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Psychology Scientific study of human behavior and mental process and how they are affected by an organisms, physical

ical state, mental state, and external environment.

Business Psychology a relatively branch of psychology. is the study of the effectiveness of interpersonal relations in the workplace.

Origin and Beginnings of Modern Psychology Its origin may be found in the writings of ancients Greek philosophers, who did much speculation about the motivational aspects of human behavior. The Greek developed the empirical method, an approach that was sharpened by the empiricists of the seventeenth century. In Renaissance time, scientist contributes the introducing of idea that observations could be further objectified through measurements. Wilhelm Wundt is considered as the father of experimental psychology. His approach to the study of behavior is called structuralism. Some America psychologist, one of them William James developed different approach called functionalism. German psychologists, the Gestaltists objected to the idea of studying behavior by analyzing its elements and proposed that it be studied in terms of organization or forms. John B. Watson expressed skepticism about studying any aspect behavior of organisms which he called behaviorism.

Some business psychologists set up training workshop to improve executives management skills. They also evaluate job applicants and evaluate individuals being considered for promotions.

Business is a primary social institution in our society. It is defined as the sum total of the organized efforts by which the people engaged in commerce and industry provide the goods and services needed to maintain and improve the standard of living and quality of life to which each of us may aspire. When can business psychology be useful? When you want more (self)-understanding of your behavior, of strengths and weaknesses, of future development, of optimal career choices. When you behave in ways that are self-defeating

Types of Business Activities Service exercise profession. Manufacturing convert raw materials into finish products Merchandising buy and sell

over controlling or under empowering abrasive, self-centered, disorganized, angry or hostile, poor listener, perfectionistic or rigid, authoritarian too timid in certain situations, distrustful or easily threatened. When you need to deal with (difficult) colleagues or employees

Forms of Business Organization Sole proprietorship (single) Partnership Corporation Cooperative

working with talented people who are difficult, dealing with people above in the power structure, dealing with people who are self-centered or narcissistic, developing effective relationships, leading and managing team members.

The Different School of Psychology Structuralism the first school of thought headed by Wilhelm Wundt, a German, and E.B Titchener started in 1879 when experimental psychology was gaining more incentives. Thought of psychology as the study of conscious experience.

Background of Psychology

Stated that all complex substances could be analyzed through their components elements. Held that elementary mental state such as sensations, images, and feelings from the structure of consciousness and are directly observable through introspection by careful empirical observation. Sought to discover the physiological bases of various types of conscious experience, with emphasis on the knowledge of body structures. The methods used are introspection and experiment. Germany, the center of study, was the place where the first laboratory was established.

Its includes instruments to aid in adjustments and ways in which he can improve his adjustment through learning.

Also studies animal behavior and emphasizes he objective method in observing responses. It is psychology based upon stimulus response connections. The behaviorists believe that there can be no response without stimulus.

Associationism Is a school of thought which is concerned with the factors of learning such as remembering and thinking. The primary exponent of this system of idea was Aristotle. It started with the philosophical concept that learning is the formation of bonds or connections in the nervous system. Man is the greatest learner because he makes the greatest number of connections. In modern world, the exponents are Edward Thorndike, John Locke, and Thomas Hobbes. They proposed that everything around can be explained by association.

Psychoanalytic School Psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler and Carl Jung were the advocators of psychoanalysis. Freud insists on human desires and primitive impulses as the central factors of behavior. He attributes inner conflicts of the individual to repression of desires which remain submerged in his subconscious. Sigmund Freud, a famous physician and psychiatrist, postulated the existence of unconscious mental processes which influence the individuals behavior in various indirect ways. He attempted to find the cause and cure of personality disorders. The Freudian or psychoanalytic theory stresses the role of motives and cravings, often hidden and repressed in the subconscious or unconscious mind which result in abnormal behavior. He also asserts that the sex urges in the unconscious constitute the main human drive. This is known as the Libido theory. His method of treatment, called Psychoanalysis emphasizes free association by having the patient freely associate his thought and experiences and with the help of the psychiatrist, analyzes the cause of his difficulty.

Functionalism Another group of psychologists who called themselves functionalist paid little attention to conscious experience. The school came into existence at the University of Chicago, around the turn of 20th century. Headed by William James, James R. Angell, and John Dewey. The functionalists sought to study the function of behavior and mental processes and not merely their structure. Wide in scope and not sharply defined, functional psychology was named in America in 1898. Through introspection and observation, the total behavior and experience of an individual is studied including the interest in the functions served by the things an individual does. Functionalists redefined psychology as the the study of mans adjustments to his environment.

Behaviorism the next important movement was a revolt against both structuralism and functionalism. It originated in America in 1912. John B. Watson and E.L. Thorndike turned to the study of overt behavior. Rejecting the study of conscious experience as a subject for scientific research. This school known as behaviorism defines psychology as the science of behavior and not of consciousness. It emphasizes conditional reflexes as the elements of behavior. It denies the existence of instinct or of inborn tendencies, but insists on learned behavior.

Between 1911-1912, he and his adherents Carl Jung and Alfred Adler gad a split in their ideas and theories. To Carl Jung, men and women are either extrovert or introverts and his school is sometimes called the analytical school. To Adler, the prime mover of men is his desire for superiority.

Purposivism in Duke University at Durham , North Carolina, William McDougall conducted researches in the field of psychology. He believed that objects, movements, and behavior have a definite purpose. Its emphasis on the importance of hormones in life, purposivism was called hormic psychology. Hormic psychologists regard man not only as a unit but also as a purposive, striving organism.

memories and whole personalities of children, adolescents, and adults both normal and abnormal. Because psychology includes such varied material, several specialized subdivisions have developed. In some of these fields emphasis falls on facts, principles and theories rather than on application. Psychologists devote their lives to the study or application, or both, of findings organized about a particular field or branch of psychology.

Humanistic School a number of psychologists led by Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May objected to Freuds view that human beings are basically destructive and are constantly fighting their negative impulses. The humanistic movement began in the 1950s. The main theme of the approach is that people are basically good. Not driven by unconscious desire to destroy Rather have free will and given the proper environment, will strive to achieve positive social goals. The humanistic psychology stresses the creative aspect of people and asserts that they are driven by the desire to reach their true potential. They further argue that each person is unique, and that psychologists should examine this individuality instead of lumping people into categories. The humanists also reject the behaviorists view that psychologists should only study observable stimuli and responses. Their argue, it is their thoughts, desires, and feelings that make people unique.

Branches of Psychology They are strongly opposed to the mechanistic or behavioristic point of view. Each school began as a revolt against the established order. The established order of 1900 was itself young and had been revolutionary not long before. It is an old tradition in psychology to rebel against tradition. Contemporary educational psychologists tend to make use of the discoveries and ideas contributed by all preceding schools of thought. General Psychology this is a field of psychology that explains the underlying principle of human behavior. the study of how and why people behave this way or that way. In this subject, the principle of the structural and functional mechanisms of the human body are discussed. Comparative Psychology is that branch of psychology which treats of the behavior and mental processes of the different species. This is also known as animal psychology where activities of both man and animal are compared and differentiated, particularly in relation to genetic and evolutionary theory. Developmental or Genetic Psychology concerns itself with the study of human behavior in all its aspect of growth and developmental. The entire life of an individual which is divided into the stages of prenatal, neonatal, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and senescence are scientifically presented with its physical, mental, emotional, social and moral developments during the period.

Scope of Psychology The study of human behavior includes a broad area. Research on eye, ear or brain functions relates closely to psychology and neurology. Studies of attitudes, opinions and propaganda are a kin to sociology and other social sciences. Between these extremes, the majority of psychologists work at understanding the abilities, emotions, motives,

Child Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior from its post-natal beginnings up to early adolescence This science deals with the stage of growth and maturation, the effects of environmental influences upon individual patterns of development, and psychological and social interactions between the child and the society into which he is born and in which he is reared.

Dynamic Psychology is a scientific interpretation of mental phenomena emphasizing internal drives and motives as the cause of behavior. In contemporary psychology, this is also referred to as personality psychology which is largely concerned with understanding of the non deviant individual case.

is the study of the principles of psychology as applied to business and deals particularly with the behavior of consumers. Psychological methods are employed to gain more customers and impress prospective buyers.

Industrial and Engineering Psychology is a field of specialization concerned with methods of selecting, training, counseling, and supervising personnel in business and industry. It can also defined as the study of human nature and reactions as related to problems of industry, especially those affecting personnel and job efficiency.

Psychiatry is psychology applied in medicine. It is concerned with the treatment of mental diseases.

Adolescent Psychology is the study of behavior from puberty to later life, approximately from twelve to twenty years old. It involves the physical and mental maturation of an individual, as well the attainment of emotional and social maturity.

Legal Psychology is the application of the principles of human behavior in law, or any legal proceedings. Psychological facts are employed by lawyers in their professional goals. It deals with testimony and evidence, the examination of witnesses, the study of the individual delinquent and the criminal and with problems of the law.

Social Psychology is the study of behavior of groups of individuals in their relationship to groups.

Mental Hygiene is the systematic practice of measures for the prevention of mental illness and the preservation of mental health.

Senescent Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior in old age.

Abnormal Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and the etiology or cause of personality defects, or mans behavior which deviates from the average reaction, hence abnormal.

Forensic Psychology Clinical Psychology pertains to the diagnosis and treatment of emotional and behavioral disorders that rage from mild to very severe In this fields, there are three kinds of specialists who do and apply clinical work : psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, and clinical psychologists. is concerned with behaviors that relate to our legal system.

Experimental Psychology deals with observation and experiments in a psychology laboratory and the investigations of different types of behavior, and aims to understand the fundamental cause of behavior.

Methods of Psychological Research 1. Introspection Method a subjective method of observation which was introduced by St. Augustine The psychologists studies himself, records his own feelings and experiences and later interprets them.

Educational Psychology deals with learning, motivations, and other subjects in the actual educational process together with the practical application of psychological principle to education.

Differential Psychology is a branch of study which investigates difference and similarities existing among individuals, social groups, and races.

2. Observation Method - is a visual and oral method of examining, describing, and interpreting the reactions of individuals and groups in a laboratory, classroom, or out-ofschool situations Several kinds of observations:


Uncontrolled or informal this method of observation does not follow any particular scope of behavior to be observed. Naturalistic Observation an observation of things as they naturally happened is the naturalistic observation method. Controlled or formal observation follows certain rules, in gathering materials in order to draw the best conclusion.

To apply the knowledge of psychological facts and principles about human nature to the different aspects of business and industrial activities such as correspondence, selling, and advertising. To help the students in knowing how to work efficiently and how to get along with other workers. To give the students an idea of the psychological methods of obtaining data such as the observational, experimental, and clinical methods. Business psychology is regarded as the most practical and effective instrument in buying, selling, collecting, and adjusting whenever human element is present.

What is Psychology? The word psychology was derived from the two Greek words, psyche (soul) and logos (discourse). Psychology, or mental philosophy, was thus literally a study of soul. The term soul did not at first have religious implications such as it has today. It was for some a form of motion, for some an inner flame, and for others a function of bodily processes. About centuries ago, mental philosophers began to translate psyche, as mind and psychology was then defined as a study of the mind. This means that it concerned with factors of learning such as remembering and thinking. This definition continued to be in use until the present century. It was eventually replaced by the definition of psychology as the science of behavior. It is a science because it is systematic and empirical and is dependent upon measurement.

Objective of Psychology Psychology has made great strides in the development of principles and methods and the discovery of facts which find useful application in various aspects of everyday life. The objectives of psychology are: To understand human behavior. To predict human behavior by means of observation and experimenting. To influence or alter the behavior of the individual or group in desirable ways so that he can achieve the goal he desire. Objectives of Business Psychology Business psychology involves applications of psychological facts and procedures to market research, advertising, salesmanship, and selection of employees. : The aims of business psychology are:

Values of Psychology Psychology is the great importance to man since psychological problems are common to group relations, employer-employee relationships, and others. In the case of businessman, the study of psychology is of great advantage. It will help much in determining the consumers behavior, motives, attitudes, and the like. The businessman has to keep in mind that the success and failure of business depends greatly on how he deals with the consumers. The facts of psychology are themselves applied, as in the case of courtroom testimony. Legal psychology involves applications in crime detection, in the alleviation of delinquency, and in courtroom procedure.

HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Historical Background I. Traditional Psychology started with mans earliest speculation regarding human nature. II . Greek Influences A. Democritus (460 370 B.C) Human mind is composed of Atoms. Atoms from our environment enter through our sense organs enabling us to perceive the world around us. B. Plato ( 427 347 B.C)

To help the students use insight more and trial-anderror less in attempting to discover the solutions to human problems.

Mind and Soul is distinct in its own right and is God given. Mind / Soul enter the body with reflected prediction of God

Mind / Soul rule the body which it inhabits as knower (thinker and determinant of action). Soul has three (3) parts 1. Head ( reason) 2. Heart (responsible for our noble impulses)

Contended that human mind is a tabula rasa or an empty slate

ERNST WEBER A German physiologist who made use of measurements in his study of the relation of stimulus and mental experience He was known for the techniques he developed: the two point threshold and the justice noticeable difference A law named after him the Webers Law

RENE DESCARTES A French philosopher, mathematician, scientist and writer Founder of Modern Philosophy Father of Modern Mathematics Cogito ergo sum or I think therefore I am Concluded that there are other things or ideas that are certain and that are innate or inborn such as God, time and space, the world of mathematics.

3. Diaphragm (seat of our own passion). C. ARISTOTLE ( 384 322 B.C.) 3 functions of the Soul: vegetative basic maintenance of life. Appetitive - motives and desires Rational governing function located in the heart The BRAIN merely performs minor mechanical processes as a gland. HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF PSYCHOLOGY

GUSTAV FECHNER A German physiologist whose medical training and interest in physics and psychology paved way for investigation of mental processes using scientific methodologies DOUBLE ASPECTISM or the belief that all of physical nature has a mental counter part of mind or soul led him to develop Psychophysics

JOHN LOCKE Cemented by his Essay concerning Human Understanding He believed on the ideas such as God, good or evil are innate at birth According to him variety of beliefs, non-beliefs and moralities the so-called innate ideas could have not been possible Believed in the good nature of humans, an instinct for social good and the ability to reason He believed that matter and mind could not be empirically proven to exist because when they try to look these things, we all see are qualities of it and not matter mind itself.

PSYCHOPHYSICS The study of the systematic relationships between physical events and mental events.

ARISTOTLE A Greek philosopher who is regarded by many as the FATHER OF PSYCHOLOGY Wrote the first book in Psychology Para Psyche meaning about mind or soul. Believed that the mind or soul is the cause and principle of body or that which animates the body ARISTOTLE He also believed that there are three kinds of souls: plant souls, animal souls and human souls HUMAN SOUL that is capable of reason He also theorized about learning, memory, motivation, emotion and perception and personality

HERMAN VON HELMHOLTZ The most famous German scientist of the 19th century He became a medical doctor and a physiologist but his first love was physics Noted Contribution are: theory regarding the conservation of energy Invention of the ophthalmoscope Researches on sight and hearing Papers on geometry and physics

CHARLES DARWIN An English naturalist and geologist from England who is best known for his Theory of Natural Selection According to him species change or evolve into a variation that would most likely survive in the particular environment they are in.

FRANCIS GALTON First cousin of Charles Darwin and an intellect who had a lot of contributions to different field of science as well as mathematics. He devised the first weather maps, invented the electrocardiograph and devised method of classifying fingerprints He was the first to measure intelligence and develop questionnaires and surveys in collecting data about humans FATHER OF PSYCHOMETRICS / FATHER OF MENTAL TEST WILHELM WUNDT FATHER OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY FATHER OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY The first one to be called a PSYCHOLOGIST

What research methods to be used? Group of Psychologists who agreed and associated with the leader of the movement. They shared the same ideas about what psychology was and how it was to be studied.

Ernst Weber (17951878); Gustav Fechner; Herman von Helmholtz (18211894) German Physicians who started experimenting with behavior through scientific methodologies. Wilhelm Wundt Considered as the Father of Modern Psychology. He established the first experimental laboratory for the study of Psychology, in Leipzig, Germany, 1879. He created a machine that measured the time lag between peoples hearing a ball hit the platform and their pressing a telegraph key. Wundt has seeking to measure the atoms of the mind the fastest and simplest mental processes. Wilhelm Wundt - in his laboratory in Leipzig, Germany G. Stanley Hall A student of Wundts who established what many consider as the first American psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in 1883. Hermann Ebbinghaus A German who reported on the first experiments on memory, 1885.

Important People in the Devt. of Psychology Aristotle (384 322 BC) He made assumptions out of observation regarding human behavior. He believed that all beings, humans included, have souls, which animate them. Humans, however, compared to other animal, have rational souls. Thus, humans are not only, physical, but also rational. He also theorized about learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception and personality. Rene Descartes (1596 1650) - supported the view that humans enter the world with an inborn store of knowledge. He argued that some ideas (such as God, the self, perfection and infinity) are innate. He is also notable for his conception of the body as a machine that can be studied. John Locke (16321704) - Believed that at birth the human mind is a tabula rasa or a blank slate, on which experience writes knowledge. Charles Darwin (1809 1882) - He is the author of the Law of Natural Selection or Theory of Evolution; inspired the Psychological school of thought, Functionalism. Francis Galton

G. STANLEY HALL An American student of Wilhelm Wundt who also made a lasting contributions to psychology First to have established a psychological laboratory in the United States at John Hopkins University in 1883 Founded the American Journal of Psychology in 1887 First president of American Psychological Association Different Schools of Psychology Different ideas about psychology. What to include and not to include in Psychology. What it should emphasize ?

(18221911) - He was concerned with the study of individual differences. He was considered as the Father of Mental tests