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Tokyo, Japan

SEISMIC RISK AND DAMAGE COST ANALYSIS OF MID-RISE BASE ISOLATED BUILDINGS IN PERU

1) Assistant Researcher, Center for Earthquake Engineering Research and Disaster Mitigation (CISMID), Peru 2) Chief Research Engineer, International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Building Research Institute, Japan luisbedrim@gmail.com, tsaito@kenken.go.jp

Abstract: The principal objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness as well as the seismic safety of a base isolated building located in Peru. A methodology to evaluate quantitatively the seismic risk and the cost-effectiveness of a base isolated building during its lifetime is presented. The process starts with the hazard analysis and the earthquake ground motion generation in the studied area. Lima area is considered in this study. Series of artificial earthquake ground motions are generated by a stochastic method in the studied area. Then a preliminary seismic design of the target building is carried out, by using the Peruvian seismic code. To get the response distribution of the target building, several dynamic nonlinear analyses are performed by using the generated artificial motions as input waves. By assuming a structural response distribution, the seismic risk analysis is performed in terms of three structural parameters such as: interstory drift ratio (IDR), floor acceleration (FA) and the structural damage index (DI). The damage of the target building is evaluated by using a damage index. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of using base isolation system is examined, by comparing the exceedance probability of repair cost in the target building with and without base isolation during a given time period.

1. INTRODUCTION Peru is an earthquake prone country, which has experienced many severe earthquakes in its history. Most of those severe earthquakes have been a big disaster, producing huge losses and fatalities. Most important problems noticed in buildings during these events, are: low resistance, high level of damage, and no protection of contents. To increase resistance in buildings several improvements have been made in the seismic code; however, there is no any regulation about damage limit levels in buildings in current codes. Moreover, current provisions do not provide any protection to nonstructural components, equipment and contents of buildings. One of the best alternatives to reduce the damage and to provide protection of contents in buildings is the use of base isolation. Base isolation has proved to be a reliable technology to prevent damage in buildings and to increase the seismic performance; however current seismic provisions do not provide information of the real safety of base isolated buildings. Furthermore, in developing countries the use of base isolation is not wide due to the high construction cost of isolation system. So, a methodology to evaluate the real seismic safety and cost-effectiveness of the base isolation system is needed to meet current performance requirements in buildings. This methodology has to provide a rational basis and clear procedures to achieve the target in order to be used normally.

2. SEISMIC HAZARD AND EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION MODELING Seismic hazard of studied area is determined using past earthquake data. The historical data of past earthquakes (Figure 1) from the Peruvian seismic catalog (Tavera et al. 2007) are used to model the earthquake occurrence of magnitude (M) and hypocentral distance (R) around Lima area.

LIMA

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1.E+00

Acceleration (gal)

The earthquake occurrence of magnitude and hypocentral distance is modeled by a truncated G-R formula and the Beta probability function respectively as is shown in Figure 2. To generate the artificial ground motions, several sets of M and R are randomly generated according to their probability distributions by standard procedures. Then, each set of values of M and R is related to ground motions by means of an attenuation formula in terms of spectral acceleration for Peru subduction earthquakes. In this study the attenuation relationship for spectral acceleration in Peru is used (Chavez 2006), which was proposed for different soil conditions of the Peruvian coastal area.

spectral density PS() represents the importance of the harmonic function, in some specified band frequencies, and it matches the target spectrum defined previously. A total number of 800 artificial earthquake ground motions are generated for the studied area. Figure 3 shows the response spectrum of a sample generated wave (Sample 128) RSX which is compared with the target response spectrum RST.

1800

Sample 128

RST(gals) RSX(gals)

1.E-01

N/N0

1.E-02

200

a = 2.1 b = 0.8

1.E-03

No=125

0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Period (sec) 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

1.E-04 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 Magnitude (Mw) 8.0 8.5 9.0

Figure 3 Comparison between target response spectrum and response spectrum of generated sample wave. 3. STRUCTURAL AND DAMAGE ANALYSIS

Probability Density

0.0035 0.0030 0.0025 0.0020 0.0015 0.0010 0.0005 0.0000 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 R (Km) 350 400 450 500

Figure 2 Earthquake occurrence of magnitude M and hypocentral distance R (1963 to 2005). The artificial earthquake ground motions are generated as a nonstationary stochastic process compatible with the response spectrum calculated previously with the attenuation formula. By using the random vibration theory, a simple model of earthquake ground motion A(t) is expressed as a product of a wave x(t) from a stationary random process, with a power spectral density PS(), and an intensity envelope function E(t) (Shibata 2010) as follows

3.1 Target building The target building for this study is an RC office building with 8 stories as is shown in Figure 4. This building is assumed to be located in Lima downtown and it is a representative mid-rise building. The concrete used in this building has a nominal strength of fc=21MPa, and the nominal strength of steel is fy=412MPa. The total weight of the structure is around 46174kN, and the fundamental period is 0.65s in X direction and 0.54s in Y direction. The target building is designed according to the Peruvian seismic code. The design base shear coefficient is 0.08 in X direction and 0.09 in Y direction. 3.2 Design of base isolation system In this study, the equivalent SDOF method (Okamoto et al. 2002) is used to design the base isolation system in the target building. This method considers an isolated building as a rigid body moving with hysteretic properties of isolation devices, with a bilinear model. The lead rubber bearing LRB is used as isolation devices in this study. The total design yield force of the isolation system is set to 4% of the total weight and the design limit displacement is 300mm. Moreover, the design target period of the isolation system is 2.24s. Table 1 shows the dimensions of isolation devices. 3.3 Dynamic Analysis To obtain structural response of the target building a series of nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out, using artificial ground motions generated previously as input motions. These artificial ground motions represent future

(1)

In this study, the Jenningss intensity envelope function E(t) is used (Jennings et al. 1969). This function takes into account the transient effects in time of earthquake ground motions. The sample wave x(t) is generated by a combination of harmonic functions, with a given power spectral density PS() (Gasparini et al. 1976). This power

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earthquakes that would occur in the life cycle of the building. In this study structural uncertainty is assumed to be small compared with uncertainties of ground motions, and structural uncertainty is not taken into account. The nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out in the building with conventional design as well as with base isolation.

D

composed of the damage caused by the maximum displacement and the absorbed hysteretic energy. The damage index DI is expressed by.

DI =

m Eh + c u Q y u

(2)

C B

Where Qy the yield strength, Eh is the total hysteretic energy dissipated during earthquake, m is the maximum drift during earthquake, u is the ultimate drift under monotonic loads, and c is a constant. Moreover, the overall damage of entire buildings is checked by means of the total damage index DIT, (Park et al. 1985) as follows

X

A

Y

10

11

DIT = i DI i

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7

i =

Ehi Ehi

(3)

Probability

Isolated Fixed

1.E-06 1.E-05 1.E-04 1.E-03 1.E-02 1.E-01 1.E+00

Figure 4 Plan and elevation view of the target building. Table 1 Dimensions of isolation devices.

LRB-600 Shear Modulus (N/mm2) Shear Modulus lead (N/mm2) Exterior Diameter (mm) Interior Diameter (mm) Thickness of rubber layer (mm) Total rubber thickness (mm) Steel layer thickness (mm) Primary Shape Factor S1 Secondary Shape Factor S2 Number of Bearings 0.39 0.59 600 100 4 144 4 x 36 2.5 37.5 4.2 36 LRB-500 0.39 0.59 500 100

Probability

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 1.E-02 1.E-01 1.E+00 1.E+01 Floor acceleration (gal)

Isolated Fixed

1.E+02 1.E+03

3.4 Damage Analysis Additionally to the structural response in terms of IDR and FA, the structural damage in the target building is evaluated. To correlate the values of IDR with damage, the Park-Angs damage index (1985) is used. This damage index considers earthquake damage in RC members is

- 1709 -

X

4. STRUCTURAL RESPONSE DISTRIBUTION A total of 800 nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out in the target building, with and without base isolation, by using artificial earthquake ground motions previously generated. With information of structural maximum response in each analysis, the probability distribution of the interstory drift ratio (IDR) and peak floor acceleration (FA) is obtained. The structural response is modeled by a lognormal distribution in this study and Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the distribution of IDR and FA respectively in the first story of the target building. Based on the 800 values of maximum IDR showed previously, the damage index is calculated for each and every case. Park and Ang (1985) determined that the damage index is reasonably lognormal distributed. Figure 7 shows the lognormal probability distribution of total damage (DIT) in the target building. It can be seen from this plot that structural damage in isolated building is considerably reduced. Additionally, the median value and the standard deviation of damage distribution of isolated building are lower than conventional one.

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7

Probability

F(X) Xm

Time

8 7 6

Story

5 4 3

2 1 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Drift ratio (%) 1.0 1.2 1.4

Figure 9 Values of IDR with 10% of exceedance probability in 50, 100 and 200 years.

8

Isolated Fixed

7 6

1.E-06

1.E-05

Story

1.E-01

1.E+00

5 4 3

Figure 7 Probability distribution of DIT. 5. SEISMIC RISK ANALYSIS The seismic safety of a building can be quantified in terms of the exceedance probability of the structural response. To evaluate the exceedance probability of a random variable X, which represents structural response, the Poisson process model is used as is shown in Figure 8. If X is the random variable evaluated, F(X) is the cumulative distribution of X, and is the annual occurrence of the event; the exceedance probability that X>Xm in t years is given as follows (Saito and Wen 1994)

Figure 10 Values of DI with 10% of exceedance probability in 50, 100 and 200 years. The seismic risk of the structure can be quantified in terms of exceedance probability of the structural response. To estimate the probability that the IDR will exceed some threshold value, the Poisson process model is assumed for the earthquake occurrence. The annual earthquake occurrence is =2.98 in this study. Figure 9, shows the

(4)

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values of IDR for the target building with 10% of exceedance probability. The values of IDR for isolated building are much lower than values for conventional building. So, it can be said that isolated building has better seismic safety than conventional building. The seismic risk of the structure can be also quantified in terms of exceedance probability of damage index. The Poisson process model for earthquake occurrence is also used to obtain the probability that DI will exceed some threshold value. Figure 10 shows the values of DI with 10% of exceedance probability. It is observed that conventional building suffer large damage for long time periods and after 100 years there is a 10% exceedance probability to have a value of DI equal or more than 0.60. Damage in main structure is reduced by using the base isolation system, so the probabilities to have severe damage are significantly lower than the case of conventional building. 6. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS In addition to the seismic risk analysis, the cost-effectiveness analysis of the target building, with and without base isolation, is carried out. In this study just the structural cost is taken into account, principally due to the lack of reliable data of nonstructural components, contents and maintenance of buildings in Peru. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by a model which correlates damage index into structural repair cost of each story, so the total cost is the sum of repair cost in each story. In this study the model to correlate damage and repair cost is based on the proposal of Takahashi and Shiohara (1987). The repair cost is defined by the structural repair cost ratio RS, which is the normalized repair cost by the cost of total replacing with new one. The repair cost ratio RS is defined by

160

Total structural cost ratio (%)

150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Time (year) 140 160 180 200

Isolated Fixed

Figure 11 Expected values of total structural cost with 10% of exceedance probability in the lifetime of the building. 7. CONCLUSIONS The methodology presented here is a useful tool to quantify the seismic risk and the cost effectiveness of base isolated buildings. Additionally this procedure could be extended to any kind of building structure. The total damage in conventional building is considerably larger than isolated building. The expected value of the total damage index in 50 years, with 10% of exceedance probability, for the fixed building has a value of about 2.47 times larger than isolated one. Although the initial total structural cost in the isolated building is larger than in fixed one, the total structural cost in isolated building is much smaller for long time interval. So, base isolated building is cheaper than fixed building during the lifetime of the target building. It can be concluded that the seismic risk is much lower in isolated building; moreover, the cost-effectiveness in isolated building is better than fixed building, during lifetime period when large damage is expected. An upgrade in seismic codes is needed in order to include probabilistic methodologies to evaluate the seismic risk of buildings.

(5)

Where Dc is the minimum damage index in which repair work is necessary and a value of 0.01 is taken. Results obtained in damage analysis are related to repair cost by the cost ratio. Using values of damage index with 10% of exceedance probability, the structural cost repair ratio can be obtained in every case. It is noticed from these tables that conventional building has large values of RS; especially in long time intervals, it is observed that some stories need to be almost totally repaired. If the life time were 100 years; it would be expected a value of 37.1% for total cost ratio in the conventional building, which is about 4.7 times larger than value of isolated building.

Acknowledgements: Special thanks are given to CISMID and its director Dr. Carlos Zavala for their valuable collaboration to this study. The information from the seismic catalog of Peru was provided by H. Tavera from the Geophysical Institute of Peru and the information of the attenuation equation was provided by J. Chavez; their collaboration is acknowledged. This study was supported by the Japanese Government through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). This financial support is gratefully acknowledged. References: Bedriana L. A., Saito T., 2010, Seismic risk and cost-effectiveness of base isolated buildings in Peru, Bulletin of IISEE, BRI, Japan. Chavez J. A., 2006, Attenuation relationships for Spectral Acceleration in Peru, Engineering Thesis, Faculty of Civil

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Engineering, National University of Engineering, Lima. (In Spanish) Gasparini D. A., Vanmarcke E. H., 1976, Simulated earthquake ground motions compatible with prescribed response spectra, Report R76-4, Dep. Civil Eng., MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Jennings P. C., Housner G. W., Tsai N. C., 1969, Simulated Earthquake Motion for Design Purpose, Proc. 4th WCEE, Santiago, Vol. I A1, 145-160. Midorikawa M., Iiba M., Koshika N., Kani N., 2006, Performance-Based Seismic Provisions for Seismically Isolated buildings in Japan, Proc. 3rd ICUEE, Tokyo. Park Y. J., Ang A. HS, 1985, Mechanistic Seismic Damage Model for Reinforced Concrete, Jour. Struc. Eng., ASCE, Vol. 111, SE 4, 722-739. Park Y. J., Ang A. HS, Wen Y.K., 1985, Seismic Damage Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings, Jour. Struc. Eng., ASCE, Vol. 111, SE 4, pp. 740-757. Saito T., Wen Y. K., 1994, Seismic Risk Evaluation of R.C. Buildings in Japan, Report UILU-ENG-94-2003, Structural Research Series No 587, Univ. of Illinois, Illinois. Shibata A., 2010, Dynamic Analysis of Earthquake Resistant Structures, Tohoku University Press, Sendai. Takahashi N., Shiohara H., 2004, Life Cycle Economic Loss due to Seismic Damage of Nonstructural elements, Proc. 13th WCEE, Vancouver, paper No. 203. Tavera H., Agero C., Fernandez E., Rodriguez S., 2007, Seismic Catalog of Peru, Geophysical Institute of Peru, Lima. (In Spanish). Trifunac, M.D. and Brady, A.G. (1975), A Study on Duration of Strong Earthquake Ground Motion, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 65(3), 581-626.

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