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A monthly house bulletin of Defence Research & Development Organisation ISSN : 0971-4413 ■ Vol.

A monthly house bulletin of Defence Research & Development Organisation

ISSN : 0971-4413

Vol. 31 No. 7

July 2011

BULLETIN OF DEFENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION Vol. 21 No. 6 December 2013

2 1 N o . 6 D e c e m b e r 2 0

A self-reliant and strong navy to protect India’s maritime interests is central to our national policy. DRDO is involved in design and development of highly complex and technologically intensive naval warfare systems to meet the requirements of the Indian navy. Naval weapons and platforms operate under entirely different environmental conditions. The different set of technologies, which require integration of multi disciplinary technologies, therefore, need to be developed. This issue of Technology Focus focuses on some of the underwater weapons and associated technologies developed by Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (NSTL), DRDO.

Advanced Lightweight Torpedo Actuation System

Electro-mechanical actuator has been designed

and developed for operation of control surfaces of

advanced lightweight torpedo (ALWT). The actuator is

a permanent magnet brushless motor with extended

motor shaft and a lead screw and guide nut with balls

arrangement to achieve high efficiency and low co-

efficient of friction. The supply voltage of motor is 56-

75 V dc with 20 amps peak. The actuator will generate a

stall force of 135 lbs with a minimum linear velocity of 7

in/s. The weight of actuator is 600 g approximately.

The actuation system has been successfully tested

in torpedo dynamic trials.

successfully tested i n t o r p e d o d y n a m

Assembly Actuation System

Assembly actuation system—Compact link system design Salient Features a Number of actuating channel : 4
Assembly actuation system—Compact link system design Salient Features a Number of actuating channel : 4
Assembly actuation system—Compact link system design Salient Features a Number of actuating channel : 4

Assembly actuation system—Compact link system design

Salient Features

a Number of actuating channel

:

4

a Torque on signal control surface

:

16 N-m

a Operating voltage

:

64 V dc endurance = 33 min

a Accuracy

:

< 0.5 o

CFRP Structural Shell Development

Composite Fiber Reinforced Plastic Shell

Development of CFRP shell requires very high level of stringent quality standards like resin handling system, autoclave facility, four-axes computer numerically controlled (CNC) filament winding and advanced collapsible mandrel and tool design.

DRDO has developed CFRP shell using heat curing ciba geigy epoxy resin. The required optimised filament winding angle patterns were generated through finite element analysis.

The shell has been reinforced using 6 K high strength carbon fiber roving. The shell is capable of withstanding shock, vibration and structural load to the tune of 60 bar of external hydrostatic pressure.

Salient Features

a Density

:

1.65 gm/cc

a Elastic modulus along the fiber

:

133 GPa

a Elastic modulus

:

9 GPa

across fiber

a Poisson's ratio

:

0.29

Heavy-weight torpedoes are designed to operate up to a depth of 600 m. Presently structural shells of these torpedoes are made of aluminium alloy forgings and castings. However, composite fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cell structure acts as a good damper for structures-borne noise with an advantage of reduction in weight.

CFRP Assembly Battery Shell

The CFRP assembly battery shell accommodates the battery for conducting dynamic trials. The assembly battery shell comprises CFRP battery shell with aluminium alloy end flanges fitted at either end through titanium alloy tie rods. The shell is manufactured with

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alloy end flanges fitted at either end through titanium alloy tie rods. The shell is manufactured

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Composite fibre reinforced plastic battery shell Inside view of the composite fibre reinforced plastic battery

Composite fibre reinforced plastic battery shell

Composite fibre reinforced plastic battery shell Inside view of the composite fibre reinforced plastic battery shell

Inside view of the composite fibre reinforced plastic battery shell

filament wound special purpose CNC filament winding machine.

The resing quality of the CFRP assembly battery shell has been controlled. The specified viscosity of the resin is maintained within the limits by suitably controlled heating of the incoming resin. A special purpose collapsible mandrel has been used in the machine within the specified run out limits. The CFRP shell is cured in fully controlled curing ovens for proper curing of the laminate.

controlled curing ovens for proper curing of the laminate. Composite shell Global Positioning System Ejection Mechanism
controlled curing ovens for proper curing of the laminate. Composite shell Global Positioning System Ejection Mechanism
controlled curing ovens for proper curing of the laminate. Composite shell Global Positioning System Ejection Mechanism

Composite shell

Global Positioning System Ejection Mechanism for Torpedo

Global positioning system (GPS) is assembled inside an ejection system in a torpedo. It helps in locating and recovering of the torpedo during exercise trials. Also, some other critical trial parameters can be determined from GPS transmission while torpedo is still in the water and helps in saving the time which otherwise is wasted in bringing the torpedo back to the laboratory, in opening it and then downloading the data. The

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is wasted in bringing the torpedo back to the laboratory, in opening it and then downloading

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Maximum stress contours in the housing critical trial parameters which are known in the lab
Maximum stress contours in the housing critical trial parameters which are known in the lab
Maximum stress contours in the housing critical trial parameters which are known in the lab

Maximum stress contours in the housing

critical trial parameters which are known in the lab immediately after trials are run termination, total run time, and homing contacts and steer aways.

transmission requirements. The system can withstand an external hydrostatic pressure of 60 bar corresponding to the maximum operating depth of 600 m. Mass of the total assembly is 5 kg. Overall dimensions of the system are: 390 x 130 x 100 mm. The major dimension is along perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the torpedo.

Integrated Pneumatic Recovery System

Unlike a missile, a torpedo records

its own data during experimental trials for evaluation of the system. This recorder is housed in the exercise head section of torpedo. Recovery of the torpedo is, therefore, essential after each mission trial at sea.

A GPS-based electronic mechanism has been designed to eject signal transmitting unit of GPS out of the lateral surface of the torpedo as per signal

GPS out of the lateral surface of the torpedo as per signal Ejected condition from torpedo

Ejected condition from torpedo shell

An Integrated Pneumatic Recovery System (IPRS) has been developed to provide a buoyancy of more than 100 kg at 100 m depth. The basic function of the system involves expansion of compressed air (330 bars) to inflate a torroidal balloon to 120 kg buoyancy against a hydrostatic pressure of 10 bar in two to three seconds time. When the torpedo starts ascending with this buoyancy, the external pressure keeps reducing thus expanding the balloon further. A selectively designed bleed valve has been catered in the balloon to maintain the external pressure with required differential pressure to avoid bursting of balloon. Since reliability of the system is of immense importance, a

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pressure to avoid bursting of balloon. Since reliability of the system is of immense importance, a

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redundant design of mechanical activation for releasing the pressure on balloon has been incorporated in case the pyrotechnic fails to operate the valve to release of pressure. A especially designed spherical titanium alloy bottle has been designed to cater for more than 660 bar pneumatic pressure. Maximum capacity of the bottle is 5 liter and a 300-cycle life.

The challenge of development of a leakproof, reinforced balloon system to withstand 1.3 bar differential pressure at 160 liter volume in air with a thickness of not exceeding 0.7 mm has been realised in the system. The entire balloon system is packable in an annulus area of torpedo. The IPRS system has undergone all environmental tests as per the naval QR and is being used successfully in experimental and developmental trials of ALWT test vehicles at sea.

and developmental trials of ALWT test vehicles at sea. The IPRS broadly comprises the following: a
and developmental trials of ALWT test vehicles at sea. The IPRS broadly comprises the following: a

The IPRS broadly comprises the following:

a

An aluminium alloy shell weighing 16 kg and capable of bearing an external pressure (maximum) of 16 bar

a

A

polyster fibre reinforced torroidal shape, puncture

resistant rugged inflatable bag having maximum

capacity by volume of 160 litre and capacity to bear

a

maximum differential pressure of 1.3 bar

a

The covers for sheathing inflatable bag and to

maintain

a

smooth

surface

of

Φ324 mm from

hydrodynamic standpoint

 

a

Retaining belts to keep the balloon within the annular space intact

a

The pressure transducers for measuring and recording air bottle (0-330 bar) and seawater (0-20 bar) pressure

and recording air bottle (0-330 bar) and seawater (0-20 bar) pressure The IPRS system testing in

The IPRS system testing in air

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and recording air bottle (0-330 bar) and seawater (0-20 bar) pressure The IPRS system testing in

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6 December 2013 IPRS components a Valves and parameters piping to meet the performance a
6 December 2013 IPRS components a Valves and parameters piping to meet the performance a
6 December 2013 IPRS components a Valves and parameters piping to meet the performance a

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6 December 2013 IPRS components a Valves and parameters piping to meet the performance a Interface

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IPRS components

a Valves

and

parameters

piping

to

meet

the

performance

a Interface electronics to initiate/trigger IPRS and to control the air discharge into balloon based on the positive ascent rate information

a A 24 V dc battery

Ship Fired Decoy Launcher

A reliable ship-fired decoy launcher has been designed and developed to meet the requirements of the Indian Navy. The system comprises pedestal assembly, a stationary support base, rotary base, local control panel, pneumatic charging panel, launch tube assembly, main valve assembly and an air bottle. The purpose of the system is to deploy countermeasures against torpedo and other attacking threats. The intrinsic capabilities of countermeasures have been designed to protect critical assets against the ever expanding threats of modern warfare with accurate positioning of the decoy or individual placement of sub-munitions.

Trainable launcher consists 10 x 100 mm caliber barrels mounted horizontally on a turntable. The launcher works on the principal of expansion of compressed air in to the barrel, thus resulting in necessary thrust to attain required muzzle velocity of the decoy from launcher tubes.

Each decoy launcher weighs 850 kg. Electro- pneumatic controls and remote, local, emergency firing modes have been provided to suit Navy’s requirements. Main modules of the launcher are:

Assembly training mechanism; assembly launch tube; assembly pneumatic charging panel and assembly

Decoy launcher launch control panel. Mode of operation of the launcher is both power and
Decoy launcher launch control panel. Mode of operation of the launcher is both power and
Decoy launcher launch control panel. Mode of operation of the launcher is both power and

Decoy launcher

launch control panel. Mode of operation of the launcher is both power and manual. It has a launching range of more than 20 meters away from the ship.

Technical Specifications

Overall weight

:

850 kg

Overall height

:

1025 mm

Overall width

:

1260 mm (dia)

Overall length

:

1560 mm (dia)

Bore of barrel

:

102 mm

Battery Technologies

Underwater weapons, vehicles and systems like lightweight torpedoes, heavy-weight torpedoes, underwater mines, autonomous underwater vehicles, static and mobile decoys, targets, etc., are electrically propelled, and therefore require power plants as a source of power. Electrochemical power systems like batteries are used both for propulsion as

well as powering the electronics and other sub-systems. Batteries are of primary (one or number of times usage till the capacity exhausts), secondary (rechargeable/reusable) and reserve primary (non-rechargeable and use once on activation) types and converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. For a given battery chemistry, each type possess different power and energy content for the given weight and volume.

Because of high drag encountered by the underwater systems while moving underwater, volume and weight are critical components while designing these. Accordingly, the power sources also need to meet these essential criteria resulting into choosing systems with high energy and power density, both gravimetrically as well as volumetrically. There are very few battery systems, which fall under this category, and available commercially, NSTL has developed some of these technologies, which are described here:

250 kW Silver oxide Zinc-Secondary Propulsion Battery for Heavy-weight Torpedo

Silver-Zinc system has the highest mass energy density (watt-hours per kg) and the highest volumetric energy density (watt-hours per litre) of all battery systems in use today. This system fits suitably in many applications, generally military, better than any other system presently operational, especially if one considers the combination of high rate capability, high energy densities and above all, safety. Silver oxide–Zinc (AgO- Zn) secondary battery is used as a power source for propulsion and other requirements of sub-systems of

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Zn) secondary battery is used as a power source for propulsion and other requirements of sub-systems

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250 kW AgO-Zn Secondary Propulsion Battery a heavy-weight torpedo. This battery is rechargeable and thus
250 kW AgO-Zn Secondary Propulsion Battery a heavy-weight torpedo. This battery is rechargeable and thus
250 kW AgO-Zn Secondary Propulsion Battery a heavy-weight torpedo. This battery is rechargeable and thus

250 kW AgO-Zn Secondary Propulsion Battery

a heavy-weight torpedo. This battery is rechargeable and thus suitable for repeated use.

A 250 W AgO-Zn secondary battery has been developed for torpedo propulsion. The battery is capable of providing 10 charged discharge cycles in 12 months wet life period. It comprises a number of cells

connected in series. Each cell has the nominal capacity

of 153 Ah. Length and weight of the battery are 2.5 m

and 600 kg, respectively.

Silver oxide–Zinc Secondary Battery for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

NSTL has successfully developed AgO-Zn rechargeable secondary battery for Autonomous

Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The battery has been tested for 50 service cycles within 12 months wet life period with 4 hours discharge duration. This long endurance battery is being used as power source for AUV to power, propulsion, sensors, electronics, communications, recovery aids and other sub-systems. Battery with multiple voltages packs, i.e., 150 V, 28 V stacks with 120 Ah cells, and 48 V stack with 40 Ah cells, arranged in series, delivers the required power for more than 7 hours at 4 knots approximate speed. The battery meets

30 days charge retention and 30 days discharge stand

periods at 15 o C to 55 o C operating temperature and 0 to 35 o C storage temperature

28 V/65 V Silver oxide-Zinc Reserve Primary Auxiliary Battery

A 28 V/65 V AgO-Zn reserve primary battery has been developed for powering auxiliary power requirement of combat version of heavy-weight torpedo. This battery comprises two different sections, namely,

28 V section and 65 V section. Cells in each section are

connected in series to form cell monoblocks. The cell monoblocks are assembled suitably over distribution manifold blocks and are provided with relief valve for uniform filling cum bleeding of excessive pressure.

for uniform filling cum bleeding of excessive pressure. AgO-Zn Secondary Battery with trays for Autonomous

AgO-Zn Secondary Battery with trays for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

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cum bleeding of excessive pressure. AgO-Zn Secondary Battery with trays for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle 8 December

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28V/65V AgO-Zn Reserve Primary Auxiliary Battery The electrolyte (potassium hydroxide solution), for the activation of

28V/65V AgO-Zn Reserve Primary Auxiliary Battery

The electrolyte (potassium hydroxide solution), for the

activation of the battery, is stored within the battery

in two stainless steel cylinders with piston mechanism.

The battery contains two gas generators of 1200 cc (for

28 V section) and 2400 cc (for 65 V section) to inject the

electrolyte into the stack. The output wires from both

sections and gas generator are connected to output

connectors, mounted on the container of the battery.

220 kW Magnesium-Cuprous Chloride Seawater Activated Reserve Primary Propulsion Battery for Heavy-weight Torpedo

Magnesium-Cuprous Chloride (Mg-CuCl) seawater

activated (SWA) battery is used for propulsion of

torpedoes. Seawater acts as an electrolyte in the

battery. Since the electrolyte does not essentially

constitute a part of the battery, the dry weight of the battery is low. This battery comprises electrochemical pile stack (cartridge); scoop bulkhead to scoop seawater and other hardware units such as front flange which accommodates the terminal; distribution plate

flange which accommodates the terminal; distribution plate for uniform circulation of seawater; conduit pipes for
flange which accommodates the terminal; distribution plate for uniform circulation of seawater; conduit pipes for

for uniform circulation of seawater; conduit pipes for cables; tie rods for clamping; etc. All the components are lightweight and occupy less volume and are assembled in a shell with electrical and mechanical interfaces of other sub-systems of the vehicle. The electrochemical pile stack consists of duplex electrodes stacked under end-to-end compression in a pile configuration. Each duplex is made up of CuCl cathode, Mg alloy anode, Cu foil current collector (separates anode and cathode) and epoxy separators.

The 37 kW battery modules is the building block for 220 kW full battery. When seawater enters through the scoop bulkhead into the cartridge, the electrochemical reaction commences generating power. Scoop bulkhead is capable of scooping the required quantity of seawater for the required rate of discharge. The battery is 1.95 m long and realises energy density of 71.51 Wh/kg out of theoretical value of 386 Wh/kg.

of 71.51 Wh/kg out of theoretical value of 386 Wh/kg. 220 kW Mg-CuCl Seawater Activated Reserve

220 kW Mg-CuCl Seawater Activated Reserve Primary Propulsion Battery

70 kW Power Magnesium-Silver Chloride Seawater Activated Reserve Primary Battery for Lightweight Torpedo

Magnesium-Silver Chloride (Mg-AgCl) battery is SWA

reserve primary type high energy and power density

battery indigenously developed by NSTL. This battery

comprises electrochemical pile stack with scoop

bulkhead, CFRP shell, end flange, etc. Electrochemical

pile stack is made of duplex-bipolar electrodes stacked

one above other. The duplex comprises Mg alloy

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pile stack is made of duplex-bipolar electrodes stacked one above other. The duplex comprises Mg alloy

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70 kW Mg-AgCl battery for ALWT practice version anode, AgCl cathode, and Ag foil current
70 kW Mg-AgCl battery for ALWT practice version anode, AgCl cathode, and Ag foil current
70 kW Mg-AgCl battery for ALWT practice version anode, AgCl cathode, and Ag foil current

70 kW Mg-AgCl battery for ALWT practice version

anode, AgCl cathode, and Ag foil current collector. Seawater has been used as an electrolyte. Theoretical, open circuit and nominal voltage of the battery is approximately 2.59, 1.9 and 1.3 V, respectively. When seawater enters through the cell, electrochemical reaction commences generating power along with secondary corrosion reaction.

Being exothermic reaction along with heat, it generates hydrogen gas and precipitates. Sufficient seawater flow as electrolyte is, therefore, necessary to remove the heat generated, sludge formed and hydrogen gas evolved. Performance of the battery depends on both temperature and salinity of the seawater. Scoop bulk head of the battery has been specially designed to scoop and ensure desired rate of seawater flow. The battery is being used for propulsion of ALWT practice version. It has a storage life of five years when stowed

in dry state at temperature and humidity controlled conditions.

120 kW Aluminum–Silver oxide Seawater Activated Reserve Primary Battery for Lightweight Torpedo

Aluminum-Silver oxide (Al-AgO) SWA battery is a reserve lightweight and light volume primary type high energy and power density battery. The battery is the most powerful in its class, and is being developed indigenously for lightweight torpedo application.

The battery is shell integrated and comprises electrochemical pile stack, electrolyte management system, etc. EPS consists of multiple cells stacked under end-to-end compression in a pile configuration. EMS consists of mode valve, solid electrolyte reservoir, thermostatic valve, heat exchanger, gas separator, recirculation pump and motor, valves, diaphragm, sensors, electronics control units, etc. All the

diaphragm, sensors, electronics control units, etc. All the Model of Al–AgO Reserve Primary Battery 10 December

Model of Al–AgO Reserve Primary Battery

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diaphragm, sensors, electronics control units, etc. All the Model of Al–AgO Reserve Primary Battery 10 December

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components with lightweight, low volume and with required functionalities are integrated in a shell as
components with lightweight, low volume and with required functionalities are integrated in a shell as

components with lightweight, low volume and with required functionalities are integrated in a shell as a single unit with electrical and mechanical interfaces of other sub-systems of the vehicle.

as electrolyte, is stored separately in a stainless steel vessel. A pressurized nitrogen gas cylinder has been provided in the module to pump the electrolyte into the cells when it is opened.

250 kW Silver oxide-Zinc Circular Plate Reserve Primary Propulsion Battery for Heavyweight Torpedo

A 250 kW Silver oxide-Zinc (AgO-Zn) reserve primary battery has been developed to power the combat version of HWT propulsion. Electrodes of the battery are made circular in shape to occupy maximum volume. The battery module comprises two groups of cells. The cells in each group are connected in series. The output polarities of the two groups are connected to the main terminals of the module. Each cell of the module contains a set of positive and negative electrodes suitably connected to form a high rate discharge cell. Potassium hydroxide, used

A pyrotechnical device is attached to the gas cylinder to rupture its metal diaphragm and to open the gas to the electrolyte tank. The electrode stacks of the cells develop voltage as soon as they receive the electrolyte, as they are assembled in dry charged condition. Length and weight of the battery are 2.5 m and 650 kg, respectively.

Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Primary Battery for Underwater Mines

Lithium-Thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl 2 ) primary battery, a high energy density battery technology, has been developed indigenously for sea mine applications. Li-SOCl 2 primary battery with low self discharge rate, high energy content in less weight and volume, is preferred compared to other primary and secondary batteries. The 28 V battery, with more than 700 Ah, powers the sensors and instrumentation systems of the mine. Li-SOCl 2 cells are connected in serial-parallel combinations to get desired voltage and capacity. Fuse and diodes have been used in the battery to avoid high current drain and reverse current flow. The battery

high current drain and reverse current flow. The battery 250 kW AgO-Zn Circular Plate Reserve Primary

250 kW AgO-Zn Circular Plate Reserve Primary Propulsion Battery

has five years of storage life.

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battery 250 kW AgO-Zn Circular Plate Reserve Primary Propulsion Battery has five years of storage life.

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Li–SOCl 2 Primary Cells for Multi Influential Ground Mine Module Li-Ion Polymer Secondary Battery for
Li–SOCl 2 Primary Cells for Multi Influential Ground Mine Module Li-Ion Polymer Secondary Battery for
Li–SOCl 2 Primary Cells for Multi Influential Ground Mine Module Li-Ion Polymer Secondary Battery for
Li–SOCl 2 Primary Cells for Multi Influential Ground Mine Module Li-Ion Polymer Secondary Battery for

Li–SOCl 2 Primary Cells for Multi Influential Ground Mine Module

Li-Ion Polymer Secondary Battery for Underwater Mines

Though, AgO-Zn battery has high energy content, it

generates gas, provides less number of service cycles,

has limited wet life period causing high maintenance

and cycle costs. Nowadays, lithium-based secondary

batteries, i.e., Li-Ion and Li-Ion Polymer batteries with

high energy density, more service cycle (> 500 cycles),

more service life (> 5 years) are available for long

endurance.

Lithium-Ion polymer secondary battery pack (26 V, 75 Ah) is being developed and tested by NSTL. It is the power source for exercise version of multi influential ground mine (MIGM). This battery consists high capacity Li-Ion polymer pouch type cells connected in series with protection circuits and assembled in FRP battery housing. This battery has five years of service life and provides more than 500 cycles.

Technology Focus focuses on the technological developments in the Organisation, covering the products, processes and technologies.