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General Agriculture - 2010

Brief Book
of
Agriculture
General Agriculture for JRF, SRF, Ph. D & ARS EXAMS
(Based on Authorized and Current information)
Compiled by :
Roop Singh Maitry
(Ph.D Scholar, I.A.R.I.)
Edition.-II (2010-11)
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
New Delhi-110012
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page: 2)
Indian Agriculture-2010:
A record production of 233.88 Million tons of food grains
in 2008-09
Contribution to Growth rate in GDP 4.7% (2007-08),
1.6% (2008-09)
Contribution to GDP 16.4 % (2007-08), 15.7% (2008-09)
Share to total imports 2.95% (2007-08), 2.74% (2008-09)
Share to total exports 12.05% (2007-08), 10.23% (2008-09)
Contribution to total Employment- 52% (2008-09)
MSP increase in 2008-09 over last year:
o Wheat-8% (lowest)
o Ragi-58% (highest)
India supports(of worlds):
o Total geographical area-2%
o population- 18%
o Livestock-15%
o Forest-1.5%
Total Geographical Area (TGA) - 329 M.H
Potential for Biological Production - 265 M.H
Per Capita land availability-0.37ha (1991-92)
Per Capita Agri. land availability -.16 ha(1991-92)
Net cultivated area- 143 Mha
Irrigated area-56.3 Mha
NRAA- National Rain fed Area authority, since
03/11/2006
RADP- Rain fed Area Development Programme, Since 20
March, 2008
National Bamboo Mission-started 2006-07
National food security mission-started Rabi, 2007
All India avg. fertilizer consumption- 116.5 Kg/ha
Highest avg. fertilizer consumption- Punjab (212Kg/ha)
Lowest avg. fertilizer consumption Arunachal Pradesh (5
kg/ha)
Nutrient consumption ration (NPK), 2007-08)- 5.5:2.1:1
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page: 3)
NPMFS- National Project on Management of Soil Health &
Fertilizer, 2008-09
ISOPOM-Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm
& Maize, started since 1
st
April, 2004
Kisan Call Centre(KCC),started since 21
st
Jan 2004 (toll
free No. 1551)
DMRI- Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, Nagpur ,
Maharastra
First livestock census conducted in India: 1919
Rank of India in Silk production-2
nd
(1
st
-Chian), - 18,320
MT
Provides about 65% of the livelihood
Contributes 21% of Total Exports, and Supplies Raw
materials to Industries
Growth Rate in production - 5.8%
About 75% people are living in rural areas and are still
dependent on Agriculture.
About 43% of Indias geographical area is used for
agricultural activity.
ICAR -History:
ICAR, estbl. on 16 July, 1929 under the Societies
Registration Act, 1860 in pursuance of the report of the
Royal Commission on Agriculture. ICAR-headquarters
at New Delhi.
Increase in production of food grains by 4 times,
horticultural crops by 6 times, fish by 9 times (marine 5
times and inland 17 times), milk 6 times and eggs 27
times since 1950-51.
ICAR - Milestone:
Initiation of the first All-India Co-ordinate Research
Project on Maize in 1957
Status of Deemed University accorded to IARI in 1958
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page: 4)
Establishment of the first State Agricultural University on
land grant pattern at Pantnagar in 1960
Creation of Department of Agricultural Research and
Education (DARE) in the Ministry of Agriculture in 1973
Opening of first Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) at
Puducherry (Pondicherry) in 1974
Establishment of Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
and Agricultural Scientists' Recruitment Board (ASRB)
in 1975
Launching of Lab-to-Land Programme and the National
Agricultural Research Project (NARP) in 1979
Initiation of Institution-Village Linkage Programme
(IVLP) in 1995
Establishment of National Gene Bank at New Delhi in
1996
The ICAR was bestowed with the King Baudouin Award
in 1989 for its valuable contribution in ushering in the
Green Revolution. Again awarded King Baudouin Award
in 2004 for research and development efforts made under
partnership in Rice Wheat Consortium.
Launching of National Agricultural Technology Project
(NATP) in 1998 and National Agricultural Innovation
Project (NAIP) in July 2006 with 3 components.
Organizational Setup of ICAR: (Present scenarios-2009-10)
Union Minister of Agriculture is the ex-officio President
of the ICAR Society. (Present- Sharad Pawar)
Secretary, Department of Agricultural Research &
Education Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India &
Director-General, ICAR the Principal Executive
Officer of the Council. (Present- Dr. S. Ayyappan)
Agricultural Scientists' Recruitment Board, Chairman-Dr.
C. D. Mayee (Plant Pathlosist)
Deputy Directors-General (8)
Additional Secretary (DARE) and Secretary (ICAR)
Additional Secretary and Financial Advisor
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page: 5)
Assistant Directors-General (24)
Directorate of Information and Publications of
Agriculture, New Delhi
Directorates/Project Directorates - 25 (with upgradation
of 12 NRCs)
National Bureaux 6 (New-NBAII, Bengaluru and
NBAIM, Mau, UP)
Deemed Universities status -6(New- NAARM, Hydrabad and
NIASM, Malegaon, Maharastra)
National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects
(NBAII) [formerly Project Directorate of Biological
Control (PDBC)] is a nodal Institute at national level for
research and development on all aspects of work on
harnessing resources of insects including biological
control of crop pests and weeds, training, information
repository, technology dissemination and
national/international cooperation.(2009)
National Bureau of Agriculturally Important
Microorganism(NBAIM), Mau, UP (2005)
There are 44 Agricultural Technology Information
Centres (ATIC) established under ICAR institutes.
ICAR Introduced revised curricula and syllabi for 95
disciplines in Masters and 80 disciplines in Doctoral
programmes.
The Handbook of Agriculture updated as 6
th
edition
(2009).
NIASM (National Institute of Abiotic Stress
Management), Malegaon, Maharastra,2008
Established a network of over 568 Krishi Vigyan Kendras
(KVK).(upto Dec.2009)
Deputy Director General (Natural Resource Management):
Dr. A.K. Singh,
Union Minister for Agriculture: Shri. Sharad Pawar
Minister of State for Agriculture: Prof. K.V. Thomas.
New Director-General of ICAR: Dr. S. Ayyappan
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page: 6)
Handbook of Agriculture (New entry):
Father of Hybrid rice in India- Dr. E.A. Siddiqe
Milk production in India (Highest over World)-104
Mt.(2009)
Milk Availability (g./person/day)- 245
Food grain production (Mt.)-233 Mt
Fruit production - 63 Mt
Vegetable production -125 Mt
Agriculture accounts .% of National work force-52
Project Directorates-25 (upgrated NRCs-12)
SAUs-45
National Research Centres (NRCs)-17
AICRPs-61
National Institutes-6 (very Imp.)
Central Institutes-49
Directorate of Women in Agriculutre-Bhuwneshwar,
Orissa
Directorate of Floricultural Research- New Delhi
Directorate of Information and Publication in Agriculture-
New Delhi
AICRP, NSP-crops, New Delhi
AICRP, Arid Zone fruit-Bikaner
AICRP, NSP-vegetable,Varanasi
AICRP, Pestiside residue, NewDelhi
AICRP, Agrometeorrology, Hydrabad
General Agriculture (New):
Sahbhagi Dhan - new varieties of rice capable of
withstanding drought.
Water submergence variety of rice- Swarna-Sub 1, can
survive for 14 days under water.
To ward off threat to wheat production from the globally
spreading menace of resistant varieties of wheat stem
rust- Ug99,DBW 17, PBW 550, Lok 1, and Turja
identified.
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page: 7)
In potato, dry matter-rich variety Kufri Frysona
developed for making French Fries.
Zinc solublizing bacterial bio-fertilizer developed to
alleviate zinc deficiency in soils.
Cloned and surviving buffalo calf, GARIMA, produced
for faster multiplication of selected highly productive
animals.
For Bird Flu diagnosis, High Security Animal Disease
Laboratory, Bhopal, conferred OIE-international
recognition.
Devised drip and sprinkler irrigation systems saving
water (30-50%), labour (50%), fertilizer (30-40%) and
increasing yields (12-76%).
Leaf Colour Chart (LCC), a simple device for nitrogen
management saves 15 kg N/ha in rice.
Tractor-mounted cumin planter saves 30% seed.
Motorized aril extractor developed for pomegranate.
The first systematic work on SRI began at TNAU, Tamil
Nadu in 1993.
Golden rice: Produced by combining genetic material from
daffodils, Ervinia vredivora, Agrobacterium tumifacience
and Japonica rice. by Professor Ingo Potrykus and Dr.
Peter Beyer (Germany,1999)
Purpose of golden rice- to provide a new, alternative
intervention to combat Vitamin A Deficiency.
General Agriculture by Muniraj Singh (New Entry):
National Biodiversity Board-New Delhi
Camel crop-Sorgum
Natural Genetic enginner-Agrobacterium tumefacience
Pashmina (Winter cloth) obtained from- Goats
Law of Tolerance Sheford
Oleresine- Chilli
Keshar(sefforon) belongs family-Iridaceae
World Food Prize,2007-Phylips Nelson
World Food Prize, 2008- R. Dole &George McGovern
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page: 8)
Mychoryza increase availability of Phosphorus
Water Requirement of irrigated wetland rice-1500 mm
Nurient mobility concepts-Bray
PUFA conent is highest in Sunflower
Pseudocereal-Buckwheat
First Agri. Chemist of ICAR-J WLeather
Pulse crop doesnt fix N-Rajma
Avg Milling recovery of Rice-60%
Informatics in Agriculture:
IT Plan for Agriculture Sector (AGRISNET) was submitted
to Ministry of Agriculture in 1997 to establish Indian
Agriculture on-line and revised in 2000.
AGMARKNET-Agricultural Marketing Information
Network
NADAMS-National Agricultural Drought Advisory and
Management Systems
AgRIS-Resources Information System
APHNET-Animal Production and Health Informatics
Network
ARISNET-Agricultural Research and Information System
ACINET: Agricultural Credit Informatics Network
E-chaupal estabilished by Indian Tobacco Comp. (ITC) for
M.P.
VERCON (Vitrual Extension, Research and
Communication Network) developed by-FAO,2001
Soya-Chaupal is for weather, farming practice and Market
price of Soyabean in M.P.
ICT- Inforamtion and Communication Techno;logy
ARIS- Agricultural Research Information System, est by
ICAR, 1995
Nanotechnology in Agriculture:
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page: 9)
coined by-Nario Taniguichi (1974), at Univ. of Tokyo,
Japan
Nanotechnology is Understanding and control of matter at
dimension of 1-100 nm
Example of Nano based Smart Delivery System-Halloysite
Nano Pesticide-Nano Particles(NPs) of ZnO, Sio
2
and TiO
2
used for Bacteria & Green Algea
Nano Particles used for reclamation of heavy Particles-
Amphiphylic Polyurethane,Zeravalent Iron (nZVI), and
Nano sized Zeolite.
Crop Biotechnology.:
First transgenic plant-Flavr Savr
TM
tomato for delayted
ripining was realeasd for commercial cultivation in 1994
by Calgene (Compony).
Final Approval Committee for release of transgenic crops
in India- GEAC (Genetic Engineering Approval
Committee)
Area under transgenic plant in World (2008)-125 Mha
Rank of India for transgenic plant -4
th
( 1
st
-USA, 2
nd
-
Mexico, 3
rd
- Argentina)
Crops having highest transgenic plant cultivation area-
Soyabean> Corn>Cotton
Area under Bt-cotton: 7.5 Mha(2008), 8.4 Mha (2009)
First genetic engineering compony est. 1976, Genentech
First transgenic crop- tobacco
Area under bt cotton in India(2008-09)-7.6 1Mt (8% of
cotton area)
Irrigation in India-2010:
National water awards (2007)-Hiware Bazar Gram
Panchayat, Ahmadnagar, Mharastra
Area under micro irrigation system in india (2008-09):
3.88 Mha
Area under Drip in India (2008-09): 1.42 Mha (highest
area-Maharashtra)
Area under Sprinkler in India (2008-09): 2.45 Mha (highest
area-Haryana)
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page:
10)
Water year-2007
Artificial Recharge of Ground Water Advisory Council
(ARGWC)- constituted in 2006
National Institute of Hydrology- Roorkee, Uttarakhand
World Congress on conservation Agriculture, 2009- held at
New Delhi
ITK in Agriculture:
Bael fruit can be used to contol rice blast
Cow urin used for wheat termite control , sorghumsmut
control
Indias position in world Agriculture Rank
Total Area Seventh
Irrigated Area First
Population Second
Economically Active population Second
Total Cereals Third
Wheat Second
Rice Second
Coarse grains Fourth
Total Pulses First
Oil Seeds Second
Fruits and Vegetables Second (first-
China)
Implements (Tractors) Third
Milk First
Live Stock (castles, Buffaloes) First
Mile Stones in Agricultural Development:
Green Revolution (1968)
Ever-Green Revolution (1996)
Blue Revolution (water, fish)
White Revolution (Milk)
Yellow Revolution (flower, edible)
Bio-Technology Revolution
ICT Revolution
World Green Revolution:
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page:
11)
Increasing the wheat production that began in Mexico in
1945.
The term "Green Revolution" was first used in 1968 by
former USAID director William Gaud.
CIMMYT , Mexico - the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center.
Green Revolution was the production of novel wheat
cultivars.
HYVs or high-yielding varieties - A Japanese dwarf wheat
cultivar (Norin 10 wheat) which yield 10 times more than
that of traditional rice.
Father of the Green Revolution- Norman Ernest Borlaug
(Birth-March 25, 1914 and Death - September 12, 2009
(aged 95) Dallas, Texas (USA). An American agronomist
and Nobel laureate who has been deemed the. He
received his Ph.D. in plant pathology and genetics.)
Father of the Green Revolution in India- M. S.
Swaminathan (Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan,
born August 7, 1925, in Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu.)
Father of the Ever Green Revolution in India (1995) - M.
S. Swaminathan.
Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the
first site to try the new crops for Green Revolution.
The land Mark of Indian Green Revolution- IARI, New
Delhi
"Miracle Rice"-IR8 - a semi-dwarf rice variety developed
by IRRI. Crossed between an Indonesian variety named
Peta and a Chinese variety named Dee-geo-woo-gen.
Crop Production, Area (new figure):
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page:
12)
*(10 lakh tones= 1 Mt)
CROP PRODUCTION 2008-09:
Total foodgrains production in 2008-09 was estimated at
233.88 million tonnes as against 230.78 million tonnes in
2007-08.
CROP PRODUCTION 2009-10 (Based on Advance
Estimate)
Kharif foodgrains production - 98.83 Mt
Kharif rice production - 71.65 Mt., a decrease of about 15
per cent over 2008-09
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page:
13)
Total kharif production of coarse cereals- 22.76 Mt.
Total production of Kharif pulses- 4.42 Mt.
Total kharif production of the nine Oilseeds- 15.233 Mt.
Sugarcane production- 249.48 million tones
Cotton production- 23.66 Million bales (of 170 kg each)
Production of jute and mesta- 10.243 Million bales (of
180 kg each)
Highest/Lowest production year-
Crop Year (highest) Year (lowest)
Food grain 2008-09 2002-03
wheat 2008-09 2002-03
Rice 2008-09 2002-03
Pulse 2003-04 2002-03
Nine Oilseed 2007-08 2002-03
Sugarcane 2006-07 2003-04
Cotton 2007-08 2002-03
AREA COVERAGE 2009-10(Based on Advance Estimate)
Kharif total foodgrains -66.78 Mha
India ranks first in world milk production.
Production of sugar in 2008-09 sugar season declined by
about 11.62 Mt.
Allied sector Production figure in 2008-09:
Milk - 108.5 million tonnes
Eggs- 55.6 Billion,
Wool - 42.7 Million kg
Meat-3.8 Million tones
Fish production- 7.6 million tones
MSP-2009-10 (Rs.per Quintal)
oPaddy- Rs.1000/-
oJwar- Rs.860/-
oArhar- Rs.2300/-
oCotton - Rs.2500/-
oWheat- Rs.1100/-
oGram- Rs.1760/-
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page:
14)
oSugarcane -Rs. 129.8/-
oBarley- Rs.750/-
Indias rank in fertilizer consumption- 3
rd
Per ha NPK consumption-128 kg
CV of South west Monsoon in 2009- 10%
MSP given by CACP
CACP stands for - Commission on Agriculture cost
and Prices
FCI Buffer stock, Oct 2009- 16.2 Mt
Swaljaldhara is drinking water project, 2002
Hariyali- watershed development programest. 2003
NAREGA changes to MAREGA (Mahatma Gandhi
Rural Employment Guaranty Act) 2005
Leading State in Production & Area of crops:2008-09
Crops Prod.
(Mt)
Leading Prod.
state
Area
(Mha)
Productivity
(Kg/Ha)
Rice 99.15 WB>AP>UP 45.35 2186
Wheat 80.58 UP>PNJ>HR 27.88 2891
Maize 19.29 AP>KN>RJ 28.19 2355
Jwar 7.31 MH>KN>MP 7.68 -
Bajra 8.83 RJ>UP>GJ 8.74 -
C. Cereal 39.48 RJ>MH 27.62 -
Cereal 219.21 - 22.37 -
T. Pulses 14.86 MH>MP>AP 7.97 655
Chickpea 7.0 MP>MH>AP 7.97 -
Lentil 0.81 UP>MP 1.31 -
Pig.pea 2.3 MH>KN 3.4 -
T. Food
Grain
233.8 UP>PNJ>AP 123.22 -
T.oilseed 28.16 MP>MH>GJ 27.46 -
Soyabean 9.9 MP>MH 9.52 -
G. nut 7.34 GJ>AP 6.22 -
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page:
15)
Mustard 7.37 RJ>UP 6.19 -
Sunflowe 1.25 KN>AP 1.83 -
Sugarcane 273.93 UP>MH 4.4 -
Potato 28.43 UP>WB - -
Cotton* 23.6 GJ>MH 9.41 419
Jute* 10.41 WB>BHR 0.91 -
Coffee - KN - -
Tea - Assam - -
Rubber - Kerla - -
Onion - MH - -
*Million Bales
Others:
The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights
(PPV&FR) Authority, established in Nov., 2005 at New
Delhi
National Project on Management of Soil Health &
Fertility (NPMSF), has been introduced in 2008-09
Total No. of Soil Testing Laboratories (STLs)in India-750
(2008-09)
Total irrigation potential in India- 102.77 million ha by
March 2007
Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) started
since 1996-97
NAFED -National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing
Federation of India Limited
CCI- Cotton Corporation of India
The Macro Management of Agriculture Scheme (MMA)
was formulated in 2000-01
National Food Security Mission (NFSM) has been
launched from the rabi 2007-08 to enhancing the
production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10, 8 and 2
million tonnes respectively by the end of the Eleventh
Plan
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page:
16)
Kisan Credit Card Scheme (KCC) was introduced in
August 1998
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) - launched in
August 2007
National Bamboo Mission (NBM)- commenced in 2006-07
National Committee on Plasticulture Applications in
Horticulture (NCPAH)
Chairman, Planning Commissions- M. S. Ahuliwalia
Chairman of National Commission for Farmers - Dr.
M.S. Swaminathan
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page:
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Continue until reach the success........
Contents:
1. Indian Agriculture-2010
2. ICAR -History
3. ICAR - Milestone
4. Organizational Setup of ICAR: (Present scenarios-2010)
5. Handbook of Agriculture (New Entry)
6. General Agriculture (New)
7. General Agriculture by Muniraj Singh (New Entry)
8. Informatics in Agriculture
9. Nanotechnology in Agriculture
10. Crop Biotechnology
11. Mile Stones in Agricultural Development
12. Irrigation in India-2010
13. ITK in Agriculture
14. Green Revolution
15. Crop Production, Area (Current figure)
16. Others
References:
1. Handbook of Agriculture- ICAR (new edition)
2. General Agriculture- Muni raj Singh (new edition)
3. Survey of India- Govt. of India (2009-10)
4. India-2010
5. ICAR websites
Availability Sources:
General Agriculture -2010-11 Ed.-II By: R. S. Maitry (I.A.R.I., New Delhi) (Page:
20)
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