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Depressurization: A Practical Guide

This guide has been prepared based upon frequently asked questions regarding the Dynamic Depressuring utility introduced in Aspen HYSYS 3.0. . !t e"plains ho# to use the utility and correctly interpret the results. !t is di$ided into four sections% .0 &$er$ie# '.0 Adding and (onfiguring the )tility '. (onnections * +essel (onfiguration '.' (onfiguring the Strip (harts '.3 Heat ,lu" -arameters '.. Heat /oss -arameters '.0 +al$e -arameters '.1 &perating &ptions 3.0 2ain -oints to 3emember ..0 Appendices

Why has the old depressuring utility gone?
The original Depressuring utility in Aspen HYSYS #as a pseudo4dynamic calculation based on a series of steady state calculations. The Dynamic Depressuring utility #as introduced in Aspen HYSYS 3.0. to allo# users to perform proper time4 dependant calculations. An Aspen HYSYS Dynamics licence is NOT required to use this ne# utility.
In version 3.2 onwards, you now only have the option to run the new Dynamic Utility. The dyndepressuring.tpl file in the templates sub-directory of the spen !"#"# 3.2 installation should be dated $%&'(&2''( or later. "ou can download the latest version from the website. )#ee *nowledgebase #olution +$$322, at http-&&

What can this utility

e used !or?

The Depressuring utility can be used to simulate the depressuri5ation of gas6 gas4 liquid filled $essels6 pipelines6 and systems #ith se$eral connected $essels or piping $olumes depressuring through a single $al$e. 3eferences to 7$essel8 in this guide can also refer to piping or combinations of the t#o.

What types o! depressuring calculations can e per!or"ed?

There are t#o ma9or types of depressuring calculations a$ailable% Fire Mode is used to model a $essel or pipe under fire conditions. This mode has three sub4types% o o o ,ire ,ire Stefan :olt5mann ,ire A-!0'

Adiabatic Mode is used to model the blo#do#n of pressure $essels or piping #ith no e"ternal heat supplied. A more in depth discussion of the different methods follo#s in Section '.0.

#.0Adding and $on!iguring the %tility

&ow to add the utility
A Depressuring utility can be added to the case by selecting Tools | Utilities on the main menu bar6 highlighting Depressuring Dynamics and clicking the Add Utility button. After you ha$e selected the )tility6 al#ays rename the )tility to something that is recogni5able the ne"t time you open the case ;for e"ample6 DP-V !"#-Fire<.

#.1 $onnections and 'essel $on!iguration

&ow to connect the utility to a strea"
&n the Design tab6 $onnections page6 choose the stream that represents the fluid you #ant to use as the source for the depressuring. !f you ha$e a single $essel6 for e"ample6 the stream #ould be the feed stream into the $essel. Attaching the stream to the utility is accomplished as sho#n in ,igure %

/igure $

-ress the arro# and select the inlet stream from the drop4do#n list.

(ntering 'essel Para"eters

!deally6 the $essel si5e #ill be kno#n and this data can be entered into the appropriate fields on the form sho#n in ,igure .
If the vessel size is unknown, then the vessel sizing utility in Aspen HYSYS can be used to esti ate the !e"ui!ed pa!a ete!s#

The initial liquid $olume is normally calculated at the normal liquid le$el ;=//<. Aspen HYSYS does not take the $olume of the heads into account6 so the $olume #ill be the liquid in the cylindrical portion only. !f the feed stream is t#o4phase6 the equilibrium composition of the liquid #ill be calculated. !f an initial liquid $olume is not specified6 Aspen HYSYS #ill take a $olume equal to the $olumetric flo# of the feed liquid o$er one hour. This $olume may be disproportionate to the total $essel $olume.
more realistic hold up time to use is ( minutes.

Aspen HYSYS does not take account of the heads in a $essel6 so $olumes and areas are calculated as for a simple cylinder. The total $essel $olume is calculated from the diameter and height ;or length for a hori5ontal $essel<. To account for piping or head $olume contributions6 a small amount can be added to the height or length of the $essel. !f the conditions of the system at settle out are such that the $apour is superheated6 Aspen HYSYS #ill not allo# a liquid in$entory. The settle out conditions for mi"ed sources and $olumes are calculated on a constant enthalpy6 $olume6 and mass basis. (orrection ,actors allo# for ad9ustments to the amount of metal in contact #ith the top or bottom of the $essel. This can also be used to account for additional no55les6 piping6 strapping6 or support steel#ork in close contact #ith the $essel. Aspen HYSYS #ill use the heat content of this metal #hen performing the calculations. This is analogous to adding6 for e"ample6 ten percent of the $essel mass to account for fittings.
0ote that correction factors are in 1g or lb and are not a simple percentage.

#.# $on!iguring )trip $harts

>hen the Depressuring utility is run6 all data is stored using strip charts. Three default strip charts are added #hen the utility is added. !t is possible to remo$e $ariables by deselecting the appropriate $ariable in the Acti%e column. A $ariable can be added by pressing the Add Variable button and selecting it from the list of simulation $ariables. Any configuration to the strip charts should be done before the utility is run? other#ise6 any ne# $ariables #ill not be stored.
/igure 2

To $ie# data in tabular form6 press the Vie& 'istorical Data( button.

To $ie# data in graphical form6 press the Vie& )trip $*art( button.

#.* &eat +lu, Para"eters

&n the Design tab6 'eat ,lu" page6 the type of depressuring to be performed is specified. The different modes and their respecti$e equations are described here. There are fi$e types of Heat ,lu" models a$ailable% applied using a general equation Adiabatic Mode * no e"ternal heat is Fire Mode * models heat from a fire

Fire AP+ ,! * models heat from a fire using an equation based on A-!0' Fire - )te-an .olt/mann * models heat from a fire using a radiation equation customi5e the equation used Use )preads*eet * allo#s the user to

Adia atic -ode

This can be used to model the gas blo#do#n of pressure $essels or piping. =o e"ternal heat is applied so no parameters need to be entered in this section. Heat flu" bet#een the $essel #all and the fluid is modelled as the fluid temperature drops due to the depressuri5ation. Typical use of this mode is the depressuring of compressor loops on emergency shutdo#n.
/igure 3


+ire -ode
,ire 2ode can be used to simulate plant emergency conditions that #ould occur during a plant fire. -ressure6 temperature6 and flo# profiles are calculated for the application of an e"ternal heat source to a $essel6 piping6 or combination of items. Heat flu" into the fluid is user defined using the follo#ing equation%

Q = C + C' time + C3 ( C. TVESSEL ) + C0

LiquidVolumetime=t LiquidVolumetime =0

The ,ire @quation can also be used to simulate the depressuring of sub4sea pipelines #here heat transfer occurs bet#een sea#ater and the pipeline. !f the follo#ing hold true% then the pre$ious equation #ould reduce to% (3 A )A (. A T and ( (' and (0 A 0

Q = UA( T )
/igure (


+ire AP./#1
,ire A-!0' uses similar heat flu" parameters to those used in ,ire mode. Three coefficients% ( 6 ('6 and (3 must be specified. The equation used by Aspen HYSYS is an e"tension to the standard A-! equation for heat flu" to a liquid containing $essel. A #etted area is required and used to calculate the heat transfer into the $essel. The follo#ing notes are based on e"tracts from Guide for Pressure-Relieving and De ressuring S!stem" AP# Re$ommended Pra$ti$e %&'6 ,ourth @dition6 2arch BBC. The amount of heat absorbed by a $essel e"posed to an open fire is affected by% The type of fuel feeding the fire

The degree to #hich the $essel is en$eloped by the flames ;a function of si5e and shape< Any fireproofing on the $essel

The follo#ing equations are based on conditions #here there is prompt fire fighting and adequate drainage of flammable materials a#ay from the $essel. A-! @quation ;field units<

Q = ' 000 ( A0.D'

E A total absorption to #etted surface ;:T)Fh< , A en$ironmental factor A A total #etted surface ;ft'<

A-! @quation ;metric units<

Q = -.*'', ( A+*)&

E A total absorption to #etted surface ;kGFs , A en$ironmental factor A A total #etted surface ;m'<

(nviron"ental +actor
Table 0 on -age C of A-! 0' lists , factors for $arious types of $essels and insulation.
At p!esent, Aspen HYSYS does not have the + facto! shown in the e"uation# If you want to de!ate the heat input, then alte! the 2)*** o! 43#))% figu!es acco!dingly#

:are $essel @arth4co$ered storage :elo#4grade storage

, A .0 , A 0.03 ,A0

,or insulated $essels6 users should consult the reference and select an , $alue based on the insulation conductance for fire e"posure conditions.
/igure 2

=ote the !nitial >etted Area $ariable #ill only be completed if cases from earlier $ersions of Aspen HYSYS ;pre 3.'< are loaded. The Aspen HYSYS equation is an e"tension of the standard A-! equation. Therefore6 in field units6 ( #ill be ' 000 multiplied by the en$ironmental factor6 , and (' #ill be 0.D' by default. ;!n most cases6 ( #ill be equal to ' 000<.

Q = C (/ettedAreatime=t )



Wetted Area
The surface area #etted by the internal liquid content of the $essel is effecti$e in generating $apour #hen the e"terior of the $essel is e"posed to fire. To determine $apour generation6 A-! recommends that you only take into account that portion of the $essel that is #etted by liquid up to C.1m ;'0ft< abo$e the source of the flame. !ndi$idual companies may de$iate from this figure6 so be sure to check. This usually refers to ground le$el6 but it can be any le$el capable of sustaining a pool fire. The follo#ing table indicates recommended $olumes for partially filled $essels. +olumes higher than C.1m are normally e"cluded as are $essel heads protected by support skirts.
Type of 3essel 5i6uid full )for e8ample, treaters. #urge drums, 1noc1out drums, and process vessels /ractionating columns 4ortion of 5i6uid Inventory All ,up to &#% .o! al ope!ating li"uid level ,up to &#% .o! al level in the botto plus li"uid hold up f!o all the t!ays du ped to the no! al level in the colu n botto # /otal wetted su!face only calculated up to &#% 01eboile! level is to be included if the !eboile! is an integ!al pa!t of the colu n#2 3a4i u 5ithe! the invento!y level ,up to &#% a4i u ho!izontal dia ete! o! &#% , whicheve! is g!eate! 7ef 4I 22'

9or1ing storage #pheres and spheroids

!f a (3 $alue of 0 is used6 the initial #etted area is used throughout the calculations. This could represent a #orst4case scenario. Alternati$ely6 if a (3 $alue of #ere used6 the $olume #ould $ary proportionally #ith the liquid $olume. This #ould represent a $ertical $essel.


+ire 0 )te!an 1oltz"ann

This mode uses the :olt5mann constant to take into account radiation6 forced con$ection6 flame temperature6 and ambient temperature. The method may be considered as an alternati$e method to the A-! standard.

Q = Atotal f v 1 (T f + 'C3. 0) + outsideU ( Tam0 TV )


>here% A total Hf H$ k Tf T$ outside ) Tamb

/igure :

A Total #etted surface area A ,lame emissi$ity A +essel emissi$ity A :olt5mann constant A ,lame temperature A +essel temperature A (on$ecti$e heat transfer bet#een $essel and air A Ambient air temp Ienerally ranges from 0.' to 0.0 ;for burning hea$y H(s< Ienerally ranges from 0.0 to @quals 0.1CJ 0

;for polished metal<

>Fm K


000 K and up#ards

%se )preadsheet
This is an option that allo#s the user access to the spreadsheet used by the depressuring utility. +alues can be altered in this spreadsheet and additional equations substituted for calculation of the heat flu". +t is recommended t*at only ad%anced users use t*is option0


#.2 &eat 3oss Para"eters

There are three types of Heat /oss models a$ailable% loss None * does not account for any heat

)imple * allo#s the user to either specify the heat loss directly or ha$e it calculated from specified $alues Detailed * allo#s the user to specify a more detailed set of heat loss parameters
/or accurate calculations the detailed !eat 5oss model is the one that should be used; otherwise, the contribution of the metal could be completely ignored.

)i"ple -odel
/igure ,

)sing this model6 the user must specify an o$erall ) $alue and an ambient temperature. Heat Transfer Area is the cylindrical area of the $essel #ith no allo#ance for head area. This $alue is calculated using the $essel dimensions specified on the $onnections page. )sing the Simple Heat /oss 2odel6 heat loss from the $essel is calculated using the follo#ing formula%

Q = UA(T fluid Tam0ient )


Detailed -odel
This mode allo#s the user to specify a more detailed set of heat loss parameters. !t considers heat transfer through con$ection bet#een the $essel fluid and the #all6 conduction through the #all6 and any insulation and con$ection to the en$ironment. Hence6 there are four portions of the model to be set up% Ieneral6 (onduction6 (on$ection6 and (orrelation (onstants. The radio buttons here s#itch the $ie# to allo# these to be configured.

/he duty calculated can be applied to the vessel wall o! di!ectly to the fluid# /he fo! e! would be used to odel a fi!e and the latte! to odel a heate!#

The 1eneral section allo#s the user to manipulate 3ecycle @fficiencies and the ambient temperature.
/igure <

The 3ecycle efficiencies set ho# much of each phase is in$ol$ed in the flash calculation. The default $alue for all three 3ecycle @fficiencies is 00L. This means that all material in the $essel has been flashed together and is in thermodynamic equilibrium. !f the 3ecycle @fficiencies #ere to be reduced6 a portion of the material #ould bypass the flash calculation and the $apour and liquid #ould no longer instantaneously reach equilibrium. !n this case6 the phases may ha$e different temperatures. )nfortunately6 there is no single typical number suggested for these parameters. The best option #ould be to try $arious scenarios and obser$e the results.


The $onduction section allo#s the user to manipulate the conducti$e properties of the #all and insulation.
/igure %

The metal #all thickness must al#ays ha$e a finite $alue ;that is6 it cannot be MemptyN<. To model a $essel #ithout insulation6 the insulation $alue thickness should be 5ero. )sers are also required to enter the specific heat capacity of the material;s<6 the density of the material;s<6 and the conducti$ity of the material;s<. Some typical $alues for metals are%
=etal 3ild Steel Stainless steel Alu iniu /itaniu 6oppe! 7!ass Density 1g&m3 &'%* &(3* 2&)* 4$4* '(3* '$** #pecific !eat 1>&1g * *#42* *#$)* *#()3 *#$23 *#3'$ *#3&* Thermal ?onductivity 9&m * %3 )$* 2*) 23 3'$ ))*


The $on%ection section allo#s users to manipulate the heat transfer coefficient for inside and outside the $essel as #ell as bet#een $apour and liquid material inside the $essel.
/igure $'

To use a set of fi"ed ) $alues6 the Use Fi2ed U option should be selected. !f the ) $alues are unkno#n6 the user can press the 3stimate $oe--icients No& button and ha$e Aspen HYSYS determine the ) $alues. !n order to ha$e Aspen HYSYS $ary the ) $alues throughout the depressuring scenario6 select the $ontinually Update U $alue.


$orrelation $oe!!icients
This feature gi$es users the opportunity to manipulate the coefficients used in the heat transfer correlation. :y selecting Use )peci-ied $onstants6 the user may manually enter the constants used in the heat transfer correlations.
/igure $$

The equation6 #hich determines the outside heat transfer coefficient for air6 is%

T 2 = C lengt2
The equation used for the other three correlations is%

3u = C ( Gr Pr )
>here% =u A =usselt =umber Ir A Irashof =umber -r A -randtl =umber


#./ 'alve Para"eters

It is recommended that either the /isher or the 7elief valve be used.

The +al$e -arameters page allo#s users to select the type of $al$es to be used for both $apour and liquid ser$ice. !n most cases6 either the ,isher or the 3elief $al$e should be used for $al$e si5ing. Their equations are more ad$anced than some of the others and can automatically handle choked conditions. ,urthermore6 these t#o $al$e types support other options that can be accessed through the $al$e property $ie# accessible through the Depressuring sub4flo#sheet. The se$en a$ailable $al$e types are described in the follo#ing sections.
/igure $2


The ,isher option uses the standard $al$e option in Aspen HYSYS. !t allo#s the user to specify both $al$e ($ and percent opening. :y pressing the )i/e Val%e button6 the $al$e can be si5ed for a gi$en flo# rate.
/igure $3

After the appropriate Si5ing (onditions ha$e been entered6 click the )i/e Val%e button to calculate the $al$e ($.

4elie! 'alve
The relief $al$e option uses the standard Aspen HYSYS dynamic relief $al$e. The user can specify orifice area ;or diameter<6 relief pressure6 and full open pressure. The user is required also to specify an orifice discharge coefficient.
/igure $(


-S+ hysterysis can be modelled by opening the depressuring sub4flo#sheet and na$igating to the Dynamics tab on the )pecs page of the relief $al$e as sho#n.
/igure $2

0ote that the relief valve operation is not added to the sub-flowsheet until the utility is run for the first time after the valve model is changed.

It is possible to model a depressuring valve using the 4#3 valve. /orcing the relief valve to be open at all times does this. @nter a full open pressure that is lower than the final e8pected vessel pressure and a set pressure that is slightly lower than the full open pressure.

Other valve "odels

4lease see ppendi8 for the other valve models )as used in the original spen !"#"# Depressuring utility..


#.5 Options
The Options page on the Design tab allo#s the PV 4or5 Term $ontribution to be set.
/igure $:

PV 4or5 Term $ontribution refers to the isentropic efficiency of the process. A re$ersible process should ha$e a $alue of 00L and an isenthalpic process should ha$e a $alue of 0L. ,or gas4filled systems6 $alues range from DCL to BDL. ,or liquid filled systems the number ranges from .0L to C0L. A higher isentropic efficiency results in a lo#er final temperature. As no processes are fully isentropic nor isenthalpic6 this parameter is used in all the different simulation models to tune the models in order to match conditions obser$ed and has been requested by some of our users to use to match the test data they ha$e a$ailable. This parameter is defined in Aspen HYSYS as% dH ;change in enthalpy< A percentage F 00.0 J d- ;change in pressure< F phaseOmoleOdensity. !n simple terms6 you can think of this as the #ork that the fluid in the $essel does to e"pel the material that is lea$ing. Ho#e$er6 for design purposes6 that is #orking #ithout any test data? based on $arious publications on the sub9ect6 #e can propose the follo#ing $alues as a guideline% ,or gas4filled systems * $alues range from DCL to BDL ,or liquid filled systems * the number ranges from .0L to C0L ,urthermore6 as you can see from the #ay the equation is defined6 a higher isentropic efficiency results in a lo#er final temperature. Hence6 if one is checking that the minimum temperature of the $essel #ill not fall belo# a certain $alue ;for e"ample6 for $alidating the steel alloy grade<6 and then 00L #ill gi$e the most conser$ati$e result. Also6 if one is checking that the final -ressure is belo# the safety regulatory limit after 0 minutes6 it might be safer to make some checks #ith lo#er $alues such as DCL to be more conser$ati$e6 pro$ided there is no significant heat transfer influence on the phase beha$iour inside the $essel.


Operating $onditions
The Operating $onditions page on the Design tab contains a number of settings%

Operating Para"eters
/igure $,

Operating Pressure refers to the initial $essel pressure. :y default6 this $alue is the pressure of the inlet stream6 or the settle out pressure if multiple streams are connected.
6hange the calculated Aperating 4ressure by changing the p!essu!e in the connected st!ea ,s-#

The Time )tep )i/e refers to the integration step si5e. !t may be a good idea to reduce the step si5e if the flo# rate is significantly larger than the $olume or if the $essel depressuri5es in a relati$ely short amount of time ;for e"ample6 minute<. The Depressuring Time is the total length of simulated time that the utility is running.

'apour Outlet )olving Option

The Dynamic Depressuring utility can sol$e either for the final pressure or the ($FArea required to achie$e a specified final pressure. The $alculate Pressure option uses the specified areaF($ to determine the final pressure.
/igure $<

The final pressure is gi$en #hen the Depressuring Time has elapsed.


$alculate Area is a$ailable for Supersonic6 Subsonic6 and Ieneral $al$es. $alculate $% is a$ailable for ,isher and 2asoneilan $al$es. The t#o options differ only in the type of $alue calculated. :ased on A-!6 it is normal to depressure to 00L of the staring pressure6 or to 00 psig. Hence6 $alculate Area can be used to find the correct si5e for the $al$e. :efore the calculations start6 the user must specify an initial ($ or area. !f the depressuring time is reached before the final pressure is achie$ed6 then the calculations stop and a ne# ($ or area is calculated using the final pressure. The calculations are repeated until the final pressure is reached in the gi$en amount of depressuring time. The user may specify a ma"imum number of iterations and a pressure tolerance to control con$ergence. To stop the calculations at any time6 the press M$T678.63A9N click the )top button.
/igure $%

>hen the utility has stopped running6 the final calculated $alue is displayed here.

This is the desired final pressure.


After all the required information has been submitted6 a yello# bar that reads 6eady to $alculate #ill appear at the button of the Depressuring $ie#.
/igure 2'

(lick the 6un button to start the calculations.

After the utility has run6 go to the Per-ormance tab P )ummary page to $ie# the results.
/igure 2$

The three buttons pro$ide access to the follo#ing information% $%:P Table * #hen the $alculate $% option is used6 this gi$es a table of ($FArea $s. final pressure Vap Pea5 +n-o * details about the $apour product stream at its peak flo# rate


7i; Pea5 +n-o * details about the liquid product stream at its peak flo# rate


*.0 -ain Points to 4e"e" er

You no# only ha$e the option to run the ne# Dynamic )tility. The old quasi dynamic method has been remo$ed. Aspen HYSYS does not take the $olume of the $essel heads into account so the $olume #ill be the liquid in the cylindrical portion only. Ad9ust the $essel si5e if you #ish to allo# for the head $olume. Aspen HYSYS defaults the liquid $olume to be equal to the $olumetric flo# of the feed liquid o$er one hour. This #ill be disproportionate to the total $essel $olume? a more realistic hold up time is . minutes. 2etal mass correction factors are in kg or lb and not a simple percentage. At present6 Aspen HYSYS does not ha$e the , factor sho#n in the A-!0' fire equation. !f you #ant to derate the heat input6 then alter the ' 000 or .3. 1 figures accordingly. To model a depressuring $al$e using the -S+ $al$e6 you #ill ha$e to force the relief $al$e to be open at all times. To do this6 enter a full open pressure that is lo#er than the final e"pected $essel pressure and a set pressure that is slightly lo#er than the full open pressure. -+ #ork term gas4filled systems DCL to BDL liquid filled systems .0L to C0L A higher efficiency results in a lo#er final temperature. A-! recommends depressuring to the lo#er of 00L of the initial pressure or 00 psig F 1.B barg. ,or accurate calculations6 the detailed Heat /oss model should be used. &ther#ise the contribution of the metal is completely ignored. 2ake sure you run #ith a small enough time step to capture the peak flo#. T*oroug*ly c*ec5 your input data be-ore running0 +- you are unsure o- parameters do not ma5e &ild guesses ( as5<


2.0 Appendi,
This section contains information about the $al$e models not mentioned abo$e.

/igure 22

The supersonic $al$e equation can be used for modelling systems #hen no detailed information on the $al$e is a$ailable. The discharge coefficient ;(d< should be a $alue bet#een 0.C and . - refers to the upstream pressure and the density.

( = C d A ( P' ' )
)u sonic
/igure 23

+ *%

-back refers to :ack -ressure

The subsonic $al$e equation can also be used for modelling systems #hen no detailed information on the $al$e is a$ailable but the flo# is sub4critical. This can occur #hen the upstream pressure is less than t#ice the backpressure. The discharge coefficient ;(d< should be a $alue bet#een 0 and . The area ;A< should be a $alue bet#een 0.C and . - refers to the upstream pressure and the density.

( P' + P0a$1 ) ( P' P0a$1 ) ( = Cd A ' P '

+ *%


!t is possible to ha$e the depressuring scenario cycle bet#een pressure build4up and relief. To perform this analysis6 ensure a reasonable pressure differential and increase the number of pressure steps.

This equation #as taken from the 2asoneilan catalogue. !t can be used for general depressuring $al$es to flare. >hen this option is selected6 the user must specify ($ and (f. The remaining parameters in the equation are set by the Depressuring utility.

( = C' Cv C f 4 f ( P' ' )

#here% ( ($ (f Yf y A A A A A A A A .1113 ;S! )nits< 3D.D1 ;,ield )nits<


$al$e coefficient ;often kno#n from $endor data< critical flo# factor y 4 0. .Dy3 e"pansion factor upstream pressure upstream density

The Ieneral $al$e equation is based on the equation used to calculate critical flo# through a no55le as sho#n in Perr!5s C2emi$al Engineers5 6and0oo1 ;-age 04 .6 @quation 0.'0 ;1th @dition< or -age 04 06 @quation 0.'1 ;Cth @dition<<. !t should be used #hen the $al$e throat area is kno#n. =ote that this equation makes certain limiting assumptions concerning the characteristics of the orifice.

( = Cd Av 7 term ( g $ P' ' 1 )

#here (d A$ Kterm A A A discharge coefficient throat cross sectional area


& & 9 1 +' 8 1 + '

ratio of specific heats ;(pF($< upstream pressure upstream density

1 +'


6o +low
This option indicates that there is no flo# through the $al$e.


%se )preadsheet
3ecommended for ad$anced users only6 this option allo#s the user to customi5e a $al$e equation by editing the $al$e spreadsheet found inside the Depressuring sub4 flo#sheet.
/igure 2(

(licking the Vie& )preads*eet( button #ill open the spreadsheet.


Discharge $oe!!icient
>hen the relief6 supersonic6 subsonic6 or general $al$e is selected6 the user is required to specify a discharge coefficient. This correction factor accounts for the $ena contracta effect. +alues ranging from 0.1 to 0.C are typically used. !n order to disregard this effect6 set the discharge coefficient equal to .