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Project Health and Safety Measures of Employee Ratings: (0)| ie!

s: "#$%&|'i(es: )* Pu+lished +y ,handra Se(ar - P See More 1.1INTRODUCTION Due to rapid industrialization, industrial workers are exposed to several types of hazardsand accidents. Every year lakhs of workers are injured due to mechanical, chemical, electricala n d r a d i a t i o n h a z a r d s a n d i t l e a d s t o p a r t i a l o r t o t a l d i s a b l e m e n t . S o i n r e c e n t y e a r s , g r e a t e r attention is given to health and safety due to pressure from government, trade unions, labour laws and awareness of employers. he efficiency of workers depends to a great extends on the environment in which the work. !ork environment consists of all the factors, which act and react on the body and mind of an employee. he primary aim is to create an environment, which ensures the greatest ease of work and removes all causes of worries."ccupational health and safety is a discipline with a broad scope involving many specializedfields. #n its broadest sense, it should aim at$ a% he promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l a n d s o c i a l well&being of workers in all occupations. b% he prevention among workers of adverse effects on health c a u s e d b y t h e i r w o r k i n g conditions. c% he protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverseto health. d% he placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational e n v i r o n m e n t a d a p t e d t o physical and mental needs. e% he adaptation of work to humans.S u c c e s s f u l o c c u p a t i o n a l h e a l t h a n d s a f e t y p r a c t i c e r e ' u i r e s t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d participation of both employers and workers in health and safety programmes, and involves

thec o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o o c c u p a t i o n a l m e d i c i n e , i n d u s t r i a l h y g i e n e , t o x i c o l o g y , education, engineering safety, ergonomics, psychology, etc. 1

"ccupational health issues are often given less attention than occupational safety issu es because the former are generally more difficult to confront. (owever, when health is addressed,so is safety, because a healthy workplace is by definition also a safe workplace. he converse, though, may not be true & a so&called safe workplace is not necessarily also a healthy workplace. h e important point is that issues of both health and safety m u s t b e a d d r e s s e d i n e v e r y workplace.!ork plays a central role in people)s lives, since most workers spend at least eight hoursa day in the workplace, whether it is on a plantation, in an office, factory, etc. herefore, work e n v i r o n m e n t s s h o u l d b e s a f e a n d h e a l t h y . * n f o r t u n a t e l y s o m e e m p l o y e r s a s s u m e l i t t l e responsibility for the protection of workers) health and safety. #n fact, some employers do not even know that they have the moral and often legal responsibility to protect workers. Health of the workers: (ealth is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely theabsence of diseases. #t+s a positive and dynamic concept which means something more than theabsence of illness. Statutory provisions:

,ccording to factories ,ct, -./0, the statutory provisions regarding the health of theworkers are stated in the sections -- to 12. hey are Cleanliness !se" 11#: Every factory shall be kept clean by daily sweeping or washing the floors and workroomsand by using disinfectants where every necessary. !alls, doors and windows shall be repaintedor varnished at least once in every 3 years. Disposal of wastes an$ effluents !se" 1 #:

he waste materials produced from the manufacturing process m u s t b e e f f e c t i v e l y disposed of wastes. %entilation an$ te&perature !se" 1'#: here must be provision for ade'uate ventilation for the circulation of fresh air. hetemperature must be kept at a comfortable level. (ot parts of machines must be separated andinsulated. he State 4overnment may make rules for the keeping of thermometers in specified places and the adoption of methods which will keep the temperature low. Re&oval of Dust an$ fu&es !se" 1(#: #f the manufacturing process used gives off injurious or offensive dust and steps must betaken so that they are not inhaled or accumulated. he exhaust fumes of internal combustionengines must be conducted outside the factory. )rtifi"ial hu&i$ifi"ation !se" 1*#: he water used for this purpose must be pure. he State 4overnment can frame rulesregarding the process of humidification etc. he water used for humidification shall be takenfrom a public supply or other source of drinking water and must be effectively purified before use. Over"row$in+ !se" 1,#: ' here must be no overcrowding in a factory. #n facto r i e s e x i s t i n g b e f o r e t h e commencement of the ,ct there must be at least ... cubic meters of space per worker. 5 o r factories built afterwards, there must be at least /.1 cubic meters of space. he chief inspector of factories can also prescribe the maximum number of workers who can work in each work room. -i+htin+ !se" 1.#: 5actories must be well lighted. Effective measures must be adopted to prevent glare or formation of shadows which might cause eye strain. Drinkin+ water !se" 1/#: ,rrangements must be made to provide a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water.,ll supply points of such water must be marked 6drinking water7. 8o such points shall be within 12 ft. 9or :.3 meters% of any latrine, washing place etc.5actories employing more than 132 workers must cool the water during the hot weather. Toilet fa"ilities !se" 10#: Every factory must provide sufficient number of latrines and u r i n a l s . h e r e m u s t b e separate provisions for male and female

workers.; a t r i n e s a n d u r i n a l s m u s t b e k e p t i n a c l e a n a n d s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n . # n f a c t o r i e s employing more than 132 workers, they shall be of prescribed sanitary types. Spittoons !se" 1#: , sufficient number of spittoons must be provided at convenient places, in a clean andhygienic condition. he State 4overnment may take rules regarding their number, location andmaintenance. Safety of the workers: ( Safety is a measures or techni'ues implemented to reduce the risk of injury, loss andd a n g e r t o p e r s o n s , p r o p e r t y o r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n a n y f a c i l i t y o r p l a c e i n v o l v i n g t h e manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or merchandise. Statutory provisions: ,ccording to factories ,ct, -./0, the statutory provisions regarding the safety of theworkers are stated in the sections 1- to /-. hey are 2en"in+ of &a"hinery !Se" 1#: #n every factory, every dangerous part of any machinery, every moving part of a primemover and every flywheel connected to prime mover the head&race and tail&race of every water wheel and water turbine, and every part of an electric generator, motor or rotary converter, every p a r t o f t r a n s m i s s i o n m a c h i n e r y , m u s t b e s e c u r e l y f e n c e d b y s a f e g u a r d s o f s u b s t a n t i a l construction. 3ork on or near &a"hinery in &otion !Se" #: *