126 views

Uploaded by Patricio Muñoz Proboste

- Hydraulic Transient Design for Pipeline Systems
- Surge Tanks - Surge - Pipes - Fluid Mechanics - Engineering Reference With Worked Examples
- Water Hammer Analysis by J. Parmakian
- Hydropower 97 - Procedings
- Water Hammer
- Analysis and Design of a Surge Tank
- Surge Tank Design
- Hydraulic Design of Small Hydro Plants
- water hammer
- PFC 2010_08 Expanding Facilities Knowledge Session V_ Valves
- Tom Wheatley Swing Check Valves (New)
- Economic Surge Tank Design
- Open Channel Flow
- 51691375 Design Note on Surge Shaft
- Avoiding Pressure Surge Damage in Pipeline
- Air Compressor Lab
- Executive Summary - Somar Integra ( former: Powerboss)
- Shell and Tube Corrosion and Failure Description
- Fluid Mechanics Lab Report
- entahhhhh

You are on page 1of 14

3- 2013 - 147 -

Surge Tank Design Considerations for

Controlling Water Hammer Effects at

Hydro-electric Power Plants

Dr. Abdulghani RAMADAN

Dept. Of Mechanical Engin.

Faculty of Engineering

Al-Mergib University

Dr. Hatem MUSTAFA

Dept. Of Mechanical Engin.

Faculty of Engineering

Zawia University

Abstract:

A theoretical analysis based on some design considerations for

surge tanks is carried out. The effects of different parameters such as

the friction losses coefficient and the surge tank cross-sectional area on

the water surface oscillations tank and the total discharge are

investigated. System of non-linear ordinary differential equations are

numerically solved and manipulated. Results show that increasing

cross-sectional area and friction losses coefficient results in decreasing

the surge tank level and discharge rates. In addition, the height of the

pressure waves and fluctuations that induced by the water hammer will

be reduced and steadier. According to this study, the surge tank

Surge Tank Design Considerations for Controlling Water

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 148 -

dimensions could be estimated theoretically as follows; surge tank

cross-sectional area is about 400 ~500 m

2

which is corresponding to a

first upsurge of about 3 ~ 4 m, respectively. Beside the above findings,

cost, topography, location, operation conditions, type of equipments,

load requirements, labour ...etc. should be also considered in the final

design stage.

Keywords: Hydraulic Transient, Hydropower, Surge tank, First

upsurge, Water hammer.

Introduction :

Surge problems are encountered in connection with unsteady

state of flow of fluids in pipelines. In general a surge tank is designed

to reduce the distance between the free water surface and turbine

thereby reducing the water hammer effects on penstock and also protect

upstream tunnel from high pressure rises. The other function is to serve

as a supply tank to the turbine when the water in pipe is accelerating

during increased load conditions and as a storage tank when the water

is decelerating during reduced load conditions [1]. Fluid distribution

systems and hydropower plants can be severely damaged by water

hammer. Water hammer is the forceful slam, bang, or shudder that

occurs in pipes when a sudden change in fluid velocity creates a

significant change in fluid pressure. Water hammer can destroy turbo-

machines and cause pipes and penstocks to rupture.It can be avoided

by designing and operating these systems such that unfavourable

changes in water velocity are minimized [2].

There are many methods that used to control the undesirable

transients in pipeline systems and to reduce their negative effects.

These methods are; bleeding in air directly into the pipeline, using

noncircular conduits, using flexible hoses, air chambers, surge

Dr. Abdulghani RAMADAN & Dr. Hatem MUSTAFA

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 149 -

tanks, valving, valve stoking ...etc. Choosing one of these

controlling methods is not arbitrary done, but it is based on the

design criteria, conditions and system requirements such as location,

topography and other factors that strongly affect the decision maker

[2].

In the present study, Surge Tanks will be studied and

analyzed. The effect ofvarying the friction losses and the surge tank

area on the water surface oscillations in the surge tank and total

discharge has to be investigated.

A FORTRAN 77 program is executed to run different data. The

resulted output is closely investigated and graphically represented

using EXCEL sheets. The numerical method, Runge-Kutta, is used to

solve the set of non-linear, initial value, ordinary differential equations

[3,4].

A surge tank is an open chamber, open standpipe or a tank

connected to the conduits of a hydroelectric power plant or to the

pipeline of a piping system, figure (1). The main functions of a surge

tank are:

Reduces the amplitude of pressure fluctuations by reflecting the

incoming

pressure waves.

Improves the regulating characteristics of a hydraulic turbine

because; it reduces the water starting time of a hydropower scheme.

Stores or provides water. The water in the pipeline is,

therefore,accelerated or decelerated slowly, and the amplitude of the

pressure waves in the system is reduced [5].

Depending upon its configuration, a surge tank may be

classified as follows;

1- Simple surge tank:a simple surge tank is an open standpipe

connected to the pipeline.

Surge Tank Design Considerations for Controlling Water

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 150 -

2- Orifice surge tank: if the entrance to the surge tank is restricted

by means of an orifice, it is called an orifice tank.

3- Differential surge tank: an orifice tank having a riser is called

differential tank.

4- One- way surge tank: in a one way surge tank the liquid flows

from the tank into the pipeline only when the pressure in the

pipeline drops below the liquid level in the surge tank.

5- Closed surge tank: if the top of the tank is closed and there is

compressed air

between the water surface and the top of the tank, then the

tank is called closed surge tank, a tank with air cushion, etc.

6- Tank with Galleries:it is a simple tank with upper or lower

galleries [5].

Figure (1): A schematic diagram of a typical hydroelectric power plantwith a

surge tank.

Mathematical Model:

The mathematical model can be written as follows [5,6,7];

d

dt

=

gA

T

L

( z c||) = F

1

(, z, t) (1)

z(t)

z

Q

Q

tur

Q

s

A

s

A

T

Tailrace

Reservoir Tunnel

Surge Tank

Penstock

Turbine

Dr. Abdulghani RAMADAN & Dr. Hatem MUSTAFA

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 151 -

dz

dt

=

1

A

s

(

tu

) = F

2

(, z, t) (2)

c =

1+k+

]L

D

T

2gA

T

2

(3)

where; is the total discharge = flow into the surge tank plus turbine

flow =

s

+

tu

, A

1

is cross sectional area of the tunnel,

1

is

tunnel diameter, Z is the water level in the tank above the reservoir

level, A

s

is cross-sectional area of the surge tank, k is entrance loss

coefficient, is friction factor, c is a coefficient related to the

hydraulic losses, I is tunnel length and g is gravity.

Solution Procedure :

The solution procedure is based on the numerical analysis

scheme. In order to solve the above non-linear system of ordinary

differential equations, the initial conditionscan be rewritten as

follows;

For equation (1),(u) = assumed.

For equation (2), Z(u) = u,

tu

(u) = u

To find the solution of the system of equations (1), (2), the

Runge- Kutta (RK-4) method is used. The above equations are solved

simultaneously.

A computer program is written in FORTRAN77 and compiled

for various assumed data values under different design conditions. The

program calculates the required parameters at each time step. For

stability and convergence time step,t, is specified.

EXCEL sheets are used to represent the output data

graphically.

Surge Tank Design Considerations for Controlling Water

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 152 -

Results and Discussion:

The results for different study parameters are obtained by

compiling the computer program. The data which used for this design

analysis are: Q = 300 m

3

/s, L=500 m, A

T

=80 m

2

, t=0.5 sec (for

stability).

The effect of varying cross-sectional area of a surge tank, As, on the

surge tank level, z.'.

Figures (2) and (3) are constructed to show the effect of varying

the cross-sectional area of a surge tank on the surge tank level. It is

clear that, as the cross-sectional area of the surge tank increases, the

surge tank level decreases. This is attributed to the fact that in order

to keep the same surge tank water volume, increasing the cross-

sectional area implies decreasing the tank level.

For this design, the first upsurge decreases from about 12 meters at

(A

s

=100 m

2

) to about 1.5 meters at (A

s

=1500 m

2

)

Figure (2): The variation of surge tank level with time

at (A

s

=100,300,500 &700 m

2

)

Dr. Abdulghani RAMADAN & Dr. Hatem MUSTAFA

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 153 -

Figure (3): The variation of surge tank level with time at

(A

s

=900,1100,1300&1500 m

2

)

The effect of varying cross-sectional area of a surge tank,A

s

, on the

discharge rate Q.

The effect of varying the cross-sectional area of a surge tank

on the discharge rate isshown in figures (4) and (5). Increasing the

cross-sectional area of a surge tank, results in decreasing of the

oscillations of the discharge rates which result from transient effect.

These fluctuations range from about (-100 m

3

/s, min. to + 50

m

3

/s, max.) at surge tank cross-sectional area 100 m

2

to about (-50

m

3

/s, min. to +10 m

3

/s, max.) at corresponding cross - sectional area

of 1500 m

2

.

This means that increasing the cross-sectional area of the surge

tank give the chance for decreasing high discharge rates by decreasing

the speed of the transient wave.

Surge Tank Design Considerations for Controlling Water

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 154 -

Figure (4): The variation of discharge rate with time at

(A

s

=100,300,500 &700 m

2

).

Figure (5): The variation of discharge rate with time at

(A

s

=900,1100,1300&1500 m

2

).

The effect of varying friction losses coefficient, c, on the surge

tank level, Z

Figures (6) and (7) are constructed to show the effect of

varying the friction losses coefficient on the surge tank level. It is

clear that, as the friction losses coefficient increases, the surge tank

level decreases. This attributed to the fact that increasing the friction

Dr. Abdulghani RAMADAN & Dr. Hatem MUSTAFA

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 155 -

losses coefficient will resist the flow motion and reduces its travelling

velocity as a result of high shear stresses which induced between the

pipe wall and the fluid.This effect is clear from the figures below.

Surge tank level decreases from about 11 m at c= 0.0 to about 1.7 m

at c=0.00175.

Figure (6): The variation of surge tank level with time at

(c=0.0,0.00025,0.0005&0.00075).

Figure (7): The variation of surge tank level with time at

(c=0.001,0.001025,0.0015&0.00175).

Surge Tank Design Considerations for Controlling Water

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 156 -

The effect of varying friction losses coefficient, c, on the

discharge rate,Q

The effect of varying the friction losses coefficient on the

discharge rate is shown in figures (8) and (9). Increasing the friction

losses coefficient, results in decreasing in the oscillations of the

discharge rates which result from transient effect. This may be

attributed to the same reasons mentioned above, increasing the

friction losses coefficient results in a high shear stresses which

induced between the fluid and the pipeline wall. This is clear from

the figures below, the discharge rates decreases from about 300 m

3

/s

at c=0.0 (no friction case) to about -25 m

3

/s, min. and 0 m

3

/s, max. at

c=0.00575).

Figure (8): The variation of discharge rate with time at

(c=0.0,0.00025,0.0005&0.00075).

Figure (9): The variation of discharge rate with time at

(c=0.001,0.001025,0.0015&0.00175).

Dr. Abdulghani RAMADAN & Dr. Hatem MUSTAFA

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 157 -

The effect of varying cross-sectional area of a surge tank. A

s

, on

the first upsurge

As a result of the above analysis, the first upsurge is the most

important value that should be considered. Figure (10) shows the

effect of increasing the cross-sectional area on the first upsurge of a

surge tank. Again the same effect, increasing the cross-sectional area

of a surge tank results in decreasing the first upsurge at the surge

tank. It can be noticed that, the rate of change of the first upsurge

beyond the value (A

s

= 500 m

2

) is small when compared to the rate of

change of the first upsurge before this limit. For this reason, it is not

feasible to increase the cross-sectional area of the surge tank to values

more than that limit.

Figure (10): The variation of first upsurge with surge tank cross sectional

area, A

s

.

The effect of varying friction losses coefficient on the first

upsurge

The same procedure could be used to show the effect of varying

friction losses coefficient on the first upsurge. Figure (11) shows the

Surge Tank Design Considerations for Controlling Water

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 158 -

same effect, increasing the friction losses coefficient results in

decreasing in the first upsurge at the surge tank.

By the same analogy, increasing the friction losses coefficient

more than (c=0.0004)is not feasible. Bear in mind that this parameter

is not easy to control. Because it isrelated to the losses in pipes which

results physically from many factors such as; pipewall friction, type of

fittings used, topography, pipeline dimensions, location, periodof

operation, grow of alga, impurities, contaminations and fluid

propertiesetc.

Figure (11): The variation of first upsurge with friction losses coefficient, c.

Conclusions:

1. As the surge tank cross-sectional area increases, the surge tank

level decreases.

2. Increasing the cross-sectional area of the surge tank, results in

decreasing in

the discharge rates fluctuations.

3. As the friction losses coefficient increases, the surge tank level

decreases.

Dr. Abdulghani RAMADAN & Dr. Hatem MUSTAFA

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 159 -

4. Increasing the friction losses coefficient, results in decreasing in

the dischargerates fluctuations too.

5. The pressure wave amplitudes get smoother and steadier in shape

as the surge

tank cross-sectional area and friction losses coefficient increase.

6. The best preliminary design criteria for the surge tank

dimensions could beestimated theoretically according to our

results as follows; surge tank cross-sectional area is about (400 -

500 m

2

). This corresponding to a first upsurge ofabout (4 ~ 3 m,

respectively), taking into account the total losses between

themain reservoir and the surge tank, the height of the surge

tank could beroughly estimated as the sum of (the height of

water column in the surge tank, the total losses between the main

reservoir and the surge tank, the first upsurgeresult from surge

tank area variation and the upsurge results from theeffect of

friction losses coefficient) in addition to a factor of safety.

7. For the final design stage, many parameters should be taken into

considerationsuch as; cost, topography, location, operation

conditions, type of equipments, load requirements, labour, ...etc.

8. Field tests, close monitoring and supervision under different

operation conditions for turbine namely, partial, full or critical

load operation conditions should be carried out by using analog

and digital computers. Readings and data obtained should be

processed, analyzed and closely investigated. Proposals and

recommendations about the final surge tank dimensions could be

finally made and decided.

References :

1. R. K. Rajput, A Textbook of Power Plant Engineering, Lamxi

Publications Ltd,1

st

Edition,1995.

Surge Tank Design Considerations for Controlling Water

University Bulletin ISSUE No.15 Vol . 3- 2013 - 160 -

2. US Army Corps of Engineers, "Water hammer and Mass

Oscillation", Construction Engineering, Research Laboratories,

USACERL ADB Report 98/129, Sep- 1998.

3. S. C. Chapra and R. P.Canale," Numerical Methods for

Engineers", McGraw-Hill, 2

nd

edition, 1988.

4. C. F. Gerald and P. O. Wheatley," Applied Numerical Analysis",

Addison- Wesley, 3

rd

edition, 1984

5. M. HanifChaudhry," Applied Hydraulic Transients", Van

Nostrand Reinhold, NewYork, 2

nd

edition, 1987.

6. GhulamNabi et al, Hydraulic Transient Analysis of Surge Tanks:

Case Study of Satpara and GolenGol Hydropower Projects in

Pakistan, Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci. Vol. 8, pp 34-48, Jan., 2011

7. E. Benjamin Wylie and Victor L. Streeter," Fluid Transients",

McGraw-Hill, 1978.

- Hydraulic Transient Design for Pipeline SystemsUploaded bythawdar
- Surge Tanks - Surge - Pipes - Fluid Mechanics - Engineering Reference With Worked ExamplesUploaded byPRABHUTIRUPUR
- Water Hammer Analysis by J. ParmakianUploaded byAvinash Vasudeo
- Hydropower 97 - ProcedingsUploaded byEdward Hcr
- Water HammerUploaded byMohamed Masry
- Analysis and Design of a Surge TankUploaded byUchirai Dede
- Surge Tank DesignUploaded bydharanimadala
- Hydraulic Design of Small Hydro PlantsUploaded bymassi99
- water hammerUploaded bylimin zhang
- PFC 2010_08 Expanding Facilities Knowledge Session V_ ValvesUploaded byJoel Enrique Ibarra Rodríguez
- Tom Wheatley Swing Check Valves (New)Uploaded byCarlos Cardenas Socha
- Economic Surge Tank DesignUploaded bycsimsek
- Open Channel FlowUploaded bykbkwebs
- 51691375 Design Note on Surge ShaftUploaded byMuhammad Zulkifli Harahap
- Avoiding Pressure Surge Damage in PipelineUploaded byFerlie Indrapati
- Air Compressor LabUploaded byمحمد رأفت
- Executive Summary - Somar Integra ( former: Powerboss)Uploaded byvanessa_cornelia
- Shell and Tube Corrosion and Failure DescriptionUploaded byRiccardo Agnorelli
- Fluid Mechanics Lab ReportUploaded byBilal Ahmad
- entahhhhhUploaded byZati Thz
- EagleBurgmann_AP4-BKTE_E4_ API 682 4th Edition Piping Plans_EN_30.05.2017Uploaded bySaqib Amin
- Plumbing Drainage ResearchUploaded bymanojmorye
- Water Transmission and Distribution SystemsUploaded byDr. Akepati Sivarami Reddy
- Orifice TrapsUploaded byOmar Ezzat
- S-TSGUploaded byAshraf Adel Nashed Zaki
- Fundamentals Orifice Measurement - DanielUploaded byKuwat Riyanto
- 2012 Fluid Mechanics QP - Amrita UniversityUploaded byAkshay Rajan
- Software GasUploaded byrdelgari
- BS ISO 6145-6-2003Uploaded bydatbi_201
- 1. Small Parking Unit Design EnuguUploaded byOsarieme Osakue

- HSPF_1Uploaded byPatricio Muñoz Proboste
- Eduardo Martinez OlmosUploaded byPatricio Muñoz Proboste
- Presentation 1Uploaded byPatricio Muñoz Proboste
- WaterCAD V8i User's GuideUploaded byAbelVizcarra
- Técnicas alternativas para soluciones de aguas lluvias en sectores urbanos_MINVUUploaded byPatricio Muñoz Proboste
- Water ChemistryUploaded byCesar Florencia
- NRCS - Channel “n” value guide (Barnes)Uploaded byPatricio Muñoz Proboste
- Hormigón Armado IUploaded byGustavo Andres Eyzaguirre B
- Hormigon armadoUploaded byAna Paula Filiberto

- Bentley Field Guide to Lens Design.pdfUploaded byNorman Girma
- Nwankpa Godwin Final ProjectUploaded bySamuelShinaAyodele
- Underpinning and StrengtheningUploaded byvatsalewb
- Radiocatalytic Degradation of Dissolved Organic Compounds in WastewaterUploaded bypistas_blue36155018
- Fluroscent Study of Hoechst at PH 4.5Uploaded byaqeel4hmad
- MelatoninUploaded byJessica Huff
- WW EAP Newsletter11 1Uploaded byWennySitumorang
- Reactor Shielding for Nuclear EngineersUploaded bybronxtoles4ever
- 12-026Uploaded byBrandi Sanchez
- Seal Installation Divyam EngineersUploaded byParmar Chandresh
- (5)6 sy comparative evaluation of niosome formulations prepared by different techniquesUploaded bygrvgr8
- PHYSICAL and Chemical ControlUploaded byAaron Aguas
- Experimental Investigation of Precast Horizontal Wall Panel Connection using Reinforcement by Push Off TestUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- UntitledUploaded byeurolex
- MHD High Promise, Unsolved Problems.PDFUploaded byliubingxy
- Equilibrium ElectrochemistryUploaded byJonathan Grande
- 1802-Paper-1(E)Uploaded byAlapan Ray
- Filter PressUploaded bymaminzzz
- A Microscopic, Mechanical Derivation for the Adiabatic Gas RelationUploaded byJohn Bird
- cswip qUploaded byasikur
- The final revesion of my paper in wulfenia journal (2).pdfUploaded byAli Abdul-Rahman
- Compressible Flow - Water HammerUploaded bysiroliver39
- HSC in High Rise BuildingsUploaded bySudarshan Kamble
- 2008 Exam Choice Physics SolutionsUploaded byNgek Chii
- 6. Friction Stir WeldingUploaded byAli El-Gazzar
- 5054_w08_qp_2Uploaded byG M Ali Kawsar
- ESM Andersen BrochureUploaded byGezgin Biri
- 06 Approximate Methods for Multi-Component DistillationUploaded byNagwa Mansy
- chitosanUploaded bySreeram Udayan
- 3- Operator - Training -YCIVUploaded bysakthi