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HOWTOCITEREFERENCES USINGAPASTYLE

ThisguideprovidesexamplesoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation(APA)citationstyle,whichis usedprimarilyinthesocialsciences.Foradditionalexamples,consultthePublicationManualofthe AmericanPsychologicalAssociation,6thedition,locatedintheReferenceareaofthelibrary (REFBF76.7.P832010).Alternatively,consultWebpagesaccessedfromtheLibraryhomepage(click onCitationHelpunderthePopularLinksheading). REFERENCELIST APAstylerequiresthatanalphabeticallistingofthesourcesactuallyusedandcitedbeplacedatthe endofresearchpapersandreports.Althoughreferenceentriesbelowaresinglespacedduetospace restrictions,APAstylereferencesshouldbedoublespaced.SomeofthegeneralfeaturesofAPAstyle are: Thefirstlineofeachcitationbeginsflushleft,andthesecondandsubsequentlinesare indentedfivespaces(thisiscalledahangingindent). Onlyinitialsareusedforauthorsfirstandmiddlenames.Namesareinverted:Miller,J.K. Singlespacesseparateeachelement. Citationsarearrangedalphabeticallybyauthorslastnames;worksbythesameauthorarein alphabeticalorder.Iftheauthorisunknown,alphabetizationisbythefirstwordofthetitle. Onlythefirstletterofthefirstwordofthetitleofbooksandarticlesiscapitalized,withthe exceptionofpropernouns.Thefirstwordofsubtitles(afteracolon)isalsocapitalized.

Books
Booktitlesareitalicized. Thecityandstateinwhichthepublisherislocatedareincluded,usingUnitedStatespostal codestoabbreviatestates.However,thestate(and/orcountry)isomittedformajorcitiesand foruniversitypressesthatincludethenameofthestate.Ifmorethanonelocationislisted,the firstisused.

Noauthor Worlddevelopmentreport.(1989).NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress. Oneauthor Perloff,R.M.(1995).Thedynamicsofpersuasion.Hillsdale,NJ:Erlbaum. Twoormoreauthors(uptosixauthors) Shain,Y.&Linz,J.J.(1995).Betweenstates:Interimgovernmentsanddemocratictransitions. NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress. Afterthe6thauthor,etal.isused.(,Smith,P.J.,etal.(1997).)

Bookotherthanthefirstedition Abbott,C.(1982).Colorado:AhistoryoftheCentennialState(2nded.).Boulder:ColoradoAssociated UniversityPress. OtherabbreviationsincludeReved.,3rded.,etc.

Society,association,orinstitutionasauthorandpublisher AmericanPsychologicalAssociation.(2010).PublicationmanualoftheAmericanPsychological Association(6thed.).Washington,DC:Author. Editedbook VandenBos,G.R.(Ed.).(2007).APAdictionaryofpsychology.Washington,DC:American AssociationofPsychology. Formultipleeditors,useabbreviationEds.

Articleorchapterinaneditedbook Haybron,D.M.(2008).Philosophyandthescienceofsubjectivewellbeing.InM.Eid&R.J.Larsen (Eds.),Thescienceofsubjectivewellbeing(pp.1743).NewYork,NY:GuilfordPress.

PeriodicalArticles
Thetitleoftheperiodicalisitalicized,butthetitleofthearticleisnot. Thefirstletterofeachwordoftheperiodicaltitleiscapitalized(exceptforprepositionsand articles). Thevolumenumberoftheperiodicalisitalicized.

Scholarlyjournalthatnumberspagescontinuouslythroughouttheannualvolume Bekerian,D.A.(1993).Insearchofthetypicaleyewitness.AmericanPsychologist,48,574576. Scholarlyjournalthatpaginateseachissueseparately Turow,J.(1994).Hiddenconflictsandjournalisticnorms:Thecaseofselfcoverage.Journalof Communication,44(2),1231. Magazinearticle Chamberlin,J.Novotney,A.,Packard,E.,&Price,M.(2008,May).Enhancingworkerwellbeing: Occupationalhealthpsychologistsconvenetosharetheirresearchonwork,stress,andhealth. MonitoronPsychology,39(5),2629. Islandoftrouble.(1988,March12).TheEconomist,306,5354. Newspaperarticle Schwartz,J.(1993,September10).Obesityaffectseconomic,socialstatus.TheWashingtonPost, pp.B1,B3,B4B7. U.S.tradedeficit.(1994,August19).TheWallStreetJournal(Easterned.),p.A1.

EncyclopediaArticles
Signedarticle Tracy,J.D.(1993).Erasmus.InThenewEncyclopaediaBritannica(Vol.18,pp.489491). Chicago:EncyclopaediaBritannica. Unsignedarticle Rightofasylum(1995).InAcademicAmericanencyclopedia(Vol.16,p.222).Danbury,CT:Grolier.

Audiovisualmaterials
Personsprimarilyresponsiblefortheitemarenamed;theirrolesareidentifiedinparentheses aftertheirnames. Themedium,placedinbrackets,issuppliedafterthetitle.Mediadesignationsinclude[Audio recording],[CD],and[Motionpicture]forfilm,videotape,andDVD.

MotionPicture Weir,P.B.(Producer),&Harrison,B.F.(Director).(1992).Levelsofconsciousness[MotionPicture]. Boston:Filmways. Compactdisc lang,k.d.(2008).Shadowandtheframe.OnWatershed[CD].NewYork,NY:NonesuchRecords.

ElectronicPublications
Noretrievaldateisneeded. Totheextentpossible,informationisprovidedasforaprintedsource. Includingdatabaseinformationincitationsisnotnecessarybecausedatabaseschangeover time. PeriodsareomittedattheendofanInternetaddress,ifthatisthelastelementinthecitation.

Electronicbook Shtton,M.A.(1989).Computeraddiction?Astudyofcomputerdependency. Retrievedfromhttp://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index.asp Articlefromonlineperiodical Bernstein,M.(2002).10tipsonwritingthelivingWeb.AListApart:ForPeopleWhoMakeWebsites, 149.Retrievedfromhttp://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving ElectronicversionofajournalarticlewithDOI HerbstDamm,K.L.,&Kulik,J.A.(2005).Volunteersupport,maritalstatus,andthesurvivaltimesof terminallyillpatients.HealthPsychology,24,225229.doi:10.1037/02786133.24.2.225 ElectronicversionofajournalarticlewhenDOIisnotavailable Sillick,T.J.,&Schutte,N.S.(2006).Emotionalintelligenceandselfesteermmediatebetween perceivedearlyparentalloveandadulthappiness.EJournalofAppliedPsychology,2(2),38 48.Retrievedfromhttp://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

Electronicversionofnewspaperarticle ParkerPope,T.(2008,May6).Psychiatryhandbooklinkedtodrugindustry.TheNewYorkTimes. Retrievedfromhttp://well.blogs.nytimes.com NonperiodicalWebdocumentorWebpage Angeli,E.,Wagner,J.,Lawrick,E.,Moore,K.,Anderson,M.,Soderland,L.,&Brizee,A.(2010,May 5).Generalformat.Retrievedfromhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ INTEXTPARENTHETICALCITATIONS APAstylerequirestheuseofparentheticalcitationswithinthetextofapapertodocumentquotes, paraphrases,summaries,andothersourcesused.ThesereferencesrefertoentriesontheReferences listattheendofthepaperandtaketheplaceoffootnotesorendnotes.Allauthorscitedinthetext mustappearinthereferenceslist,andallauthorslistedmusthavebeencitedinthetext. Basicform:Includeauthorssurname(ifnotalreadymentionedinthetext),andthedate: Rogers(1994)comparedreactiontimes Arecentstudyofreactiontimes(Rogers,1994)found Quotation.Pagenumber,precededbyp.,appearsinparenthesesafterthequotation: KayeconcludesthatDerRingdesNibelungenistheworkofatorturedgenius(p.98). Twoauthors.Useboth: ResearchbyWellekandWarren(1992)supports (Wellek&Warren,1992) Threetofiveauthors.Includeallauthorsthefirsttimementioned;insubsequententriesincludefirst authoronly,followedbyetal.: (Kernis,Cornell,Sun,Berry,&Harlow,1993) (Kernisetal.,1993) Corporateauthor.Usefullnamethefirsttime;abbreviatelater: (NationalInstituteofMentalHealth[NIMH],1991) (NIMH,1991) Noauthor.Punctuatethefirsttitlewordsasinthereferencelist: onfreecare(Studyfinds,1982,p.115) Multipleworks: Severalstudies(Balda,1980;Kamil,1988;PepperbertandFunk,1990) Electronicsources: Ifpossible,citeanelectronicdocumentthesameasanydocumentbyusingtheauthordatestyle. Kenneth(2000)explained...
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