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RETAILING IN THE EMERGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT: A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS STORE IMAGE, STORE PATRONAGE & STORE

LOYALTY IN THE GARHWAL REGION OF UTTRAKHAND STATE DR. D.S. Chaubey* Abstra t The retail sector in India is witnessing a huge revamping exercise as traditional markets make way for new formats such as departmental stores, hypermarkets, supermarkets and specialty stores. Retail is Indias largest industry, accounting for over 10 per cent of the countrys !" and around eight per cent of the employment.. It has emerged as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries with several players entering the market. #estern$style malls have %egun appearing in metros and second$rung cities alike introducing the Indian consumer to a shopping experience like never %efore. Indias vast middle class and its almost untapped retail industry are key attractions for glo%al retail giants wanting to enter newer markets. Therefore, it is imperative to study the consumers perception towards various retail format. The present paper is an attempt to identify the consumer perception and their %ehaviour toward store image, store patronage & store loyalty in the garhwal region of uttrakhand state.. #ith the formation of new state of 'ttrakhand, the %usiness opportunities have increased in many folds. Research also indicates that originality of the product was given highest preference %y the respondents and they %elieve that retail showroom offers original product . it was followed %y the availa%ility of the product in large variety. The relationship and services offered %y the retailer has emerged as another important issues which were given due consideration and scored %etter in their preference list. The importance of recognition of consumers value system and the discount offered %y the retailer are another important factor which respondent has considered in selecting the retail showroom.

*Asst. Professor, Omkarananda Institute of Management and Te hno!ogy, Rishikesh"#ttrakhand$% an be rea hed at& chaubeyds@yahoo.com Ab!"t t#$ A"t#!r: Author is M.'.A and Ph.D in Marketing Management . he has authored more than () resear h *a*ers for +arious nationa! and internationa! ,ourna!s of re*ute and a!so *arti i*ated in many nationa! and internationa! !e+e! of onferen es and seminars. Present!y he is -orking -ith Omkaranada Institute of Management and Te hno!ogy, Rishikesh. .is areas of interest are& Marketing Management% Management% Sa!es and Distribution Management. Conta t&

Dr% D% S% C#a"b$&,
Ass'sta(t Pr!)$ss!r O*+ara(a,a I(st't"t$ !) Ma(a-$*$(t a(, T$ #(!.!-& /OIMT0 P %O% S'1a(a,a Na-ar, M"(' K' R$t' R's#'+$s#2345653 /Uttra+#a(,0, I(,'a P#: 754668639:5 $2*a'.: chaubeyds@yahoo.com

RETAILING IN THE EMERGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT: A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS STORE IMAGE, STORE PATRONAGE & STORE LOYALTY IN THE GARHWAL REGION O UTTRA!HAN" STATE
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The retai! se tor in India is -itnessing a huge re+am*ing e/er ise as traditiona! markets make -ay for ne- formats su h as de*artmenta! stores, hy*ermarkets, su*ermarkets and s*e ia!ty stores. Retai! is India0s !argest industry, a ounting for o+er 1) *er ent of the ountry0s 2DP and around eight *er ent of the em*!oyment. Retai! industry in India is at the rossroads. It has emerged as one of the most dynami and fast *a ed industries -ith se+era! *!ayers entering the market. 3estern4sty!e ma!!s ha+e begun a**earing in metros and se ond4rung ities a!ike introdu ing the Indian onsumer to a sho**ing e/*erien e !ike ne+er before. India0s +ast midd!e !ass and its a!most unta**ed retai! industry are key attra tions for g!oba! retai! giants -anting to enter ne-er markets. The organi5ed retai! se tor is e/*e ted to gro- stronger than 2DP gro-th in the ne/t fi+e years dri+en by hanging !ifesty!es, strong in ome gro-th, better *rodu ts and sho**ing o*tions, and fa+ourab!e demogra*hi *atterns. In modern retai!ing, a key strategi hoi e is the format. Inno+ation in formats an *ro+ide an edge to retai!ers. Organi5ed retai!ers in India are trying a +ariety of formats, ranging from dis ount stores to su*ermarkets to hy*ermarkets to s*e ia!ty hains. Adding one more feather in a*, notab!y, organised retai! market has a!so registered +ery ra*id gro-th in India.6TI2 "6 onomi Times Inte!!igen e 2rou*$ estimated the si5e of the organi5ed retai! industry at about Rs. 17,))) r in ())14)( and estimates that the retai!ing industry -i!! ross the Rs. 89,))) r sa!es mark by year ())9. The industry is gro-ing at the rate of about 1:4(); *er annum <Retai!ing in the ne- business en+ironment& & A Study of Consumer Per e*tions To-ards Store Image, Store Patronage = Store >oya!ty in The 2arh-a! Region of #ttrakhand State? is a modest attem*t to understand the onsumer *er e*tion to-ards retai!ing in the 2arh-a! region of #ttrakhand state. The *resent study is a fo us on the s o*e of retai!ing in ne- business en+ironment by assessing the res*ondents demogra*hi *rofi!e, their attitude and *referen e to-ards different ty*es of store se!e tion The study a!so intends to kno- the re!ationshi* bet-een res*ondent *referen e -ith the different fa tor -hi h they onsider -hi!e se!e ting a *arti u!ar store. Study a!so tries to assess the onsumers attitude to-ard retai! *referen e.

R$1'$; !) Pr$1'!"s L't$rat"r$ Retai! omes from the @ren h -ord retai!er -hi h refers to A utting off, !i* and di+ideA in terms of tai!oring . It first -as re orded as a noun -ith the meaning of a Asa!e in sma!! BuantitiesA in. Its !itera! meaning for retai! -as to A ut off, shred, *aring?. >ike the @ren h, the -ord retai! in both Dut h and 2erman "detai! .ande! and 6in5e!hande! res*e ti+e!y$ -hi h a!so refer to sa!e of sma!! Buantities of items.The retai! se tor in India has been hai!ed as one of the sun shine se tor today. 2!oba! onsu!tan y ma,or, AT Cearney re ent!y identified India as the DDse ond most attra ti+e retai! destinationEE from among 8) emergent markets. It has made India the ause of a good dea! of e/ itement and the ynosure of many foreign eyes. 3ith a ontribution of 1F *er ent to 2DP and em*!oying 9 *er ent of the tota! -orkfor e or F( mi!!ion "on!y agri u!ture em*!oys more$ in the ountry, the retai! industry is definite!y one of the *i!!ars of the e onomy. If numbers are to be be!ie+ed, India0s retai! industry is estimated at about #SD 8G) bi!!ion and fore ast to be doub!e by ()1G. After agri u!ture, retai! is the !argest sour e of em*!oyment and has dee* *enetration into rura! India. Retai!ing ontributes to 1); of 2DP. As *er Asso iated Chambers of Commer e and Industry of India "ASSOC.AM$, the o+era!! retai! market is e/*e ted to gro- by 87;. The organi5ed se tor is e/*e ted to register gro-th amounting to Rs 1G) bi!!ion by ()):. The tota! si5e of the market is a!so e/*e ted to in rease to Rs 1F,9H) bi!!ion from the urrent !e+e! of Rs G,::) bi!!ion. Retai! is amongst the fastest gro-ing se tors in the ountry and India ranks 1st, ahead of Russia, in terms of emerging markets *otentia! in retai!. Iot on!y is it the !argest om*onent of the ser+i es se tor, but is a!so doub!e the si5e of the ne/t !argest broad e onomi a ti+ity in the ser+i es se tor. The Indian retai! market, -hi h -as !arge!y unorgani5ed ti!! re ent!y, has undergone an immense transformation in the *ost !ibera!i5ation era. 2i+en the attra ti+eness of the Indian retai! se tor, foreign retai!ers !ike 3a!4Mart, Carrefour SA, 6uro*eEs !argest retai!er and Tes o P! , the #CEs !argest retai!er, -ere keen to enter this gro-ing market.The retai! en+ironment is hanging more ra*id!y than e+er before "Dabho!kar, 1HH7$. It is hara teri5ed by intensifying om*etition from both domesti and foreign om*anies, a s*ate of mergers and a Buisitions, and more so*histi ated and demanding ustomers -ho ha+e great e/*e tations re!ated to their onsum*tion e/*erien es "Se!!ers, 1HH)% Smith, 1H:H$. ConseBuent!y, retai!ers today must differentiate themse!+es by meeting the needs of their ustomers better than the om*etition. There is genera! agreement that a basi retai!ing strategy for reating om*etiti+e ad+antage is the de!i+ery of high ser+i e Bua!ity "e.g., 'erry, 1H:7% .umme! and Sa+itt, 1H::% Rei hhe!d and Sasser, 1HH)$.

'efore !ooking at the markets themse!+es it is first ne essary to define -hat is meant by retai!ing. The *ur*ose of retai! sho*s or markets for any ommodity is to *ro+ide an en+ironment for !ooking at and buying mer handise that is dis*!ayed for sa!e. 3ith a on+entiona! sho*, in !uding a !arge4s a!e su*ermarket, there is usua!!y a sa!es area -here goods are dis*!ayed, a sho* front used for ad+ertising the goods and a ser+i e area -here goods an be re ei+ed, re4*a ked and stored. 3ith a market sta!! these fun tions o ur at one *!a e. Or in other -ords, retai!ing offers a bund!e of *rodu ts and *rodu t benefits at one *oint to its ustomer In modern retai!ing, a key strategi hoi e is the format. Inno+ation in formats an *ro+ide an edge to retai!ers. Organi5ed retai!ers in India are trying a +ariety of formats, ranging from dis ount stores to su*ermarkets to hy*ermarkets to s*e ia!ty hains. In ommer e, a retai!er buys goods or *rodu ts in !arge Buantities from manufa turers or im*orters, either dire t!y or through a -ho!esa!er, and then se!!s indi+idua! items or sma!! Buantities to the genera! *ub!i or end user ustomers, usua!!y in a sho*, a!so a!!ed store. Retai!ers are at the end of the su**!y hain. Marketers see retai!ing as *art of their o+era!! distribution strategy. R$ta'.'(- It onsists of a!! a ti+ities in+o!+ed in se!!ing goods and ser+i es to end onsumers for their *ersona!, fami!y, or househo!d use. Retai!ing "organi5ed = unorgani5ed$ an take *!a e in any of the fo!!o-ing *ossib!e formats !ike Mom4and4Po* , Mass Dis ounters, 3arehouse Stores , Category Ci!!ers De*artment Stores , 'outiBue Cata!og Retai!ers, 64 tai!ors, @ran hise , Con+enien e, Jending st!r$ '*a-$ .y*ermarkets, and Su*ermarkets et . Su ess of retai! de*ends u*on St!r$ '*a-$ )!r*$, b& t#$ "st!*$r '( t#$'r *'(,% R$ta'. an be des ribed as the series of menta! *i tures and fee!ings that a store e+okes -ithin the beho!der. In other -ords it is the o+era!! *er e*tion of ustomers about a Retai! store -hi h is the resu!t of Physi a! hara teristi s of a store su h as its brand name, !ogo, symbo!, !ayout, *resentation, signing, dis*!ays, entran es, e+ents, f!ooring, !ean!iness et as -e!! as other +ariab!es re!ated to em*!oyee beha+ior -ithin the store image has been defined and o*erationa!i5ed in a myriad -ays. Mart'($a", 65:9 -as among the first to !ink store image or -hat he a!!ed as *ersona!ity of the store, to the image that a sho**er has of onese!f. Martineau suggested that a sho**er is unab!e to differentiate based on!y on *ri e amongst +arious gro ery stores and -ou!d tend to sho* at that store -hi h is ongruent -ith the se!f image. <The sho**er seeks the store -hose image is most ongruent -ith the image she has of herse!f. Some stores may intimidate her% others may seem beneath her. A store may be a e*tab!e for one ty*e of goods and not for others. A mode! *ro*osed by H")), '( 65<4 states that ustomer *atronage is dire t!y *ro*ortiona! to uti!ity fa tors gi+en by sBuare feet and in+erse!y *ro*ortiona! to disuti!ity fa tors gi+en by *hysi a! distan e. A==.$ba"*, 65<< studied that the !imits to enhan ing !oya!ty storeKsho**ing entre. an essentia!!y be seen as the !imited entri*eta! *u!! of a

H"bbar,, 6589 resear hed on !o ation4re!ated +ariab!es to on !ude that ustomers gi+e more im*ortan e to !o ation re!ated +ariab!es in ana!y5ing both trade areas and retai! *atronage beha+ior. These studies most often ount the benefits of !o ating a store in a sho**ing entreKma!! to in rease the store Ldestination0 traffi rather than ,ust stay -ith the on+enien e *u!!. The same -ork -as further su**orted by Ga"ts #', 6596 to determine that sho**ing entre traffi more a urate!y than sing!e store traffi . T#$ H")) *!,$. has subseBuent!y been studied by introdu ing trade o+er!a* areas for effe ts on store *atronage. "B" +.'(, 65860% 2eneri a!!y s*eaking, these studies ha+e resu!ted in the formation of the Theory of 2ra+itationa! Pu!! in the fie!d of retai!ing *atronage studies. M!!r$ a(, Barr&, 65<5 fount out that a*art from distan e, se+era! other fa tors su h as In ome and so ia! !ass *er e*tions ha+e a!so affe t retai! entre *atronage de isions. Ar(!., $t a.%659>, Cra'- $t a.% 6594, L!"1'$r$ a(, Ga$t#, 6598 studied the effe t of *rodu t hara teristi s on store *atronage. They on !uded that -ithin a gi+en trade area, the uniBueness of assortment is a -ay of inf!uen ing store !oya!ty and *atronage. In onsumer *riorities, assortment and +ariety omes after on+enien e and *ri e. 2i+en that onsumers are fa+orab!y in !ined to re+isit a store -here they ha+e had *ositi+e sho**ing e/*erien es "found something they ou!d not find any-here e!se$, these studies suggest that om*eting stores need to differentiate themse!+es based on ty*e and Bua!ity of assortment. Se+era! studies /K"(+$. a(, B$rr&265<9, R$&(!.,s, Dar,$( a(, Mart'(, K!r-a!(+ar, L"(, a(, Pr' $2659:0 ha+e re*ort dire t !inkages bet-een Store Image and intensity of Store >oya!ty. Thus, -e an on !ude that more *ositi+e the Store Image the greater is the degree of !oya!ty. M%?% Os*a(, 655> *ro*osed a mode! that sho-ed *atronage as a resu!t of *ast *ur hasing e/*erien e and the ustomers0 "fa+orab!e$ image of the store. .e stressed that Patronage beha+ior is the u!mination of Past *ur hase e/*erien e and the ongruity of the Store Image bet-een the retai!er and the onsumer. M'..$r a(, G'(t$r, 6585 in his study found that situationa! fa tors im*a t onsumer

hara teristi s and *rodu e signifi ant!y +arying store hoi e and sho**ing tri* beha+ior. #sage onte/t has been onsidered as a riti a! fa tor determining onsumer *referen es and satisfa tion I( 6596, H'rs #*a( a(, Kr's#(a(, on !uded that 6+a!uating Store Image on *ure!y ob,e ti+e riteria -ithout a ounting for indi+idua! sub,e ti+ity -ou!d !ead to insuffi ient and maybe erroneous information to retai!ers.Se+era! studies /St!($, 65:4, Dar,$( a(, R$&(!.,s, 6586 a(, Dar,$( a(, As#t!( 65840 ha+e found orre!ations bet-een sho**ing orientations and !ife sty!e, -ith store !oya!ty and *referen es for stores. A study by M!s #'s /658<0 found that sho**ing orientation orre!ates different!y -ith the information mi/ e!ements4 +arying -ith sour e, sour e redibi!ity, *referen e for a sour e by some onsumers and usage of su h information.

P!=+!;s+', L% a(, T'**$r*a(s26558, K'* a(, Par+26558 differen es, househo!d

on !uded that Store hoi e

and sho**ing tri* timing de isions tend to differ for indi+idua!s and househo!ds as a resu!t of *ersona! om*osition and a ti+ity *atterns. In a resear h in 6595 Ka#( a(, S #*'tt.$'(, @uoted <Store Choi e is de*endent on the timing of sho**ing tri*s, as onsumers may go to a sma!!er !o a! store for short fi!!4in tri*s and go to a !arger store for regu!ar sho**ing tri*s.? A !r,'(- t! P!=+!;s+', S'(#a a(, T'**$r*a(s23777 , *ersona! differen es intera t -ith situationa! fa tors and together they determine the store hoi e and sho**ing tri* beha+iour. Se+era! studies sho- that store hoi e is affe ted by the *ast e/*erien es of the onsumer. Aa+$r a(, A!($s, 6586, Buote from an un*ub!ished dissertation by Rao, /Ra!, Ta(('r" R%, BM!,$.'(- C!(s"*$rCs P"r #as$ b$#a1'!"r as a St! #ast' Pr! $ssD 65<90 ?A onsumer0s se!e tion of a storeMis not om*!ete!y random. The more re ent her *ur hase e/*erien eMand the more freBuent her +isits to the store, the more she is !ike!y to re*ur hase that *rodu t in that store?. This sho-s that *ast e/*erien e inf!uen e store hoi e and tri* *attern to hange, a!ter or reinfor e the ne- sho**ing e/*erien e. Thus -e an say that Consumer Chara teristi s intera t -ith Situationa! Jariab!es to im*a t ho- information about the retai! mi/ e!ements is *ro essed, resu!ting in store hoi e and tri* *atterns. The on e*t of store !oya!ty is deri+ed origina!!y from the brand !oya!ty on e*t -hi h refers to the tenden y to re*eat *ur hase the same brand. Os*a( in his re+ie- *a*er, on !udes that at the store !e+e!, it refers to the tenden y to re*eat *ur hase at the same Store for simi!ar or other *rodu ts. 'orro-ing from the on e*ts of !oya!ty and ommitment from the fie!d of Organi5ationa! 'eha+ior, there is inherent!y a !arge affe ti+e om*onent in !oya!ty. Amongst others fa tors, it has e!ements of trust as bui!t o+er a *eriod of time "re*eated e/*erien es at the store$ and is re!ati+e!y stab!e o+er a !ong *eriod of time. A !oya! ustomer -ou!d gi+e *riority to the s*e ifi store o+er om*etition. Though mu h -ork has been done there is sti!! no !ear on e*tua!i5ation of -hat store !oya!ty means. R$&(!.,s, Dar,$(, Mart'( '( 6584 found out that store !oya!ty has been re!ated to store *atronage dimensions i.e. re*eat *ur hase o+er time indi ates !oya!ty as re!ated to attitudes -here as resear h by T',;$.. a(, H!r-a(, '( 6553 '(,' at$, brand !oya!ty as an attitude -hi h may resu!t in a *ur hase beha+ior?. Most often it has been taken to im*!y a mi/ of both beha+iour and attitude. AEF$( a(, F's#b$'(, *ro+ided a mode! of attitude om*rising three e!ements& affe t, ogniti+e and beha+ioura!. A ording to P'r!( Buoting from the -ork by L$;'s!(, a!! these three om*onents of attitude ontribute to >oya!ty. A mode! by D' + and Bas" , on e*tua!i5ed !oya!ty as the re!ationshi* bet-een re!ati+e attitude and *atronage beha+iour. Studies by C"(('(-#a*, E(('s a(, G!r,!(, R$&(!.,s et a!., found that it is benefi ia! for a store to identify and retain its !oya! ustomers. E('s and G!r,!(

found that store !oya! onsumers s*ent a !arger *ortion of their tota! e/*enditure at the store. Tat$, as stated in the *a*er by R$&(!.,s, Dar,$( a(, Mart'(, 6584, found that !oya!ty im*!ies an in reased number of sho**ing tri*s as om*ared to other stores. Studies into ,$*!-ra=#' and s! '!2$ !(!*' s found that they e/*!ain +ery !itt!e of the !oya!ty and *atronage beha+iour and neither are they a usefu! basis for segmentation. Store Image has found signifi ant attention. It has been the fo us of mu h resear h. A !r,'(- t! K!r-a!(+ar, L"(, a(, Pr' $2659: A onsumer ou!d dis*!ay *atronage beha+ior and yet not be !oya!. This Ls*urious0 !oya!ty is indistinguishab!e from intended !oya!ty in the short term and o urs due to *ri e offers and hea+y *romotions. Dea! *rone onsumers -ou!d shift to a store that offers the best *ri eKdis ounts though o+er a short *eriod of time they may ha+e the same sho**ing *atterns as !oya! ustomers. >oya!ty "hen eforth used to mean intended !oya!ty$ is the *rime attitudina! ob,e ti+e that e+ery marketerKretai!er aims for -ith his marketingKretai! mi/ e!ements. >oya!ty assures a retai!er of *atronage, of not ,ust onstan y and !onge+ity of his business but reates an effe ti+e om*etiti+e ad+antage and an entry barrier -hi h is diffi u!t to erode. ObE$ t'1$s !) t#$ St",& a(, R$s$ar # M$t#!,!.!-& The *resent *a*er aims to assess the demogra*hi *rofi!e of onsumers and study their *er e*tions regarding retai! store = identify key attributes that affe t store image, store *atronage = store !oya!ty. To study the re!ationshi* bet-een res*ondents *referen e -ith the different fa tor -hi h they onsider -hi!e se!e ting a *arti u!ar retai! sho*. To attain these ob,e ti+es and test the hy*othesis, a random sur+ey of 17H res*ondents !o ated in 2arh-a! region of #ttrakhand state -ere administered. To o!!e t the ne essary information, +arious *arameters -ere de+e!o*ed -ith the he!* of !iterature. The res*onses to these *arameters -ere gathered, oded, tabu!ated and ana!y5ed. To measure the intensity of *arameters o*en ended and !ose ended Buestionnaire -as used. Certain attributes -ere measured on a fi+e *oint s a!e and the fina! s ore has been a! u!ated by using -eighted ranking method. L'*'tat'!( !) St",& The *resent study is a study of sam*!e. A!ternati+e!y, -e ou!d ha+e studied the uni+erse. This has not been done be ause of t-o reasons. @irst, it -as not *ossib!e to study the entire uni+erse -ith the !imited resour es and time a+ai!ab!e at hand. Se ond!y, it is -e!!4estab!ished fa t that the study of uni+erse and re*resentati+e sam*!e -ou!d *ro+ide simi!ar resu!ts. It is in this ba kground that a sam*!e study -as o*ted. It is ho*ed that the resu!ts obtained -ou!d be a**ro*riate for the uni+erse.The study is based on the *rimary data o!!e ted from the res*ondents assuming that they ha+e gi+en their genuine *referen es -ithout hiding anything.

.o-e+er, it is seen that differen es do e/ist bet-een ho- onsumers say they beha+e and -hat they a tua!!y do. A(a.&s's a(, D's "ss'!( Tab.$ N!%6

Table 1: Demographic Characteristic of Respondents


Chara teristi s Age Tota! Iumber of Res*ondents 'e!o- (G years (G to 8G years 8G to G) years G1 years and abo+e Se/ Marita! status Nua!ifi ations Ma!e @ema!e Married #nmarried Matri and be!o#nder 2raduate 2raduate P2 Professiona!s and other @ami!y si5e 'e!o- F members Fto 7 members O u*ation More than 7 members Student 'usiness Ser+i e Professiona! .ouse 3ife other Annua! in ome #*to Rs.G)))Pm Rs.G)))41),)))PM Rs.1))))41G)))PM Abo+e Rs.1G))) Io of Res*ondents 17H 76 47 "2 14 HG 9F :H :) 24 "7 2! 4! " 7F H8 1( 4! 16 7 24 " " "1 4 !1 "9 ; 1)) 44.97041 27. 106! 1 .9"491 .2 4024 G7.(1 F8.9H G(.77 F9.8F 14.2011 21. 9"49 14.7929 26.62722 22.4 !21 "7. 69 224 9 !!.029! ! 7.100!9171 6 26.62722 9.4674!6 46.1!" ! 14.2011 1.77!14 1.77!14 1 ."4"2 2 .402"7 "0.177!1 2".07692

The demogra*hi data *resented in the abo+e tab!e indi ates that the sam*!e is *rimari!y dominated by those res*ondents -ho are in the age u*to (G OearsThe ana!ysis e!aborates that the sam*!e in !udes G7.(1 ma!e and F.9H; fema!e res*ondents. It signifies that

the sam*!e has been dominated by the ma!e res*ondents. The information *ertaining to Marita! status of res*ondents re+ea!s that sam*!e in !udes G(.77; married and F9.8F; unmarried res*ondents. It signifies that the sam*!e has been dominated by the married res*ondents. The data re!ated to the !e+e! of edu ation de*i ts that that the sam*!e is dominated by the res*ondents -ho are edu ated u* to *ost graduate and abo+e as it -as indi ated by a!most FH; res*ondents in the sam*!e. . The ana!ysis indi ates that the sam*!e in !udes 1F.();, (1.:H;, and 1F9H;, res*ondents res*e ti+e!y edu ated u*to matri and be!o-, under graduation, and graduation !e+e!. The ana!ysis indi ates that the sam*!e is dominated by the res*ondents of ser+i e ategories as G: ; of them fa!! in this ategory. Another 1F;, 17;, )7; and )7; res*ondents -ho are res*e ti+e!y students, businessmen, *rofessiona! and house-i+es. Ana!ysis signifi ant!y high!ights that most of the users of ab!e TJ net-ork system be!ong to the ser+i e ategory in the sam*!e. The data *ertaining to the in ome of res*ondent *resented in the abo+e tab!e *ro,e ts that the sam*!e in !udes 1:.8F;, (F.F);, 8).19;, (8.)9; res*ondents res*e ti+e!y re*resenting the grou* of res*ondents -ith month!y in ome, u*to Rs.G,))), Rs.G,))) to Rs.1),))), Rs 1)))) to Rs 1G))) and Rs 1G))1) and abo+e. This signifies that the sam*!e is dominated by those res*ondents -ho are ha+ing the month!y in ome bet-een Rs.1)))) to 1G))) *m. The ana!ysis suggests that the sam*!e in !udes 89;, G1.(;, and 9.1(; res*ondents -hose fami!y si5e is !ess then F members, F to 7 member And more than 7 members res*e ti+e!y. Ana!ysis !ear!y signifies that the sam*!e is dominated by the res*ondents -hose fami!y si5e is bet-een F to 7 members. Tab.$ (!%3% Nat"r$ !) P"r #as$ S! Io a b Des ri*tion Cash Credit 'oth Tota! Io of Res*ondent 11: )G F7 17H Per entage 69. 2 2.96 27.22 100

An understanding of onsumer beha+iour is of riti a! im*ortan e to a!! *ersonne! engaged in any form of marketing a ti+ity. This understanding enab!es the marketers to find beha+iour of onsumers, to inf!uen e their beha+iours and to mani*u!ate the inf!uen ing +ariab!es to gain ad+antage. The gro-th in the si5e of om*anies and markets has gi+en birth to the marketing resear h. The onsumer beha+iour, the fo a! *oint of marketing, is being resear hed +ery -ide!y throughout the

-or!d. The *rodu ts are designed to fit into the onsumersE *er e*tions. The *rodu ts are distributed as *er the onsumersE on+enien e and ad+ertised to ommuni ate onsumers and u!timate!y inf!uen e their beha+iour in fa+our of its offers. The stakes in the businesses are +ery high and om*etition is too stiff. A business in+o!+es a**!i ation of a !arge amount of a*ita!, hen e, the fai!ure of a business is a +ery risky *ro*osition. Therefore, it is desirab!e to assess the onsumers0 beha+iour and their *referen es in order to remain om*etiti+e in the market. Cee*ing these into onsideration , an attem*t -as made to kno- the nature of *ur hase by the onsumers of 2arh-a! area. The information *resented in the abo+e tab!e indi ates that more than t-o third of the res*ondent in the sam*!e *refer to *ur hase their *rodu t on ash as it -as indi ted by 7H.:(; res*ondents in the sam*!e. Jery feres*ondents *refer to *ur hase on redit. As it -as indi ated by (.H7; res*ondents in the sam*!e. A!most one fourth (9.((; res*ondents indi ated that they *refer both de*ending u*on the situation. Tab.$ > P.a $ !) P"r #as$

S! Io a b D

Des ri*tion Retai! Sho-room 3ho!esa!ers Distributor Others Tota!

Io of Res*ondent 181 (: F 7 17H

Per entage 77.!1479" 16.!6 047 2."66 6"9 ".!!029!9 100

The onsumers0 buying *atterns, a ording to resear hers, is an area for in4de*th study for suggesting different usefu! marketing strategies. In the *resent era, the information te hno!ogy is gro-ing at +ery fast rate. This has reated tremendous om*etition in the market. The re ent de+e!o*ments in information te hno!ogy, g!oba!isation of businesses and !ibera!isation of the Indian e onomy ha+e enhan ed the im*ortan e of onsumersE beha+iour. This has *ro+oked an interest in e/amining the onsumers0 beha+iour, +arious fa tors inf!uen ing the onsumers0 beha+iour, their moti+es determinants and their de ision making *ro ess. The su ess of retai! sho* -i!! de*end u*on the ustomers *referen e of their *referred *!a e of *ur hase. Cee*ing this into onsideration, an attem*t -as made to kno- the *!a e of *ur hase by the Consumer of 2arh-a! area. The information in this res*e t is *resented be!o-. Ana!ysis indi ates that more than three fourth res*ondent in the sam*!e "99..G;$ has sho-n their in !ination to *ur hase their *rodu t from retai! sho- room.

Tab.$ (! 4 E))$ t'1$($ss !) D'))$r$(t Sa.$s Pr!*!t'!(a. S #$*$ Iot at A!! Iot +ery Some -hat Jery Im*ortant Im*ortant Im*ortant Im*ortant 1 ( 8 F Produ t @a tor Ser+i e @a tor Con+enien e @a tor Promotiona! @a tor >u/ury @a tor 12 " " 9 10 ! 40 72 " "0 20 47 61 42 60 76 90 !0 20 6/treme!y Im*ortant G 64 62 24 9 2! P3 Rank

( 66 69" 6"4 F !17 G 4 ! 1 8

Sa!es *romotions reate e/ itement and in+o!+ement among the target segment. Introdu tory offers -ith either dis ounts or sa!es *romotion enab!e the onsumer to try out a ne- brand in a fami!iar ategory. A brand of ne- ookies an reate tria!s through su h offers. Tria! is ne essary for any ne- brand -hi h has the disad+antage of not ha+ing the eBuity en,oyed by -e!! estab!ished brands. Sa!es *romotion an bring in onsumers -ho may ha+e other-ise not done so to try the *rodu t. A om*any entering the market !ate in the onsumer durab!es ategories an a!ter onsumer *referen e *attern signifi ant!y -ith an a**ro*riate and *o-erfu! sa!es *romotionKe/ hange offer 3ith the u!ture of freebies and dis ounts s*reading -ide!y in the Indian onte/t, brands need to onsider their im*!i ations before embarking on a dis ount strategy. Pri e dis ounting not on!y affe ts the *rofitabi!ity of brands, it a!so affe ts their eBuity. @or e/am*!e, -hen t-o ma,or detergent brands ut their *ri es by signifi ant !e+e!s, -hat kind of *er e*tion -ou!d it reate among onsumers is an im*ortant im*!i ation from the +ie-*oint of marketing Modern retai!ing, though it a ounts urrent!y for on!y nine *er ent of the tota! retai!ing market in India, has to dra- more onsumers be!onging to the midd!e !ass or u**er midd!e !ass by offering uniBue bund!es of sa!es *romotions. In fa t, this as*e t may be a om*e!!ing reason for sho**ers to +isit the de*artmenta! store. A onsumer may *!an for Aan un*!anned im*u!seA in a de*artmenta! store kno-n for offering su h bund!ed sa!es *romotions. The onsumer gets used to sa!es *romotions at the store and e/*e ts to take ad+antage of it, though she may not !ear!y kno- -hat is !ike!y to be on offer -hen she makes a +isit. Cee*ing these fa tors into onsideration , an attem*t -as made to kno- the effe ti+eness of different fa tor !ike *rodu t fa tor, ser+i e fa tor, on+enien e fa tor, *romotiona! fa tor and !u/ury fa tor -hi h a onsumer gi+e *referen e -hi!e making a

*ur hase de ision. @or this *ur*ose, res*ondents -ere asked to rate the +arious attributes in order of their *referen e. The information *ertaining to this ana!ysis *resented in the tab!e no F !ear!y indi ates that ser+i e fa tor offered by retai!er -as onsidered first -hi!e making *ur hase de ision by the res*ondents of 2arh-a! area. It -as fo!!o-ed by *rodu t fa tor, on+enien e fa tor, *romotiona! fa tor and !u/ury fa tor. C!(s"*$rs Att't",$ t!;ar, R$ta'.'(Consumer attitudes are a om*osite of a onsumer0s be!iefs and fee!ings about and beha+iora! intentions to-ard some ob,e t44-ithin the onte/t of marketing, usua!!y a brand or retai! store. These om*onents are +ie-ed together sin e they are high!y interde*endent and together re*resent for es that inf!uen e ho- the onsumer -i!! rea t to the ob,e t. Cee*ing these into onsideration, an attem*t -as made to assess the onsumer0s attitude to-ard retai!ing. @or this res*ondent -ere asked to rate their +ie-s on the fo!!o-ing statement !isted in the tab!e be!o-. The *ositiona! -eightage -as deri+ed by mu!ti*!ying the -eightage assigned in ea h o!umn to number of res*ondents in ea h and then adding them together. The information *ertaining to this ana!ysis is *resented in Tab!e G

Tab.$ (! : C!(s"*$rs Att't",$ T!;ar, R$ta'.'(Des ri*tion Strong!y Disagree Disa gree Ieither Agree Ior Disagr ee 18 8) Agree Strong! y Agree P.3. Rank

1 (

I a!-ays gi+e *referen e on the origina!ity of the *rodu t I a!-ays *ur hase a *rodu t from the store -here !arge no of Jariety is a+ai!ab!e I gi+e *referen e to the *!a e -here A+ai!abi!ity of the *rodu t is assured I *ur hase from the retai! be ause it mat hes my Ja!ue Per e*tion I *referab!y buy the *rodu t from the store from -here I get ma/imum Dis ount. Retai! sho- room are a!-ays ha+ing Produ t Mat hing Pri e Retai! sho- offers a!-ays Produ t 'und!ing Retai! sho-rooms >o ation a!-ays affe t my *ur hase de ision. A essibi!ity is the *rime fa tor inf!uen es my *ur hase. I a!-ays gi+e *referen e to *ur hase -hen there is a Seasona! Offer Ad+ertising am*aign a!-ays inf!uen e my *!a e of *ur hase Ser+i es offered by retai!er are a!-ays better than -ho!esa!erK distributor. Retai!ers are ha+ing more C!ose >inks -ith onsumers. Personne! Se!!ing is more effe ti+e in ase of retai!ers. Retai!ers are a!-ays ha+ing better Sto k Maintenan e Retai!ers *ro+ide better information about Ie- Produ t

) (

) 9

97 :1

:) 74" FH 67!

1 "

8 F G 7 9 : H 1) 11 1( 18 1F 1G 17

) G 1) ( G 7 1( (8 (F ) ) H ( 9

G 1: 81 F8 (1 GF F1 F) G8 F7 (8 F8 1: (1

17 G7 89 :F H8 (G (F 81 F8 89 88 F7 G7 81

H( 7H GF 89 8H 7) 98 FH 8F G( :G G8 99 HF

G7 706 (1 !90 89 ! 4 8 !0" 11 !"7 (F !49 1H !!" (7 !22 18 460 F) 611 (: 62! 1: !"! 17 !94 17 !9

9 1! 12 11 10 14 16 ! 4 1" 7 6

The abo+e ana!ysis indi ates that origina!ity of the *rodu t -as gi+en highest *referen e by the res*ondents and they be!ie+e that retai! sho-room offers origina! *rodu t. it -as fo!!o-ed by the a+ai!abi!ity of the *rodu t in !arge +ariety. The re!ationshi* and ser+i es offered by the retai!er has emerged as another im*ortant issues -hi h -ere gi+en due onsideration and s ored better in their

*referen e !ist. The im*ortan e of re ognition of onsumers +a!ue system and the dis ount offered by the retai!er are another im*ortant fa tor -hi h res*ondent has onsidered in se!e ting the retai! sho-room. C!( ."s'!(s a(, S"--$st'!(s: The Retai! Industry in India has emerged as one of the !argest among a!! the industries, a ounting for o+er 1) *er ent of the ountry0s 2DP and around : *er ent of the em*!oyment. The Retai! Industry in India has ome forth as one of the most dynami and fast *a ed industries -ith se+era! *!ayers entering the market. the marketer tries to attra t the onsumer and boost the sa!e -ith the *ermutation and ombination of different retai! format. The su ess of this business -i!! de*end u*on the onsumer mood, their sentiment and *er e*tion to-ard different retai! format. The *a*er attem*ts to orre!ate the distin t store features as *er ei+ed by res*ondents -ith the true moti+ations of +arious onsumers in *atronising +arious stores. In the *ro ess it *ro+ides insight as to -hether the a+erage Indian onsumer +a!ues the ne- store dimensions offered by retai!ers as a *art of the ne- formats emerging in the market *!a e. The study re+ea!s that ma,ority of the ustomer *refers to *ur hase the *rodu t from retai! sho* on ash *ayment mode -hi h indi ates the greater s o*e for the retai! industry to gro- in future. The ana!ysis a!so indi ates that ser+i e fa tor offered by retai!er -as onsidered first -hi!e making *ur hase de ision by the res*ondents of 2arh-a! area. It -as fo!!o-ed by *rodu t fa tor, on+enien e fa tor, *romotiona! fa tor and !u/ury fa tor. So it is suggested that retai!ers must fo us on im*ro+ing their ser+i es in order to strengthen their ustomer base. The ana!ysis of Consumers Attitude to-ard Retai!ing indi ates that origina!ity of the *rodu t -as gi+en highest *referen e by the res*ondents and they be!ie+e that retai! sho-room offers origina! *rodu t. It -as fo!!o-ed by the a+ai!abi!ity of the *rodu t in !arge +ariety. The im*ortan e of re ognition of onsumers +a!ue system and the dis ount offered by the retai!er are another im*ortant fa tor -hi h res*ondent has onsidered in se!e ting the retai! sho-room. B'b.'!-ra=#&
'aker, P. "1H:9$. The ro!e of the en+ironment in marketing ser+i es& The onsumer *ers*e ti+e. In P. C5e*ie!,

C. Congram, = P. Shanahan "6ds.$, The ser+i es ha!!enge& Integrating for om*etiti+e ad+antage "**. 9H4:F$. Chi ago& Ameri an Marketing Asso iation. 'aker, P., 'erry, >. >., = Parasuraman, A. "1H::$. The marketing im*a t of bran h fa i!ity design. Pourna! of

Retai! 'anking, 1)"($, 884F(. 'e!!enger, D. I., = Mos his, 2. P. "1H:1$. A so ia!i5ation mode! of retai! *atronage. Ad+an es in

Consumer Resear h, H, 898489:.

'itner, M. P. "1HH($. Ser+i es a*es& The im*a t of *hysi a! surroundings on onsumers and em*!oyees.

Pourna! of Marketing, G7"($, G9491. '!oemer, P. and de Ruyter, C. "1HH:$ On the re!ationshi* bet-een store image, store satisfa tion and

store !oya!ty. 6uro*ean Pourna! of Marketing 8(&G47 , **. FHH4G18. 'urt, S. and Carra!ero46n inas, P. "()))$ the ro!e of store image in retai! internationa!i5ation.

Internationa! Marketing Re+ie- 19&F4G , **. F884FG8. Chaudhuri, A. and .o!brook, M. "())1$ The hain of effe ts from brand trust and brand affe t to brand

*erforman e& the ro!e of brand !oya!ty. Pourna! of Marketing 7G, **. :14H8. Darden, 3. R., = Dors h, M. P. "1HH)$. An a tion strategy a**roa h to e/amining sho**ing beha+ior.

Pourna! of 'usiness Resear h, (1, (:H48):. Dotson, M., = Patton, 3. 6. "1HH($. Consumer *er e*tions of de*artment store ser+i e& A !esson for

retai!ers. Pourna! of Ser+i es Marketing, 7"($, 1G4(9. 2rQ**e!4C!ein, A., The!en, 6. and Antretter, C. "Duboise, '. ., >o-rey, T. ., Shrum, >. . and Janhue!!e,

M. . eds.$ "1HHH$ The im*a t of sho**ing moti+es on store4assessment. 6uro*ean Ad+an es in Consumer Resear h **. 78497. 19G. 2utman, P., = Mi!!s, M. C. "1H:($. @ashion !ife sty!e, se!f4 on e*t, sho**ing orientation, and store

*atronage& An integrati+e ana!ysis. Pourna! of Retai!ing, G:"($, 7F4:7. >e+i = 3eit5 "())F$. Retai! management. Ie- De!hi& M 2ra-4.i!! Com*anies Magi, Anne3. "1HHH$. <Store !oya!tyR An em*iri a! study of gro ery sho**ing?. 3orking Pa*er, The

6 onomi Resear h Institute, Sto kho!m, S-eden. Martineau, P. "1H7H$. The *ersona!ity of the retai! store. .ar+ard 'usiness Re+ie-, 87"1$, F94GG. Meyer43aarden, >ars and Christo*her 'ena+ent "())7$. <The im*a t of !oya!ty *rograms on re*eat *ur hase

beha+iour,? Pourna! of Marketing Management, (("1S($ Mit he!!, J.3. "())1$, <Re4 on e*tua!i5ing onsumer store image *ro essing using *er ei+ed risk,?

Pourna! of 'usiness Resear h, GF "Io+ember$. 179419( Morgan, R. and .unt, S. "1HHF$ The ommitment4trust theory of re!ationshi* marketing. Pourna! of

Marketing G: , **. ()48:. Moye, >. I. "1HH:$. Re!ationshi* bet-een age, store attributes, sho**ing orientations, and a**roa h4

a+oidan e beha+ior of e!der!y a**are! onsumers.

Osman, M. T. "1HH8$ A on e*tua! mode! of retai! image inf!uen es on !oya!ty *atronage beha+iour. The

Internationa! Re+ie- of Retai!, Distribution and Consumer Resear h 8&( , **. 18841F:. Si+adas, 6ugene and Pamie 'aker4Pre-itt "()))$, <An e/amination of the re!ationshi* bet-een ser+i e

Bua!ity, ustomer satisfa tion, and store !oya!ty?, Internationa! Pourna! of Retai! = Distribution Management, (: "($. 984:(

A(($G"r$ HI R$ta'.'(- I( T#$ E*$r-'(- B"s'($ss E(1'r!(*$(t: A St",& O) C!(s"*$r P$r $=t'!(s T!;ar,s St!r$ I*a-$, St!r$ Patr!(a-$ & St!r$ L!&a.t& I( T#$ Gar#;a. R$-'!( O) Uttra+#a(, Stat$ R$s$ar #$r : Dr% DS C#a"b$& "IOT6& This Buestionnaire is designed for om*!etion of our resear h -ork. The information thus re ei+ed -i!! be ke*t onfidentia! and -i!! not be used for any other *ur*ose.$ P!ease mark your res*onses by *utting a ti k mark " $ at a**ro*riate *!a e 1. Iame (. Age 8. 2ender F. Marita! Status G. @ami!y Si5e 7. 6du ationa! Nua!ifi ation & "a$ Matri = be!o" $ 2raduate 9. O u*ation& "a$ Student "d$ Professiona! :. In ome "a$ 'e!o- Rs.G))) PM " $ Rs.1)))1 to Rs.1G, ))) PM H. Iature of Pur hase a$ Cash b$Credit 1). Oou genera!!y Pur hase the *rodu t from a$ Retai! sho-room b$ 3ho!esa!er $Distributor d$ If any other *!ease s*e ify 11. On a s a!e of 1 to G kind!y rate the different fa tor -hi h you gi+e *referen e -hi!e making a *ur hase de ision. Iot at A!! Iot +ery Some -hat Jery Im*ortant Im*ortant Im*ortant Im*ortant 1 ( 8 F 1 ( 8 F 1 1 1 1 ( ( ( ( 8 8 8 8 F F F F 6/treme!y Im*ortant G G G G G G "b$ 'usiness "e$ .ouse -ife " $ Ser+i e "f$ Any other "b$ #nder42raduate "d$ Post42raduate & &MMMMM..years &Ma!e K @ema!e & Married K #nmarried &MMMMM.members

"e$ Professiona! Bua!ifi ation, if anyMMM..

"b$ RsG))1to Rs.1)))) PM "d$ Rs.1G, ))) and abo+e $ 'oth

Produ t @a tor Ser+i e @a tor Con+enien e @a tor Promotiona! @a tor >u/ury @a tor

1(. To -hat e/tent you are agreed -ith the fo!!o-ing fa tor, -hi!e making a *ur hase. #On a s a!e of 1 to G kind!y rate the fo!!o-ing $% Des ri*tion Strong!y Disagree Ieither Disagree Agree Ior 1 ( Disagree 8 1 ( 8 1 ( 8 Agree F F F Strong !y Agree G G G

1 (

I a!-ays gi+e *referen e on the origina!ity of the *rodu t I a!-ays *ur hase a *rodu t from the store -here !arge no of Jariety is a+ai!ab!e I gi+e *referen e to the *!a e -here A+ai!abi!ity of the *rodu t is assured I *ur hase from the retai! be ause it mat hes my Ja!ue Per e*tion I *referab!y buy the *rodu t from the store from -here I get ma/imum Dis ount. Retai! sho- room are a!-ays ha+ing Produ t Mat hing Pri e Retai! sho- offers a!-ays Produ t 'und!ing Retai! sho-rooms >o ation a!-ays affe t my *ur hase de ision. A essibi!ity is the *rime fa tor inf!uen es my *ur hase. I a!-ays gi+e *referen e to *ur hase -hen there is a Seasona! Offer Ad+ertising am*aign a!-ays inf!uen e my *!a e of *ur hase Ser+i es offered by retai!er are a!-ays better than -ho!esa!erK distributor. Retai!ers are ha+ing more C!ose >inks -ith onsumers. Personne! Se!!ing is more effe ti+e in ase of retai!ers. Retai!ers are a!-ays ha+ing better Sto k Maintenan e Retai!ers *ro+ide better information about Ie- Produ t

8 F G 7 9 : H 1) 1F 1G 17 19 1: 1H

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

G G G G G G G G G G G G G G