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Working Conditions

The conditions in which an individual or staff works, including but not limited to such things as amenities, physical environment, stress and noise levels, degree of safety or danger, and the like. There are many different types of working Conditions. Several attempts have been made to quantify the different types in an organized way, as seen with the Holland Codes proposed by John Holland, a psychologist with an interest in matching people with work environments that suit their personalities. They can be broken down by the type of work done, the physical environment, or the social and situational factors that can play a role in shaping the workplace. Matching employees with the right environment can result in better performance and more satisfaction. Hollands approach to the types of work environment looked at the nature of the work done. He identified six different environments: realistic, social, enterprising, artistic, investigative, and conventional. Some workplaces use this model to assess prospective employees to determine if they would be a good fit and to find the best department for their skills and interests. In realistic environments, work is more hands on, while investigative environments place a high priority on thinking and theoretical discussions. Enterprising environments involve more self initiative to start and innovate projects. Conventional work environments use set protocols and routines, such as databasing customer information, while artistic environments promote creativity and the production of works of art. Social work environments involve a high degree of interaction, as seen in customer service and teaching.

Another way to look at work environments is to assess the physical surroundings, differentiating between offices, warehouses, retail stores, scientific research facilities, fieldwork sites, and so forth. These work environments may be suited to different kinds of personalities and career goals. The physical environment can also have an impact on suitability for work; some people do not enjoy the rigid and controlled climate of a lab, for instance, or prefer working outdoors. Concerns about conditions in different types of work environment may be an issue for some job seekers with worries about their ability to thrive in physically demanding or boring environments. The social and psychological climate can also be a metric to use when distinguishing between different types of work environment. Some workplaces have very rigid chains of command, while others may be more flexible and egalitarian. Employees may be encouraged to participate, offer feedback, and shape their environment, or could be expected to focus on tasks without criticizing their employers or supervisors. Some workplace climates can become hostile because of a tolerance for harassment or ferocious competition, while others are more friendly and relaxed.

LAWS RELATING TO WORKING CONDITIONS


This regulates health, safety, welfare and other working conditions of workers in factories and it is enforced by the State Governments through factory inspectorates. The Directorate General Factory Advice Service & Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) functions as a technical arm of the Ministry for coordinating with the State Governments. DGFASLI conducts training, studies and surveys relating to safety and health of workers through the Central Labour Institute in Mumbai and other Regional Labour Institutes. The Act is applicable to all factories including

government factories using power and employing 10 or more workers and 20 in the case of factories not using power on any day of the preceding 12 months. Some of the provisions under the Act include the following grouped under the chapters stated below

Compulsory approval, licensing and registration of factories The occupier shall notify the Factory Inspectorate at least 15 days before the commencement of operations in the premises providing information such as location, nature of operation, number of workers employed, rated horsepower installed or to be installed. Health measures Every factory- shall be kept clean and free from effluvia arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance and in particular accumulations of dirt Shall arrange for waste treatment and effluents generated during

manufacturing, provide adequate ventilation, lighting and optimum temperature to provide reasonable condition of comfort -Shall prevent overcrowding and provide facility for wholesome drinking water.

Safety measures Every dangerous part of any machinery shall be securely fenced and constantly maintained. No person shall be allowed to work at any dangerous machine without proper training or full instruction regarding potential dangers and precautions required. Every hoist and lift shall be of good mechanical construction, sound material and adequate strength, properly maintained, and thoroughly examined by a competent person in prescribed intervals. Welfare measures- Provision shall be made for Separate and adequate washing facilities for male and female workmen. Facilities for sitting for workers obliged for work normally in standing position. First Aid-box, one for every 150 workmen, under charge of a trained person. Ambulance room for factory ordinarily employing more than 500 workmen. Suitable and adequate Rest Shelter or a Rest

room and Lunch room to be provided in factories ordinarily employing more than 150 workers. However, the provision shall not be required, if canteen according to sec 46 has been provided. Canteen at factories employing 250 workers or more, crche of prescribed standards at factories employing 30 or more women. Factory ordinarily employing 500 or more workers, are required to appoint a Welfare officer, whose duties, qualifications and conditions of service are prescribed under the State Factory Rules.

Working hours not more than 48 hours in any week and not more than nine hours in a day. For working hours beyond the prescribed limit, the overtime work will be entitled to twice ordinary wage and allowance. A compulsory rest of at least half an hour between each period of work and such period of work shall not exceed five hours. Compensatory holiday in lieu of weekly holidays deprived and such compensatory holiday must be given within the same month or two months following the month when the weekly holiday was missed. Annual leave provision One day leave for every 20 days of work for an adult worker one day for every 15 days of work in the case of child worker. To be entitled for this the worker should have worked for a period of 240 days or more during the previous calendar year. Maternity leave for women not exceeding 12 weeks. Employment of women and young persons No woman worker shall be required to work at night but this is not applicable to persons holding position of Management or supervision or who are employed in confidential positions in a factory as may be defined by the State Government. No child below 14 years shall be employed in factories. A child who is over 14 years of age, in order to work in factory must be certified to be fit for work in a factory by a Certifying Surgeon. The certificate is valid for one

year and is to be kept in the custody of the manager and the child or the adolescent has to carry with him while at work, a token giving reference to such certificate. Such child workers must not work for more than four and half hours on any day and during night. The period of work is also not to be spread over more than two shifts of five hours each. Every child worker is to be compulsorily allowed a weekly holiday.

Accident and occupational diseases the manager of the factory shall send notice to prescribed authorities within the prescribed time limit in the event of an accident that causes death or injury preventing a person from working for a period of 48 hours or more immediately following the accident. Likewise if any worker in a factory contacts any disease specified in the third schedule the manager of the factory shall send a notice, not later than 4 hours to the prescribed authority. Dangerous operations A Site Appraisal Committee considers applications for grant of permission for the initial location of a factory, involving hazardous process or an expansion of any such factory. Disclose information regarding dangers, including health hazards and measures to overcome such hazards arising out of hazardous substances, to the Chief Inspector of Factories, local authority and the general public in the vicinity. Prepare health and safety policy, emergency plan etc. The occupier must maintain accurate and updated medical record of the workers, appoint qualified, experienced and competent supervisors to supervise handling of hazardous substances. Pre-employment and post-employment medical examination of workers, at regular intervals.

Obligations and rights of employees- No worker shall willfully interfere with or misuse any appliance, convenience or other things provided in a factory for the purposes of securing the health, safety or welfare of the workers or willfully and without reasonable cause do any thing likely to endanger himself or others, or

neglect to make use of any appliance or other things provided in the factory for the purposes of securing the health or safety of the workers therein. Contravention will entail imprisonment up to 3 months or fine or both. Worker has the rights to obtain from the occupier, information relating to workers health and safety at work, get trained within the factory wherever possible or, to get sponsored by the occupier for getting trained at a training centre or institute, duly approved by the Chief Inspector, where training is imparted for workers on health and safety at work. A worker is allowed to represent to the Inspector directly or through his representative regarding inadequate provision for protection of his health or safety in the factory.

Examples of Working Conditions


There are many types of working conditions that affect your employees and the work atmosphere, so think carefully about your space to see if your working conditions meet the needs of your employees and your business.

Equipment Desks, chairs, computers, telephones, chainsaws, ladders, drills -- whatever equipment you use to run your business -- are a large part of working conditions. It is important that you have ergonomic equipment and safety measures to meet your responsibility as a small-business owner or manager. Not only will proper equipment and safety regulations protect your employees from injury (and yourself from liability), they should also help increase productivity and efficiency.

Lighting Lighting is an important component of working conditions. Not only does it help your employees see what they are working on, it also serves as an atmosphere creator. Bright lights may assist with seeing text or detail work but can also produce a glare on computer screens and cause eye fatigue depending on placement. Insufficient light can result in inaccurate work, headaches and other vision problems as well as discouragement and inefficiency.

Temperature According to a study sponsored by the Helsinki University of Technology and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, most productive work is done at approximately 72 degrees Fahrenheit. The "comfort zone" for most people is between 72 and 75 degrees. This is also a safe zone since it prevents working in extremes of temperature. Since comfort zones do vary between individuals, do your best to accommodate as necessary.

Office Decor and Layout Office decor may not rank high on many people's lists as a working condition, but colors, architecture and other features of office design and layout do affect people psychologically. Painting walls with bright colors can add energy and define spaces, while neutral colors and accessories can help create a calm atmosphere for a high-stress business. Other considerations in decor and layout include partitions, storage space (filing cabinets or cubbyholes), office furniture, window treatments and wall hangings.

HOW TO IMPROVE WORKING AREAS A workplace that employees not only tolerate but enjoy working in can help increase employee motivation and lead to better results. Poor workplace conditions, however, can hurt employee performance and productivity. For example, work areas with poor sanitation or dangerous conditions may leave employees feeling disrespected and neglected. Improve workplace areas to increase employee productivity and improve recruitment and retention efforts. Step 1 Survey employees about workplace conditions. Ask employees about the strengths and weaknesses, and urge them to express their opinions about what can be done to improve workplace areas. Step 2 Perform a comprehensive safety check for each area. Employee safety needs to be your first and foremost concern as a business owner. Conduct regular inspections to ensure that machines are in operational order, floors and tools are clean, and obstructions are cleared. If any item used in production appears to be worn out, replace it immediately. Clear clutter in office areas. Step 3 Assess each area for cleanliness. Employees generally do not perform at their peak in filthy conditions. Make note of abnormal smells and identify where they emanate from. Take a look at the workplace floors, walls, desks, chairs and lights. Look for excess amounts of dust and dirt. Make it a point to clean everything that looks even somewhat dirty. Step 4 Cut down on workplace noise. Excessively noisy workplaces can prevent employees from focusing on their work. To address such issues, move workplaces

away from the noise, construct walls that act as noise barriers and place noisereduction parts on machines. Step 5 Add dcor and pleasant smells to the workplace. Bland workplace areas can lead to a lack of employee motivation. If appropriate, add pieces of art and decor items to work areas. Step 6 Add vending machines, bottled water and break rooms to enhance employee benefits and help them relieve stress during the work day.

HISTORY OF PUNJAB POLICE


Punjab Police has had an extremely proud history and the legend of keeping duty before self. Even before Independence, Punjab Police had a name in the country for effective policing and this has been continuously improving through the personal examples of its leadership supported by great traditions, discipline, and highly professional attitude.

The emergence of Punjab Police as a separate organization is a post 1861 development, which took place after the British annexation of Punjab in 1849. In about 150 years of its existence, the police force in the state has faced many difficult phases. The onus of handling law and order has always been a challenge before the police mainly because of the inherent martial traditions prevailing in the state.

The reorganization process in police dates back to 1898, when the practice of appointing army officers to the post of Inspector General was discontinued. However, a sincere effort was made in 1902 by the British, in the form of Indian Police Commission, to identify the shortcomings in the police system. It was, thus, recommended that the police strength in the state may be enhanced.

Setting up of the Police Training School at Phillaur in 1891, and later the introduction of finger print section has been among the achievements of the Punjab Police.

During the late fifties, it was felt that further reforms were required in Punjab Police. A commission, headed by an ex-Chief Justice of India, was appointed in 1961, which submitted its report in May 1962. Screening of the police force, setting up of a Scientific Laboratory for crime clue's examination and research centre under Director, Forensic Science Laboratory, better human resource development schemes were among the recommendations of the commission.

Since then, the police force in the state has come a long way. Whether it was the handling of hyper-sensitive mass migration of millions during partition of India and Pakistan, or to control the dacoity menace in the fifties, or the naxalite violence in the sixties/seventies, Punjab Police has come out as a winner. Porosity of a thickly-populated unnatural land border with Pakistan and extremely inhospitable, barren hill borders with China in Ladakh and Kashmir were manned by Punjab Armed Police Battalions till mid-sixties, till the Border Security Force came into being. Those gallant men on the border faced the brunt of foreign armed aggression in 1962 and 1965. In the recent years, the Punjab Police has successfully suppressed the gory face of terrorism in Punjab, in which nearly 20,000 people lost their lives during 1981-1994. Now, modern communication equipment, state-of-the-art information systems, well-equipped scientific labs, more responsive police personnel, are among the constituents of the Punjab Police.

It's a force with a difference! A force with a conviction! And, a force with a heart.

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

POLICE ZONES, RANGES AND DISTRICTS


Punjab Police has a pervasive organisational structure. D.G.P. headquartered at Chandigarh along with his secretarial staff including administration, intelligence, security, crime & Forensic Science Laboratory, provisioning and IT&T. The state is divided into Four zones -(I) Border Zone (II) Patiala zone (III) Jalandhar zone and (IV) Bathinda Zone each zone is headed by an Inspector General of Police. Seven Ranges: These Zones have further been divided into Seven Ranges namely Patiala, Bathinda, Ferozepur, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Border and Rupnagar Range. Presently Punjab has 24 Police Districts headed by SSsP and 3 Commissionerates headed by IGsP. Punjab Police has an armed compliment consisting of eight of Punjab Armed Police (PAP) battalions, seven battalions of India Reserve Battalion (IRB) and five battalions of Commandos.