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1: a) Definition cyberspace b) 7 flag ship msc 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Electronic government National multi-purpose card Smart schools Telehealth R & D clusters E-business Technopreneur development

c) Written law Refers to the law embodied in the Federal and State constitutions and in a code or a statute including subsidiary or delegated legislation. An example of written law is the constitutions, Legislation, andSubsidiary legislation

2: a) Definition copyright Copyright refers to laws that regulate the use of the work of a creator, such as an artist or author. This includes copying, distributing, altering and displaying creative, literary and other types of work. Unless otherwise stated in a contract, the author or creator of a work retains the copyright. Copyright law protects the expression of an idea and not the idea itself. Copyright law also protects computer programs b) 3 requirement 1. It must be original and written down, recorded or reduced to a material form Section 7(3) stated that a literary work shall not be eligible for copyright unless; (a) Sufficient effort has been expended to make the work original in character. (b) The work has been written down, recorded or otherwise reduced to material form. Even though it is temporary such as recorded in RAM.

Copyright protection must be given to the work i.e. expression of the idea in the tangible form and not to idea. This is to avoid any monopoly to the idea

2. The author of the computer program must be a qualified person. A qualified person is countries of

(a) citizen of permanent resident in Malaysia or any of the member the Berne Convention. (b) a body corporate established in Malaysia or any of the convention


The author of the literary works means the writer or the marker of the works. The ownership of copyright shall vest initially in the author. However, where a work commissioned by a person or is made in the course of the authors employment, the copyright is transferred to the person who commissioned the work or his employer.

b) 3 advantages copyright (explanation) 1.Once the criteria are met; copyright is automatically conferred, that is no formalities are necessary. (no registration needed) 2.The protection is up to 50 years. 3 disadvantages 1. Copyright Act only protects expression of ideas and not the ideas. 2. Under copyright law, the owner must prove that the defendant has copied his work. The author cannot restrain any person who may have independently created the invention. 3. No registration, therefore very difficult to prove that the author has all the rights of protection under the Act.

c) 2 cases of copyright 1.Novell, Inc. v. CPU Distrib., Inc. (2000) The issue regarding this case is the first-sale doctrine that applies to software.

2.New York Times Co. v. Tasini (2001) Freelance journalists did not grant electronic republication rights for collective work.

3: a) Defination privacy Privacy has been define as the claim of individuals groups or institutions to determine for themselves when, how and to what extent information about them is communicated to others. The simple definition is the right to be let alone. b) 2 law cases regarding privacy 1. Computers are able to collect a lot more information in circumstances where few records were previously gathered. Consider the use of debit and credit cards as opposed to the cash payment. A purchaser using a credit card in retail store will record the amount of transaction, the time, and the date, and the identity and location of the purchaser. Cash payments normally leave no such trail. 2. Many automated teller machines operate in this way as part of the system of a financial institution. Being online permits transactions to be processed immediately, the impact on the parties to the transaction is instantaneous. This will allow the operator to determine the exact location of those concerned. Moreover, the sharing of a network may allow the parties to it to gain access to information not previously available to them. c) Forth ammendement d) 2 opinion about privacy law

4: a) define trademark A trademark is defined under the Lanham Act 1976 as a word, name, symbol, device or other designation, or a combination of such designations, that is distinctive of a persons goods or services and that is used in a manner that identifies and distinguishes them from the goods or services of others. b) Definition trademark infragement A trademark infringement occurs when a party uses a trademark that causes a likelihood of confusion between goods or the relationship between the parties that make the goods.

c) 1. 2. 3.

3 factor that to determine confusion of trademark Strength of the mark : Generic marks are not given protection. Kind of mark : Descriptive marks are given less protection. Similarity of the goods: Goods should be related.

d)3 cases trademark 1. Avery Dennison Corp. v. Sumpton And Poplawski, 999 F.Supp 1337 (Cal 1998) Avery Dennison Corp. is an office supply company with the registered trademark Avery. Sumpton and Poplawski registered the domain name .

2.Miller Brewing Co. vs. Miller family Its the beer company vs. the Miller family in fight over domain. is the family website. Miller Time is a registered trademark owned by the Miller Brewing Co. Miller Brewing discovered that the family once tried to sell the domain name on an internet auction site.

3.Etoys vs. A particularly interesting and well publicized court case is Etoys vs., where the copmpany Etoys was tryinh to prevent a group of artists, while Etoy was was owning the domain Complications arose, however, since Etoy owned the domain name 2 years before the lawsuit. It turned out that Etoys backed down and allowed the use of on Etoys terms.

5: a) What online shopping Online shopping or online retailing is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser. Alternative names are: e-shop, e-store, Internet shop, web-shop, web-store, online store, and virtual store.

b) 3 advantages and disadvantages Advantages 1) Send Gifts: Online Shopping makes sending gifts to relatives and friends easy, no matter where ever they stay. Now there is no need of making distance an excuse for not sending a gift on occasions like Birthday, Wedding Anniversary, Marriage, Valentines Day, Mothers Day etc 2) Fewer Expenses: Many times when we opt for conventional shopping we tend to spend a lot more than the required shopping expenses on things like eating out, traveling, impulsive shopping etc. 3) Comparison of Prices: Online shops make comparison and research of products and prices possible. Online stores also give you the ability to share information and reviews with other shoppers who have firsthand experience with a product or retailer.

Disadvantages 1. Seasonal shopping online can be difficult because in order to avoid the problem of items being back ordered or out of stock you need to begin shopping several months ahead of time. People are not always ready to start shopping this early and do not always know what they need to buy. This is certainly something to consider when planning your holiday shopping. 2. Wait For the Items to Arrive Once you place your order the waiting games starts. You have to wait for a few days for the item to arrive which can be quite frustrating. Most experts believe that we are most excited about your buy in the first few days, so by the time your items arrives you will most likely be less excited then getting the item on same day you made the payment 3. Shipping Charges Only a few sites offer free shipping, some others will ship for free only if your total purchase price exceeds a certain amount. Shipping fee is often a big discouragement for online shoppers.