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TESOL Unit 5: Presenting and Interpreting Public Messages Project: Revising and E panding t!

!e Outline Drawing and speech preparation have a lot in common. Just like an artist's sketch captures only the most important lines and shapes of an image, a preliminary outline sketches the big ideas of a speech. The artist adds to the sketch by including details of light and shading. In the same way, the writer must add the important details and information necessary to support and adequately e plain main points. In this activity, you will revise your preliminary outline and then consider your options for supporting materials. Think about the various illustrations, statistics, quotations, and ideas for visual aids that you have collected during your research. !onsider how these resources might be used to support your preliminary main points and sub"points. Objectives #evise a preliminary outline to incorporate research. Instructions #evise your preliminary outline, adding information you found after you wrote your first draft of the preliminary outline. E a"ple: Main point: $ating a low"fat diet helps you lose weight. Subpoint #$: %ow"fat foods are lower in calories. Supporting "aterial: &ar chart comparing calories of low"fat foods with their high" calorie equivalent. TESOL Unit 5: Presenting and Interpreting Public Messages Selecting an Organi%ational Pattern &efore a speaker can develop the final version of the outline, he or she must organi'e the body of the speech. (rranging the main points of a speech into a logical structure can be done in a multitude of ways. )e will e amine five of the most commonly used organi'ational patterns* +. ,. -. .. /. chronological topical spatial cause and effect problem and solution

Objectives Identify and use appropriate organi'ational patterns to prepare a speech.

&ocabular' p!eno"enon 0lash !ards 1pelling &ee (!ronological Pattern ( chronological pattern 2also called a time pattern3 organi'es the main points in relation to time. 0or instance, if a speaker is giving a speech on the history of (merican literature, he or she might organi'e the main points of the speech as follows. 4otice that the main points are arranged in a time"related sequence. I. $arly (merican %iterature +5,67+8,6 II. (merican #enaissance %iterature +8,67+85/ III. #ealism and 4aturalism* (merican %iterature +85/7+9+. I:.;odern (merican %iterature +9+.7<resent ( speaker may also use the chronological pattern to organi'e a message on the steps of a process. 0or e ample, if you are teaching a group how to plant a tree, your speech might be arranged as follows* I. 1elect the (ppropriate Tree II. <repare the =round III. <lace Tree in =round I:.)ater and !are for Tree Topical Pattern ( topical pattern arranges the subtopics into categories. If the thesis statement has obvious divisions, the preliminary outline should already reflect this type of arrangement. >owever, a speaker may want to rearrange the outline in order to emphasi'e certain topics. ?sing a topical pattern, the main points of an outline may be sequenced according to comple ity, importance, audience familiarity, or personal preference. 0or e ample, if you are giving a speech on the different types of media covering a presidential campaign, your topical pattern might look like this* I. Television* network and cable II. #adio* (; and 0; III. 4ewspapers* local and national I:.4ews maga'ines :. )eb site news 4otice that television is listed first. 1ince the ma@ority of your audience is probably most familiar with television news, it is not important that it be placed at the end of the speech where it would be best remembered. <oints at the end of a speech are usually remembered better than those at the beginning. In this outline, the audience would leave remembering more of what was said about )eb site news coverage than any other. <lan your speech to emphasi'e what you wish your audience to most remember. Spatial Pattern ( spatial pattern orders the main points according to physical location or direction. 1patial patterns an observable event or occurrence

are helpful when speaking on such topics as the layout of the )hite >ouse, the anatomy of the brain, and Japanese e pansionism. The speaker must picture a Awalk through the topicA to select the best order. 0or e ample, if you were to develop a speech on the migration of !anadian 1now =eese, your outline might appear as follows* I. 4orthern Buebec territory II. ;ontreal III. 4ew $ngland 1tates I:.;id"(tlantic 1tates :. 1outhern 1tates 4otice that the main points progress from the main nesting area on the east coast to their stopping places along the mid"(tlantic and southern coastal ?nited 1tates regions. (ause)and)E**ect Pattern ( speech that is arranged according to a cause"and"effect pattern may first discuss the causes of a phenomenon and then its effects, or it may reverse the order by discussing the effects and then the causes. !hoice of order should not be simply a matter of personal preference but should be determined by which order delivers the topic most effectively. ?sually, the best method is to discuss the least important element 2cause or effect3 first. (n outline for a speech on the dropout rate in the ?nited 1tates might appear as shown below* Thesis Statement: In the year ,666, more than -.8 million +C to ,."year"olds were not enrolled in college and had not graduated from high school. I. $ffects of Dropping Dut of 1chool ?nemployment or low incomes %ow self"esteem Difficulty in helping children study !ostly to ta payers through community programs II. !auses of Dropping Dut of 1chool. <oor study habits leading to low grades 0inancial problems in family %ittle support from family %ack of involvement in school clubs, events

&ecause the cause is more important than the effect, it has been discussed last in this speech. Proble")and)Solution Pattern If you wish to rouse your audience to action, your best choice might be to use a problem"and" solution pattern. 1imilar to a cause"and"effect pattern, the two elements 2problem and solution3 may be addressed in either order. 0or instance, a speech emphasi'ing the solutions to communication apprehension in a small group setting might be arranged like this* Thesis Statement: ;any people are more fearful of speaking in front of small groups than of any other task in their lives. I. Two <roblems 1urrounding !ommunication (pprehension in 1mall =roups %ack of participation 0ear of failure

II. Two 1olutions to 1mall =roup !ommunication (pprehension #ela ation techniques <reparedness Let+s Revie,In this lesson, you e amined five of the most common patterns for organi'ing the main body of a speech. Eou observed how the topic, research materials, and other factors influence the choice of a particular pattern for a particular speech TESOL Unit 5: Presenting and Interpreting Public Messages Outlining a Speec! Dnce a speaker has developed a thesis statement, gathered information, and organi'ed the main points, it's time to develop a skeleton outline for the speech. Objectives Devise a presentation outline. ( skeleton outline contains all the structural elements of a speech* introduction, body, transitions, and conclusion. The sentences of a skeleton outline are written out in full. $ amine the steps below to complete a formal outline. Eou will use these steps to construct your own outline. Step $: Type or write out your stated purpose and thesis statement at the top of the page. Step .: )rite out an introduction that will grasp the attention of the audience. )hile the introduction should make up no more than ten percent of a speech, its function is of the utmost importance. It serves to grab the audience's attention, preview the main points, and indicate the importance or purpose of the speech. =etting an audience's attention may be accomplished by one of four effective methods* +. #efer to the audience or the occasion. This should be done in a complimentary manner* AI have looked forward to speaking to you on the topic of...A ,. Tell an interesting or humorous story. The story should be short, relevant, and moving* A4ine years ago, I was hiking in the <eruvian (ndes when I stumbled across a strange inscription on a stone wall. $tched into the ancient bricks were a puma and a sun . . . .A -. !ite a startling fact or statistic. A%ast year, more than one billion people used the Internet.A .. (sk a question. A>ow many of you believe that the 0ederal government is wasting your moneyFA (sking your audience to answer a question demands their attention. They cannot passively sit and listen. They must participate.

Step /: )rite a <review 1tatement. !apturing the audience's attention is only the first step. The speaker must then convince the audience to listen for the duration of the speech. <roviding them with a reason to listen, in the form of a statement of purpose, should demonstrate the importance of the speech. 0or e ample, a speaker could say, AToday, I would like to e plain to you how you can live a healthier, more fulfilled lifeA or AI want to inform you of the benefits of investing in an I#(.A Step 0: %abel your main points using the following style of labeling* I. ;ain <oint G+ II. ;ain <oint G, III. ;ain <oint GI:.;ain <oint G. Step 5: Insert and label the subpoints of each main point. 24ote* each main point should have at least two subpoints.3 I. ;ain <oint G+ 0irst subpoint 1econd subpoint II. ;ain <oint G, 0irst subpoint 1econd subpoint Third subpoint Step 1: Insert and label supporting material for each subpoint* I. ;ain <oint 0irst subpoint 1econd subpoint 0irst support 1econd support Step 2: Develop the transitions and the conclusion. (n introduction should include a preview of the main points. It gives listeners an idea of what to e pect. 0or e ample, a speaker could say, AIn my e planation of how you can live a healthier, more fulfilled life, I will identify three destructive behaviors and how to reverse themA or AI am going to illustrate the many benefits of investing your money in stocks, bonds, and I#(s.A Dnce the speech's flow is planned out, a speaker needs to create smooth movement, or transitions, from one thought to the ne t. Transitions tell an audience that the speaker is moving on to the ne t point. Transitions consist of words, phrases, or sentences that signal where the speaker is taking the audience, where they are, and where they have been. They connect the main points together into a cohesive unit. They are as important to the structure of a speech as they are to the flow of an essay. 0or e ample, in a speech on baking cookies, you might transition from one step to the ne t by saying, AThe next step involves mi ing the dry ingredients in a large bowl.A )ords or phrases such

as Ain addition,A Atherefore,A and Aand soA also signal a transition in thought. To prepare listeners for the ne t point on baking cookies, you might say, AIn addition to mixing the dry ingredients, you need to mi together the butter, eggs, and vanilla in a small bowl.A In this way, you are connecting words from the past statements to the current one, which also serves as a transition. Think of transitions as bridges from one thought to the ne t. The conclusion of your speech should summari'e the main points in a manner that is interesting and memorable to the audience. It should also motivate the audience to respond in the e pected manner. 0or e ample, if you are giving a persuasive speech on e ercise, your conclusion might be, A(s I have discussed tonight, e ercise is the key to a healthy life. It helps you sleep more soundly, live longer, and think more clearly. $ ercise will make you feel better. 1tart doing it today.A )hen crafting a conclusion, a speaker might want to consider using several techniques* %ink back to the introduction. #efer back to an anecdote, quotation, or illustration that was used in the introduction. The conclusion to a speech on protecting children from harm might include the statements* AI began this speech with a story of a young teen who sped down a residential street at 56 mph, rolled his car, and spent months in the hospital recuperating from the accident. I want you to think about that teen and the months of recuperation every time you get behind the wheel of your car and are tempted yourself to 'put the pedal to the metal'.A #eferring back to the introduction helps listeners to see your speech as a coherent unit. Issue an appeal to action. The purpose of many speeches is to ask the audience to change a belief, behavior, or attitude. In such cases, it is important to issue an appeal to action. In a speech on the importance of reading, you might end with the statement, ADon't let another minute of your life go to waste. Turn off your T: and open up a good book. #eading is time well spent.A ?se a quotation. Buotations are an effective way to begin and end your speech. 0or instance, to conclude a speech on man's innate sense of immortality, you might say* A:ictor >ugo summed up man's innate sense of immortality when he said, 'I feel in me the assurance that the grave cannot keep me. )orms may destroy what is perishable in me, but the power to think, something in my ears, eyes and lips which we call 'life,' no power on earth can destroy. =entlemen of 1cience, let us live in the visible world, but also in the invisible. The grave is a door which never opens again for this world, but it opens for another.'A Let+s Revie,This lesson offered steps you can follow to put your speech together into a well"organi'ed outline. Eou were presented with tangible e amples that illustrate how this works.

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