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Generic Terminology vs. Specific Jargon in Power System Switching Part 2: Analysis of Survey Results

Generic Terminology vs. Specific Jargon in Power System Switching

Part 2: Analysis of Survey Results

1013915

Effective December 6, 2006, this report has been made publicly available in accordance with Section 734.3(b)(3) and published in accordance with Section 734.7 of the U.S. Export Administration Regulations. As a result of this publication, this report is subject to only copyright protection and does not require any license agreement from EPRI. This notice supersedes the export control restrictions and any proprietary licensed material notices embedded in the document prior to publication.

Generic Terminology vs. Specific Jargon in Power System Switching

Part 2: Analysis of Survey Results

1013915

Technical Update, September 2007

EPRI Project Manager

G. Gela

ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304-1338 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303-0813 USA 800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES

THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM:

(A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH

RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR

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THIS DOCUMENT.

ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT

Berkshire Harrison, Inc.

This is an EPRI Technical Update report. A Technical Update report is intended as an informal report of continuing research, a meeting, or a topical study. It is not a final EPRI technical report.

ORDERING INFORMATION

Requests for copies of this report should be directed to EPRI Orders and Conferences, 1355 Willow Way, Suite 278, Concord, CA 94520. Toll-free number: 800.313.3774, press 2, or internally x5379; voice: 925.609.9169; fax:

925.609.1310.

Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.

Copyright © 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

This document was prepared by

Berkshire Harrison, Inc. 83 Ide Road Williamstown, MA 01267

Principal Investigator L. Harrison

CITATIONS

This document describes research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

This publication is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner:

Generic Terminology vs. Specific Jargon in Power System Switching: Part 2: Analysis of Survey Results. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2007. 1013915.

iii

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

EPRI research has revealed that terminology used in switching operations varies among utilities, operating regions, and even within utility divisions. But just how different is the terminology, and can these differences compromise efficiency … or even safety? To find out, EPRI engaged Berkshire Harrison to solicit, collect, and analyze switching jargon used by member organizations, identify potential conflicts, and investigate the feasibility of compiling a “dictionary” of generic switching terms and their definitions. This report details the work completed as of August 15, 2007.

Results & Findings The current list of terms contains 626 separate entries. There is general agreement on 438 of those terms, but 188 terms drew multiple definitions or comments. The research presented some interesting questions regarding terms that were not in the collected group because 1) they were not submitted by participating utilities, 2) they were not written down in a formal glossary, or 3) the sample (14 utilities) was so limited.

Challenges & Objective(s) EPRI research has revealed that terminology used in intra- and inter-company switching operations varies among utilities, operating regions, and even within utility divisions. This situation—if not recognized, studied, discussed, and remedied—could lead to critical miscommunications during switching operations, possibly resulting in personal injuries, equipment damage, and system-wide transmission incidents.

To reduce the possibility of such events, this project was designed to

research switching jargon (terminology and phrases related to switching operations) that is specific to individual utilities, divisions within utilities, and operating regions;

identify a minimum set of terms related to switching operations; and

investigate the feasibility of compiling a “dictionary” of generic switching terms and their definitions.

Applications, Values & Use The compilation of terms and their definitions will help prevent and avoid miscommunication during switching operations within a utility company. The compilation also will help alleviate communications difficulties when a utility brings in help from its neighbors during times of urgent need such as storm restoration. The training of new employees who have been exposed to alternate terminology also will benefit from this effort.

The final results of this project may be an EPRI dictionary of switching safety and reliability terms.

v

EPRI Perspective While EPRI does not prepare standards and does not plan to introduce standard terminology into switching and related operations, a compendium of terms used throughout the industry will help inter- and intra-company communications, reduce the possibility of switching errors, and enhance the safety of workers and the public. EPRI research to date has revealed that terminology used in intra- and inter-company switching operations varies among utilities, operating regions, and even within utility divisions. Hence, the project is expected to continue into 2008.

Follow-up surveys may be required, and it may be necessary to focus on “unwritten” and “undefined” terms in general use. Such terms would seem to pose the greatest hazard to safe and reliable operations because of variances in individual understanding of meaning or misinterpretation of orders, for example.

Approach During the summer of 2006, a survey document, “Generic Terminology versus Specific Jargon in Power System Switching Survey,” was prepared with input from several participating utilities. The survey document is described in EPRI Report 1012374. The survey was sent to 40 utilities that are current or former members of the EPRI Switching Safety & Reliability Task Force 37E. Follow-up calls were made to each recipient throughout the summer and fall of 2006 and the winter and spring of 2007. In total, 14 utilities responded in some fashion:

12 utilities completed and returned the survey, representing a response of just under one-third of those who received it;

10 of those 12 utilities provided copies of their manuals or lexicons; and

2 additional utilities provided only manuals or lexicon in lieu of sending a complete survey. All told, these documents plus the survey contained a total of 960 terms. Once duplicate terms were deleted, the total number of terms from the survey and the lexicons equaled 626. All 626 terms and their (often multiple) definitions are included in the report.

Keywords Substations Switching procedures Switching terminology Switching errors Safety practices Power system operation Power system control

vi

ABSTRACT

EPRI research has revealed that terminology used in switching operations varies among utilities, operating regions, and even within utility divisions. But just how different is the terminology, and can these differences compromise efficiency … or even safety? To find out, EPRI engaged Berkshire Harrison to solicit, collect, and analyze switching jargon used by member organizations, identify potential conflicts, and investigate the feasibility to compiling a “dictionary” of generic switching terms and their definitions. The current list of terms contains some 626 separate terms. There is general agreement on 438 of those terms, but 188 terms drew multiple definitions or comments, and the research presented some interesting questions regarding terms not in the collected group because: (1) they weren’t submitted by the participating utilities; (2) they are not written down in a formal glossary; or because the sample (14 utilities) was so limited.

vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Both EPRI and Berkshire Harrison want to thank all companies and individuals who participated in this survey, either to complete the survey document, provide a copy of the lexicon used by their switching operations staff, or both or in some other helpful way. The terms listed in this report were obtained from the following utilities listed in alphabetical order:

American Transmission Company (ATC)

Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corp. (AECC)

Consolidated Edison Company of New York (ConEdison)

HydroOne

Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA)

MidAmerican Energy Co. (MEC)

Nashville Electric Service (NES)

Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD)

New York Power Authority (NYPA)

Potomac Electric Power Co. (PEPCO)

PSE&G

TXU

United Illuminating (UI)

Western Area Power Administration (WAPA)

ix

CONTENTS

1 BACKGROUND

1-1

2 THE SURVEY

2-1

Creating the Survey Document

2-1

3 SURVEY RESULTS

3-1

Popular and Unpopular Terms

3-2

Unresolved Survey Issues

3-3

4 UTILITY LEXICONS

4-1

Analysis of total Switching Safety & Reliability Collection of Terms

4-1

Comparing the Definitions

4-2

Energized:

4-2

Clearance:

4-2

De-Energize:

4-3

Hold Tag

4-3

Clearance Holder

4-3

Guarantee

4-4

Order Card

4-4

Order, OK to Work

4-4

Transmission Voltage:

4-5

5 FUTURE WORK

5-1

Greater Participation

5-1

Focus of Research Effort

5-1

A COLLECTED TERMS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS

A-1

vii

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2-1 Source of Survey Terms

2-1

Table 2-2 Received Responses

2-2

Table 3-1 The Number of Terms Used by Each Respondent

3-1

Table 3-2 Usage of Terms from Zero to 10 Utility Users

3-3

Table 4-1 Number of Terms with Two to 11 Definitions

4-1

vii

1

BACKGROUND

EPRI research has revealed that terminology used in intra- and inter-company switching operations varies among utilities, operating regions, and even within utility divisions. This situation – if not recognized, studied, discussed, and remedied – could lead to critical miscommunications during switching operations, possibly resulting in personal injuries, equipment damage, and system-wide transmission incidents.

To reduce the possibility of such errors, this project was designed to:

Research switching jargon (terminology and phrases related to switching operations) that is specific to individual utilities, divisions within utilities, and operating regions

Identify a minimum set of terms related to switching operations

Investigate the feasibility of compiling a “dictionary” of generic switching terms and their definitions

This report details the work completed as of August 15, 2007.

1-1

2

THE SURVEY

Creating the Survey Document

During the summer of 2006, a survey document, “Generic Terminology versus Specific Jargon in Power System Switching Survey” was prepared with input from several participating utilities. The survey document is described in EPRI Report 1012374. The survey contained 166 terms from five utilities, OSHA, and the NESC, along with a definition for each term supplied by one of the sources, and the following question:

Used in our organization: Yes

Table 2-1 shows the number of terms supplied by each utility (assigned a letter designation in randomized order to preserve confidentiality), NESC, and OSHA, and how many of those terms were used in the survey. Note: Terms such as “should” and “shall” were not included in the survey.

;

No

;

Comments:

Table 2-1 Source of Survey Terms

Source

Number of Terms Received

Number of Terms Included in Survey

Utility A

26

22

Utility B

22

19

Utility D

46

41

Utility E

30

24

Utility F

26

25

NESC

N/A

16

OSHA

N/A

19

2-1

In July 2006, the survey was emailed to 40 utilities that are current and former members of the EPRI Switching Safety & Reliability Task Force 37E. Follow-up calls were made to each recipient throughout the summer and fall of 2006 and the winter and spring of 2007. The result:

in total, 14 utilities responded in some fashion:

12 utilities completed and returned the survey, representing a response of just under one-third of those who received it.

10 of those 12 utilities provided copies of their manuals or lexicons

2 additional utilities provided only manuals or lexicon in lieu of sending in a complete survey.

Table 2-2 summarizes the received responses (utilities were assigned numerical designation in randomized order to preserve confidentiality).

Table 2-2 Received Responses

Utility

Returned Completed Survey

Provided Manual or Lexicon Of Terms

1

Yes

No

2

Yes

Yes (2 Document)

3

Yes

Yes

4

Yes

Yes

5

Yes

Yes

6

Yes

No

7

Yes

Yes

8

Yes

No

9

Yes

Yes

10

Yes

Yes

11

Yes

No

12

Yes

Yes

13

No

Yes

14

No

Yes

2-2

3

SURVEY RESULTS

An analysis of the survey documents revealed the following:

Minimum use of terms: One survey respondent uses only 19/166 terms that were included in the survey

Maximum use of terms: One survey respondent uses 119/166 terms that were included in the survey

Orphan Terms: Two terms taken from NESC were not used by any respondent. These terms are: Isolated; Isolated by Elevation

Interestingly, some of the utilities that provided terms for use in the survey checked off more terms in the survey than they initially provided to researchers. Time precluded further inquiry.

Table 3-1 shows the number of survey terms used by each of the 12 respondents who returned the completed survey. The broad range, from just 19 of 166 terms (11%) to 119 of 166 terms (72%), would seem to indicate that the survey was properly designed.

Table 3-1 The Number of Terms Used by Each Respondent

Utility Code

Number of

Terms Used

 

1 19

 

2 25

 

3 39

 

4 47

 

5 52

 

6 55

 

7 55

 

8 58

 

9 64

 

10 81

 

11 101

 

12 119

3-1

Popular and Unpopular Terms

While there were only two “Orphan” terms, i.e., not checked by any survey respondent (a surprising result given that the terms were obtained from NESC) an even dozen terms only had one user:

Affected Employee

Alive, Dynamically

Attendant

Authorized Employees

Craft Switcher

Guarded

Hot Line Warning Holder

Sign on Designee

Tag, Test

Terminated

Test

Work Group Member

Three terms, checked by 10 utilities each, were the most widely used:

Gang Operated

Nominal Voltage

Outage, planned

The next most popular terms, used by nine utilities, were:

De-energized

Grounded

Isolate

Out of Service

SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition)

Switching Order

System Operator

Transmission Voltage

Table 3-2 shows how many terms had from zero to 10 utility users.

3-2

Table 3-2 Usage of Terms from Zero to 10 Utility Users

Number of Terms

Number of Users Using Terms

3

19

8

9

13

8

9

7

15

6

11

5

26

4

33

3

29

2

12

1

2

0

Unresolved Survey Issues

While the survey did provide interesting findings, it also raised some provocative questions, indicating that more work needs to be done. Chief among the issues raised is the fact that utilities may use certain terms:

Regularly and have written definitions for those terms, but those terms were not provided to researchers. That some utilities checked off more terms in the survey document than they initially provided to us is an indication this may be the case.

Conversationally, i.e., with no written definitions for those terms (“well, you know what I mean…”). This could be dangerous and should be investigated further. The fact that no one checked the widely used word “isolated” in the survey indicates a possible deficiency in or lack of official utility lexicons.

3-3

4

UTILITY LEXICONS

In addition to filling out the survey, some utilities provided lexicons or glossaries they published

for their switching staff. In all, researchers received 11 lexicons from 10 utilities. All told, these documents plus the survey contained a total of 960 terms. Once duplicate terms were deleted, the total number of terms from the survey and the lexicons equaled 626. All 626 terms and their (often multiple) definitions received from respondents are included in Appendix A.

Analysis of total Switching Safety & Reliability Collection of Terms

Of the 626 terms from the survey and the submitted lexicons, and based on received responses from 14 utilities:

438 (70%) have a single definition

188 (30%) have multiple definitions or comments by utilities

Table 4-1 shows how many terms had from two to 11 definitions.

Table 4-1 Number of Terms with Two to 11 Definitions

Terms with Multiple Definitions

Number of Definitions

120

2

36

3

20

4

6

5

4

6

1

8

1

11

Clearly, with multiple definitions for 30% of the terms there is a potential for trouble:

Are different utilities using the same term but meaning different things?

Are different utilities using different terms to describe the same things?

A preliminary review of all terms suggests an affirmative answer to both these questions. This

issue should be investigated in detail.

4-1

Comparing the Definitions

Utility definitions for any given term varied from general agreement to broad, even contradictory. Some selected examples are provided below.

Energized:

Definition included in the survey: Electrically connected to a source of potential difference or electrically charged so as to have a potential different from that of earth or different from that of adjacent conductors or equipment.

It is interesting to note that this definition closely parallels the NESC definition: Electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged so as to have a potential significantly different from that of earth in the vicinity. Syn: live.

Comments from survey respondents:

Electrically energized as distinguished from dead or de-energized

Most logical definition of those on this page!

Clearance:

Definition included in the survey: A certification issued when a specific section of the electrical system has been isolated from all known electrical energy sources and (2) no switching to energize the de-energized portion of the electrical system covered by the Clearance will be ordered until the Clearance Holder releases the Clearance.

Comments from survey respondents:

Three utilities add “tagging” to the definition

Issued by System Control Operator; not issued to Contractors

Clearance is only a request, not certification

Our term is Work Permit – for transmission & distribution level.

No, we call it “Outage.”

4-2

De-Energize:

Definition included in the survey: Free from any electrical connection to a source of potential energy and from electric charge; not having a potential difference from that of the earth. The term is used only with reference to current carrying parts which are sometimes energized.

This is the same as the OSHA definition. Also, NESC notes the hazard of induction from energized circuits, portable generators, lightning, etc.

Comments from survey respondents:

One utility adds de-energizing mechanical equipment

Another utility adds properly tagged, shorted, and grounded

2 utilities: No, not necessarily isolated

Hold Tag

Definition included in the survey: A tag attached to any device for which a Hold is in effect. Also used when it is necessary to disable reclosing in the field to tag the control switch that disables reclosing. The purpose of the Hold Tag is to provide a visual warning that the device to which it is attached is not to be operated or its status altered in any way until the Hold is removed by the Jurisdictional Authority which placed it.

Comments from survey respondents:

STOP TAG

Caution Tag

Hold Card

Green Stripe Hold Tag (Not red?)

Clearance Holder

Definition included in the survey: The (utility) employee or Qualified Contractor (Distribution only) who receives a Clearance from Transmission Operations or Distribution Operations.

Comments from survey respondents:

Work Permit Holder

Yes, but not issued to Contractors, issued by System Control Operators

Issued For, Assigned To, Card Placed For

Authorized Tag Holder

No, We call it Person in Charge of Work

4-3

Guarantee

Definition included in the survey: A formal statement from the Operations Department that a certain switch or switches, device or devices, are tagged in a specific position, locked where possible, and will remain so until the guarantee is released by the recipient. A guarantee does not necessarily indicate that the equipment is de-energized.

Comments from survey respondents:

Two utilities said this would be called General Switching

Again this is done on a recorded communication device, either by phone or company radio

No, We use “cleared and tagged”

Order Card

Definition included in the survey: Official document to record transmission switching in the field.

Comments from survey respondents:

Operating Order

Called a Face Sheet

No, system operating hold card record, hold card record

Mobile Operators use what is called a “SEE” tag to note switching that is performed in substations or switchyards

No, switching procedures are recorded on the outage request

Order, OK to Work

Definition included in the survey: Permission to work on or near operating equipment essential to power system operations. When used, it is issued and recorded by the Operations Department and involves no tagging by Operations personnel. It is not intended to provide protection to workmen. Its purpose is to let the Operations Department know that essential equipment is being worked on and to aid in maintaining the safety and reliability of the power system.

Comments from survey respondents:

No, In-Service Work Permit

Yes, General Switching or Authorization to Work.

No, For inside plant work, all employees are to call in providing operations notification that they are present in the station.

4-4

Transmission Voltage:

Definition included in the survey: Applies to all lines and equipment operating 60,000 volts and above.

Comments from survey respondents:

69,000 and above.

All over 34.5 kV.

No, 115 kV and above.

Yes, all over 34.5 kV.

138 kV or higher

Note: Some utilities do not have all voltage levels, hence their upper and/or lower cut-off values may differ.

4-5

5

FUTURE WORK

As noted earlier, this first survey raises many provocative questions that can only be resolved with further research. To be effective, however, follow-up work must involve:

Greater Participation

To be both representative and meaningful, follow-up surveys will require more participants. While this first survey was a good first step – and an indication of the need for more research – it is clear that meaningful results will require participation by more than just 14 utilities.

Focus of Research Effort

As we work to collect and analyze the terms and their definitions used in the area of switching, it is also necessary to focus on “unwritten” and “undefined” terms in general use. Such terms would seem to pose the greatest hazard to safe and reliable operations because of variances in individual understanding of meaning or misinterpretation of orders, etc.

To narrow this down further, it is worth considering a focus on “critical” terms, i.e., where confusion over meaning could result in safety risks. A list of potential “Critical Terms” is under development.

The final results of this project may be the development of an EPRI Dictionary of Switching Safety & Reliability terms.

5-1

A

COLLECTED TERMS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS

Note: the number preceding the definition identifies the utility that provided it.

A/C PFS

2: Ammeter Clear If O.K. Prepare For Service

A/M

2: Auto/Manual

ABF

2: Alive On Backfeed

ACB

2: ACB is the abbreviation for air breaker which is a circuit breaker that uses air as its dielectric medium to reduce contact arcing.

Activate

14: Install all sources of power required to open, close or operate a device.

ADJ. LEV.

2: Adjusted Level

Affected Employee

OSHA: An employee whose job requires him or her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him or her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.

Agent

3: A Qualified person duly authorized by a Party to perform specific limited operations for the Controlling Authority. The term Agent does not create a common law relationship of principal/agent between the Parties. An Agent appointed by a Controlling Authority hereunder shall have no authority to assume or to create any obligation of any kind whatsoever, express or implied, in the name of the Controlling Authority, nor to bind the Controlling Authority in any manner whatsoever. A person acting on behalf of the controlling authority to perform a task. Agent means a Qualified person duly authorized by a Party to perform specific limited operations for the Controlling Authority. The term Agent as used in this Agreement does not create a common law relationship of principal/agent between the Parties.

A-1

Air Circuit Breaker

10: A circuit breaker that uses air as it's dielectric medium to reduce contact arcing.

Air Switches

4: Any transmission switch that can be used to provide a visual opening for removing transmission devices from all sources of energy.

ALARM

2: Alarm is an audio and visual indication that monitored equipment has changed status and investigation should be conducted.

10: An audio indication that monitored equipment has status and investigation should be conducted.

ALARM PRIORITY

2 & 10: High priority alarms usually require immediate action for the continuance of service or protection of equipment. Low priority alarms are indications that investigation is necessary in order to arrange for convenient follow up of repairs. Thus, does not effect customer service or equipment operation directly.

Alive

3: An object is alive when it can deliver energy. It can deliver energy when it is dynamically alive or charged.

ALIVE ON BACKFEED

2: Alive on backfeed indicates that when a circuit breaker or disconnect is in the open position, a potential test indicates it is still alive.

Alive on Backfeed

10: Alive on back feed indicates that when a circuit disconnect is in the open position, a potential test its load side is still alive.

Alive, Dynamically

3: A dynamically alive object is connected to a source of energy. (It is not isolated.) Some examples of energy sources are: an electrical generator; a storage battery; an oil or water pump; or an air compressor

ALM CLR

2: Alarm Clear

ALM UP

2: Alarm Up

A-2

ALTERNATING CURRENT

2: Alternating current (A.C.) is a flow of electricity which reaches maximum in one direction, decreasing to zero, then reversing itself and achieving maximum in the opposite direction.

10: A. Current alternately turned on and off as a generator makes one revolution or cycle. Current or voltage which constantly fluctuates in alternating current or voltage goes through one cycle its value fluctuates from zero to maximum, to maximum with the opposite polarity, and back to generally shown by a wave form.

AM

2: Auto/Manual

AMMETER

2: Ammeter is an instrument for measuring current flow.

10: An instrument which is connected in series with device being measured, and which indicates the current flowing through that load or device.

AMMETER CLEAR TEST

2: The application of a low voltage A.C. current through an ammeter in series with a current limiting resistor to determine the presence of shorts circuits or grounds on the feeder conductors or on a transformer secondary.

Ampere

10: Practical unit of electrical current

Amplitude

10: The value of a wave form at any particular point or

ANNUNICIATOR

2: Annunciator is a visual device consisting of indicator lamp or device pointing out a change in status of equipment, usually used for alarms.

10: A mechanical or electrical signal device or indicator.

Apparent Power

10: The total power supplied to an ac-circuit; the product of total Apparent Power is rated in volt-amperes or kilovolt-amperes.

Appliance Ground

10: A conductor leading from the case of an appliance to a solid ground connection. Its purpose is to prevent the user of the appliance from receiving an electric shock from the casein the event that the insulation fails on the conductors connecting the appliance.

A-3

Applicant

3: The Applicant is the person who applies for a Work Permit or for a Supporting Guarantee. The Applicant provides the Controlling/Issuing Authority with the information needed to establish the boundary of the isolation for the safe work area.

Approved Isolation Procedure

3: An Approved Isolation Procedure (AIP) is an approved written procedure used for work that requires isolation or isolation and deenergization of energy sources to provide worker protection. An Approved Isolation Procedure is used: when it is not practical to tag for a Work Permit and when the process to control the position of the required AIP isolating and/or de-energizing devices is under the control of the worker.

Approved Practice

3: An approved practice is a trade skill or work procedure used in situations where isolation of energy sources is not used. Skills are developed from a combination of education, training and experience. Approved practices are normally documented in training material, trade handbooks or work methods instructions. Two examples are live line procedures and trouble shooting live equipment.

ARS

2: Auto Reclosure Switch

ATB

2: Air circuit breaker with gas insulated current transformers.

ATOM

2 & 10: Atom is the smallest particle of an element which can be reduced and still keep the properties of that element. The atom consists of three parts, protons, neutrons, and electron.

ATS

2: Automatic Transfer Switch

Attendant

OSHA: An employee assigned to remain immediately outside the entrance to an enclosed or other space to render assistance as needed to employees inside the space.

A-4

Authority

3: An authority is a person assigned by management who occupies a position with specific responsibilities. There are three kinds of authority: 1. Controlling Authority controls specific equipment and devices. This includes the responsibility for performing, directing or authorizing changes in the condition or in the position of the equipment or devices; 2. Issuing Authority ensures that the condition requested by the Applicant has been established. The Issuing Authority is responsible for making effective and terminating the PC2 Work Permit or Supporting Guarantee; 3. Establishing Authority prepares, checks and establishes the conditions for a Work Permit or Supporting Guarantee.

Authorized Clearance Holders

8: Utility employees who have been deemed qualified to accept all formal operating statements by their respective Department Superintendents and approved by the Operations Superintendent.

Authorized Clearance Requesters

8: Utility supervisors, or their designees, and Project Senior Operators who have been trained, and who have been certified by the Operations Superintendent, or his designee, to request formal operating statements. The Region Operating Department shall maintain a current list of all authorized requesters.

Authorized employee

OSHA: An employee who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized

Authorized Employees

8: Those employees who have received CPP-1 training and are authorized by the Operations Department to request or accept any of the formal operating statements or; have been deemed qualified to use maintenance hold tags.

Authorized Employees Who Accept Clearances

8: Authorized Employees accepting formal operating statement shall be responsible for: 1. Accepting full responsibility for the facilities, circuits, or equipment until the formal operating statement has been released to the Senior Operator; 2. Explaining the limits of the protection, the scope and duration of the work intended, and the equipment emergency restoration time to all employees working under their formal operating statement; 3. Notifying the Senior Operator of any activity or development that may delay the restoration of facilities, circuits, or equipment to service beyond the scheduled outage or work interval; 4. The Clearance Holder shall be responsible for directing the installation of approved grounds before allowing the work to be done and shall, after completing the work, direct the grounds to be removed prior to releasing the Clearance. Installation of all grounds under the Clearance shall be authorized by the Clearance Holder. In addition, he/she shall maintain a written record of placement and removal of all grounds under the clearance and shall report such to the Senior Operator; 5. Assuming the responsibility for the safety of all personnel working within the boundaries of his Clearance. The maintenance and test forces who may be applying extraneous sources of voltage to equipment

A-5

under Clearance (as with Doble testing or other forms of high voltage testing) will be held responsible for the safety of all persons working under their own Clearance or Clearances of others of which they have been informed; 6. Checking and initialing all tagged points of protection where practical; 7. Inspecting the work area, where possible, prior to the release of the formal operating statements to insure that the facilities, circuits or equipment is clear of grounds, personnel are clear and the equipment is in an operable state. All equipment should be returned to the Operations Department with devices in the same position as when the formal operating statement was issued. If conditions require that the equipment be returned with devices in a different state, the Senior Operator must be notified; 8. In the event of an emergency, whereby it is impossible to secure the normal release of a formal operating statement due to death, illness, or other emergency events, the employee’s immediate supervisor with the approval of the Operations Superintendent or his designee, may secure the transfer of the formal operating statement. Under these conditions, it is the responsibility of the new Clearance acceptor to ascertain the condition of the equipment and to assure the Project Senior Operator that all workers are clear and have been informed that the formal operating statement is being released. Only upon such notification to the Senior Operator will the formal operating statement be released.

9: Yes, Who accepts conditions of isolated and tagged equipment.

10: No, we call this person “the person in charge of work.”

Authorized Employees Who Request Clearances

8: Authorized employees requesting formal operating statements shall be responsible for: 1. Understanding how facilities, circuits, and equipment interfaces with all auxiliary or connected equipment

Authorized Live-Line Holder

7: Authorized Live-line Holder shall mean employees who have been listed with the System Operator as qualified to receive live-line working permits.

Authorized Representative of the Utility Involved

7: The Authorized Representative of the Utility Involved shall mean the representative of the utility who has the authority to insure that no tags will be removed and no devices will be operated that would energize the working area.

12: Clearance Holder.

Authorized Worker

4: Any personnel, not including (utility’s) personnel, that have been authorized by their management to perform switching duties outlined in the (utility’s) Transmission Operations Switching Manual. (Utility) personnel that have completed the System Operations Switching Training class and are authorized by management to perform switching duties outlined in the (utility’s) Transmission Operations Switching Manual.

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AUTO TRANSFORMER

2: Auto transformer is a transformer in which a part of the winding is common to both input and output circuits.

AUTOMATIC GROUND SWITCH

2: See High Speed Ground Switch

AUXILIARY BUS

2: Auxiliary bus is an alternate bus used as backup or spare for the main bus.

AUXILIARY(RIES)

2: Auxiliary equipment or circuits are backup/spare equipment or circuit other than the normally used.

B/O

2: Block Open

BACK TEMP

2: Fdr returned to D.O. temporarily while out to work.

BACK UP TIMER

2: An automatic timing device, which will activate and adjacent circuit breakers if its associated circuit breaker fails to open within a predetermined interval.

BKR

2: Breaker

BLACK START

2: Black starting is the process of restarting generator after a total loss of all electrical energy to it.

BLOCKING

2: Blocking is a process of preventing equipment from being operated.

BO

2: Block Open

BOUNCED

2: Cut in Opened Auto

BPD

2: Bushing Potential Device

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BREAKER

2: Breaker is an abbreviated term used for circuit breaker. A breaker is an automatic device which normally allows current to flow until directed to open the current carrying elements or contacts without damaging itself. Breakers are controlled manually via control handles and automatically through various relays. Utilities usually use four general types of breakers: air circuit breaker (ACB), oil circuit breaker (OCB), gas circuit breaker (GCB) and vacuum circuit breaker (VCB).

BREAKER & HALF BUS

2: Breaker and half bus configuration is a substation CONFIGURATION bus arrangement which has two group buses supplied via separate transformers interconnected by three breakers, two breakers closest to buses are called feeder breaker and middle-transfer breakers. Outgoing feeders are connected between feeder and transfer breakers.

BROWNOUT

2: Brownout is a utility term indicating a period of voltage reduction. ALSO -See Voltage Reduction, and Load Shedding

BT

2: Brass Tag

BULK POWER STATION

2: Bulk power is a utility term indicating the type of switching stations which transforms transmission voltage to area network voltage and supply one or more network areas.

BURDEN

2 & 10: Burden is the load, usually expressed in volt- amperes at specific power factors, placed on instrument transformers.

BUS

2 & 10: Bus is a conductor, such as copper or aluminum, which collects and distributes electric energy from more than one circuit.

BUS SECTION BREAKER

2 & 10: Bus section breakers are circuit breakers used to connect and isolate sections of substation and/or switching station busses.

BUT

2: Back Up Timer

C/I

2: Cut In

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C/O

2: Cut Out

CAB FAIL

2: Cable Failure

CANC

2: Work Cancelled

CAPACITANCE

2: Capacitance (c) is the property which permits the storage of electricity. Capacitors are the device used to store this energy. Electric utility distribution capacitors are usually rated in KVARS of reactive power.

10: The capability of an ac-circuit to store current or charge. It opposes the flow of the circuit current. Capacitance, represented by the letter C, is measured in farads or and is produced by capacitance.

Capacitive Reactance

10: The term used to describe the affect of capacitance on current in an ac-circuit; it limits the current and causes it to lead the voltage. Capacitive reactance is represented by the symbol XC and is expressed in ohms.

Capacitor

10: A device formed by placing an insulating material between two conductors, Electrons or current cannot flow through a capacitor; the capacitor can store electrons, however, and so can build up a charge or voltage across the terminals,

CAPACITOR BANK

2: A bank of individual capacitors connected together in an assembly to increase power factor which will help raise system voltage.

CAPACITOR DISCHARGE TEST

2: A voltage pulse applied by the High Voltage Test set to a distribution feeder for identifying a fault on a feeder

CARR LEV

2: Carrier Level Adjusted

CARRIER

2 & 10: Carrier system is a relaying and communications system that use a superimposed signal on power lines to control relays that operate breakers or provide communications.

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CATC

2: Continuous Action Tracing Current (2 poles).

Cathodic Protection

2: Cathodic protection is a system of corrosion control which usually applies a d.c. potential to underground equipment, such as underground cable pipes and storage tanks, through rectifiers.

10: A system of corrosion control.

Caution Tag

7: Caution tags, (L9) tags, are used when doing Hotline work. They are used on the protective device’s control handle and recloser cutout switches that are associated with a particular line in which hotline work is being performed. These tags are not used where Hot-Line Indicator Lamps, Hot Line Indicators, or Hot Line Tags are installed.

10: A tag used to indicate abnormal conditions of circuits or equipment.

CCPD

2: Coupling Capacitor Potential Device

CCVT

2: Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformer

Certified Clearance Holder

7: A Certified Clearance Holder will be a person that has shown clearance holder competencies and is certified in accordance with (utility’s) Clearance Holder Certification program. All dispatching authorities will maintain an official list of Certified Clearance Holders.

2: the term is Authorized Employee that is basically defined above. 9: No, Authorized Tag Holder.

Certified Switchperson

7: A Certified Switchperson will be a person that has shown switching competencies and is certified under (utility’s) Switchperson Training program. All dispatching authorities will maintain an updated official list of certified switching personnel.

9: Authorized switchman.

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Charged

1: Used in terms of a charged closing spring on a circuit breaker or a charged can on a capacitor bank.

3: A charged object is isolated but not de-energized. It contains stored energy. Some examples of a charged object are: a compressed spring (potential energy); a charged electrical capacitor; a suspended object (potential energy); an object in motion (kinetic energy); electrical equipment not physically connected to a source of energy but near live electrical equipment (induction), or; a tank or pipe containing substances at greater or less than atmospheric pressure.

Check Open/Check Closed

14: Make all mechanical, visual and electrical checks to ensure all three phases of the equipment are in correct position and locked.

CIOA

2: Cut in Opened Auto

CIRC11T DESIGNATION

2 & 10: Circuit designation is the letter number indication utilized to denote a specific circuit. Circuit designations are usually coded to indicate voltage level or area supplied.

CIRC11T SWITCHER

2: A motor or hydraulic operated gauged switch consisting of either double air breaks or one air break and one gas enclosed break.

10: A motor or hydraulic gang operated switch.

Circuit

10: Path of an electric current. It exists when a voltage source is connected to a resistance or load by conductors and is necessary in order for current to flow.

Circuit Breaker

10: Part of a circuit which performs a function similar to that of a fuse in that it protects conductors from carrying too much current. It does not melt as does a fuse and can generally be "reset" by the pushing of a button on the circuit break itself. For large power applications, such as in a substation, may be very large pieces of equipment.

CL

2: Close

Clear

2 & 10: A utility term meaning to de-energize equipment or circuit normally implying a physical break to prevent re-energization.

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Clear and Tag

10: Denotes that a particular piece of equipment or circuit has been de-energized and tagged (identified) as being opened for a specific individual (named on tag) and (work order number).

Clear, Tag, Short & Ground

10: A phrase indicating that particular equipment or circuits have been de-energized (clear), identified (tag), shorted, and grounded.

Clearance

5: Certification issued to a (utility) employee or Qualified Contractor (Distribution only) from Transmission Operations or Distribution Operations that (1) a specific section of the electrical system has been isolated from all known electrical energy source and (2) no switching to energize the de-energized portion of the electrical system covered by the Clearance will be ordered until the Clearance Holder releases the Clearance.

14: The written order issued only after there is a clear understanding that all steps have been taken by the dispatcher and the switchman to assure that all sources of power to equipment are opened and tagged, the equipment is de-energized, ready to ground and safe to work on.

8: A formal statement from the Operations Department that specified equipment has been isolated from necessary sources of energy (i.e., electrical, mechanical, hydraulic) and that it is as safe to work on as is feasible to make it for the work intended. In the case of electrical equipment, this means that where feasible, the equipment has been visually inspected to ensure that it has been physically separated from all sources of potential and that electrical circuits have been grounded at all points where grounding devices are provided. Equipment normally subject to mechanical movements shall have the motive force blocked except for such movement as may be required in the course of the work. In such cases, workmen will supply their own protection from such movement. Equipment normally under fluid pressure must have the pressure removed where possible and where desired, shall be drained. All disconnects, links, grounding devices, blocks, supply and drain valves shall be tagged with HOLD tags and where locking devices are provided shall be locked in the proper position. Potential transformers shall be disconnected from circuits included in the CLEARANCE or shall have their secondaries disconnected and tagged with HOLD tags.

Clearance (for work)

9: A request, either formal or verbal, to have electrical segments or equipment isolated for work.

NESC: The clear distance between two objects measured surface to surface.

OSHA: Authorization to perform specified work or permission to enter a restricted area.

Clearance Area

2: Protected working point.

7: A de-energized zone of protection that is bounded by clearance points and is used primarily to protect personnel, but can also be used to protect equipment.

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Clearance Boundary

5: The boundary of the Clearance is defined by the tagged switching device(s) which provide Visible Isolation between the area of the system being de-energized and the rest of the electrical system.

Clearance Holder

5: The (utility) employee or Qualified Contractor (Distribution only) who receives a Clearance from Transmission Operations or Distribution Operations.

2: Work Permit Holder.

1: Issued For, Assigned To, Card Placed For.

9: Authorized Tag Holder.

4: Certification by the Transmission System Operator that a specific line or piece of equipment is disconnected from all transmission sources and is ready for immediate grounding.

Clearance Order

13: A clearance order is identified by a unique number and issued by the Dispatcher, is given to insure personnel that a piece of equipment or line has been de-energized, that at least one secured visible air gap on each side of the cleared section has been established, and hold tags have been attached. Also, ground switches (where available) and required have been closed, hold tags attached, and fuses pulled on any source of back feed. The clearance order number can only be issued to a person in the field, on the job site and conveyed in such a manner to allow only the person receiving the clearance to know the number. Only the person receiving the clearance can release it except in and emergency then his supervisor, after a site inspection, can release it. If grounds are not applied such equipment, devices or line shall be considered energized and a clearance will not be issued.

Clearance Order Form

14: The official document used by dispatchers to record granted clearances.

Clearance Point

7: A point that is locked open (if possible) and tagged with a Danger Tag and is that part of the boundary (open point) between the clearance area and source of hazardous potential.

Clearance Point

7: A point that is locked open (if possible) and tagged with a Danger Tag and is that part of the boundary (open point) between the clearance area and source of hazardous potential.

2: Physical isolation or visible break.

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Clearance Procedures

8: The operating criteria requirements for the protection of personnel and equipment that fall under the maintenance jurisdiction of the Region Operations Departments. The Clearance Procedures include all formal operating statements defined in this section and the use of the Maintenance Hold Order.

CLEAROP

2: Cleared Open

Closed Circuit

2: Closed circuit completes the path for electron flow from the negative to positive terminal of the source a close circuit has current flow and relatively low resistance.

10: A complete path for current flow.

CLRSHRT

2: Cleared Short

CLRWT

2: Cleared While Testing

CMVM

2: See: Contact-Making Voltmeter.

CO

2: Trouble in Central Office

Combustion Turbine

10: A gas or oil fired jet type engine used to produce periods of peak demand.

COMPENSATION

2 & 10: Compensation is the control elements which correct for or offset the undesirable characteristics of the control circuit.

COND

2: Cable fault proven by high voltage TC on the feeder

CONDUCTORS

2: Conductors are materials which allow electrons to flow through them.

10: A material or substance through which current can flow. Larger-sized conductors usually can carry more current than a small conductor of the same material.

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CONTACT MAKING VOLTMETER

2 & 10: Contact making voltmeters are devices which complete or break secondary electrical circuits for voltage changes either above or below a specified range.

CONTIN11TY

2: Continuity is considered to be a continuous path for current flow within an electrical circuit. Continuity testing determines if the continuous path is broken using and ohmmeter, lamp and battery or bell and battery.

10: A word used to describe completeness of a circuit. A circuit in which current can flow is said to have continuity.

Contract Employer

OSHA: An employer who performs work covered by Subpart V of this Part for a host employer.

CORONA

2 & 10: Corona is a luminous discharge of electricity due to ionization of air appearing on the surface of a conductor, connector, bus or other equipment when dielectric properties of insulation breakdown.

CORY

2 & 10: Cory is a manufacturer's brand name of key interlock system

COUPLING CAPACITOR

2: Coupling capacitors are used to couple or connect two circuits together. Utility coupling capacitors usually are used to superimpose control and communications signals on power lines or provide potential for relaying.

10: Used to superimpose control and communications signals on power lines or provide potential for relaying.

CPE

2: Trouble in customer-provided equipment.

Craft Switcher

8: A person qualified to act in place of operations staff personnel to perform switching operations at specified locations.

Crew

7: A group of individuals working on the same assigned task, under direct supervision from a single work group/task leader.

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CROSS OVER VALVE

2: An Automatic valve, normally open, between two transmission feeders of the dielectric fluid systems, allowing circulation of the dielectric fluid.

CUBICLE

2 & 10: Cubicle is enclosure used to house electrical equipment within stations.

CURRENT

2 & 10: Current is the rate of electron flow within the electrical elements. It is measured in amperes (a or amp) using an ammeter.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CT)

2: Current transformer is an instrument transformer which reduces primary circuit currents to secondary measuring instruments and relays at predetermined ratios.

10: A device which is inserted into a circuit to transform the value of the circuit current to a value which is practical for measurement purposes. The primary winding is connected in series with the load and the secondary winding is connected in series with the ammeter or other measuring device.

CUSTOMER SUBSTATION

2 & 10: Customer substations are substations owned and operated by customers except for through power flow which is controlled by the utility.

CUT-OUT

2: Cut-out is a means of disconnecting and isolating electric circuits or equipment. Some cutouts are fused.

10: A means of disconnecting and isolating electric equipment.

CYCLE

2: Cycle of alternating current or voltage is one complete set of positive and negative values of current or voltage.

10: A complete fluctuation of ac-voltage; one complete revolution of a generator. (See "Alternating Current or Voltage.

Cycles Per Second

10: The speed of rotation of a generator, or the number of complete voltage cycles in one second.

D as A

2: Dead as Alive

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Danger Sign

4: This sign serves as a warning that personnel are working on equipment or line(s). This sign shall not be removed or equipment operated without the consent of the 4 Transmission System Operator.

Danger Tag

7: Danger tags, (L12) tags, shall be placed on all switches that might energize lines or equipment, and shall not be removed until all persons holding a clearance have reported to the System Operator that all personnel and equipment are in the clear, grounds are removed, and the lines or equipment are in proper condition to be restored to service. The removal of the danger tags will be addressed within the switching order issued to return the equipment/lines to service.

DBC

2: Direct Buried Cable

DBF

2: Dead on Backfeed

DC Current or Voltage

10: Current or voltage which does not fluctuate but remains at a constant value.

De-Activate

14: Remove source of power used to open, close or operate a device.

DEAD

2: Dead indicates de-energized line or feeder circuit which could or could not be grounded.

4: De-energized and grounded.

9: No, It can be tested “Dead” and not be grounded. But, it must be tested “Dead: before grounds can be installed.

Dead Line

10: A de-energized line or feeder circuit which could or could not be grounded.

Deadbreak Connector

10: Connector designed to be connected and disconnected when equipment or cable is de- energized.

De-Energize

2: De-energize means to disconnect a device or conductor from a power source.

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De-Energized

3: Equipment has been de-energized when the electrical or mechanical hazards associated with it have been removed. Electrical equipment has been de-energized when its electrical energy has been discharged through connection to an effective ground potential. Mechanical equipment has been de-energized when hazards due to temperature, pressure, chemical substances, gases and motion have been minimized or, where practical, eliminated by such measures as: operation of valves, gates and dampers; opening pipes or equipment to the atmosphere; purging, ventilating, or cooling; applying brakes and blocking motion, and/or discharging loaded springs.

4: Disconnected from all sources of electricity.

7: Disconnected from any electrical source of supply and properly tagged, shorted, and grounded.

14: Free from any electrical connection to a source of potential energy and from electric charge; not having a potential difference from that of the earth. The term is used only with reference to current carrying parts which are sometimes energized.

NESC: Disconnected from all sources of electrical supply by open switches, disconnectors, jumpers, taps, or other means. NOTE: De-energized conductors or equipment could be electrically charged or energized through various means, such as induction from energized circuits, portable generators, lightning, etc.

OSHA: Free from any electrical connection to a source of potential difference and from electric charge; not having a potential different from that of the earth. Note: The term is used only with reference to current-carrying parts, which are sometimes energized (alive).

De-Energized Working Clearance

7: A De-energized Working Clearance shall be a documented statement declaring that the equipment to be worked on has been isolated from all hazardous sources of energy with a visible open. In cases were the equipment is solidly connected with no means of disconnecting and the potential for energization is present, the equipment shall be grounded before work is begun.

DEFECTIVE EQ11PMENT TAG

2 & 10: Defective equipment tag is used to denote equipment that has become defective and should not be used.

DELTA CONNECTION

2 & 10: Delta connection is a three phase system termination connection which connects loads in parallel across phases.

DELUGE SYSTEM

2: An automatic water spray system used for fire protection on station transformers, phase angle regulators and reactors.

10: A fire protection system used on station equipment either water, CO 2 or halon.

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DEMAND

2 & 10: Demand is the rate at which energy is consumed. Demand on a utility system is determined by customer requirements for energy.

Designated Employee (designated person)

NESC: A qualified person designated to perform specific duties under the conditions existing. Syn: designated employee.

OSHA: An employee (or person) who is assigned by the employer to perform specific duties under the terms of this section and who has sufficient knowledge of the construction and operation of the equipment and the hazards involved to perform his or her duties safely.

DIELECTRIC

2 & 10: Dielectric is an insulating or nonconductive medium commonly used between two plates

of a capacitor. Typical dielectrics are air, oil, wax-impregnated paper, plastic, mica and ceramic.

DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN

2 & 10: Dielectric breakdown occurs when current flow around or through dielectric material.

DIELECTRIC FL11D

2: The insulating medium used in transformers, underground transmission cables and some circuit breakers.

Dielectric Footwear

10: An overshoe or boot which has an insulative or dielectric rate to increase personal protection against electric shock. Dielectric properties are achieved through the use of highly insulative sole materials.

DIFFERENTIAL

2 & 10: Differential in electrical circuits indicates a difference between two levels.

DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

2 & 10: Differential relays have multiple elements, which do not function unless the voltage, current, or power differences between the winding reaches a pre- determined level.

DIRECTIONAL RELAY

2 & 10: Directional relays are installed to operate for current flows in one specified direction only.

DISC

2: Disconnect

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DISCONNECT

2: Disconnect means to break an electric circuit. However, the device, such as a switch, which breaks electric current is commonly called disconnects.

DISCONNECTS

10: Devices, such as switches, which break electric circuits.

DISENGAGE

14: The air break switch motor operator is mechanically disengaged from the operation rod. The coupling should be locked in the open position and checked to ensure that if the motor operator operated, that the coupling will clear and the air switch will not operate.

DISPATCHER

13: Used in a general sense to indicate any person, regardless of classification, who under the proper jurisdiction, is authorized to approve or issue switching orders and Clearances.

DISTRIBUTION

2: Distribution systems of an electrical utility consist of primary voltage circuits, which transfer energy from substation to step-down transformer near customers.

10: The distribution system of an electrical utility consists of voltage circuits which transfer energy from substation to stepdown transformer near customers.

DISTRIBUTION CIRCUIT

10: Circuit containing the conductors which carry the power from a substation to the area where it is used by a customer.

DISTRIBUTION OPERATIONS

2: District Operations for underground to first open device then regional operations branch of Electric Operations.

5: The System Operations group responsible for directing the switching of (utility's) Distribution System. This includes all switching related to Scheduled Work Requests and Forced Outages.

DISTRIBUTION VOLTAGE

4: Applies to all lines and equipment operating less than 60,000 volts.

12: all below 34.5 kV.

10: 13 kV and lower.

DM

2: Disconnecting Manhole

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DUCT

2 & 10: Ducts are protective pipes or through which cables or conductors are run.

DUCTOR

10: A device for checking contact resistance usually in the range of millions of ohms.

ECHO SYSTEM

13: The Echo system is a method of communicating instructions which verifies that each party involved understands the instructions. This method will be used by the Dispatcher when conveying switching instructions. The Dispatcher will state the command, the switchman repeats the command, and the Dispatcher verifies it. After the command has been executed the switchman will reiterate what he has done, the dispatcher will repeat, and the switchman will acknowledge.

ELB

2: Elbow

Electric Production

10: Part of an electrical utility responsible for the generation of electricity.

ELECTRICAL BLOCK

2: Removal of the electrical feed that supplies the actuating device such as, the motor, solenoid, contractor etc. NOTE: In general equipment can be blocked either open or closed.

ELECTRICITY

2 & 10: Electricity is the flow of an electrical charge through a conductor placed between two objects having a difference of potential.

Electromotive Force

10: See Voltage.

ELECTRON

2: Electron is the negatively charged particle of an atom which is charged and lighter that the particles and orbits around the nucleus. Electrons are believed to be the electrical particle, which can be easily moved from atom to atom. Thus, utilized for transferring electrical energy through conductors.

10: Electron is the negatively charged particle of an atom.

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Emergent Work

7: Work that is required that may have been caused by an unusual condition or event. The condition or event could potentially endanger life or property and requires prompt attention.

9: Yes, Emergency Outage.

ENERGIZE

2 & 10: Energize is the process of applying rated voltage to circuit or equipment.

Energized

7: Electrically connected to a source of potential difference or electrically charged so as to have a potential from that of earth or different from that of adjacent conductors or equipment.

4: Electrically energized as distinguished from dead or de-energized.

NESC: Electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged so as to have a potential significantly different from that of earth in the vicinity. Syn: live.

Energized (alive, live)

OSHA: Electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged so as to have a potential significantly different from that of earth in the vicinity.

Energized Circuit Procedure

5: The safe work procedures used when working on or near energized circuits or equipment.

7: No, Live line or Hot-line work.

ENERGY

2: Energy is the ability to perform work or create physical change. Energy is measured in kilowatt- hours

10: The quantity of electric power used in a given length of time, measured in watt-hours or kilowatt-hours. Ex 100-watt bulb turned an for 10 hours would use the following amount of energy: 100 watts x 10 hours = 1000 watt or 1.0 kilowatt hour.

Energy Isolating Device

OSHA: A physical device that prevents the transmission or release of energy, including, but not limited to, the following: a manually operated electric circuit breaker, a disconnect switch, a manually operated switch, a slide gate, a slip blind, a line valve, blocks, and any similar device with a visible indication of the position of the device. (Push buttons, selector switches, and other control-circuit-type devices are not energy isolating devices.)

Energy Source

OSHA: Any electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, nuclear, thermal, or other energy source that could cause injury to personnel.

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Engage

14: The air break switch motor operator is mechanically engaged to the operation rod to ensure that if the motor operator operates the air switch will operate.

Entrance Box

10: In the home, a metal box in which the fuses or circuit are located. This is where the house circuitry is connected to the wires coming out of the meter socket.

EST COND

2: Application of HV DC to burn in a fault.

ESTABLISH A CONDITION

2: To breakdown the cable insulation on a faulted feeder conductor, creating a path to ground to locate the fault

Exposed

NESC/OSHA: Not isolated or guarded.

FAULT

2 & 10: Fault is a change in the circuit or equipment current due to unintentional grounding or shorting of wires.

Fault Initiating Switch

10: See: High Speed Ground Switch.

FAULT LOCATING

2 & 10: Fault locating is the process of pinpointing unintentional grounds or short circuits.

FEEDBACK

2 & 10: Feedback is a return of fraction or total output voltage, current or power to input.

FEEDER

2 & 10: Feeder is a conductor or group of conductors connected substation to load center. The term feeder and circuit are used interchangeably.

FEEDER GROUNDS

2: Permanent grounding points (station grounds) at or near the potheads of feeders within the confines of the substation.

Feeder Row

10: An interconnection of equipment cubicles containing breakers, disconnects, and relaying equipment associated with the feeder.

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FGO

2: Field Grounds Only

Field Operations

5: The District departments responsible for directing the switching of selected portions of Utility’s Distribution System not covered by Distribution Operations.

Flame Retardant Clothing

10: Work clothing manufactured with a high resistance to burning or melting when exposed to flame or electric arcing.

FLASHOVER

2 & 10: See: Dielectric Breakdown

FLD

2: Trouble in field

FMS

2: Feeder Management System

Foreign Organization

3: A foreign organization is any organization outside your own company.

1: Foreign utility.

Formal Operating Statement

8: Any of the administrative controls and instructions issued by the Project Operations Department. These include clearances, guarantees, hot line work orders, special conditions orders, non-reclose assurance, permission to operate, and OK to work orders.

FOT

2: Failed on Test

FREQUENCY

2: Frequency is the rate which cycles of alternating current are completed per second. The unit of frequency is hertz (Hz).

Frequency Load

10: Automatic system of disconnecting selective circuit, including customers, when under frequency relays detect a predetermined frequency, and shed load. The purpose of this system is to prevent slowing down of generators which could cause them to trip off line.

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FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING

2: Frequency load shedding is automatic system of disconnecting selective circuits including customers when under frequency relays detect a predetermine frequency, thus shedding load. The purpose of this system is to prevent slowing down of generators which could cause them to trip off line.

Frequency-Hertz

10: The term used to indicate the number of cycles per second through which the generator is turning or the ac voltage is fluctuating. For our use this is expressed as 60 cycles per second.

FUSE

2: Fuse is a protective device, which usually consists of a short piece of wire and a chemical compound, that melts to break the circuit when current exceeds the rated value.

10: A device, consisting of a small meltable wire, placed in series with each building circuit. Designed to melt when current reaches a value that could damage the conductor through which it is flowing.

Fuse Panel

10: See entrance box.

Gang Operated

4: One handle controls all three blades of the switch together.

GANG OPERATED DISCONNECTS

2 & 10: Gang operated disconnects are poly-phased disconnect switches on the same

circuit/feeder that operate simultaneously via mechanical or electrical interconnect.

Gas Circuit Breaker

10: These breakers utilize gas as a dielectric to reduce arcing of contacts.

GAS DETECTOR

2: Gas detector is a device used to check the presence of gases to determine if they are explosive or harmful to life.

10: A device used to monitor the presence of gases before they become explosive or harmful to life.

GAS FILLED CABLE

2 & 10: See: Low Pressure Gas Filled Cable

Gas Turbine

10: See: Combustion Turbine

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GCB

2: GCB is an abbreviation indicating gas circuit breaker. These breakers utilize gas, such as SF6 as the dielectric to reduce arcing of contacts.

General Switching

7: General Switching is performed to accommodate testing and/or maintenance where no electrical clearance is required.

GENERATING STATION

2 & 10: Generating Stations produce electrical energy by conversion from mechanical energy via

magnetism. Mechanical energy in generating stations can be produced via wind, water, or fuels that produce steam.

Generation Dispatch Center

13: The Generation Dispatch Center (GDC) located in Little Rock, Arkansas is responsible for the generation and the delivery of power to the transmission system and the scheduling of generation.

Generator

10: A mechanical device for producing ac or dc voltage; A device consisting of at least one conductor which is mechanically and continuously made to pass through a magnetic field, thus causing induced voltage in the conductor. It is the source for nearly all of our electric power.

GLO

2: Ground Level Only

GND or GRD

2: Ground

GRADING RING

2 & 10: Grading rings are circular devices placed around each end of an insulator to evenly distribute the capacitive charges across the insulator.

Ground

2: Ground is a conducting connection, either intentional or accidental, between an electric circuit or equipment and earth.

4: A conducting connection between an electric conductor or equipment and earth or to some conducting medium, which serves in place of earth.

10: A conducting connection, either intentional or accidental between an electric circuit or equipment and earth.

OSHA: A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electric circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

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GROUND AND TEST DEVICE

2: Used to ground a distribution feeder for work or (G&T) testing

GROUND SWITCH

2 & 10: Ground switch is a device that grounds each phase of a circuit or equipment. There are two types of ground switches manual and automatic. Manual ground switches should only be closed after a potential test. However, automatic grounding switches may be designed to close- into an energized line in order to trip a breaker at the other end.

Ground Wire

10: A metallic conductor connected to ground by a stake, water pipe, etc., on one end and the device in question (appliance) grounded on the other.

Grounded

NESC: Connected to or in contact with earth or connected to some extended conductive body that serves instead of the earth.

OSHA: Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.

Grounded System

NESC: A system of conductors in which at least one conductor or point is intentionally grounded, either solidly or through a noninterrupting current-limiting device.

Grounding

4: That process by which conductors or equipment high voltage terminals are connected to an earth ground grid or overhead ground shield with an approved ground cable.

13: Grounding is the process of properly giving any de-energized equipment, device or line zero potential with respect to earth. Grounding apparatus and method shall be of the approved type and size for the application.

Guarantee

8: A formal statement from the Operations Department that a certain switch or switches, device or devices, are tagged in a specific position, locked where possible, and will remain so until the guarantee is released by the recipient. A guarantee does not necessarily indicate that the equipment is de-energized.

Guaranteed Device

3: A guaranteed device is an isolating or de-energizing device tagged with one of the following “Do Not Operate” tags: a yellow tag; a red tag, or; a red and white striped tag.

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Guarded

NESC: Covered, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats or platforms, designed to limit the likelihood, under normal conditions, of dangerous approach or accidental contact by persons or objects. Note: Wires that are insulated but not otherwise protected are not normally considered to be guarded. See exceptions under applicable rules.

OSHA: Covered, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats, or platforms, designed to minimize the possibility, under normal conditions, of dangerous approach or accidental contact by persons or objects. Note:

Wires that are insulated, but not otherwise protected, are not considered as guarded.

HARD HAT

2: Hard hat is a personal protective device which provides increased protection to the head from falling objects, possible contact with fixed hazardous and provides dielectric protection.

10: See: Safety Hat

Head Breaker

10: Head breaker or group head breaker is the feed break from a transformer to a bus section.

Head End Tie

10: An intercircuit connection made near the source (station feed).

HEARING PROTECTION

2: Hearing protection is designed to reduce audible sound levels below a hazardous and/or annoying level (below 85 db).

10: Hearing protection is designed to reduce audible sound levels below a hazardous and/or annoying level.

HIGH POT

2 & 10: A device, usually a variable setup transformer, used to apply a high potential, low current to high voltage equipment prior to placing that equipment in service.

HIGH VOLTAGE TC

2: A test used to locate faults on distribution feeders via high voltage pulses.

HIGH VOLTAGE TEST SET

2: A piece of equipment used to apply high voltage, low current to distribution feeders in order to identify faults, or test the feeder.

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HIGH-SPEED GROUND SWITCH

2 & 10: High-speed ground switch is an automatic ground switch connected from one phase to ground, capable of closing within cycles from the time the trip coil is energized. This switch is used as a means for transfer tripping relay protection.

Hold

1: Syn.: Hold Card.

5: A status established on a switch or other piece of equipment by the appropriate Jurisdictional Authority declaring that it is not to be operated or its status altered in any way until removed by the same Jurisdictional Authority.

Hold Order

5: Certification issued to a utility employee, Qualified Contractor Distribution only), or foreign utility Control Center (or operational equivalent) from Transmission Operations or Distribution Operations that a switch or other piece of equipment will not be operated or status altered in any way until the Hold Order has been released by the Hold Order Holder.

Hold Order Holder

5: The employee, Qualified Contractor (Distribution only), or foreign utility who receives a Hold Order from Transmission Operations or Distribution Operations.

Hold Tag

13: A hold tag is a red or partly red tag that has an identifying number which is placed on devices at the direction of the appropriate TOC Dispatcher and indicates the device to which the tag is attached should not be operated. It is not an indication of whether the device is open or closed, energized or de-energized. The hold tag number is recorded at the TOC and is not to be removed except by direction of the TOC originally ordering the card attached. The TOC Dispatcher shall be the only one to authorize the use of this tag. The devices under the control of the TOC should not have old tags attached without Dispatcher knowledge.

Holder

3: The Holder is the person who has accepted the Work Permit or Supporting Guarantee and therefore has attained working and/or testing rights for the work group. The Holder is assigned responsibilities for ensuring that everyone in the work group is protected from the viewpoint of the Code.

Holder’s Check of Isolation

3: A Holder’s check of isolation is a visual inspection by the Holder (or any member of the work group) to confirm a guaranteed device(s) is: 1. the correct device(s); 2. in the appropriate position (when possible); 3. appropriately tagged and 4. locked if required. A Holder’s check of isolation is done for any guaranteed device(s) when deemed necessary by the Holder or any member of the work group.

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Holders

3: The Protection Holder is the person assigned responsibilities for a Work Group that will be working under a Work Protection.

2: Authorized employee.

Hold-Off

1: Syn.: Hold Card

3: A device having its operation restricted to previously agreed limits by the placement of a hold- off tag. Hold-offs are most commonly used to block the auto reclosing and the manual re- energization of a line following an automatic trip. The purpose of the hold-off is to limit operation of apparatus to facilitate work or reduce work hazards. Under no circumstances shall hold-off be used in place of work protection.

Hook Stick Disconnect

4: Single blade switch that must be operated with an approved live-line tool.

Host employer

OSHA: An employer who operates and maintains an electric power transmission or distribution installation covered by Subpart V of this Part and who hires a contract employer to perform work on that installation.

Hot

1: Syn.: live, energized.

4: Electrically energized.

Hot Line Hold (A)

13: A hot line hold (A) is issued by the Dispatcher on a energized line for personnel doing "hot" line work. If the energized line relays open while the hot line hold is in effect the Dispatcher will not re-energize the line section where work is being performed until contacting the person holding the hot line hold. On lines with automatic reclosing, the reclosing device will be disabled before issuing a hot line hold.

Hot Line Hold (B)

13: A hot line hold (B) is issued by the Dispatcher on an de-energized Line for personnel doing work in the area near a transmission line. The transmission line is considered to be (HOT) and the minimum Safe distance, phase to ground and phase to phase for the voltage of the transmission line will be followed per the National Electric Safety Code. The Dispatcher will issue a Hot Line Hold (B) Clearance Number to a person in the field, on the job site and conveyed it in such a manner to allow the one person receiving the clearance to know the number. The Dispatcher can not re-energize the line until the person in charge at the job site releases the Hot Line Hold (B) Clearance Number back to the Dispatcher.

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Hot Line Warning

5: Certification issued to a utility employee or Qualified Contractor (Distribution only) from Transmission Operations or Distribution Operations that (1) auto reclosing devices have been disabled, but the circuit has not been de-energized using normal switching procedures and (2) an energized circuit being worked on will not be re-energized if it trips or an out of service circuit being worked on will not be energized without permission from the Hot Line Warning Holder(s).

Hot Line Warning Holder

5: The employee or Qualified Contractor (Distribution only) who receives a Hot Line Warning from Transmission Operations or Distribution Operations.

Hot Line/Bus/Transformer Hold

4: A procedure which allows a person to work with or near energized equipment.

Hot-Line Tag

7: A Hot-Line Tag is an electronic tag on a protective device’s control disabling the ability to close the protective device locally or remotely. Once applied, the controls will lockout the protective device on one operation using a non-delayed Time Current Curve (TCC). This electronic tag is clearly visible on or near the control. The protective device cannot be closed until the Hot-Line Tag is removed by the same method applied, locally or remotely.

HTV

2: High Tension Vault

HV

2: High Voltage

HVTC

2: High Voltage Tracing Current

IATC

2: Individual Action Tracing Current

ID

2: Identification

Immediately Dangerous To Life Or Health (IDLH)

OSHA: Any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a permit space. Note: Some materials—hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example—may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12–72 hours after exposure. The victim ‘‘feels normal’’ from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be ‘‘immediately’’ dangerous to life or health.

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IMPEDANCE

2: Impedance is the total opposition affecting the flow of alternating current. It is vector some of resistance and reactance, measured in ohms.

10: The term used to represent the combined value of Capacitive reactance, inductive reactance,

and resistance in an ac circuit. Impedance is represented by the letter Z, or the symbol Z, and is

expressed in ohms.

INDUCED VOLTAGE

It opposes ac-current and causes current to be out of phase with the voltage.

2: Induced voltage is the voltage which is created by relative motion between another conductor and magnetic field.

10: A voltage which is made to appear on a conductor when the conductor is mechanically passed through a magnetic field.

Inductance

10: That property of an ac-circuit which opposes any change in current. Inductance is represented by the letter L. It is caused by coils or windings of wire.

Induction of Voltage

10: The production of voltage in a conductor by the movement of the conductor in a magnetic

field.

Inductive Reactance

10: The term used to indicate the effect of inductance on the current in an ac-circuit; it limits the current and causes it to lag the voltage. Inductive reactance is represented by the symbol XL and expressed in ohms.

Inductor

This is a mechanical process.

10: A coil or winding of wire.

IN-PHASE

2: In-phase is the point at which current and voltage within that electrical circuit reach their minimum and maximum at the same time.

10: The condition in which current voltage waves reach their respective maximum and minimum points at the same instant or degree.

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER

2: Instrument transformers reproduce, in its secondary circuit the primary current or voltage with phase relation preserved and at predetermined ratio for measurement, control, and protective devices.

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Insulated

NESC/OSHA: Separated from other conducting surfaces by a dielectric (including air space) offering a high resistance to the passage of current. Note: When any object is said to be insulated, it is understood to be insulated for the conditions to which it is normally subjected. Otherwise, it is, within the purpose of these rules, uninsulated.

INSULATORS

2 & 10: Insulators are materials which do not allow electrons or electrical charges to pass through them.

INT SW

2: Interrupter Switch

INTERCONNECTION

2 & 10: Interconnection is a transmission line connecting two electric systems or utilities

permitting energy transfer in either direction. Interconnections are also referred to as "tie lines".

Interconnection Dispatcher

10: Individuals responsible for transmission of electrical energy among utilities of the interconnection or power pools.

Interruptible Electric Service Customer Warning

10: Is a system alert that a voltage reduction is anticipated. ISE customers shall be requested to reduce curtailable load by a specific time.

Isolate

3: “Isolate” means to separate equipment from any source of dynamic energy. To separate equipment from an source of dynamic energy.

Isolated

NESC: Not readily accessible to persons unless special means for access are used.

2: Disconnected from the system by the opening of switches, disconnecting potheads, cutouts, links or by cutting or disconnecting conductors.

3: Separated from all sources of dynamic energy. Typically, apparatus is isolated by means of devices such as a valve or electrical switch.

Isolated by Elevation

NESC

Elevated sufficiently so that persons may safely walk underneath.

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Isolated Zone

3: A section of line or portion of apparatus between isolation points, separating it from all sources of dynamic energy.

Isolating Device

3: “Isolating device” means a device used to separate equipment from any source of dynamic energy.

Isolation Points

3: Isolation Points can be Standard or Non-Standard. A Standard Isolation Point is a device which is capable of being physically positioned or disconnected to control energy sources. A Non-Standard Isolation Point is a device which is not designed to be an isolation point and is prohibited for use as a Guaranteed Device unless it has been documented and approved.

ISOLATION SWITCH

2: A manual switch associated with a particular relay panel used to remove the DC feed to all relays associated with that panel.

Isolation, Visible

5: A condition when adequate separation exists between current carrying parts to assure energy cannot flow from one part to the other at the voltage applied. Visible Isolation can be accomplished with air isolation disconnects, racked out breakers, open jumpers, parked elbows, or removable links.

Isolator

NESC: A mechanical switching device used for changing the connections in a circuit or for isolating a circuit or equipment from a source of power. Note: It is required to carry normal load current continuously as well as abnormal or short-circuit current for short intervals, as specified. It is also required to open or close circuits either when negligible current is broken or made, or when no significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each of the switch poles occurs. Syn: disconnector, isolator.

Issuing/Establishing Authority

3: That person responsible for preparing, establishing, making effective and terminating Work Protections and Condition Guarantees.

Joint Use

NESC: Simultaneous use by two or more kinds of utilities.

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Junction

3: A station that is a point in a circuit at which: There are no breakers and no transformers AND:

two or more circuit sections join together OR; at least one circuit-opening device is installed OR; a termination point exists with no transformation, no automatic switching devices and no opening device (i.e. dead-end termination). Note: The point in the circuit shall not be inside the boundary of another station (e.g. a tap inside a TS would be considered part of the TS, not a separate JCT station).

Jurisdictional Authority

2: Operating jurisdiction.

5: The department responsible for directing switching and issuing Clearances, Hot Line Warnings, and Hold Orders within a specified area defined by the Jurisdictional Boundary.

Jurisdictional Boundary

5: The switching device(s) which define the electrical separation of switching responsibilities between the Jurisdictional Authorities.

KEY INTERLOCK SYSTEM

2 & 10: Key interlock system - See sequential key interlock.

KILO

2 & 10: Kilo (K) is prefix meaning thousand. Example: 4 KV means 4 thousand volts.

Kilowatt Hour

2: Kilowatt-hour (KWH) is the amount of energy consumed. It represents the thousands of watts used per hour.

10: Amount of electric energy consumed by electrical devices in a measured amount of time; 1000 watts used for 1 hour.

KIRK

2 & 10: Kirk is a manufacturer's brand name of key interlock systems.

KSC

2: Knife Switch Closed

KSO

2: Knife Switch Open

KVA

2 & 10: KVA is the abbreviation for thousands of volt- amperes or units of apparent power.

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KVARS

2 & 10: KVARS is the abbreviation for thousands of vars or units of reactive power.

KW

2 & 10: KW is the abbreviation for kilowatt meaning thousands of watts of true power.

L/R

2: Local/Remote

LA

2: Lightning Arrester

Lagging Current

10: Condition in which the current wave form reaches its maximum or minimum value after the voltage wave form has reached these respective values. Caused by inductance or inductive reactance in an ac-circuit.

Leading Current

10: Condition in which the current wave form reaches its maximum or minimum value before the voltage wave form has reached these respective values. Caused by capacitance or captive reactance in an ac-circuit.

LEC

2: Live End Cap

LIGHTNING ARRESTER

2: Lightning arresters, sometimes called surge arresters are designed to allow surge currents from lightning to pass to ground via spark gap or other similar dielectric breakdowns.

10: Designed to allow surge currents from lightning to pass to ground.

Limits of Approach

3: A procedural barrier system for authorized workers or workers under the continuous direction of an authorized person, intended to minimize the risk associated with work in the proximity of energized apparatus.

LINE DROP

2 & 10: Line drop is a voltage drop between two points on power line. It is caused by the opposition of the line times the current flowing through it.

LINE TUNER

2 & 10: Line tuner is an impedance matching device design to isolate and match carrier signals to transmission lines via coupling capacitors and wave traps.

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Lines Force

10: Imaginary lines that leave and re-enter a magnet at its poles, forming a magnetic field.

LIVE LINE TOOL

2: A tool used to work or apply portable ground leads on a feeder or electrical bus.

Live-Line Work Permit

7: A Live-Line Work Permit is a documented statement that work may be done on energized lines or equipment.

LMS

2: Load Management System

LOAD

2 & 10: Load is considered to be the power consumed by a machine, customer, or group of

customers. It is caused by the opposition connected to the power system which determines

current flowing and power consumed.

LOAD BREAK

2 & 10: Load break connectors and disconnects are designed to interrupt load current at a pre- determined current and voltage rating.

LOAD CENTER

2 & 10: Load center of a power circuit is the point where the majority of customers’ power demand is connected.

Load Dispatcher

10: See: System Operator

LOAD FLOW

2 & 10: Low flow is the movement of power along transmission, and distribution system.

LOAD SHEDDING

2 & 10: Load shedding is a process of disconnecting selective customers to reduce total system demand. This is an emergency procedure utilized when generation capacity is exceeded by demand in a specific area for short period of time.

LOC

2: Location

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LOCK OUT

2 & 10: Lock out indicates that an automatic circuit breaker as opened and it will not reclose again without a manual command.

LOW VOLTAGE TC

2: A test used to identify feeder conductors phases via a specific low voltage signal

LVTC

2: Low Voltage Fault Finding Tracing Current

Magnetic Field

10: The area surrounding a magnet in which the magnetic lines of force exist; magnetic force around a conductor, which is caused by current flowing through the conductor. It is similar to that caused by a bar magnet.

Main Transfer

10: A substation bus-arrangement which uses the main bus as the normal supply for feeder and a transfer bus, (second bus), for switching equipment, such as breakers, reactors, regulators out- of-service for maintenance. The transfer bus is usually energized via spare equipment.

Master Row

10: 13KV substation feed row(s) which contain station light and power transformers and metering equipment.

MEGA

2 & 10: Mega (m) is a prefix meaning million. Example: 2mW means 2 million watts

MEGGAR

2: Meggar is manufacturer brand name for an ohmmeter capable of measuring insulation. It is a d.c. voltage source produced by a built-in hand- driven generator.

Megger

10: Manufacturer brand name for an ohmmeter capable of measuring insulation. It has a dc voltage source produced by a built-in hand-driven generator.

MEHANICAL BLOCK

2: A mechanical protective device for preventing the operation of a switch, circuit breaker, controller or valve. A lock when used for this purpose is considered equivalent to a block.

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METER

2: Meter is any measuring device used to measure electrical quantities. It is also a metric unit of measuring length equal to 39.37- inches, 3.281 feet or 1.094 yards.

10: A measuring device used to measure electrical quantities; a metric unit of measuring length equal to 39.37 inches 3.281 feet or 1.094 yards; a device usually belonging to the power company; it measures the amount of kilowatt hours used by the customer.

Meter Socket

10: Device usually furnished by the power company. It is attached to customer's home, and the meter inserted into it.

MH

2: Manhole

MICROWAVE

2 & 10: Microwave is a high frequency radio wave in range of 30 to 0.3 centimeter that is commonly used for line of sight communications of data and voice signals.

MILLI

2 & 10: Milli (m) is prefix meaning one thousandth of a unit. Example: 450 ma means 450 thousandths of one ampere or 0.45 ampere.

Mobile Unit Substation

10: A complete portable substation mounted on a trailer so that it can readily be moved.

Motor Operated

10: Disconnect-devices which utilize motors for opening and/or closing. Some only use motors for closing and a winding spring for opening.

MOTOR OPERATED DISCONNECTS

2: Motor operated disconnects are disconnect-devices which utilize motors for opening and winding a spring which stores energy for opening.

MULTI CONTACT RELAY (MC)

2: Multi contact relay (MC) is a relay which allows one set of opening and closing contacts to control many of other devices. (LOR) (WL)

Multi-Trip

10: A relay which allows one set of opening and closing contacts to control many of other devices.

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Municipalities & Co-Ops

8: (Munis) are state, municipal, and federal electric cooperatives that own and operate electrical distribution systems within utility’s maintenance jurisdiction. The Clearance and Protection Procedures described herein, apply to the municipalities and federal electric co-ops that fall under the maintenance jurisdiction of the utility’s regions.

Neon Tester

10: A potential testing device used for testing whether a circuit is or is not energized.

NETWORK

2: Network system of an electrical utility usually consists of a distribution system with a common secondary (120/208V- normally) which is supplied via a multitude of primary circuits from a single substation through step-down transformers and network protectors.

10: A distribution system with a common secondary (120/208V) supplied by more than one primary circuit.

NETWORK FEEDER

2: Network feeders are circuits from substations to network transformers and network protectors.

10: Circuits from substations to network transformers.

NETWORK PROTECTOR

2: Network protector is a three phase automatic circuit breaker in series with secondary of network transformer and secondary that is designed to open on backfeed. Backfeed occurs when common secondary permits transformer to step-up voltage on to faulted or de-energized circuit.

10: A three phase automatic circuit breaker that is designed to open on backfeed.

NEUTRAL

2: Neutral is considered to be neither positive or negative rather common reference point.

10: Neither positive nor negative. A common reference point.

NEUTRAL RESISTOR

2 & 10: Neutral resistor is connected in series with center point of selective grounded wye circuits in order to limit fault currents and allow proper relaying.

Neutral Wire

10: The center wire in a 3-wire service. It is connected to ground and will have a 120 volt potential with reference to either hot wire in service.

NEUTRON

2: Neutron is the neutral charged particle of an atom usually located within the nucleus with the proton.

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Nominal Voltage

3: Nominal voltage is the normal operating voltage measured: phase to phase on multi-phase equipment, or phase to neutral on single-phase equipment.

Non-Reclose Assurance

8: A formal statement from the Operations Department that certain first contingency automatic reclosing devices have been made inoperative and that if the transmission line should trip, manual reclosure of the circuit will not be attempted until contact has been made with the recipient of the order. The non-reclose assurance may not provide all protection necessary for a hot line work order.

10: No, We use specific statements i.e. reclosing off, instantaneous off, etc.

NTF

2: No Trouble Found

NUCLEUS

2: Nucleus is the center part of an atom consisting of the protons and neutrons.

O/A

2: Open Auto

OAAT

2: One at a Time

OCB

2: OCB is an abbreviation indicating a circuit breaker which utilizes oil as a dielectric to reduce contact arcing.

OHMMETER

2: Ohmmeter is an instrument used to measure resistance in ohms.

10: An instrument which directly measures the amount of pure resistance (ohms) contained in a load or device. Connected when the power is off. An instrument used to measure resistance. Can also be used as a continuity checker.

OHMS LAW

2 & 10: Ohms law is a mathematical relationship among voltage, current, and resistance. Ohms law states that the voltage is equal to the current times the resistance.

Oil Circuit Breaker

10: A circuit breaker which uses oil as a dielectric to reduce contact arcing.

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OK

2: Normal Operating Condition

ONE-LINE DIAGRAM

2: One-line diagram represents three phase power circuits and equipment via single line and equipment symbols.

OOE

2: Off on Emergency (Category Required) CAT-1, CAT-2:

OP

2: Open

OPEN AUTO

2: A feeder breaker that has opened automatically via a protective relay operation

OPEN CIRC11T

2: Open circuits do not have a complete path for current flow. Open circuits have relatively high resistance. The source potential difference also occurs across the open

10: A circuit that is incomplete or contains a broken wire, thus preventing current from flowing.

Operating Authority

7: A group of authorized persons who are designated to act as the same entity when receiving and releasing clearances, live-line work permits, or general control numbers (i.e., Power Plant Shift Leaders, utility’s Dispatching Authorities, and other dispatching entities outside of the utility).

12: Yes, called (DOD) Dispatcher on Duty.

10: No, “Person in charge of work.”

Operating Control

3: Having the authority to perform, direct, or authorize the operation of all devices under its control (Syn: Controlling Authority). A position with the authority to perform direct or authorize the operation of all devices under its control. Operating Control is a position with the authority to perform, direct, or authorize the operation of all devices under their control.

OPERATING ORDER

2: A directive, in written form, where practicable, issued to a person to perform specified operations or tests on specified equipment.

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Operations Superintendent

8: The Operations Superintendent, or their designee, is responsible for: 1. Supervising and enforcing the rules of the Clearance and Protection Procedures; 2. Insuring annual training is provided on this procedure to those individuals that have been deemed qualified to accept formal operating statements by their respective Maintenance Department Superintendents; 3. Approving, or disapproving, the Maintenance Superintendents’ recommendation of any employee to the list of authorized employees who would be eligible to request and/or accept any of the formal operating statements. Approval of an employee does not relieve the Maintenance Superintendent for the candidates qualification; 4. Approving the supervisor’s release of a formal operating statement when under emergency situations it would be impossible to secure a normal release from an authorized employee; 5. Reviewing and approving all formal operating statement requests; 6. Coordinating and scheduling all major equipment outages with the Energy Control Center Outage Coordinator, the Maintenance Departments, and the Maintenance Resource Management Department; 7. Designating a Supervisor to assume the duties of the Operations Superintendent during his absence; 8. Completing an annual operational audit of these Clearance and Protection Procedures.

2: Used as a title in our steam system generating stations

Operator

3: An operator shall be considered as that individual at a generating or transformer station who exercises Operating Control of specific Bulk Electricity System apparatus.