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VOCABULARY

PREFIXES AND ROOTS


If you are familiar with these word parts, you can often decipher the meaning of unfamiliar words, even words you have never seen before. In the following lists, each element is followed by its meaning in parentheses and one or more words formed with it.

PREFIXES
These are the parts that are placed in front of words to change or modify the meaning. For example, pre- is a prefix meaning in front, before. Added to fix, it creates a word meaning "to place in front." Positive or intensifying prefixes: arch- chief, principal!" archbishop, a bishop of the highest ran#$ architect, the designer of a building originally the chief builder!

bene- good, well!" benefactor, one who does good$ benevolent. wishing well eu- good. well. beautiful!" eulogize, spea# well of someone, praise$ euphemism, pleasant way of saying something unpleasant extra- beyond, outside!" extraordinary, unusual. exceptional$ extracurricular, outside the usual course of studies pro- for, before, in front of!" proponent, supporter$ progress, advancement, going forward or further super- over, above!" supernatural. beyond the normal$ superintendent, one who watches over or is in charge ultra- beyond. excessively!" ultraconservative. %verly conservative. &eactionary

Negative prefixes:

an-, a- without!" anarchy, without government anti- against. opposite!" antidote, remedy for poison$ antipathy. disli#e, aversion contra- against!" contradict, disagree$ controversy, dispute, argument de- down. away from!" debase, lower in value$ decant. pour off dis-, di-, dif- not, apart!" discord, lack of harmony$ dismember. separate into parts$ diverge, go in different directions ex-, e-, ef- out, off, from!" exhale, breathe out$ eject, throw out in-, ig-, il-, im-, ir- not!" incorrect, wrong$ illegal, against the law$ immature, not fully grown mal-, male- bad, badly!" malediction, curse$ malefactor, evil doer mis- wrong, ill, not!" misbehave, act badly$ misfortune, bad luc# non- not!" nonsense, something absurd ob-, oc-, of-, op- against!" object, give reasons against$ oppose, resist, stand in the way of
TRAINING COURSES FOR THE TOEFL iBT, GMAT, GRE, SAT AND MICHIGAN TESTS

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sub-, suc-, suf-, sug- under!" subjugate, bring under control un- not!" untrue. false

Other prefixes:

ab-, abs- from, away from!" abduct, lead away, #idnap$ abnormal, strange, not following the usual pattern ad-, ac-, af-, ag-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at- to, forward!" advance, go forward$ aggravate, ma#e worse ambi- both!" ambivalent, having conflicting emotions leaning both ways! ante- before!" antebellum, before the war usually the 3ivil 7ar! auto- self!" automobile, a vehicle that moves by itself circum- around!" circumspect, cautious loo#ing around! com-, co-, con- with, together!" combine, merge with en-, em- in, into!" emphasize, put stress on in-, il-, im-, ir- in, into!" invade, go in li#e an enemy inter- between, among!" intervene, come between per- through!" perforate, ma#e holes through pre- before!" precede, go before re- bac#, again!" respond, answer se- apart!" segregate, set apart trans- across, beyond, through!" transparent, letting light through

Roots
8ou will be surprised by how many 9nglish words are derived from :ust these ;0 roots.

ag, act todo!" act, deed$ agent, doer$ retroactive, having a bac#ward action cap, capt, cep, cip to ta#e!" particpate, ta#e part$ capture,sei<e$ precept, a wise saying originally a command! ced, cess to yield, to go!" recede, go bac#$ antecedent,that which goes before cred, credit to believe!" incredulous, not believing, s#eptical$ incredible, unbelievable curr, curs to run!" excursion, :ourney$ cursory, brief$ precursor, forerunner dic, dict to say!" abdicate, renounce$ diction, speech$ verdict, decision or statement of a :ury

TRAINING COURSES FOR THE TOEFL iBT, GMAT, GRE, SAT AND MICHIGAN TESTS

J. ENRIQUE NOGALES C.
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duc, duct to lead!" aqueduct, artificial waterway$ education, training leading out!$ conduct, lead or guide fac, fie, fec, fect to ma#e or do!" factory, place where things are made$ fiction, made-up story$ affect,cause to change

fer, lat from an irregular =atin verb meaning to bring, to carry!" transfer, to bring from one place to another$ translate, to bring from one language to another graph, gram writing!" epigram, a pithy statement$ telegram, a message sent over great distances$ graphite, a soft carbon that is so named because you can write with it leg, lect to choose, read!" election, choice$ legible, able to be read$ eligible, able to be selected mitt, miss to send!" missile, pro:ectile$ admit, let in$ dismiss, send away$ transmit, send across mori, mort to die!" mortuary, funeral parlor$ moribund, dying$ immortal, never dying pon, posit to place!" postpone, place after or later$ positive, definite, certain definitely placed! port, portat to carry!" portable, able to be carried$ transport, carry across$ export, carry out of the country scrib, script to write!" transcribe, copy$ script, writing$ circumscribe, enclose, limit write around!

TRAINING COURSES FOR THE TOEFL iBT, GMAT, GRE, SAT AND MICHIGAN TESTS

J. ENRIQUE NOGALES C.
'hones" ()*+(,- - ..-*/-+0, 1ovistar! 2 .-++*+.*, 3laro! email" enri4ue.nogales5yahoo.com www.toeflperu.com 6 www.proficiencydevelopment.com