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Background & Applications


GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June 2013, Dublin
Worked examples
d i f il design of pile
foundations foundations
Dr. Trevor Orr
Trinity College Dublin
Convenor SC7/EG3
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June 2013, Dublin
Worked example 1
design of pile foundations from load tests
DESIGN SITUATION
design of pile foundations from load tests
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Design situation for a pile designed from static
load test results load test results
Pile foundations are required to support the following loads from a
building : building :
Characteristic permanent vertical load G
k
= 6.0 MN
Characteristic variable vertical load Q
k
= 3.2 MN Characteristic variable vertical load Q
k
3.2 MN
It has been decided to use bored piles 1.2m in diameter and 15m
long long
The pile foundation design is to determine how many piles are
i d required
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 3
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Pile load test results
Pi l e settl ements
L d MN
Load tests have been
performed on site on four
il f th
0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3
Load, MN
piles of the same
diameter and same
length
20
40
Pile 1
The results of load-
settlements curves are
plotted in Figure 1
60
80
e
m
e
n
t
,

m
m
Pile 1
Pile 2
Pile 3
Pile 4
Mean
plotted in Figure 1
Adopt settlement of the
pile top equal to10% of
100
120
S
e
t
t
l
e
Mean
the pile base diameter as
the "failure" criterion
(7.6.1.1(3))
140
160
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 4
( ( ))
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June 2013, Dublin
Worked example 1
design of pile foundations from load tests
SOLUTION
design of pile foundations from load tests
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Measured pile resistances
Adopting the pile load at a settlement of the top of the piles equal
to 10% of the pile diameter as the ultimate resistance means to 10% of the pile diameter as the ultimate resistance means
using the measured resistances at a settlement of:
12.0 x (10/100) x 10
3
= 120mm
From the load-settlement graphs for each pile this gives:
Pile 1 R
m
= 2.14 MN
Pile 2 R = 1 96 MN Pile 2 R
m
= 1.96 MN
Pile 3 R
m
= 1.73 MN
Pile 4 R
m
= 2.33 MN
Hence the mean and minimum measured pile resistances are :
R
m, mean
= 2.04 MN
R 1 73 MN
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 6
R
m, min
= 1.73 MN
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Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Characteristic resistance
The characteristic pile resistance is obtained by dividing the mean
and minimum measured pile resistances by the correlation factors p y

1
and
2
and choosing the minimum value:
( ) ( )

=
min
m c;
mean
m c;
k c;
; Min

R R
R
For four load tests, recommended
1
and
2
values are:

1
= 1.1
2 1

1
1.1

2
= 1.0
Hence the characteristic pile resistance:
73 . 1 } 73 . 1 ; 85 . 1 { Min
0 . 1
73 . 1
;
1 . 1
04 . 2
Min
k c;
= =

= R
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 7
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Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Design Approach 1 partial factors
Combinations of sets of partial factors
DA1.C1 A1 + M1 + R1
DA1.C2 A2 + M1 or M2 + R4
Partial actions factors
A1 1 35 1 5 A1
G
= 1.35
Q
= 1.5
A2
G
= 1.0
Q
= 1.3
Partial material factors Partial material factors
M1 and M2 not relevant (

= 1.0 and not used)
Partial resistance factors
R1
t
= 1.15 (Total/combined compression)
R4
t
= 1.5
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 8
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Design Approach 1 - pile design
Design equation F
c,d
R
c,d
DA1.C1 F
c,d
= 1.35 G
k
+1.5 Q
k
= 1.35x6.0+1.5x3.2 = 12.9 MN
DA1.C1 F
c,d
= 1.0 G
k
+1.3 Q
k
= 1.0x6.0+1.3x3.2 = 10.2 MN
For a single pile
DA1.C1 R
c,d
= R
c,k
/
t
= 1.73 / 1.15 = 1.50 MN
DA1.C2 R
c,d
= R
c,k
/
t
= 1.73 / 1.5 = 1.15 MN
Assuming no pile group effect, for n piles, resistance = n x R
c,d
Hence DA1.C1 n F
c,d
/R
c,d
= 12.9/1.5 = 8.6
DA1.C2 n F
c,d
/R
c,d
= 10.2/1.15 = 8.9
Therefore DA1.C2 controls and no. piles required: n = 9
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 9
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Design Approach 2 partial factors
Combination of sets of partial factors
DA2 A1 + M1 + R2
Partial actions factors
A1
G
= 1.35
Q
= 1.5
Q
Partial material factors
M1 not relevant (

= 1.0 and not used)
Partial resistance factor
R2
t
= 1.1 (Total/combined compression)
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 10
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Design Approach 2 - pile design
Design equation F
c,d
R
c,d
F
c,d
= 1.35 G
k
+ 1.5 Q
k
= 1.35x 6.0 + 1.5x 3.2 = 12.9 MN
For a single pile
R
c,d
= R
c,k
/
t
= 1.73 / 1.1 = 1.57 MN
Assuming no pile group effect, for n piles, resistance = n x R
c,d
Hence F
c,d
n R
c,d
h f l d / / il Therefore no. piles required: n = F
c,d
/ R
c,d
= 12.9 / 1.57 = 9 piles
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 11
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Design Approach 3 partial factors
Combination of sets of partial factors:
DA3 A1 + M1 + R3
Partial resistance factor:
R3
t
= 1.0 (Total/combined compression)
Since the R3 partial resistance factor is equal to 1.0, no safety
margin is provided if DA3 is used to calculated the design pile margin is provided if DA3 is used to calculated the design pile
resistance from pile load test results
Hence piles should not be designed from load test results using Hence piles should not be designed from load test results using
Design Approach 3
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 12
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Conclusions from pile worked example 1
The same design number of piles, 9 is obtained for both DA1 and
DA2 DA2
Since the partial resistance factor is 1.0 for DA3, this Design
Approach should not be used for the design of piles from pile load Approach should not be used for the design of piles from pile load
test results
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 13
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Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June 2013, Dublin
Worked example 2
design of pile foundations from test profiles
DESIGN SITUATION
design of pile foundations from test profiles
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Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Design situation for a pile designed from a
CPT test profile CPT test profile
The piles for a building are each required to support the following
loads: loads:
Characteristic permanent vertical load G
k
= 300 kN
Characteristic variable vertical load Q
k
= 150 kN
The ground consists of dense sand beneath loose sand with soft
clay and peat to 16.5m as shown in figure on next slide
It has been decided to use 0.45m diameter bored piles
The pile foundation design involves determining the length of the
l piles
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 15
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Borehole log and
CPT profile
q
c
CPT profile
1 CPT was carried out
Loose sand,
soft clay
and some
peat
Soil has upper 11m layer of loose
sand, soft clay and some peat over
5.5m of clay with peat seams
peat
Clay with
Cautious average q
c
= 2.5 MPa
Stronger layer of medium to dense
sand starts at depth of 16 5m
Clay with
peat seams
sand starts at depth of 16.5m
Cautious average q
c
value chosen in
Session 4 example
Medium to
16.5m
Assume the soil above 16.5m
provides no shaft resistance
dense sand
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 16
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Unit pile resistances
Table D.3
Unit base resistance p
b
of cast in-situ piles in coarse soil
with little or no fines
The pile resistance is calculated
using Tables D.3 and D.4 of EN
Normalised
settlement s/D
s
;
s/D
b
Unit base resistance p
b
, in MPa,
at average cone penetration resistance
q
c
(CPT) in MPa
q
c
=10 q
c
=15 q
c
=20 q
c
=25
0 02 0 70 1 05 1 40 1 75
1997-2 relating average q
c
values
in stronger soil to the unit base and
shaft resistances, p
b
and p
s
0,02 0,70 1,05 1,40 1,75
0,03 0,90 1,35 1,80 2,25
0,10 (=s
g
) 2,00 3,00 3,50 4,00
NOTE Intermediate values may be interpolated linearly.
In the case of cast in-situ piles with pile base enlargement, the values
shall be multiplied by 0 75
Assume settlement of the pile at
the ULS, s
g
so that the normalised
shall be multiplied by 0,75.
s is the normalised pile head settlement
D
s
is the diameter of the pile shaft
D
b
is the diameter of the pile base
s
g
is the ultimate settlement of pile head
settlement is 0.1
Interpret linearly between relevant
Average cone penetration
(C )
Unit shaft resistance p
s
Table D.4
Unit shaft resistance p
s
of cast in-situ piles in coarse soil
with little or no fines
q
c
values to obtain p
b
and p
s
from
these tables
resistance q
c
(CPT)
MPa MPa
0 0
5 0,040
10 0,080
>15 0 120
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 17
>15 0,120
NOTE Intermediate values may be interpolated linearly
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Pile design
Pile diameter D = 0.45m
Pile base cross sectional area A
b
= x 0.45
2
/ 4 = 0.159 m
2
b
Pile shaft area per metre length A
s
= x 0.45 = 1.414 m
2
/m
Length of pile in stronger layer providing shaft resistance = L
s
Calculate compressive pile resistance for the one profile of test results from Calculate compressive pile resistance for the one profile of test results from
equation:
R
c,cal
= R
b;cal
+ R
s;cal
= A
b
x p
b
+ A
s
x L
s
x p
s
Apply recommended correlation factors
3
and
4
from EN 1997-1 for one
profile of test results to obtain the characteristic base and shaft compressive
pile resistances pile resistances
Use the recommended partial factors for a particular Design Approach and
hence determine the design length of the pile
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 18
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June 2013, Dublin
Worked example 3
design of pile foundations from soil parameters
DESIGN SITUATION
design of pile foundations from soil parameters
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Design situation for a pile designed from soil
parameters parameters
The piles for a proposed building in Dublin are each required to support
the following loads:
Characteristic permanent vertical load G
k
= 600 kN
Characteristic variable vertical load Q
k
= 300 kN
k
The ground consists of about 3m Brown Dublin Boulder Clay over Black
Dublin Clay to great depth
It has been decided to use 0.45m diameter driven piles
The pile foundation design involves determining the length of the piles
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 20
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Characteristic undrained
shear strength
Brown DBC
shear strength
Figure shows plot of SPT N values
obtained plotted against depth
Black DBC
obtained plotted against depth
Shaft resistance in Brown Dublin Boulder
Clay is ignored
l l k bl ld
Average N = 57
Cautious average N value = 45
Average N value in Black Dublin Boulder
Clay = 57
A cautious average N value = 45
Cautious average N value 45
PI of the Dublin Boulder Clay = 14%
From Stroud and Butler plot of f
1
vs. N
Ad t f 6
c
u
= f
1
x N
Adopt f
1
= 6
Hence calculate the characteristic
undrained shear strength c
u;k
= f
1
x N
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 21
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN ith k d l 13 14 J D bli GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June, Dublin
Pile design
Pile diameter D = 0 45m Pile diameter D = 0.45m
Pile base cross sectional area A
b
= x 0.45
2
/ 4 = 0.159 m
2
Pile shaft area per metre length A
s
= x 0.45 = 1.414 m
2
/m
Length of pile in Black D blin Cla p o iding shaft esistance L Length of pile in Black Dublin Clay providing shaft resistance = L
s
The unit pile base and shaft resistances, q
b;k
and q
s;k
are obtained as follows:
q
b;k
= N
q
x c
u;k
q D c 0 4 0 45 c q
s;k
= x x D x c
u;k
= 0.4 x x 0.45 x c
u;k
Assume N
q
= 9 and = 0.4
Hence calculate the characteristic base and shaft resistances
R
b;k
= A
b
x q
b;k
R
s;k
= A
s
x L
s
x q
s;k
Use the recommended partial factors for a particular Design Approach and
h d h d l h f h l hence determine the design length of the pile
Since the building is being constructed in Dublin, the Irish NA must be used,
which requires a model factor of 1.75 on
b
and
s
2013 Trevor Orr. All rights reserved. 22
Compare with a pile designed in Germany to DA2 with a model factor of 1.27
Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples 13-14 June 2013, Dublin
Geotechnical design
ith k d with worked
examples examples
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