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School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIRE
Faculty of Engineering & Information Sciences School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING DEGREE WITH HONOURS IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

Final Year Project Report

Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin


Report by GAO FEI Supervisor George Pissanidis Date APRIL 2010

FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

DECLARATION STATEMENT
I certify that the work submitted is my own and that any material derived or quoted from the published or unpublished work of other persons has been duly acknowledged (ref. UPR AS/C/6.1, Appendix I, Section 2 Section on cheating and plagiarism) Student Full Name: FEI GAO Student Registration Number: 08199095

Signed: Date: 13 April 2008

FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

ABSTRACT
This project is based on three phase brushless AC motor (BACM) on Blackfin, using visual DSP++ with C programming to control it. Field Orientated Control of 3-Phase AC-Motors is discussed. The BACM current control modules are used in programming. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), A/D converter and inverter are also illustrated. The C programming code is written by software named visual DSP++ 5.0 to control operation. Some research and analysis of hardware components are explained. Finally, the program is fine tuned for improvement and the possibility of further development assessed.

FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank my project supervisor George Pissanidis for his unconditional technical support and guidance throughout. Although I have studied the issue very slow, he patiently helped me.

FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION STATEMENT ................................................................1 ABSTRACT................................................................................................2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................................................3 TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................7 GLOSSARY ...............................................................................................9 1. Introduction.........................................................................................10 1.1 Aims and objectives......................................................................10 1.2 Background...................................................................................10 1.3 overview of project work..............................................................11 2. Background Theory ............................................................................11 2.1 Brushless AC motor......................................................................11 2.1.1 theory of brushless AC motor..............................................11 2.1.2 Advantage of brushless AC motor .......................................13 2.2 PWM unit......................................................................................14 2.2.1 Theory of PWM ...................................................................15 2.3 A/D converter................................................................................16 2.4 Inverter..........................................................................................17 2.5 PID controller theory ....................................................................17
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

3. Field Orientated Control of 3-Phase AC-Motor [5]............................18 3.1 Space Vector definition and projection.........................................19 3.1.1 (a,b,c) (,) (the Clarke transformation) .........................20 3.1.2 (a,b) (d,q) (the Park transformation)................................21 3.1.3 (a,b) (d,q) (inverse Park transformation).........................21 3.2 The basic scheme for the FOC......................................................22 3.3 The input for the FOC...................................................................23 3.3.1 current sampling ..................................................................23 3.3.2 Rotor flux position...............................................................23 4. BACM current control modules .........................................................25 5. Design .................................................................................................27 6. Programming ......................................................................................28 6.1 S function model code ..................................................................28 6.2 Main comments.............................................................................30 7. Results.................................................................................................31 7.1 initialization process .....................................................................32 7.2 speed control .................................................................................33 7.3 position control .............................................................................34 8. Conclusion and further development..................................................34 8.1 Further development.....................................................................35 9. Projection time plan ............................................................................36
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

10.References............................................................................................37

FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 sample brushless motor ........................................................12 Figure 2 PWM signals [2]...................................................................14 Figure 3 A/D converter chip [3]..........................................................16 Figure 4 Basic scheme of 3-phase inverter and AC motor [5] ...........17 Figure 5 PID controller [6] .................................................................17 Figure 6 Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b,c) .....19 Figure 7 Stator current space vector and its components in (a,b) ......20 Figure 8 Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b) and in the d,q rotating reference frame....................................................21 Figure 9 Basic scheme of FOC for AC-motor....................................22 Figure 10 motor control systems ........................................................22 Figure 11 Current, voltage and rotor flux space vectors in the d,q rotating reference frame and their relationship with a,b,c and , stationary reference frame ............................................................24 Figure 12 Block diagram of the BACM torque control .....................25 Figure 13 the block diagram (a)............................................................0 Figure 14 the block diagram (b) ...........................................................0 Figure 15 current trajectories of vector control in initialization.........32 Figure 16 Speed command, actual speed waveform ..........................33
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

Figure 17 waveform of position command, the actual location .........34 Figure 18 project time plan.................................................................36

FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

GLOSSARY
A/DC BACM BLDC FOC PID control PS PWM Analog to Digital Converter Brushless AC Motor Brushless DC Motor Field Orientated Control Proportion, Integration, Differentiation Position sensor Pulse Width Modulation

FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

1. Introduction
This report mainly illustrates my final year project, it is torque control for the brushless AC motor based on blackfin. This project is based on Digital Signal Processing(DSP).The basic theory behind electronic motor controls is that the motors speed, torque, and direction are managed by electronically switching or modulating the voltages to the motor. The current level to the motor can also be managed indirectly by modulating the motors voltage.

1.1 Aims and objectives


The aim of project is to develop torque control for the brushless ac motor based on BlackFin and create a software environment for AC motor control. The project is written by C programming and design software mainly. The objective of project is to develop A/DC driver and vector control algorithm. Analog-digital converter, ADC for short is a device that the analog is converted to digital. In the computer control system, should be checked to a variety of testing devices. Continuously variable voltage or current as analog provide controlled object of related parameters (such as speed, pressure, temperature, etc.) and control. The input of computer should be the digital, so it need ADC to control.

1.2 Background
In recent years, brushless motor in the rapid development in the field model is a kind of motivation. Because of the price, yield and over the past few years brushless motor used in high-grade aviation model due to mechanical processing technology, now the rapid development, the production cost of brushless motors dropped many, it is into every aspect of field model from the electric control, electric car to remote-controlled boats to electric model plane, everywhere. Electric power electronics, electrical technology, the controller for the development of technology progress of electromechanical industry provides a powerful force. And often used in motor control are compared, the MCU control motor of brushless dc motor (BLDC) motors and eliminate the phase change brush wear, improve the arc stability of the control system and the life, power electronics device applications greatly reduced the size of the control system, the control structure in industrial and civil widely used in the field and the server application prospect
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

1.3 overview of project work


Chapter 1 provides background material on brushless AC motor. Chapter 2 describes theoretical analysis of how each component works. Chapter 3 provides theoretical analysis and measurement of Field Orientated Control of 3-Phase AC-Motors. Chapter 4 describes BACM current control modules in details. Chapter 5 has given the some programming and comments. Chapter 6 presents the some results. Chapter 7 provides conclusions and further work.

2. Background Theory
2.1 Brushless AC motor 2.1.1 theory of brushless AC motor
Motor is electrical equipment that converted into electrical energy to mechanical energy, and can re-use of machinery to produce kinetic energy, used to drive other devices. The following figure shows the theory of brushless motor simply

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

Figure 1 sample brushless motor

Three coils are mounted 120 degrees apart. When current is applied to a coil it will attract the nearest rotor magnet. If current is applied to the phase U coil, the rotor will turn clockwise until magnet A is aligned with the coil (at a detent). This simple brushless motor is similar to a how a stepper motor operates; turning on one coil will cause the shaft to rotate by one magnet pole. [1] Three-phase asynchronous motor to rotate together with the prerequisite is a rotating magnetic field, the three-phase asynchronous motor stator windings is used to produce a rotating magnetic field. We know, but in power phase-to-phase voltage difference in phase is 120 degrees, three-phase asynchronous motor stator windings in three of the spatial position also sent 120 degrees, so each stator winding, when in tube, conduct the three-phase power, stator winding can produce a rotating magnetic field changes every one cycle. Current, rotating magnetic field in space, namely a rotating magnetic rotation of rotation speed and the current changes are synchronous. Rotating magnetic speed for: n = 60f/P type of f for power frequency magnetic poles, P is the unit is the logarithm, n.: RPM. According to the type we know, motor speed and number of poles and the use of power frequency, therefore, ac motor speed control, there are two ways: 1, the change pole, 2, the frequency conversion method. Before the first method, multi-purpose now use frequency conversion technology to realize stepless speed of ac motor control

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

2.1.2 Advantage of brushless AC motor


a. brushless and low interference In addition to the brushless motor brush, the most immediate change is not a brush motor running of edm, thus greatly reducing the spark of remote radio equipment. b. Low noise and Smooth operation Brushless motors no brush, reduce friction, the noise will run smoothly, and the advantages of low many for the operation stability of model is a great support. c. Long service life and low maintenance cost Brushless motors wear primarily in the bearing, from the perspective of machinery, brushless motor is almost a free maintenance of motor, when necessary, the need to do some dust maintenance. A comparison, brushless motor brush motor is relative to the advantages, but where everything is not absolute, low torque motor outstanding performance, torque and characteristics of brushless motor is irreplaceable, but brushless motors use convenient, as the cost of brushless controller and decline and brushless technology development and market competition, high-speed brushless power system is developed and popularized phase, it also has greatly promoted the development of sports model.

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

2.2 PWM unit

Figure 2 PWM signals [2]

Using PWM is the microprocessor for analog to digital output control of a kind of very effective technology, widely used in measuring, communication with the transformation to the power control in many areas. The pulse width modulation (PWM) is a kind of digital signal level simulation coding. Through the use of high resolution counter, the torque-current SHCH was used to simulate a modulated signal code level. PWM signal is still in a given number, because any moment, full of amplitude of the dc power supply or have (ON), or completely without (OFF). Voltage or current source is a kind of tong (ON) or (OFF) the sequence of pulse repetition is added to the analog load up. The time is dc power supply is added to the load on the break, when the power is disconnected. As long as bandwidth, any simulation value is enough to use a PWM coded. Pulse width modulation is an analog control mode, its according to the corresponding changes to the load of the base or modulation transistor the plates bias, to achieve a switching power supply output crystal body tube or a time of change, this way can make the power output voltage in working conditions change is constant, the digital output by microprocessor control of analog circuit of a kind of very effective
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

technology. PWM control technology with its simple, flexible and dynamic response good advantage and become the most extensive application of power electronic technology, the control mode is people study hotspot nowadays. Due to the development of science and technology has no boundaries between subjects, combining modern control theory thoughts or achieve harmonic soft switch technology will become the PWM control technology is one of the main development direction.

2.2.1 Theory of PWM


The analog signals, its value can be continuous variation amplitude of time and the resolution are no restrictions. 9V battery is an emulator, because it is the output voltage is not precisely 9V equal, but with time changing, and desirable any real value. Similarly, the current is absorbed from the batteries in a group may not limit value range. Analog and digital signal of the difference between the values of usually only belong to pre-defined possible value set, for example in {the} 0V, 5V set of values. Simulation can be directly used to the voltage and current control, such as the volume of the radio control car. In the simulation of the radio, simple volume knob is connected to a variable resistor. When the knob screw move, bigger or smaller resistance, The current flows through the resistance will increase or decrease, which changed the result, to drive the speaker volume corresponding bigger or smaller. With the radio, the analog output and input into the linear scale.

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

2.3 A/D converter

Figure 3 A/D converter chip [3]

An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) is a device which converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage (or current) to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered ADCs. The digital output may use different coding schemes, such as binary, Gray code or two's complement binary. [4]

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

2.4 Inverter

Figure 4 Basic scheme of 3-phase inverter and AC motor [5]

The direct current (DC) transform into an alternating current (AC), its scientific terms for the device inverter. Due to the change of frequency equipment or frequency voltage inverter main device called ", "the product itself was named" inverter ".Usually, the voltage and frequency fixed ac frequency conversion variable voltage or for the device called the ac inverter ". In order to produce variable voltage and frequency converter (Inverter) must first turn power an alternating current (AC) transform for the direct current (DC), the direct current (DC) transform into an alternating current (AC). Used in motor control of frequency converter, can change voltage and frequency of can be changed.

2.5 PID controller theory

Figure 5 PID controller [6]


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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

PID (proportional - integral - derivative) controller as the first practical use of the controller has 50 years of history, is still the most widely used industrial controller. PID controller is easy to understand, the use of accurate system models without preconditions, thus to become the most widely used controller. PID controller by the ratio of unit (P), integral unit (I) and the differential unit (D) component. The input e (t) and output u (t) of the relationship

So its transfer function Where the proportional coefficient Kp; TI for the integral time constant; TD for the differential time constant It is as versatile and flexible in use, there are series products, the use of only three parameters to set (Kp, Ti and Td) can be. In many cases, does not necessarily need all three elements, which can take one to two units, the ratio control unit is essential. First, PID has wide range of applications. Although many industrial processes are nonlinear or time-varying, but can become simplified through their basic non-linear and dynamic characteristics of the system over time, this PID can be controlled. Secondly, PID parameter tune easier. That is PID parameters Kp, Ti and Td according to the dynamic nature of the process of setting time. If the process is dynamic, changing, for example, changes may be caused by the load change in system dynamics, PID parameters can be re-tuning. Third, PID controller in practice also constantly improved

3. Field

Orientated

Control

of

3-Phase

AC-Motor [5]
The Field Orientated Control (FOC) consists of controlling the stator currents represented by a vector. This control is based on projections which transform a three
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

phase time and speed dependent system into a two co-ordinate (d and q co-ordinates) time invariant system. These projections lead to a structure similar to that of a DC machine control. Field orientated controlled machines need two constants as input references: the torque component (aligned with the q co-ordinate) and the flux component (aligned with d co-ordinate)

3.1 Space Vector definition and projection


Three-phase current and voltage AC motors - and flux of the complex space can be analyzed vector. For current space vector, can be defined as follows. ia, ib, ic is in the stage of the stator instantaneous current, then the complex stator current is

defined by:

Where where

and

represent the spatial operators. The

following diagram shows the stator current complex space vector:

Figure 6 Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b,c)

(a, b and c) is the shaft three-phase system. The current space vector describing three phase signal system. It also needs to transform into a two time constant coordinate
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

system. (a,b,c) (,) (the Clarke transformation) which outputs a two co-ordinate time variant system (a,b) (d,q) (the Park transformation) which outputs a two co-ordinate time invariant System

3.1.1 (a,b,c) (,) (the Clarke transformation)

Figure 7 Stator current space vector and its components in (a,b)

Figure 7 shows The space vector can be reported in another reference frame with only two orthogonal axis called (a,b). If the axis a and are in the same frame.

the function shows The projection that modifies the three phase system into the (a,b) two dimension orthogonal system

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

3.1.2 (a,b) (d,q) (the Park transformation)

Figure 8 Stator current space vector and its component in (a,b) and in the d,q rotating reference frame

Figure 8 shows If we consider the d axis aligned with the rotor flux, for the current vector, the relationship from the two reference frame. is the rotor flux position. The flux and torque components of the current vector are determined by the following equations:

These elements on the rotor flux vector (,) and current position. If we know the correct flux position and then, with the design, d and q component become constants

3.1.3 (a,b) (d,q) (inverse Park transformation)


Here, we introduce from this voltage transformation only the equation that modifies the voltages in d,q rotating reference frame in a two phase orthogonal system:

The outputs of this block are the components of the reference vector that we call ; is the voltage space vector to be applied to the motor phases.
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

3.2 The basic scheme for the FOC

Figure 9 Basic scheme of FOC for AC-motor

Figure 10 motor control systems


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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

In all sorts of vector control methods, we use an indirect crucial. But only one control method, the measurement and processing of motor rotor model parameter is the time constant Lr/Rr (in turn bad estimation is module). If the motor is a permanent magnet synchronous motor, structure diagram and the corresponding function will be very similar, no longer need to turn bad estimation, flux command can be set to zero (magnets have their own flux). This work is part of the algorithm for calculating the voltage level: must convert volts and ampere. As in any modern power electronics system, the motor control system by muscle (power converter) and the brain (SCM). Driving power converter (known as inverter) is driven by three PWM output. In figure 9, it is easy to see a powerful way to a buffer 3 0-5 v into a signal, the logic of the pulse signal 300V - 0, to exert motor terminal. Motor winding inductors played a low-pass filter function: remove the carrier frequency, smooth current changes, forming a sine wave, namely the PWM waveform. Let us begin from a advanced CPU one motor drive system overall demand. The vector control algorithm for calculating, and must be in 1 ~ 10 calculation speed between 1ms (kHz to 100 mu s time, depending on the final closed-loop application of bandwidth. System requires a lot of mathematics calculation (triangle function, PID regulator, real-time flux and the torque motor parameter estimation based on). In addition, must give the rest of the application (communication, the user interface, etc.) of computing conservatives. In order not to limit dynamic performance, the main control variables to the lowest 16, the precision of intermediate results need 32-bit computing power.

3.3 The input for the FOC


Fundamental requirements for the FOC are a knowledge of two phase currents (as the motor is star-connected, the third phase current is also known, since ia + ib + ic = 0 ), and the rotor flux position.

3.3.1 current sampling


Measurement of three-phase current Ia and Ib, and a sampling A / D converter to convert. FOC work correctly depends on the real current measurement.

3.3.2 Rotor flux position


Position of the rotor flux field oriented control of knowledge is the core. . In fact if
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

there is an error in this variable the rotor flux is not aligned with d-axis and iSd and iSq are incorrect flux and torque components of the stator current. The following figure shows (a, b, c), (, ) and (d, q) frame of reference, and the correct position the rotor flux, stator current and stator voltage space vector rotating with d, q refer to the synchronization Speed.

Figure 11 Current, voltage and rotor flux space vectors in the d,q rotating reference frame and their relationship with a,b,c and , stationary reference frame

Measure the rotor flux position is different, if we consider the synchronous or asynchronous motors. Synchronous machine in various parts of the rotational speed is equal to the speed of rotor flux. Then Q (rotor flux position) is directly measured by the position sensor or rotor speed integration. Induction machine in various parts of the rotor speed is not equal to the rotor flux speed (with a sliding speed), it requires a special method to calculate the basic question is the current model, the model equations requires two motors in the use of D , q coordinate system.

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

4. BACM current control modules

Figure 12 Block diagram of the BACM torque control

Once more the components placed within the framework of favor, is to control the structure of software modules, hardware modules and their external side. The software recognition module described above, these characters and their development, which is the controller on the basis of functional requirements, as discussed below. Brushless DC Motor Controller now submitted a request for discussion, but also for BACM current controllers. Although there are differences, due to the current direction control, which leads to more complex cases of BACM the current control structure needs higher resolution. More specific needs of the mainstream carriers is divided into two parts, one is the magnetization of the rotor torque production and a responsible, both under dynamic conditions need to be considered a separate control of the equivalent magnitude. The current control process once the motor current and to take appropriate regulatory action, its specific need to set the value of monitoring compared. Since this is to perform torque and magnetization, the current control logic of the current control requires the implementation of appropriate mathematics, to "convert" to their counterparts as well as magnetic torque and the stator current, and vice versa, in order to fulfill its adjustment operation. This change is through the use of forward Clark, reverse park the motor current controller of the feedback path and forward Park, reversing a motor current controller direct path Clarke transformation. The business needs to determine the necessary current controller (the official name of the person with the torque control) to achieve the appropriate software modules. More specifically, the following software modules need to be taken into account; ADC initialization (for reading the user's set point and two-phase current motor use), more
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

logical unity feedback control system (which is a unique, When the feedback is negative, a summer feedback is positive, if in the power plant), compensator, reverse / forward the changes Park and Clark, with the PWM unit interface logic and the PWM unit initialization. Each of these software modules discussed in detail the following. Such as ADC, more logical, compensation, interface logic and PWM initialization discussed under the brushless DC motor of software modules and logic has not changed, because they are even in the BACM software module, there is no need to further negotiations. As for the case forward / reverse conversion Software Park and Clark module, which by the appropriate command (program) through software programs to achieve their mathematical equivalent transformation process. Differences in sampling a current feedback is the fact that there is a consideration in the BACM three current brushless DC motor in a single case against the current monitoring (one for each phase) the need. However, because every time a balanced three-phase systems (particularly true in the case of point, there is no connection among other places), and currents into the system and is always zero (any current value into the system, leaving the system), there is need to monitor only two or three a current of. On the following formula can be derived from the value of the third

A successful derivation of the third current special consideration is to avoid any offset in the sampling process, it is possible just by following the procedures for a complete discussion (based on hardware sensor interface module and the ADC's offset program in its initial zero software module). The software module the following order: first, ADC sampling the user's set point and two three motor currents. Second, the calculation of the third current and rotor position readings. Once these software modules, thus completing their feed value (three-phase current and rotor position) of the forward and reverse current of Clark 'in transition, in the torque and the three-phase DC components of the extraction results of combined experience of the current park software modules motor. The following software modules is more, this is the implementation of the torque current component and the user's set point, once more for the DC component of zero set point (the reason for its implementation is in a lower note). Each of them in turn feed compensator module (which again is executed twice). The output of the two modules to compensation, feed forward and reverse park Clarke software modules to the equivalent components into a three-phase direct torque and current commands. Following Clark, the former parks and reverse scaling software modules into the logic module output, so that the inside of the unit where the supply of PWM control cycle 3-phase voltage motors by summing up the equivalent scope of the inverter.
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

The last one, more consideration is a voltage source inverter as the servo amplifier. The reason is due to the fact that, when an inductive load such as motor () is fed by a voltage source and load currents through this phase without applied voltage. Because it appears from the above idea, the torque for the controller stage of the successful implementation of current control and high accuracy. The whole process becomes more complicated when the applied voltage changes the frequency is, as it is in a year, itself and the corresponding result of changes in the current phase. To compensate for this phase of the magnetization transfer (or direct) current adjustment control has been added in the control structure, it is given a value of zero set point. In this way, the control structure can compensate for the voltage and current between the phases differences caused by, because it may take appropriate action to zero magnetization current.

5. Design

Figure 13 the block diagram (a)

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

BF DSP

PWM Unit

Inverter

Motor

SPI

Memory mapped

Torque set reference point

Position sensor

A/D

Figure 14 the block diagram (b)

The above figure show the block diagram of this project. According to above diagram I can write some codes step by step.

6. Programming
6.1 S function model code
The following is code of S function model and comments which based on the rotor field-oriented vector control system of ac motor ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// function[sys,x0,str,ts]=model_sfunc(t,x,u,flag) /MODEL_SFUNC A M-file S-function for defining a system of inductor motor model_parameter; /model_paramerer.m A=K*[-Rs*Lr,w*Lm^2,Rr*Lm,w*Lm*Lr w*Lm^2,-Rs*Lr,-w*Lm*Lr,Rr*Lm Rs*Lm,-w*Lm*Ls,-Rr*Ls,-w*Lr*Ls w*Lm*Ls,Rs*Lm,w*Lr*Ls,-Rr*Ls]; B=K*[Lr,0;0,Lr;-Lm,0;0,-Lm]; C=[1,0,0,0;0,1,0,0]; D=zeros(2,2);
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

/ /dispatch the flag / switch flag, case 0 [sys,x0,str,ts]=mdlInitializeSizes; / Initialization case 1 sys=mdlDerivatives(t,x,u); /Calculate derivatives case 3 sys=mdlOutputs(t,x,u); / Calculate outputs case{2,4,9} sys=[ ]; /Unused flags otherwise error(['Unhandled flag=',num2str(flag)]); /Error handling end /end model_sfunc / / mdlInitializeSizes / Return the sizes, initial conditions, and sample times for the S-function. / function [sys,x0,str,ts]=mdlInitializeSizes sizes=simsizes; sizes.NumContStates=5; Sizes.NumDiscStates=0; Sizes.NumOutputs=6; Sizes.NumInputs=3; Sizes.DirFeedthrough=1; /Matrix D is nonempty Sizes.NumSampleTimes=1; sys=simsizes(sizes); x0=[ 1.800,6.530,-2.350,-0.970,600 ]; % initialize the initial conditions str=[] ; /str is an empty matrix. Ts=[0,0] / Initialize the array of sample times /end mdlInitializeSizes / / mdlDerivatives Return the derivatives for the continuous ststes. / function sys=mdlDerivatives(t,x,u) Sys(1:4)=A*X(1:4)+B*u; Te=np*Lm*(X(2)*X(3)-X(4)*X(1)); w=X(5); Sys(5)=((Te-u(3))*np-D*X(5))/J; / end mdlDerivatives. /
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

/ mdlOutputs Return the block outputs / Function sys=mdlOutputs(t,x,u) sys(1:2)=X(1:2); sys(3)=Ls*X(1)+Lm*X(3); sys(4)=Ls*X(2)+Lm*X(4); sys(5)=X(5); sys(6)=np*Lm*(X(2)*X(3)-X(4)*X(1)); / end mdlOutputs. [model_parameter.m] Rs=0.687; / stator resistance() Rr=0.642; / rotor resistance() Ls=0.084; / stator inductance(H) Lr=0.852; / rotor inductance(H) Lm=0.813; / mutual inductance(h) W=1400; / real speed(rpm) Np=2; / pole number J=0.3; / moment of inertiakgmmt D=0.01; / torque damp coefficien K=1/(Ls*Lr-Lm*Lm); /end //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

6.2 Main comments


The code of this project mainly is based on the following comments. //declare global variable for the three phase currents, stationary reference current variables, rotating frame reference current variables. //You will need the following functions: //Read_adc //This is for reading the current that goes in the motor, three phase motor thus three phases curenents need to be acquired. //Read_position //The mechanical position of the rotor is require for the reverse/farward Park/Clark trhansformations... // The following transformaitons are required to convert ac to dc for controll operations and dc to ac to drive the motor. //Forward Park //Reverse Park
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

//Farward Clark //Reverse Clark //PI_control //Initialize adc, this is soing to be over SPI thus you will need to develope an initialisation code for an SPI interface system. //For now you will not have to warry about the PWM inverter as there is a need for a memmory mapped peripheral... However you will //need to develope code to access external memmory space main( int argc, char *argv[] ) { //Call the Initialize_adc_unit //Call the PWM_unit_initialize while(1) { //Call_read_adc //This is for reading currents and also the user's reference commands. //Call read_position //Call the necessary Clark Park transformation READ TI PAPER //Call PI_control //Call the necessary oposit Clark Park transformation READ TI PAPER //Call PWM_update } }

7. Results
The ideal results are three controls. It is Initialization process, Speed control and Position Control.

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

7.1 initialization process

Figure 15 current trajectories of vector control in initialization

<1>Control current increases until the state 1, I=Ilimit, to prevent the sudden increase of current caused by damage to the motor. <2>When the current to book value, the keeping time until the state 2. Motor mover parked in a particular fixed location, this location shall be q-axis. According to equation motor mover power to the state 2 from the end of the trip passed , shall be converted into power perspectiveRequired . State in the 1,2, are zero. <3>Mover of the stable in the state 2, gradually increasing angle to angle limit <4> angle to keep the state 4 to calculate the location of the current mover position with the state 2, the difference. If negative, then the mover of the motion direction and position signal counter is in the opposite direction, note 1, D = 1; if positive, the moving direction and moving sub-position sensors are in the same direction, note D = 1. Convenient for the calculation, make the following change: D=1: 0=90 -0; D=-1: 0=0-90
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

<5><6>In turn will be, I decreases to zero. Thus, the initialization process is completed.

7.2 speed control

Figure 16 Speed command, actual speed waveform

In the field oriented vector control based on the linear form of AC motor speed control system, Figure 16 for the introduction of vector control the speed command and speed response to a set of experimental curves. As can be seen from Figure 16, step input, the motor speed can be a very good mover speed command tracking response time of less than 1 ms.

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

7.3 position control

Figure 17 waveform of position command, the actual location

Figure 17 for the introduction of closed-loop control of position, position instruction and the position feedback waveform. Can be seen, the actual location of a good tracking position instruction, small overshoot and can quickly stabilize. The above analysis shows, this project method in the practical system can achieve good vector control of AC linear motor.

8. Conclusion and further development


This report the most important chapter is field orientated control of 3-Phase AC-motor and BACM current control modules. Asynchronism motor control system response speed, torque smoothly. Most field-oriented control system uses this method, its advantage is that the system realizes the decoupling control of flux and torque control algorithm is simple; drawback is flux closed-loop control system the rotor flux detection accuracy by the rotor time constant greatly influenced, to some extent affected the performance of the system.
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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

Following a description of common major drawbacks of classic control structures it has been shown how the Field Orientated Control overcomes these deficiencies and what kind of benefits Field Orientated Controlled AC drives can bring. By explaining in detail each of the FOC modules necessary this paper presents a clear introduction to efficient vector control of AC drives. Also this report is readable by related electronic professional readers.

8.1 Further development


The hardware should be added in this project. As some reasons hardware cannot connect with software. The important further work is to connect with software. Thus this project is base on software to control it. Another point is AC linear motor vector control. AC permanent magnet linear motor-driven movement system with high dynamic performance, however, permanent magnet linear motor variables and multiple electromagnetic coupling between the mechanical variables increases the difficulty of motion control. Although vector control to address the issue of control of AC motor offers high performance principles and methods, but how to apply it to real systems, especially the control of AC linear motor, is still a problem to be studied

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

9. Projection time plan

Figure 18 Project time plan

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin

School of Electronic, Communication and Electrical Engineering

BEng Final Year Project Report

10.References
[1] Brushless AC Motor Commutation http://www.pmccorp.com/support/appnotes/an1004.pdf [2] File:Pwm.png http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pwm.png [3] A/D Board Tutorial http://www.diamondsystems.com/slideshow.php3?name=ADBoardTutorial&page=2 [4] Analog-to-digital converter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog-to-digital_converter [5] Field Orientated Control of 3-Phase AC-Motors http://focus.ti.com.cn/cn/lit/an/bpra073/bpra073.pdf [6] PID Controller Simplified http://radhesh.wordpress.com/2008/05/11/pid-controller-simplified/

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FEI GAO/ Torque control for the brushless ac motor based on blackfin