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2. Mortars and concrete mixes with combined additives SYL 0.2% + S 0.

15% have increased workability compared with mixes without additives or with additive SYL 0.2%, both according to the standard method and to comparison of the values of tan~, C, and Pe" LITERATURE CITED
.

2. 3.

R. Lermit, Problems of Concrete Technology [in Russian], Gosstroiizdat, Moscow (1959). M. N. Gol'dshtein, Mechanical Properties of Soils [in Russian], Stroiizdat, Moscow (1979). N. A. Tsytovich, Soil Mechanics [in Russian], Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow (1968).

OPTIMIZATION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS OF COMPLEX SURGE TANKS N. N. Arshenevskii, V. V. Berlin, and O. A. Murav'ev UDC 627.846

Surge tanks are specified at a number of hydroelectric and pumped-storage stations under construction and being planned: Irganai, Miatla, Mainak hydroelectric stations, Stavropol' pumped-storage station, Hoa-binh hydroelectric station in VietNam, Olmos in Peru, etc. Surge tanks are complicated and costly structures. are faced with the problem of optimizing their designs. In connection with this designers

The graph-analytic method of calculation used~heretofore, being rather labor-intensive, does not permit a broad analysis in designs of the effect on transients of various design parameters of surge tanks~ especially of complex types such as throttled (restricted-orifice) or differential. The use of modern computing machinery made it possible on the basis of numerous variant calcul~tions to develop a method of optimizing the design parameters of surge tanks, which for each particular type of tank calls for taking intoaccount the specific characteristics of its operation in transients. The problem of optimizing the design of a surge tank is solved in the scope of the more general problem of optimizing the design of the pressure conduits of hydrostations and structures onthem. To tie the given local problem to the general problem, the maximum allowable piezometric head on the cross section of the diversion conduit near the surge tank is introduced into it as the boundary condition. This head determines the maximum internal hydrodynamic load on the:lining of the diversion conduit, which together with external loads determlnes itsdesign and dimensions~and, consequently, the cost. As regards the penstocks, the maximum piezometric head in them is determined by the character of variation of the turbine discharge. A change in the design parameters of the tank during optimization calculations~as practically no effect on the value of this head. The optimization problem consists in finding for a given system of pressure conduits and design regimes of buildup and drop of the load on the hydrostation a combination of design parameters of the surge tank such that it determines its minimum cost. The initial data of the optimization problem are: the geometric characteristics of the conduits; the design regimes of buildup and drop of the load, the elevations of the upper pool level corresponding to them and the roughness coefficients of the conduit lining; the maximum allowable piezoTABLE i .=

I
4,0 4,5 5,0 139, 0 126,0 121,0 996,6 996,0 995,8 6, l 4,0 2,5 997,0 997,0 997,0 81,0 81,0 81,0 928,0 928,0 928,0

Translated from Gidrotekhnicheskoe Stroitel'stvo, No. 4, pp. 12-14, April, 1984. 0018-8220/84/1804- 014558.50 9 1984 Plenum Publishing Corporation 145

Fig. i.

Surge tanks: a) Differential; b) throttled.

, Z' ve fc=COnSt

=v~r

I ~d.maox

~c.Max v ~,

~'Zrnill
a
Fig. 2. Calculations of the first

~
level of

b
optimization: a)

For the transient during drop of the load of the units of the hydrostation; b) same during buildup of the load. metric head in the diversion and minimum allowable decline of the level in the tank; range of variation of the design parameters being optimized; unit cost of structural elements of the tank. The basic principle of the proposed method is a hierarchical approach to the selection of the optimal combinations of the investigated parameters, the number of which determines the number of levels of calculation. At the lower levels the tank parameters corresponding to prescribed conditions of occurrence of transients are coordinated. At high levels the set of parameters which make it possible to obtain a minimum construction cost is determined. We will examine a dlfferential surge tank (Fig. la). To be optimized here are the diameter of the surge pipe Dsu, elevation of the overflow of the surge pipe Zove, area of the chamber around the surge pipe Fc~ and area of the orifices For. The transients of buildup and drop of the load on the hydrostation are calculated at the/ first optimization level for the set of parameters Dsu , Zove, F c and entire serles of values of For. On the basis of the results of calculating the transient when the load is dropped and maximum values of the primary rise of the level above the overflow Zo.max, of the secondary rise of the level in the chamber Zc.max, and also the maximum piezometric head in the diversion Hd.ma x are selected (Fig. 2a). On the basis of the results of the translent during buildup of the load on the hydrostation the minimum level of decline of the water in the surge pipe of the tank Zmi n is determined (Fig. 2b). At the second optimization level the calculations of the first level are repeated for the next set of parameters Dsu , Zove, and entire Investigated series of values of the chamber ,, chamber area . (For dZ'p , ~c r p ) are selected which provide area. Pairs of values "orfflce area . -on dropping the load an optimal operating regime of the differential surge tank. This regime corresponds to equality of the maximum levels of the primary rise of the jet above the overflow and of the secondary rise in the chamber (Zmax f f iZc.max) . The values of the maximum head in the diversion corresponding to the selected pairs are recorded here (Fig. 3a). Also selected are the pairs of values (Fig. 3b) "orifice area"--"chamber area" (Fbo~i, Fbc ui) which during buildup of the load provide a decllne of the level to the minimum allowable (Zmin f f i Zmin. all) 9 At the third optimization level the calculations of the preceding levels are repeated for the next value of the diameter of the surge pipe of the tank and entire investigated series 146

~u; Z~v;cors~ ~.max t "Bd.max Zmax | x~ Z.

Fc~ar

Zrnin

FoarrP'

For

Fig. 3. Calculations of the second level of optimization: a) For the transient during drop of the load of the units of the hydrostation; b) same during buildup of the load.
, ~su~~

Zov~V_~r

") a
Hd.maxL"~
Hd .max.a/lib!

3 _
Fc

/Zov~
FC

Zc .m ax~ c
Fig. 4.

ZOVe ~rov~ ~rov, s

FcCalculations of the third level of optimization.

of elevations of the overflow. A selection is made of the values "orifice area--chamber area-overflow elevation" (For , Fc, Zove) which provdes the prescribed conditions of transients both durin~ a drop and buildup of the load. The criterion of selection is the equality ~o~P = F ~ or F~ rp = F~ui (Fig. 4a). The values of the maximum head in the diversion(Fig. 4b) and of the maximum rise of the level in the chamber (Fig. 4c) corresponding to each selected triplet of parameters are recorded. Here (see Fig. 4b) among the triplets of parameters For, Fc, Zove selected for the next value of Dsu is the only triplet eeting the condition of the head reaching in the diversion the maximum allowable value upon drop of the load (Hd.ma x = Hd.max.all). At the fourth optimization level the calculations are made for the entire investigated series of values of the diameter of the surge pipe. As a result the optimal set of all four design parameters of the surge chamber is obtained, the criterion for the selection of which is the minimum construction cost. As an example, Fig. 5 shows timization for one of the values Table 1 gives the results of the comparision of tank construction graphs illustrating calculations of the third level of opof Dsu plotted for conditions of the Zelenchuk hydrostation. third level of optimization, which are the initial data for cost.

Three parameters are investigated when optimizing the design of a throttled surge tank (see Fig. ib): diameter of the surge pipe Dsu, diameter of the local restricted orifice plate Dp, and chamber diameter D c. At the lower optimization levels the extreme values of the characteristics of the transients during buildup and drop of the load are determined and the sets of the design parameters

147

F'o! 6
5

1 /, Zov~997m~/
'/
80
Tn

Y?~
( I [

r ~] i
Z
.

928m

3
2
I 0

//;

/I
I

100
[ I

120 a 1,0
] I I a I

160 Fc,ms

I 8f 8O
79

I
aO 1oo

1111 lzO b
'

I~0

I60 Fe.mZ

998

997 996

Zmi n - - 928rr
80 100 IZO e I~0

' 'm ~ Z.~.-995


180 Fc, mZ

Fig. 5. C a l c u l a t i o n s of the t h i r d l e v e l of o p t i m i z a t i o n for conditions of the Zelenchuk hydrostatlon.


of the tank providing the limiting valUes of these characteristics ( H d . m a x . a l l , Z m i n . a l 1) are selected. Then t h e d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s m e e t i n g t h e p r e s c r i b e d c o n d i t i o n s b o t h upon a b u i l d up and d r o p o f t h e l o a d a r e s e l e c t e d andj f i n a l l y , t h e d e s i g n i s o p t i m i z e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o cost. To p e r f o r m t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e t h e d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f l o c a l r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e o r i f i c e p l a t e on t h e a r e a o f i t s o r i f i c e f o r v a r i o u s o p e r a t i n g regimes of the tank. CONCLUSIONS i. The proposed method of optimizing the design parameters permits automated design of various types of surge tanks. 2, For each particular type of surge tank the method calls for specific schemes of selecting the design parameters meeting the prescribed boundary conditions. 3. The method makes it posslble to compare variants of surge tanks of various types with respect to their cost. The diversion is not taken into account, since a unlfledmaximum pressure is assigned as the initial conditions of calculation in it.

148