! # "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_14 "OK" =

Page 143

Serviceability limit state verification
Construction stage
Dead load at composite stage

Live load at composite stage

Maximum deflection at construction
stage

Vertical deflection limit
(CYS NA EN1993-1-1,table NA.1)


Short term elastic modular ration
(EN1994-1-1,cl.7.2.1)


Second moment of area of the
composite section, I
c


Deflection with full shear connection

Vertical deflection limit
(CYS NA EN1993-1-1,table NA.1)


G
k
10.88kNm
1 !
" :=
Q
k
5.0kNm
1 !
" :=
!
con
5 G
k
Q
k
+
( )
" L
e
4
"
384 E
s
" I
yy
"
15.812mm " = :=
Check_15 if !
con
L
e
250
< "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
Check_15 "OK" =
n
o
E
s
E
cm
:=
r
A
b
eff
h
c
!
:=
I
y
A h 2 h
p
! + h
c
+
( )
2
!
4 1 n
o
r ! +
( )
!
b
eff
h
c
3
!
12 n
o
!
+ I
yy
+ 1.563 10
4 "
# m
4
= :=
!
com
5 G
k
Q
k
+
( )
" L
e
( )
4
"
384 E
s
" I
y
"
3.938mm " = :=
Check_16 if !
com
L
e
200
< "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
Check_16 "OK" =

Page 144


























Vibration (Simplified analysis):
Loading:
Permanent load

Imposed load

For category B building

Total weigth floor, F
v


Increase the inertia, I
c
by 10% to allow for the increased dynamic stiffness of the
composite beam, I
cl


Instantaneous deflection caused by re-application of the self weight of the floor and the beam to
the composite beam, (
'


Natural frequncy, f

Check beam vibration
(SCI-P-076)


G
k
10.88 kNm
1 !
" " =
Q
k
5 kN m
1 !
" " =
!
1
0.5 :=
F
v
G
k
!
1
Q
k
" + :=
I
cl
I
y
I
y
0.1 !
( )
+ :=
!
"
5 F
v
L
e
#
( )
# L
e
3
#
384 E
s
# I
cl
#
3.016mm # = :=
f
18
!
"
mm
#
$
$
%
&
'
'
(
Hz 10.364Hz ) = :=
Check_17 if f 4 Hz ! > "OK" , "NOT OK" , ( ) :=
Check_17 "OK" =

Page 145
9.5 Design of steel bracing

9.5.1 Main configuration of design of steel bracing

Basic theory:

Tension only, utilises two members at each storey but only the tension element is assumed to
resist wind load and seismic load, the compression element is assumed to buckle and offer no
resistance to lateral movement.

Eurocode 8 requirement:

The diagonals shall be taken into account as follows in an elastic analysis of the structure for the
seismic action:

a) in frames with diagonal bracings, only the tension diagonals shall be taken into
account,
b) in frames with V bracings, both the tension and compression diagonals shall be taken
into account (EN1998-1-1,cl6.7.2(2).
Taking into account of both tension and compression diagonals in the analysis of any type of
concentric bracing is allowed provided that all of the following conditions are satisfied:

a) a non-linear static (pushover) global analysis or non-linear time history analysis is
used,
b) both pre-buckling and post-buckling situations are taken into account in the modeling
of the behavior of diagonals and,

c) background information justifying the model used to represent the behavior of
diagonals is provided (EN1998-1-1,cl6.7.2(3).














Page 146

Figure 9.11: Method of design bracing in this manual












Steps for designing steel bracing member:

1. Delete the compression member.
2. Leave the tension members only.
3. Run the design of steel frame.
4. Find the suitable section and ensure that the section pass all the checks.
5. Ensure that the compression member has been placed at the construction drawings.

Ignore compression
members
Compression members
Tension members
Direction of shear

Page 147
9.5.2 Simplified design of frames with X bracing (Extract from Design guidance to EC8)

In a standard design, the following simplified approach may be used:

The analysis of the structure is realized considering that only one diagonal in each X
bracing is present, the other diagonal being considered as already buckled and unable to
provide strength. This corresponds to an underestimation of both the stiffness and the
strength of the structural system at the initial (pre-buckling) stage, but to a safe-side
estimate at the post-buckling stage.
The beams and columns are capacity designed according to the real yield strength of the
diagonals, for bending with increased axial force and bending moment from the analysis
for the combination of the design seismic action with gravity loads.
However, this simplified approach could be dangerous for the stability of the structure, if it does
not take into account that action effects of compression in columns and beams at the pre-buckling
stage are higher than in the post-buckling stage envisaged in the analysis. Indeed, if the buckling
loads of the diagonal are closed to their yield load in tension, the initial shear resistance V
init
of
the X bracing is underestimated by a model where only one diagonal is considered present. If
low-slenderness diagonals are used, V
init
can be close to double the value of V
pl.Rd
computed with
the hypothesis of one active yielded diagonal. The only way to prevent this unsafe situation is to
design slender diagonal having their buckling load at most around 0.5N
pl.Rd
. This condition is
behind the prescribed lower bound limit value of 1.3 for the slenderness $. The prescribed upper
bound limit max $=2, is justified by the aim to avoid shock effects during the load reversal in
diagonals.


Page 148
9.5.3 Model in ETABS

Figure 9.12: Amendment model




Assume that the steel
bracing resist the lateral
force at the +X direction
Assume that the steel
bracing resist the lateral
force at the -X direction

Page 149








Assume that the steel
bracing resist the lateral
force at the -Y direction
Assume that the steel
bracing resist the lateral
force at the +Y direction

Page 150
STEP 2: Design > Steel frame design > Select design combo


Figure 9.13: Lateral/gravity load combination at ULS



Figure 9.14: Gravity load combination at SLS








Page 151
Ultimate limit state (ULS)

Static load combination
STATIC 11. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 0.75WINDX
STATIC 12. 1.35DL + 1.5LL - 0.75WINDX
STATIC 13. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 0.75WINDY
STATIC 14. 1.35DL + 1.5LL - 0.75WINDY
STATIC 15. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 1.05LL
STATIC 16. 1.35DL - 1.5WINDX 1.05LL
STATIC 17. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 1.05LL
STATIC 18. 1.35DL - 1.5WINDY 1.05LL

Seismic load combination for Modal Analysis
SEISMIC 9. DL + 0.3LL + EQX + 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 10. DL + 0.3LL + EQX 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 11. DL + 0.3LL - EQX + 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 12. DL + 0.3LL - EQX 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 13. DL + 0.3LL + EQY + 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 14. DL + 0.3LL + EQY 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 15. DL + 0.3LL - EQY + 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 16. DL + 0.3LL - EQY 0.3EQX

Serviceability limit state (SLS)

DSTLD 3. DL + LL











Page 152

Figure 9.15: Design steel bracing member



Write click on member
Brace name: D3
Storey level: Storey 1

Page 153




Table 9.6: Design value of brace D3

Story 8race Load Loc V2 V3 1 M2 M3
S1C8?1 u3 SLlSMlC1 Mln 0 -361.83 -1.41 -0.03 -0.044 -0.173 -1.792
S1C8?1 u3 SLlSMlC2 Mln 0 -361.83 -1.41 -0.03 -0.044 -0.173 -1.792
S1C8?1 u3 SLlSMlC3 Mln 0 -361.83 -1.41 -0.03 -0.044 -0.173 -1.792
S1C8?1 u3 SLlSMlC4 Mln 0 -361.83 -1.41 -0.03 -0.044 -0.173 -1.792
S1C8?1 u3 SLlSMlC1 Mln 2.913 -361.06 -0.13 -0.03 -0.044 -0.034 0.443
S1C8?1 u3 SLlSMlC2 Mln 2.913 -361.06 -0.13 -0.03 -0.044 -0.034 0.443
S1C8?1 u3 SLlSMlC3 Mln 2.913 -361.06 -0.13 -0.03 -0.044 -0.034 0.443
S1C8?1 u3 SLlSMlC4 Mln 2.913 -361.06 -0.13 -0.03 -0.044 -0.034 0.443









Page 154







Worst case combination
Modify the default steel
design data if needed

Page 155



Table 9.7: Summarize of design values required to carry out the design of steel member

Design value Symbol
Results
(kN/kNm)
Design axial force for the worse case design load combination N
Ed
361.83
Design moment at y-y at end 1 (worse case combination) M
Ed.y1
-1.792
Design moment at y-y at end 2 (worse case combination) M
Ed.y2
0.443
Design moment at z-z at end 1 (worse case combination) M
Ed.z1
-0.173
Design moment at z-z at end 2 (worse case combination) M
Ed.z2
-0.054
Shear forces at y-y at end (worse case combination) V
Ed.y
-0.05
Shear force at z-z at end 1 (worse case combination) V
Ed.z
-1.41





Modify the omega factors
if needed
Modify the effective length
factor if needed

Page 156
9.5.4 Design of steel bracing (Gravity/Seismic design situation) Hand calculation


1. Rolled I - section
2. Limit to class 1 and 2 section
Design data
Overstrength factor
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.1.3(2))

Behavior factor q
Ductlity class
Number of storeys

Length of bracing

Total axial load on column, N
Ed


Shear force y-y axis

Shear force z-z axis

Design moment y-y axis

Design moment y-y axis

Maximum moment

Design moment z-z axis

Design moment z-z axis

Maximum moment

Section properties:

Depth of section,d:

Width of section,b:

Thickness of web, t
w
:

Thickness of flange, t
f
:

Thickness of element
!
ov
1.25 :=
q 4 :=
Ductility_class "DCM" :=
N
s
3 :=
h
c
5.831m :=
N
Ed
361.83kN :=
V
Ed.y
0.05kN :=
V
Ed.z
1.41kN :=
M
Ed.y1
1.792kNm ! :=
M
Ed.y2
0.443kNm ! :=
M
Ed.y
max M
Ed.y1
M
Ed.y2
,
( )
1.792kNm ! ! = :=
M
Ed.z1
0.173 ! kNm " :=
M
Ed.z2
0.054 ! kNm " :=
M
Ed.z
max M
Ed.z1
M
Ed.z2
,
( )
0.054 ! kNm " " = :=
d 120mm :=
b 120mm :=
t
w
16mm :=
t
f
16mm :=
t max t
w
t
f
,
( )
16 mm ! = :=

Page 157


Second moment of area z-z:

Second moment of area y-y:

Cross section area, A:
Warping Constant, I
w
:

Torsional Constant, I
T
:

Plastic Modulus, W
ply


Plastic Modulus, W
plz


Elastic modulus, E:

Yield strength of steel , fy:

Ultimate strength, f
u
:

Shear modulus



Reduction of yield and ultimate
strenght of sections EN10025-2


Partial safety factor
Resistance of cross-sections whatever the class
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1))

Resistance of members to instability
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl 6.1(1))

Resistance of cross-section in tension
(CYS EN1993-1-1,cl.6.1(1))

I
zz
12280000mm
4
:=
I
yy
12280000mm
4
:=
A 6656mm
2
:=
I
w
0 mm
6
! :=
I
t
18000000mm
4
:=
W
pl.y
261600mm
3
:=
W
pl.z
261600mm
3
:=
E
s
210kNmm
2 !
" :=
f
y
275N mm
2 !
" :=
f
u
430N mm
2 !
" :=
G 81kNmm
2 !
" :=
f
y
f
y
t 16mm ! if
f
y
10N mm
2 "
# " 16mm t < 40mm ! if
f
y
20N mm
2 "
# " 40mm t < 80mm ! if
:=
f
y
275 N mm
2 !
" " =
f
u
f
u
t 16mm ! if
f
u
10N mm
2 "
# " 16mm t < 40mm ! if
f
u
20N mm
2 "
# " 40mm t < 80mm ! if
:=
f
u
430 N mm
2 !
" " =
!
M0
1 :=
!
M1
1 :=
!
M2
1.25 :=

Page 158

Section classification

For section classification the coefficient ! is:








Requirements on cross-sectional class of dissipative elements depending on
Ductility class (EN1998-1-1,cl.6.5.3(2))
Section classification rule for EC8
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.5.3(2))


!
235
f
y
N mm
2 "
#
0.924 = :=
c
f
d 2t
f
! 88 mm " = :=
Class_type_flange "CLASS 1"
c
f
t
33 ! " # if
"CLASS 2" 33 ! "
c
f
t
< 38 ! " # if
"CLASS 3" 38 ! "
c
f
t
< 42 ! " # if
:=
Class_type_flange "CLASS 1" =
c
w
d 2t
w
! 88 mm " = :=
Class_type_web "CLASS 1"
c
w
t
72 ! " # if
"CLASS 2" 72 ! "
c
w
t
< 83 ! " # if
"CLASS 3" 83 ! "
c
w
t
< 124 ! " # if
:=
Class_type_web "CLASS 1" =
Class_type if Class_type_flange Class_type_web Class_type_flange , "ADD MANUALY" , ( ) :=
Class_type "CLASS 1" =
Class_type_req "CLASS 1 , 2 or 3" 1.5 q < 2 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " if
"CLASS 1 or 2" 2 q < 4 ! Ductility_class "DCM" " if
"CLASS 1" q 4 > Ductility_class "DCH" " if
"CLASS 1 or 2" = :=
Class_type_req "CLASS 1 or 2" =

Page 159

Tension resistance (cl.6.2.2)
Design plastic resistance of the cross section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(2a))

Modified plastic resistance of cross section
as described in "Design Guidance to EC8"
(cl.6.10.2)

Design ultimate resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(2b))

Design tension resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(2))

Check tension capacity
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(1)P)



Compression resistance (cl.6.2.3)
Compression resistance of steel section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.4(1))

Check compression capacity
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.4(1)P)


Bending resistance (cl.6.2.5)
Moment resistance of steel section at Y-Y
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(2)

Moment resistance of steel section at Z-Z
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.5(2)

Sheat resistance (cl.6.2.6)
Factor for shear area
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(g))

Shear area of steel section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(3))

Shear area of steel section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(3))

Shear resistance of steel section Y-Y
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(2))

N
pl.Rd
A f
y
!
"
M0
1.83 10
3
# kN ! = :=
N
pl.Rd
0.5 N
pl.Rd
! 915.2kN ! = :=
N
u.Rd
0.9A f
y
!
"
M2
1.318 10
3
# kN ! = :=
N
t.Rd
min N
u.Rd
N
pl.Rd
,
( )
915.2kN ! = :=
Check_1 if
N
Ed
N
t.Rd
1.0 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
Check_1 "OK" =
N
c.Rd
N
pl.Rd
915.2kN ! = :=
Check_2 if
N
Ed
N
c.Rd
1.0 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
Check_2 "OK" =
M
c.Rd.y
W
pl.y
f
y
!
"
M0
71.94kNm ! ! = :=
M
c.Rd.z
W
pl.z
f
y
!
"
M0
71.94kNm ! ! = :=
! 1 :=
A
vy
A b !
b d +
3.328 10
3
" mm
2
! = :=
A
vz
A d !
b d +
3.328 10
3
" mm
2
! = :=
V
pl.Rd.y
A
vy
f
y
3 ( )
1 !
"
#
M0
" 528.391kN " = :=

Page 160

Shear resistance of steel section Z-Z
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(2))

Check if the verification of shear
buckling resistance required or not
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.6(6))


Bending and shear interaction check (cl.6.2.8)
Strong axis Y-Y
Interaction check 1

Reduced yield strength

Reduced design plastic resistance moment
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5))


Weak axis Z-Z
Interaction check 1

Reduced yield strength

V
pl.Rd.z
A
vz
f
y
3 ( )
1 !
"
#
M0
" 528.391kN " = :=
Check_3 if
d
t
72
!
"
# < "Not required shear buckling resistance" , "Required shear buckling resistance" ,
$
%
&
'
(
)
:=
Check_3 "Not required shear buckling resistance" =
v
y
V
Ed.y
V
pl.Rd.y
9.463 10
5 !
" = :=
!
2V
Ed.y
V
pl.Rd.y
1 "
#
$
%
&
'
(
2
1 = :=
M
c.Rd.y
W
pl.y
! A
2
"
4t
#
$
%
&
'
(
)
f
y
"
*
M0
v
y
0.5 > if
M
c.Rd.y
v
y
0.5 < if
:=
M
c.Rd.y
71.94kNm ! ! =
v
z
V
Ed.z
V
pl.Rd.z
2.668 10
3 !
" = :=
!
2V
Ed.z
V
pl.Rd.z
1 "
#
$
%
&
'
(
2
0.989 = :=

Page 161

Reduced design plastic resistance moment
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.8(5))


Check combination of axial and bending
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.1(7))


Unity factor

Bending and axial force interaction check (cl.6.2.9)
Factor a

Factor a

Factor n


Factor "
Factor '
M
c.Rd.z
W
pl.z
! A
2
"
4t
#
$
%
&
'
(
)
f
y
"
*
M0
v
z
0.5 > if
M
c.Rd.z
v
z
0.5 < if
:=
M
c.Rd.z
71.94kNm ! ! =
Check_4 if
N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
M
Ed.y
M
c.Rd.y
+
M
Ed.z
M
c.Rd.z
+ 1.0 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
M
Ed.y
M
c.Rd.y
+
M
Ed.z
M
c.Rd.z
+ 0.42 =
Check_4 "OK" =
a
w
min
A 2b t
w
! "
( )
A
0.5 ,
#
$
%
&
'
(
0.423 = :=
a
f
min
A 2d t
f
! "
( )
A
0.5 ,
#
$
%
&
'
(
0.423 = :=
n
N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
0.395 = :=
!
1.66
1 1.13n
2
"
1.66
1 1.13n
2
"
6 # if
6 otherwise
2.016 = :=
a ! 2.016 = :=

Page 162

Strong axis Y-Y

Reduced design value of the resistance to
bending moments making allowance for the
presence of axial forces
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(5))


Weak axis Z-Z

Reduced design value of the resistance to
bending moments making allowance for the
presence of axial forces
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.9.1(5))


Check combination of axial and bending
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.1(7))


Unity factor

Bucking interaction check (cl.6.3)
Strong axis Y-Y
Status of effective length
Effective length factor
(Guidance of EC3)

M
N.y.Rd
M
c.Rd.y
1 n ! ( ) "
1 0.5a
w
!
:=
M
N.y.Rd
M
N.y.Rd
M
N.y.Rd
M
c.Rd.y
! if
M
c.Rd.y
M
N.y.Rd
M
c.Rd.y
> if
:=
M
N.y.Rd
55.168kNm ! ! =
M
N.z.Rd
M
c.Rd.z
1 n ! ( ) "
1 0.5a
f
!
:=
M
N.z.Rd
M
N.z.Rd
M
N.z.Rd
M
c.Rd.z
! if
M
c.Rd.z
M
N.z.Rd
M
c.Rd.z
> if
:=
M
N.z.Rd
55.168kNm ! ! =
Check_5 if
N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
M
Ed.y
M
c.Rd.y
+
M
Ed.z
M
c.Rd.z
+ 1.0 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=
N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
M
Ed.y
M
c.Rd.y
+
M
Ed.z
M
c.Rd.z
+ 0.42 =
Check_5 "OK" =
Effective_Length "Pinned Pinned" :=
k
y
0.7 Effective_Length "Fixed Fixed" if
0.85 Effective_Length "Partial restraint" if
0.85 Effective_Length " Pinned Fixed" if
1 Effective_Length "Pinned Pinned" if
1 = :=

Page 163

Buckling length of column
(fixed end)

Euler Buckling at y-y axis
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)

Slenderness parameter at y-y axis
(for class 1,2 and 3 cross-section)
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.3(1)

Check for X bracing
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(4))


Check for X bracing
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(1))


Type of the section
Buckling curve
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.2)



Imperfection factor
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.1)

Value to determine the reduction factor #
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1))

Reduction factor #
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1))

Reduction factor # check


L
cry
k
y
h
c
5.831m = :=
N
cry
E
s
I
yy
! "
2
!
L
cry
2
748.568kN ! = :=
!
y
A f
y
"
N
cry
1.564 = :=
Check_6 if N
s
3 ! "Consider limitation (As EC8)" , "Ignore limitation (As EC3)" ,
( )
:=
Check_6 "Consider limitation (As EC8)" =
Check_7 if 1.3 !
y
< 2 < "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_7 "OK" =
Section "Hot finished" :=
Buckling_curve "a" Section "Hot finished" if
"c" Section "Cold formed" if
:=
Buckling_curve "a" =
!
y
0.21 Buckling_curve "a" if
0.49 Buckling_curve "c" if
:=
!
y
0.21 =
!
y
0.5 1 "
y
#
y
0.2 $
( )
% + #
y
2
+
&
'
(
)
% 1.866 = :=
!
y
1
"
y
"
y
2
#
y
2
$ +
0.347 = :=
Check_8 if !
y
1.0 " "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_8 "OK" =

Page 164

Design buklcing resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.1(3))

Buckling resistance of compression member
check (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.1(1))


Weak axis Z-Z
Status of effective length
Effective length factor
(Guidance of EC3)

Buckling length of column
(fixed end)

Euler Buckling at y-y axis
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1)

Slenderness parameter at y-y axis
(for class 1,2 and 3 cross-section)
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.3(1)

Check for X bracing
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(4))


Check for X bracing
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(1))


Type of the section
N
b.Rd.y
!
y
A " f
y
"
#
M1
634.758kN " = :=
Check_9 if
N
Ed
N
b.Rd.y
"OK" , "NOT OK" ,
!
"
#
$
%
&
:=
Check_9 "OK" =
Effective_Length "Pinned Pinned" :=
k
z
0.7 Effective_Length "Fixed Fixed" if
0.85 Effective_Length "Partial restraint" if
0.85 Effective_Length " Pinned Fixed" if
1 Effective_Length "Pinned Pinned" if
1 = :=
L
crz
k
z
h
c
5.831m = :=
N
crz
E
s
I
zz
! "
2
!
L
crz
2
748.568kN ! = :=
!
z
A f
y
"
N
crz
1.564 = :=
Check_10 if N
s
3 ! "Consider limitation (As EC8)" , "Ignore limitation (As EC3)" ,
( )
:=
Check_10 "Consider limitation (As EC8)" =
Check_11 if 1.3 !
z
< 2 < "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_11 "OK" =
Section "Hot finished" :=

Page 165

Buckling curve
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.2)




Value to determine the reduction factor #
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1))

Reduction factor #
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.2(1))

Reduction factor # check


Design buklcing resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.1(3))

Buckling resistance of compression member
check (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.1.1(1))


Lateral torsional buckling check (cl.6.3.2)
Effective length factor, k
(SN003a-EN-EU)

Factor for end warping, k
w

(SN003a-EN-EU)


Ratio of the smaller and larger moment
Coefficient factor C
1

(SN003a-EN-EU)

Buckling_curve "a" Section "Hot finished" if
"c" Section "Cold formed" if
:=
Buckling_curve "a" =
!
z
0.21 Buckling_curve "a" if
0.49 Buckling_curve "c" if
:=
!
z
0.21 =
!
z
0.5 1 "
z
#
z
0.2 $
( )
% + #
z
2
+
&
'
(
)
% 1.866 = :=
!
z
1
"
z
"
z
2
#
z
2
$ +
0.347 = :=
Check_12 if !
z
1.0 " "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_12 "OK" =
N
b.Rd.z
!
z
A " f
y
"
#
M1
634.758kN " = :=
Check_13 if
N
Ed
N
b.Rd.z
"OK" , "NOT OK" ,
!
"
#
$
%
&
:=
Check_13 "OK" =
k
z
1 =
k
w
1.0 :=
!
M
Ed.y2
M
Ed.y1
0.247 = :=
C
1
1.88 1.40! " 0.52!
2
+ 1.566 = :=

Page 166

Coefficient factor C
1
check
(SN003a-EN-EU)


Coefficient factor C
2

(SN003a-EN-EU)

Distance between the point of load
application and the shear centre

Elastic critical moment for lateral
torsional buckling (SN003a-EN-EU)

Imperfection factor for lateral torsional
CHS sections
(EN1993-1-1,table 6.3)

Non dimensional slenderness
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1))

Value to determine the reduction
factor (EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1))

Reduction factor for lateral-torsional
buckling
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(1))



Parameter $
LTO

(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.3(1))

Design buckling resistance moment
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.1(3))


Check_14 if C
1
2.7 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_14 "OK" =
C
2
1.554 :=
z
g
0m :=
M
cr
C
1
!
2
E
s
" I
zz
"
L
crz
( )
2
"
k
z
k
w
#
$
%
&
'
(
2
I
w
I
zz
"
L
crz
( )
2
GI
t
"
!
2
E
s
I
zz
"
+ C
2
z
g
"
( )
2
+ " C
2
z
g
" ) 1.636 10
3
* kNm " " = :=
!
LT
0.76 :=
!
LT
W
pl.y
f
y
"
M
cr
0.21 = :=
!
LT
0.5 1 "
LT
#
LT
0.2 $
( )
% + #
LT
2
+
&
'
(
)
% 0.526 = :=
!
LT
1
"
LT
"
LT
2
#
LT
2
$ +
0.992 = :=
Check_15 if !
LT
1 " !
LT
1
#
LT
2
" $ "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
%
&
&
'
(
)
)
*
:=
Check_15 "OK" =
!
LTO
0.4 :=
M
b.Rd
!
LT
W
pl.y
"
f
y
#
M1
" 71.389kNm " " = :=
Check_16 if
M
Ed.y
M
b.Rd
1 ! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
"
#
$
%
&
'
:=

Page 167

Check if the lateral torsional buckling
be ignored
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.2.2(4))


Combine bending and axial compression cl.6.3.3
Moments due to the shift of the centroidal axis
for class sections 1,2 & 3
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.3(4)/table 6.7)


Characteristic resistance to normal force
of the critical cross-section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.3(4)/table 6.7)

Characteristic moment resistance
of the critical cross-section
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.3.3(4)/table 6.7)



Ratio of end moments
(EN1993-1-1,Table B2)

Equivalent uniform moment factor

Equivalent uniform moment factor


Check_16 "OK" =
Check_17 if !
LT
!
LTO
<
M
Ed.y
M
cr
!
LTO
2
< " "Ignored torsional buckling effects" , "Consider torsional buckling effects" ,
#
$
%
&
'
(
:=
Check_17 "Ignored torsional buckling effects" =
!M
Ed.z
0 :=
!M
Ed.y
0 :=
N
Rk
f
y
A ! 1.83 10
3
" kN ! = :=
M
y.Rk
f
y
W
pl.y
! 71.94kNm ! ! = :=
M
z.Rk
f
y
W
pl.z
! 71.94kNm ! ! = :=
!
y
M
Ed.y1
M
Ed.y2
1 "
M
Ed.y1
M
Ed.y2
# 1 # if
M
Ed.y2
M
Ed.y1
1 "
M
Ed.y2
M
Ed.y1
# 1 # if
:=
!
z
M
Ed.z1
M
Ed.z2
1 "
M
Ed.z1
M
Ed.z2
# 1 # if
M
Ed.z2
M
Ed.z1
1 "
M
Ed.z2
M
Ed.z1
# 1 # if
:=
C
my
0.6 0.4 !
y
" + 0.699 = :=
C
mz
0.6 0.4 !
z
" + 0.725 = :=
k
yy
min C
my
1 !
y
0.2 "
( )
N
Ed
#
y
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
%
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
C
my
1 0.8
N
Ed
#
y
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
,
-
-
-
.
/
0
0
0
1
% ,
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
1.018 = :=

Page 168

Interaction factors
(EN1993-1-1,table
B.1&B.2)



EN1993-1-1,Equation 6.61


Unity factor

EN1993-1-1,Equation 6.62


Unity factor

k
zz
min C
mz
1 2!
z
0.6 "
( )
N
Ed
#
z
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
%
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
C
mz
1 1.4
N
Ed
#
z
N
Rk
$
M1
%
% +
,
-
-
-
.
/
0
0
0
1
% ,
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
1.303 = :=
k
yz
0.6k
zz
0.782 = :=
k
zy
0.6k
yy
0.611 = :=
Check_18 if
N
Ed
!
y
N
Rk
"
#
M1
k
yy
M
Ed.y
$M
Ed.y
+
!
LT
M
y.Rk
#
M1
"
" + k
yz
M
Ed.z
$M
Ed.z
+
M
z.Rk
#
M1
" + 1.0 % "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
:=
N
Ed
!
y
N
Rk
"
#
M1
k
yy
M
Ed.y
$M
Ed.y
+
!
LT
M
y.Rk
#
M1
"
" + k
yz
M
Ed.z
$M
Ed.z
+
M
z.Rk
#
M1
" + 0.595 =
Check_18 "OK" =
Check_19 if
N
Ed
!
z
N
Rk
"
#
M1
k
zy
M
Ed.y
$M
Ed.y
+
!
LT
M
y.Rk
#
M1
"
" + k
zz
M
Ed.z
$M
Ed.z
+
M
z.Rk
#
M1
" + 1.0 % "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
&
'
'
'
(
)
*
*
*
+
:=
N
Ed
!
z
N
Rk
"
#
M1
k
zy
M
Ed.y
$M
Ed.y
+
!
LT
M
y.Rk
#
M1
"
" + k
zz
M
Ed.z
$M
Ed.z
+
M
z.Rk
#
M1
" + 0.584 =
Check_19 "OK" =

Page 169

Eurocode 8 requirements
Yield resistance (EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(5))
Yield resistance check
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(5))


Check omega factor (EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(8))
Axial force at storey 3

Axial force at storey 2

Area of steel section (RHS 100X100X10)

Design plastic resistance of the cross section
Storey 3: RHS 100X100X10
(EN1993-1-1,cl.6.2.3(2a))

Omega factor

Omega factor

Omega factor

Minimum omega


Minimum omega


Check % factor
(EN1998-1-1,cl.6.7.3(8))


Check_20 if N
Ed
N
pl.Rd
! "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_20 "OK" =
N
Ed.3
162.34kN :=
N
Ed.2
317.56kN :=
A 3600mm
2
:=
N
pl.Rd.3
0.5A f
y
!
"
M0
495 kN ! = :=
!
storey1
N
pl.Rd
N
Ed
2.529 = :=
!
storey2
N
pl.Rd
N
Ed.2
2.882 = :=
!
storey3
N
pl.Rd.3
N
Ed.3
3.049 = :=
!
min
min !
storey1
!
storey2
, !
storey3
,
( )
:=
!
min
2.529 =
!
max
max !
storey1
!
storey2
, !
storey3
,
( )
:=
!
max
3.049 =
Check_21 if !
max
1.25!
min
" "OK" , "NOT OK" ,
( )
:=
Check_21 "OK" =

Page 170
10.0 Modal response spectrum analysis

10.1 Set the analysis options


1. ETABS: Analyze > Set analysis Options

Calculate the number of modes:


Figure 10.1: Set the modal analysis parameters






Page 171
10.2 Evaluate the analysis results of the structure according to the modal analysis
requirements


2. ETABS: Display > Show Tables


Figure 10.2: Modal response spectrum results







Page 172
10.2.1 Assess the modal analysis results based on the EN1998





The requirements of the sum of effective modal masses for the modes taken into account
amounts to at least 90% of the total mass of the structure is satisfied (EN1998-1-
1,cl.4.3.3.3.1(3)).

Page 173
Effective mass of mode 6 = 97% > 90% OK
11.0 Second order effects (P ! effects) according to EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.2.2


The criterion for taking into account the second order effect is based on the interstorey drift
sensitivity coefficient ), which is define with equation (EN 1998-1-1,cl.4.4.2.2(2)).

! !
!
!"!
! !
!
!
!"!
! !

d
r
: is the interstorey drift
h: is the storey height.
V
tot
: is the total seismic storey shear.
P
tot
: is the total gravity load at and above storey considered in the seismic design situation
(G+0.3Q).

Table 11.1: Consequences of value of P-! coefficient " on the analysis

"#0,1 No need to consider P-* effects
0,1#"#0,2

P-* effects may be taken into account approximately by
amplifying the effects of the seismic actions by
!
!!!

0,2#"#0,3
P-* effects must be accounted for by an analysis including
second order effects explicity
"$0,3

Not permitted



Important note: If the above expression is not satisfied, second order effects, should be
enable in ETABS.

ETABS: Analyze > Set analysis option > > Set the parameters

Page 174
11.1 Displacement calculation according to EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.2.2

!
!
! ! ! !
!

d
s
: is the displacement of a point of the structural system induced by the design seismic
action.

q
d
: is the displacement behaviour factor, assumed equal to q unless otherwise specified.

d
e
: is the displacement of the same point of the structural system, as determined by a linear
analysis based on the design response spectrum.

11.2 Interstorey drift

Interstorey drift is the design interstorey drift, evaluated as the difference of the average lateral
displacements ds at the top and bottom of the storey under consideration and calculated in
accordance with EN1993-1-1,cl.4.3.4.

!
!
!
!
!!!"#
!!
!!!"#
!










Page 175
11.3 Calculation of second order effect using ETABS


3. ETABS: Run the model
4. ETABS: Display > Show tables
















Select the design
combinations
Static load case combination (include wind load)

STATIC 2. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 0.75WINDX
STATIC 3. 1.35DL + 1.5LL - 0.75WINDX
STATIC 4. 1.35DL + 1.5LL + 0.75WINDY
STATIC 5. 1.35DL + 1.5LL - 0.75WINDY
STATIC 6. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDX + 1.05LL
STATIC 7. 1.35DL - 1.5WINDX 1.05LL
STATIC 8. 1.35DL + 1.5WINDY + 1.05LL
STATIC 9. 1.35DL - 1.5WINDY 1.05LL

Seismic load case combination
SEISMIC 1. DL + 0.3LL + EQX + 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 2. DL + 0.3LL + EQX 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 3. DL + 0.3LL - EQX + 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 4. DL + 0.3LL - EQX 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 5. DL + 0.3LL + EQY + 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 6. DL + 0.3LL + EQY 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 7. DL + 0.3LL - EQY + 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 8. DL + 0.3LL - EQY 0.3EQX


Page 176

Figure 11.1: Displacement due to lateral load



11.3.1 Interstorey drift displacement














For floor with the non
use of diaphragm, the
maximum displacement
can be found in this
table

For floor with the use
of diaphragm, the
maximum displacement
can be found in this
table

Page 177


Table 11.2: Displacement due to lateral load
Storey no. Max Displacement at X Max Displacement at Y
Storey 3

Storey 2

Storey 1











Sort smallest to largest in
order to find the maximum
displacement

or

Sort largest to smallest in
order to find the maximum
displacement

Consider the maximum
value

Do this process for all
storeys separately as
showing below

Page 178
Table 11.3: Drift displacement

Storey
D|sp|acement
D|rect|on x
dx.e
(mm)
D|sp|acement
D|rect|on y
dy.e
(mm)
8ehav|our
factor q
D|sp|acement
dsx
(mm)
c|.4.4.2.2
D|sp|acement
dsy
(mm)
c|.4.4.2.2
Interstorey
dr|ft
drx
(mm)
Interstorey
dr|ft
dry
(mm)
SLorey 3 11.742 11.7432 4 46.968 46.9808 6.7734 6.7776
SLorey 2 8.3343 8.3364 4 33.4172 33.4236 9.0274 9.0296
SLorey 1 3.8406 3.8416 4 13.3624 13.3664 7.6812 7.6832




!
!"
! ! ! !
!"

!
!"
! ! ! !
!"

!
!"
!
!
!"!!"#
!!
!"!!"#
!

!
!"
!
!
!"!!"#
!!
!"!!"#
!


11.3.2 Total gravity load P
tot


ETABS: Display > Show tables



Select the design
combinations
Static load case combination

STATIC 10. DL + 0.3LL



Page 179









Export the results
in Excel sheet
Filter the value of
the bottom storey

Page 180
SLory Load Loc
S1C8?3 S1A1lC10 8oLLom 1402.76
S1C8?2 S1A1lC10 8oLLom 2804.93
S1C8?1 S1A1lC10 8oLLom 4207.11

11.3.2 Total seismic storey shear V
tot


ETABS: Display > Show tables







Record the total gravity load
(G+&
Ei
Q) of each storey
Select the design
combinations
Seismic load case combination
SEISMIC 1. DL + 0.3LL + EQX + 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 2. DL + 0.3LL + EQX 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 3. DL + 0.3LL - EQX + 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 4. DL + 0.3LL - EQX 0.3EQY
SEISMIC 5. DL + 0.3LL + EQY + 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 6. DL + 0.3LL + EQY 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 7. DL + 0.3LL - EQY + 0.3EQX
SEISMIC 8. DL + 0.3LL - EQY 0.3EQX



Page 181







Export the results
in Excel sheet
Sort smallest to largest in
order to find the maximum
shear force

or

Sort largest to smallest in
order to find the maximum
shear force

Consider the worst load
combination

Do this process for all
storeys separately as
showing below

Page 182







SLory Load Loc vx
S1C8?1 SLlSMlC1 MAx 8oLLom 4207.11 663.91
S1C8?2 SLlSMlC1 MAx 8oLLom 2804.93 330.8
S1C8?3 SLlSMlC1 MAx 8oLLom 1402.76 330


Repeat the above procedure in order to obtain the V
tot
at Y-direction



SLory Load Loc
v?
S1C8?1 SLlSMlC3 MAx 8oLLom 4207.11 663.91
S1C8?2 SLlSMlC3 MAx 8oLLom 2804.93 330.8
S1C8?3 SLlSMlC3 MAx 8oLLom 1402.76 330



Filter the value of
the bottom storey
Filter the values
using the worst
case combination
Record the total seismic
shear of each storey for
V
tot
at X-direction

Page 183

Table 11.4: Second order effects check (EN1993-1-1,cl.4.4.2.2(2))

Storey
D|sp|acement
D|rect|on x
dx.e
(mm)
D|sp|acement
D|rect|on y
dy.e
(mm)
8ehav|our
factor q
D|sp|acement
dsx
(mm)
c|.4.4.2.2
D|sp|acement
dsy
(mm)
c|.4.4.2.2
Interstorey
dr|ft
drx
(mm)
Interstorey
dr|ft
dry
(mm)
SLorey 3 11.742 11.7432 4 46.968 46.9808 6.7734 6.7776
SLorey 2 8.3343 8.3364 4 33.4172 33.4236 9.0274 9.0296
SLorey 1 3.8406 3.8416 4 13.3624 13.3664 7.6812 7.6832


1ota|
grav|ty |oad
tot
(kN)
1ota|
se|sm|c
storey shear
Vtotx (kN)
1ota|
se|sm|c
storey shear
Vtoty (kN)
ne|ght of
each
storey
(mm)
Interstorey dr|ft
sens|t|v|ty coeff|c|ent 0
at
k d|rect|on
Interstorey dr|ft
sens|t|v|ty coeff|c|ent 0
at
d|rect|on
663.91 663.91 663.91 3000 Ck Ck
330.8 330.8 330.8 3000 Ck Ck
330 330 330 3000 Ck Ck



! !
!
!"!
! !
!"
!
!"!#
! !
! !!!" ! !
!
!"!
! !
!"
!
!"!#
! !
! !!!"















Page 184
12.0 Damage limitation according to EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.3

The damage limitation requirement is considered to have been satisfied, if, under a seismic
action having a larger probability of occurrence than the design seismic action corresponding
to the no-collapse requirement in accordance with 2.1(1)P and 3.2.1(3), the interstorey
drifts are limited in accordance with 4.4.3.2.
The damage limitation requirements should be verified in terms of the interstorey drift (d
r
)
(EN 1998-1-1,cl.4.4.3.2) using the equation below:

!
!
! ! ! !!!!" ! !
d
r
: is the difference of the average lateral displacement d
s
in CM at the top and bottom of
storey.
v: is the reduction factor which takes into account the lower return period of the seismic
action.
h: is the storey height
Table 12.1: Damage limitation (EN1998-1-1,cl.4.4.3)
For non-structural elements of brittle material attached to the structure
d
r
v+0.005h

For building having ductile non structural elements
d
r
v+0.0075h

For building having non-structural elements fixed in a way so as not to
interfere with structural deformation
d
r
v+0.010h


Table 12.2: Reduction factor of limitation to interstorey drift (CYA NA EN1998-1-
1,cl.NA.2.15)

Importance class Reduction factor v
I 0.5
II 0.5
III 0.4
IV 0.4

Page 185
12.1 Calculation of damage limitation


Table 12.3: Interstorey drift (see table 11.3)

Storey
D|sp|acement
D|rect|on x
dx.e
(mm)
D|sp|acement
D|rect|on y
dy.e
(mm)
8ehav|our
factor q
D|sp|acement
dsx
(mm)
c|.4.4.2.2
D|sp|acement
dsy
(mm)
c|.4.4.2.2
Interstorey
dr|ft
drx
(mm)
Interstorey
dr|ft
dry
(mm)
SLorey 3 11.742 11.7432 4 46.968 46.9808 6.7734 6.7776
SLorey 2 8.3343 8.3364 4 33.4172 33.4236 9.0274 9.0296
SLorey 1 3.8406 3.8416 4 13.3624 13.3664 7.6812 7.6832


keduct|on
factor
v
c|.4.4.3.2(2)
ne|gh of
each
storey
(mm)
Damage ||m|tat|on
check
k-d|rect|on
Damage ||m|tat|on
check
-d|rect|on
0.4 3000 Ck Ck
0.4 3000 Ck Ck
0.4 3000 Ck Ck
!
!
! ! ! !!!!" ! ! !
!
! ! ! !!!!" ! !








Page 186
ANNEX - A

ANNEX A.1 - Assumptions made in the design algorithm (Manual of ETABS EC3 &
EC8)


1. Load combination

The automated load combinations are based on the STR ultimate limit states and the
characteristic serviceability limit states.

2. Axial force check

Tubular sections are assumed to be hot finished for selecting the appropriate buckling
curve from EC3 Table 6.2. This is non conservative if cold formed sections are used.

3. Bending moment check

The load is assumed to be applied at the shear center for the calculation of the elastic
critical moment.
Any eccentric moment due to load applied at other locations is not automatically
accounted for.

4. Shear Force Check

Plastic design is assumed such that Vc,Rd is calculated in accordance with EC3
6.2.6(2).
The shear area, Av is taken from the input frame section property, rather than using
the equations defined in EC3 6.2.6(3).
Transverse stiffeners exist only at the supports and create a non-rigid end post for the
shear buckling check. No intermediate stiffeners are considered.

Page 187
The contribution from the flanges is conservatively ignored for the shear buckling
capacity.

5. Combined Forces Check

The interaction of bending and axial force is checked in accordance with EC3
6.2.1(7), which may be conservative compared to EC3 6.2.9.
The calculation of the equivalent uniform moment factors, Cm, assumes uniform
loading, which is conservative.
A1.1:Limitation made in the design algorithm (Manual of ETABS EC3&EC8)

6. General

Class 4 sections are not designed (EC3 5.5) and should be considered using other
methods.
The effects of torsion are not considered in the design (EC3 6.2.7) and should be
considered using other methods.

7. Axial Force Check

The net area is not determined automatically. This can be specified on a member-by-
member basis using the Net Area to Total Area Ratio overwrite.
The axial buckling check does not consider torsional or torsional-flexural buckling.

8. Combined Forces Check

The effect of high shear is checked only for Class 1 or 2 I-sections when combined
with bending. Other section shapes and classes require independent checks to be
carried out.

Page 188
ANNEX B: Steel design flowcharts












































w
1
= Initial part of the deflection under
permanent loads
w
c
= Precamber in the unloaded structural
member
w
2
= due to Permanent load
w
3
= due to Variable load

STEEL MEMBERS
(CYS NA EN1993-1-1,table NA.1)
Vertical deflection Limits
w
max

Cantilevers L/180

Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish L/360
Other beams (except purlin and sheeting rails) L/250
Purlins and sheeting rails To suit
cladding
General use L/300

Vertical deflection
(EN1993-1-1,cl.7.2.1)
BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN
(EN1990:2002)

u = Overall horizontal displacement over the building height H
u
i
= Horizontal displacement over height H
i
STEEL MEMBERS
(CYS NA EN1993-1-1,table NA.2)
Horizontal deflection Limits
w
max

Top of columns in single storey buildings, exept portal frames H/300

Columns in portal frame buildings, not supporting crane runways To suit
cladding
In each storey of the building with more than one storey Storey
height/300
On the multi-storey building as a whole Building
height/500


Horizontal deflection
(EN1993-1-1,cl.7.2.2)

Page 189




























STEEL MEMBERS
(CYS NA EN1993-1-1,table NA.3)
Design situation Limits natural
frequency
Floors over which people walk regularly 5Hz

Floor which is jumped or danced on in a rhythmical manner 9Hz




Dynamic effects (vibration of floors)
(EN1993-1-1,cl.7.2.3)
Effective length
(Design Guidance of EC3)
Figure 1: Effective length columns (Design Guidance of EC3)


End restraints Fixed/Fixed
Partial restrain
in direction
Pined/Fixed Pinned/Pined
Free in
position/Fixed
Free/Fixed
Effective length
factor, ky,z
0.7L 0.85L 0.85L 1.0L 1.2L 2.0L


Page 190













































!
!!!"
!
!
!"!!
!
!
!
!!
!
!!!"
!
!
!"!!"#
!
!
!
!!

Bending resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl. 6.2.5)

Class 1 or 2 Class 3
!
!"
! !
!!!"

Compression resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl. 6.2.4)
Class 1 or 2and3
!
!!!"
!
!!
!
!
!!

!
!"
! !
!!!"

Fastener holes in tension flange may be ignored if:
!
!!!"#
!! !!
!
!!
!"
! !
!
!
!
!!
!"


Page 191













































Shear resistance
(EN1993-1-1,cl. 6.2.6)

Rolled I and
H sections
(load parallel
to web)
CHS
!
!
! ! !!!!
!
! !
!
!!! !
!


!
!
! !!!!
RHS
!
!
! !!!!! !
!!Load parallel to
depth
!
!
! !"!!! !
!!Load parallel to
width
!
!"
! !
!!!"

!
!
! !
!
! !
!

!
!
!!
!
! !!!
!
!"
!
!
!"
!
!

!
!!!"
!
!
!"
!
!
!! !!
!!
!

Elastic design
!
!"
!
!!!"
! !! !
Plastic design
!
!"!!"
!
!
!
!!
!
! !!
!
!!

Rolled C
channel
sections
(load parallel
to web)
but
,!!
!
!
!


!= 1.0
(conservative
value)

Ignore Shear buckling resistance for
webs without intermediate stiffeners
!
!
!
!
! !"
!
!


Page 192













































Combine Bending and shear
(EN1993-1-1,cl. 6.2.8)

Shear design
resistance NO
Reduction of
resistances
(effect on M
c,Rd
)

YES
NO Reduction of
resistances
(no effect on M
c,Rd
)

!
!"
! !!! ! !
!"!!"

! ! ! !
!!
!"
!
!"!!"
! !
!


!
!"!!"
!
!
!
!!
!
! !!
!
!!


!
!"
! ! ! ! !
!


Reduced design plastic
resistance moment
!
!
! !
!
!
!



!
!!!!!"
!
!!
!"!!
!
!!
!
!
!!
!
!!
!
!
!"
! !
!!!!!"


If torsion present:
! ! ! !
!!
!"
!
!"!!!!"
! !
!


For an I and H sections
!
!"!!!!"
! ! !
!
!!!"
!!!" !
!
! ! !!
!!
!
!"!!"



Page 193



























Bending & Axial force
(EN1993-1-1,cl. 6.2.9)

Doubly symmetrical
I and H sections
Z-Z axis
Doubly symmetrical
I and H sections
Y-Y axis

!
!"
!
!!! ! !
!
! !
!
! !
!
!
!!


!
!"
! !!!"!
!"!!"


!
!!!!!"
! !
!"!!!!"
!! ! !!!!! ! !!!!!

M
N,y,Rd
# M
pl,y,Rd
! !
!
!"
!
!"!!"

! !
! ! !!!
!
!
! !!!
!
!"
!
!
!
! !
!
! !
!
!
!!

! !
!
!"
!
!"!!"

! !
! ! !!!
!
!
! !!!
!
!!!!!"
! !
!"!!!!"
! !
! ! !
! ! !
!

! ! !
!
!!!!!"
! !
!"!!!!"

! ! !
NO YES
Ignored
axial force
Consider
axial force
NO YES
Ignored
axial force
Consider
axial force
Class 1 or 2
!
!"
!
!"
!
!
!!!"
!
!!!"
!
!
!!!"
!
!!!"
! !! !



Page 194












































For RHS
Y-Y axis
Z-Z axis

!
!"
!
!
!
! !
!
! !
!
!
!!

NO YES
Ignored
axial force
Consider
axial force
Hollow section Welded box section
!
!
! !! ! !!"!!!! ! !!!
!
!
! !! ! !"!!!!! ! !!!
!
!
! !! ! !!!
!
!!!! ! !!!
!
!
! !! ! !"!
!
!!!! ! !!!
!
!!!!!"
!
!
!"!!!!"
! ! !
! ! !!!!
!
! !
!"!!!!"

!
!!!!!"
!
!
!"!!!!"
! ! !
! ! !!!!
!
! !
!"!!!!"

Bending & Axial force
(EN1993-1-1,cl. 6.2.9)

Class 1 or 2
!
!!!"
!
!!!!!"
!
!
!
!!!"
!
!!!!!"
!
! !! !


I and H section CHS RHS
! ! !
! ! !! ! !
! ! !
!"
!!
!"!!"

! ! !
! ! !! ! !
! ! !
!"
!!
!"!!"

! ! ! !
!!!!
! ! !!!"!
!

!"#! ! ! ! !


Page 195












































Buckling resistance in compression
(EN1993-1-1,cl. 6.3.1.1)

!
!!!"
!
!!!
!
!
!!
!

Class 1 or 2and3
!
!"
! !
!!!"

! ! !!! ! ! ! ! ! !!! ! !
!

! !
!!
!
!
!"

Buckling curve a
o
a b c d
Imperfection factor a 0,13 0,21 0,34 0,49 0,76

! !
!
! ! !
!
! !
!
! ! ! !!!
Slenderness for flexural buckling
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!
!
for ideal strut

Cross-section Limits Buckling
about axis
Buckling
curve
Rolled
I sections
h/b>1.2
t
f
+40mm
y-y a
z-z b
40mm<t
f
+100mm
y-y b
z-z c
h/b+1.2
t
f
+ 100mm
y-y b
z-z c
t
f
> 100mm
y-y d
z-z d
U-T and solid section any C
L-sections any b
Hollow
sections
Hot finished any a
Cold formed any c

! ! !!!
!
!"
!!
!"
! !!!"
NO
(consider buckling effects)
YES
(ignored buckling effects)

Page 196












































Buckling resistance in bending
(EN1993-1-1,cl. 6.3.2)

!
!!!"
!
!
!"
!
!
!
!
!
!!

Class 1 or 2and3
!
!"
!
!!!"
! !! !
!
!"
!
!
!
!
!
!
!"

Slenderness for flexural buckling
!
!
! !
!
!
!
! !"!!! ! !
!"#
!
!

Class 1 or 2 Class 3
W
y
=W
pl,y
W
y
=W
el,y

!
!"
!
!
!
!"
! !
!"
!
! !
!"
!
! !
!"
! !!!
!
!"
! !!! ! ! !
!"
!
!"
! !!! ! !
!"
!

Buckling curve a b c d
Imperfection factor a
LT
0,21 0,34 0,49 0,76

Cross-section Limits Buckling
curve
Rolled I-sections h/b+2
h/b>2
a
b
Welded I-sections h/b+2
h/b>2
c
d
Other cross-sections - d

See following pages for
calculation of M
cr
and %
L


Page 197












































Calculation process of M
cr

(www.access-steel.com - Document SN003a&b)

!
!"
! !
!
!
!
!!
!
!!!
!"
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!!!
!"
!
!
!!
!
!
!
!!
!
! !
!
!
!
!
! !
!
!
!


Step 1: Define the properties of member
Term Description Values
L Distance between point of
lateral restraint
L
cr
=kl
E Youngs modulus 210000 N/mm
2
G Shear modulus 80770 N/mm
2
I
z
Second moment of area about
the weak axis

From section table
I
t
Torsion constant
I
w
Warping constant
k Effective length factor 1.0 unless justified otherwise
k
w
Factor for end warping 1.0 unless justified otherwise
z
g
Distance between the point of
load application and the shear
centre
+/-(h/2) or 0 if the load is
applied through the shear
centre


Step 2: Calculate the coefficient C
1
and C
2
Loading and
support conditions
C
2
-=M
1
/M
2
C
1

Pinned UDL 0,454 1.00 1,00
Fixed UDL 1,554 0.75 1.14
Pinned central P 0,630 0.50 1,31
Fixed central P 1,645 0.25 1,62
0 1,77
-0.25 2,05
-0.50 2,33
-0.75 2,57
-1.00 2,55
Pinned UDL 1,127
Pinned, central P 1,348


!
!"
!
!
!
!!
!
!
!"
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!"
!
!!
!
!
!
!!
!
!!!


Point of application of the load is
through the shear centre
YES
z
g
=0
NO
z
g


Page 198












































Alternative method to calculate the M
cr
and %
LT

!
!"
!
!
!
!
!"!
!
!
!

Non-dimensional slenderness
Simply supported rolled I, H
and C section
!
!
!
! !!!(conservative value)
! ! !!!(conservative value)
! ! !!! (conservative value)
!
!
!
!"
!
!

K=1.0 for beams
k=1.0 for free cantilever
k=0.9 for lateral restraint to top flange
k=0.8 for torsional restraint
k=0.7 for lateral and torsional restraint
"
w
= 1.0
(conservative value)


Page 199












































Member combined bending and axial compression
(EN1993-1-1,cl. 6.3.3)



!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!
!"
!!
!!
!
!!!"
!
!"
!
!!!"
!
!"
!!
!"
!
!!!"
!
!!!"
!
!"
! !! !


!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!
!"
!!
!"
!
!!!"
!
!"
!
!!!"
!
!"
!!
!!
!
!!!"
!
!!!"
!
!"
! !! !

Class 1 and 2 Class 3
Method 2:Interaction factor k
ij
for members not susceptible to torsional deformations
(Recommended by CYS NA EN 1993-1-1,cl.NA2.20 Table B.1)
Interaction
factors
Type of sections
Plastic cross-sectional properties
Class 1 and 2
Elastic cross-sectional properties
Class 3
k
yy
I-sections
RHS-sections
!
!"
! ! !
!
! !! !
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


! !
!"
! ! !! !
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


!
!"
! ! !! !!
!
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


! !
!"
! ! !! !
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


k
yz

I-sections
RHS-sections
0.6k
zz
k
zz
k
zy
I-sections
RHS-sections
0.6k
yy
0.8k
yy

k
zz
I-sections
!
!"
! ! !"
!
! !! !
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


! !
!"
! ! !! !"
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


!
!"
! ! !! !!
!
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


! !
!"
! ! !! !
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


RHS-sections
!
!"
! ! !
!
! !! !
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


! !
!"
! ! !! !
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"




Page 200












































Method 2:Interaction factor k
ij
for members susceptible to torsional deformations
(Recommended by CYS NA EN 1993-1-1,cl.NA2.20 Table B.2)
Interaction
factors
Plastic cross-sectional properties
Class 1 and 2
Elastic cross-sectional properties
Class 3
k
yy
K
yy
from Table B.1 K
yy
from Table B.1
k
yz
K
yz
from Table B.1

K
yz
from Table B.1

k
zz
! !
!! !!
!
!
!"#
! !! !"
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


! ! !
!! !
!
!"#
! !! !"
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


for!
!
! !!!!

!
!"
! !! ! ! !
!
! ! !
!! !!
!
!
!"#
! !! !"
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"

! !
!! !"!
!
!
!"#
! !! !"
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"


! ! !
!! !"
!
!"#
! !! !"
!
!"
!
!
!
!"
!!
!"




Page 201












































Summary design of steel member in bending

Choose yield strength of
section, f
y
from table 3.1 in
EN 1993-1-1
Get starin& from table 5.2 in
EN 1993-1-1
Substitute the value of &into
the class limits in table 5.2 to
work out the class of the
flange and web
Take the latest favourable
class from the flange outstand,
web in bending and web in
compression results
Use the required value of W
for the defined class to work
out M
c,Rd
Cross-section Resistance
check

Design step Results

f
y

&
Flange Class

Web class
Overall
Section
Class

M
c,Rd
Steel
grade
fy (N/mm
2)
Nominal thickness of element t (mm)
t+16 16+t+40 40+t+63 63+t+80
S275 275 265 255 245
S355 355 345 335 325

! !
!"#
!
!

f
y
235 275 355 420
!

1.00 0.92 0.81 0.75

Flange under compression: c=(b-t
w
-2r)/2
c/t
f
Web under pure bending: c=(h-2t
f
-2r)
c/t
w

M
c,Rd
= M
pl,Rd
= W
pl,y
f
y
/'
M0
Class 1 & 2

M
c,Rd
= M
el,Rd
= W
el,min
f
y
/'
M0
Class 3

M
c,Rd
= W
eff,min
f
y
/'
M0
Class 4

Class 1 or 2
Class 3
Class 4

Page 202












































Summary design of steel member in shear

Calculate the shear area of the
section, A
v

Calculate the design plastic
shear resistance, V
pl,Rd

Shear resistance check
Design step Results

A
v

V
pl,Rd


V
Ed
#V
c,Rd
Steel
grade
fy (N/mm
2)
Nominal thickness of element t (mm)
t+16 16+t+40 40+t+63 63+t+80
S275 275 265 255 245
S355 355 345 335 325

!
!"!!"
!
!
!
!!
!
! !!
!
!!



Page 203












































Summary of buckling resistance in bending

Calculate the design bending
moment and shear
Section classification
Design step Results

M
Ed
&V
Ed

W
y
&f
y
Calculate critical length
L
cr
Calculate Critical moment
M
cr
Calculate non-dimensional
slenderness %
LT


%
LT
Calculate imperfection factor
(
LT


(
LT
Calculate reduction factor
)
LT


)
LT

Calculate modified/reduction
factor for lateral-torsional
buckling
*
LT
or*
LT,mod
*
LT
*
LT,mod

Buckling resistance check
!
!"
!
!!!"
! !! !

Calculate buckling resistance
M
b,Rd


M
b,Rd