You are on page 1of 25

Tcnicas para trabajar en equipo Una vez determinado que es imprescindible trabajar en equipo y que se va a lograr ms que si realizan

las actividades en forma individual, el siguiente paso es desarrollar las tcnicas para que el equipo funcione coordinado, motivado, participativo, eficiente y efectivo. Funcionamiento coordinado de un equipo: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Que cada persona conozca su funcin y rol dentro del equipo Que no se dupliquen las responsabilidades dentro del equipo Que se asignen responsabilidades individuales y no generales Que se siga un orden del da enviado con antelacin a cada asistente Que existan unas reglas de juego sobre el funcionamiento del equipo, aprobadas por todos (puntualidad, sistema de participacin, quien oficiar de lder, quin se encarga del acta de la reunin, objetivos,)

Motivacin asistentes reunin: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Escuchar y respetar las opiniones Asignar responsabilidades a todos Rotar las responsabilidades y liderazgo reunin Definir objetivos y retos individuales y de grupo Felicitar y premiar los buenos desempeos Apoyar los logros Criticar en privado y no en pblico

Mejorar participaciones asistentes a reuniones: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Asignar roles y responsabilidades individuales Definir claramente la importancia de cada individuo dentro del equipo Realizar preguntas abiertas y dirigidas Distensionar ambiente y mejorar relaciones entre los integrantes Aceptar los diferentes puntos de vista y promoverlos

Trabajo en equipo eficiente: Definir claramente el tiempo de duracin de la reunin Exigir puntualidad en el inicio reunin Evitar la duplicidad de funciones Enviar con la suficiente anticipacin los temas a tratar en la reunin para que la gente llegue preparada 5. Definir reglas de juego claras sobre el desarrollo de la reunin (orden del da) 1. 2. 3. 4.

Trabajo en equipo eficaz: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tener claros los objetivos a alcanzar en la reunin Distribuir las responsabilidades entre cada uno de los miembros del equipo Asignar actividades y responsables, y periodicidad reuniones Realizar seguimiento de los resultados Engranar los objetivos trabajo en equipo con los logros organizacionales

Las tcnicas de trabajo en equipo persiguen incentivar a las personas para que se expresen libremente y sin limitantes, mejoren sus habilidades de comunicacin, de discusin, de anlisis y de coordinacin. 1. Tcnica de anlisis de casos: La tcnica consiste en presentar un caso real o simulado, para que las personas puedan ejercitar sus habilidades, desarrollar su creatividad, recibir ideas y hacer comparaciones. 2. Tcnica problema solucin: La tcnica consiste en plantear un problema, describir sus antecedentes e impacto, y buscar alternativas de solucin, evaluarlas e implementarlas. Tcnica trabajo por objetivos: La tcnica se relaciona con definir un objetivo, en trminos claros y concisos, e integrar las personas que tienen incidencia en el logro del objetivo, para que se desarrollen un plan de accin y desarrollo, con tiempos y responsables. 3. Tcnica Seis Sigma: Six-sigma team dynamics By leansixsigma on March 31, 2009 Good team dynamics are essential to the success or failure of a Six Sigma project. They include knowing the responsibilities of each member of the project improvement team, including the team leader (known as either the Black Belt or Green Belt), the internal consultant (known as the Master Black Belt), the team members themselves, as well as the project sponsor (known as the Champion). In addition to team responsibilities, team dynamics include knowledge and application of basic facilitation skills.

What are team dynamics? One definition of a team is: two or more individuals associated in some joint action. In the business world, these joint actions should have some mission or objective that achieves results. Most business-related teams, however, reflect the dictionary definition of a group any collection of or assemblage of persons or things. This is even more so with the host of teams attempting to achieve Six Sigma improvements through the use of the Process Improvement methodology (DMAIC), or the Process Design methodology, Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify (DMADV). Many groups of individuals who call themselves a team end up failing miserably using either the DMAIC or DMADV methodology. Often, the reason behind their failure is a poor understanding of team dynamics and the stages a team progresses through to atain its goal. The most common model of team dynamics forming-storming-norming-performing-adjourning is outlined below: Forming At this stage, personal relations are characterized by a dependency on group leaders to provide structure. The leaders main goal is to orientate members of the group to the mission, vision and goals of the organization. The kind of behavior that is commonly observed at this point is questioning. Why are we here? What we are supposed to do? How are we going to get it done? These questions are part of the group forming process. A leader should provide as much structure as possible in this stage. Team building is important here, so things such as games and clarification exercises are necessary. Dont assume that people know each other, or are comfortable with each other. Storming This stage in group development is characterized by a focus on personal relationships within the group. Different people vie for positions, and there is a fair amount of: conflict and confrontation among group members. Confrontations can be about who is responsible for what, who are going to be the leaders of the group, what are going to be the work rules, and so forth. On a committee, differences of opinion over how things should be done, and who should be the movers and shakers will come to play. Norming During this stages the group begins to settle down. Personal relations are marked by greater cohesion. Members of the group start to feel that they belong to it, rather than merely being in it. At the Norming stage of development members begin to share ideas, feelings, give and receive feedback, and generally chat about what is going on and what they are doing. During this period, members of the group feel good about being a part of their group. At this time, there is a brief abandonment of the task at hand (studying, working or whatever) and a period of play enjoyment of each other, socializing, and general fun. Performing At this stage, group members achieve interdependence. This means that they work well together, achieving more together than they would as individuals. In a committee context, this means that people help each other with ideas and support. In the Performing stage group members are both task and maintainance (people) orientated this means that they

get things done but also make sure that individuals in the group are okay. By this point, a group has set itself clear goals (to have a good time, to run a big event, etc), and a lot is achieved. Adjourning Adjourning, is the break-up of the group, hopefully when the task is completed successfully, its purpose fulfilled; everyone can move on to new things, feeling good about whats been achieved. From an organizational perspective, recognition of and sensitivity to peoples vulnerabilities in Tuckmans fifth stage is helpful, particularly if members of the group have been closely bonded and feel a sense of insecurity or threat from this change. Feelings of insecurity would be natural for people with high steadiness attributes and with strong routine and empathy style. 4. Tcnica Team Building: Vision Vision means being able to excite the team with large, desired outcomes. Large outcomes mean devising goals that attract missionaries. The first step in vision is to project such a goal. This goal must be bigger than a pay check. It must contain challenge, appeal to personal pride, and provide an opportunity to make a difference and know it. Then the goal can become a powerful vision. Next, team leaders position the goal by picturing success. Initial questions might be, "What will it look like when we get there?", "What will success be like, feel like?," "How will others know?" When a large, missionary-friendly goal has been pictured and clearly communicated, the vision is complete. Commitment Commitment can be a dangerous concept because of its attendant assumptions. Some may assume, for example, that commitment means long hours, while to others it may mean productivity. When expectations are defined, success rates soar. When leaders assume that everyone "should" be committed, as a matter of course, we overlook the difficulties many have with certain commitments. If people cannot initially commit, it doesn' t mean they don' t care. More often, it means they do care, and they are caught up in a process of doubt. This process precedes every meaningful commitment. Effective leaders catalyze this process, so that the critical mass of people can pass through this stage efficiently on their way to genuine commitment and innovative strategies. This pre-commitment process is the same for team leaders and members. When we ponder a new commitment, we climb up to a kind of mental diving board. Commitments contain unknowns, and some warn of possible failure. It is common for people to neither jump nor climb back down the "ladder," but rather to stay stuck at the end of the board, immobilized in pros, cons, obstacles, and worries. In this state of mind, the obstacles begin to rule,

obscuring the vision, blunting motivation. When leaders do not understand the commitment process they tend to seek accountability without providing support. Without a means to process doubts and fears, people often feel pressured to commit, but can' t. One option, often unconscious, is to pretend to commit, to say "yes" and mean "maybe" at best. The pretended commitment is a form of wholly unnecessary corporate madness. The solution to this set of problems is two fold: establish an atmosphere of trust, and within that atmosphere encourage inclusion. Trust Trust is the antidote to the fears and risks attendant to meaningful commitment. Trust means confidence in team leadership and vision. When trust prevails, team members are more willing to go through a difficult process, supported through ups, downs, risk and potential loss. Trust is most efficiently established when leadership commits to vision first, and everyone knows those commitments are genuine. The process for leaders to commit is the same as for everyone else: assess pre-commitment doubts, questions, unknowns and fears. This involves three simple steps: List the unknowns. Assess worst case scenarios and their survivability. Research the unknowns. The list of unknowns reveals some answers and further questions. Some of these questions lend themselves to research (others' experience, a small pilot plan), and some have no apparent answers from our pre-commitment position. These latter comprise the bottom line or irreducible risk. We learn the outcome only after commitment. Every major commitment contains some irreducible risk, some lingering unknowns. We therefore make every major commitment in at least partial ignorance. Leadership now understands the potential loss and gain involved in the new vision. At this point, leadership can commit itself, and prepare to include other team members. That preparation must include a plan for leadership to share visibly both risk and reward with the other team members who will be coming on board. With leadership' s commitment to a clear vision, and a genuine plan to share risks and rewards, the atmosphere for trust is in place. We are now ready to include others in our team effort. Inclusion Inclusion means getting others to commit to the team effort, helping others through their "diving board doubts" to genuine commitment. Since leaders now understand this process first hand, we need only communicate with the potential team members to complete inclusion.

The best setting to obtain buy-in and build trust is in small groups that facilitate thorough give and take. The basic tasks are to communicate the vision, make sure it is understood, communicate leadership' s commitment (including sharing risk and reward, and how), and elicit and address peoples' doubts. Leaders will need three communication skills to achieve inclusion. These are the nonassumptive question, good listening, and directed response. 1. Non-assumptive questions ("What do you think?", "Can you tell me what is happening with this report?") invite real answers because they are inclusive, not intrusive. Questions containing assumptions ("Why are you skeptical?", "Why is this report so incomplete?") invite defensiveness. When converting an atmosphere of change and possibly skepticism to trust, added defensiveness is counter-productive. 2. Listening means separating the process of taking in information from the process of judging it. Kept separate, both processes are valuable. Mixed, especially when the receiver is a designated leader, the sender is invited to stop communicating or to change the message midstream. 3. Directed response. Effective team leaders demonstrate responsiveness. Since leaders have already processed their own pre-commitment doubts, many questions can be answered on the spot. Some require research and a time line for response. And some, which relate to the bottom line, irreducible risk, require a truthful "I don' t know. I' m in the same soup as you." Help Exchange The final step in creating the team is to establish a corroborative, balanced strategy for reaching the committed vision. This plan will consist of all of the tasks and help exchange necessary to realize the overall vision. Your teammates themselves are in the best position to supply this information. Since by this time you have laid the groundwork for trust, and established good buy-in, your teammates are likely to be enthusiastically cooperative. At this point, the leadership role is to catalyze consensus, not to issue orders. Consensus means that team members agree to, whether they necessarily agree with, a particular approach. Consensus occurs easily when most feel their ideas were heard and considered, whether or not the team ultimately chooses those ideas. Obtaining consensus again requires use of leadership communication skills: non-assumptive questions, good listening, and directed response. Effective teams often produce lively discussions of divergent viewpoints before reaching consensus. Diverse views can mean unresolved argument, or they can mean increased team intelligence and ultimate consensus. The difference is a well built team. To improve the effectiveness of your team, Learning Center offers customized teamwork training.

5. Tcnica Rocket Model of Team Performance by Gordy Curphy Rocket Model of Team Performance Although most people would readily acknowledge the importance of teamwork, these same individuals often have no idea how to go about making teamwork happen. People fondly remember what it was like to work on high performing teams, but they have a much harder time describing what made the team so cohesive and effective. It turns out that there is nothing magical about building high performing teams. What people need is a model or framework for understanding team dynamics and performance. The Rocket Model is provides a framework for understanding the critical components of and actions needed to improve team functioning and performance. The Rocket Model is both descriptive and prescriptive, as it can be used to describe what is going well or poorly on a team and prescribe what teams need to do and the order by which the actions should be taken in order to improve morale or effectiveness. Critical Assumptions: What is the context? Teams do not operate in a vacuum, and a critical first step to building high performing teams is gaining alignment on team context. All too often team members have different assumptions about customers, suppliers, or competitors; and their well-intended but misaligned actions can inadvertently destroy team morale and sub-optimize team efficiency and effectiveness.

One noteworthy aspect of team context is the implicit nature of team member assumptionsteam members rarely if ever articulate their assumptions about key stakeholders. In order to make the implicit more explicit, team members should work together to identify the key stakeholders or entities that affect the team. These entities might include key customers, competitors, other teams, regulatory agencies, vendors, the parent organization, etc. Team members should then discuss and agree on the top three to five assumptions they have for each entity. Gaining alignment on team context makes it much easier to determine the purpose and key goals for the team; and reviewing team assumptions about key stakeholders can also accelerate the on-boarding of new team members. Mission: Why are we here? Teams that do not have a clear purpose or goals are destined to fail, and people report that these teams are among the worst they have ever been on. Sharing common assumptions about the entities affecting a team can be a good start in determining how a team can add the most value. But high performing teams set SMART-B goalsgoals that are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Resourced, Time Bound, and Benchmarked. Specific and Measurable goals include clearly defined metrics and targets for each key outcome. Team goals should have high bars for performance but be achievable, and the team should have the resources it needs to achieve its goals. Team goals should have specific due dates and benchmarks should be set for below, meets, and exceeds expectations. High performing teams often create scorecards that list all the key team goals, benchmarks, and progress to date. Mission is the most important component in the Rocket Model of team performance. The goals and purpose of the team should determine who is on the team (Talent), the rules by which the team operates (Norms), the level of commitment and equipment needed (Buy-In and Power), and the level of team cohesiveness (Morale). As such, Mission drives all the other components of the Rocket Model. Two common mistakes teams make concerning Mission is not having SMART-B team goals and spending too much time building team mission statements. As described earlier, teams without clear goals are like rockets that are all thrust and no vector. It is not as if members of these teams are not working hard; it is just that they confuse activity with productivity and consequently spend a lot of time doing things that do not contribute to team effectiveness. The second mistake is to define the teams purpose before creating a set of SMART-B goals. Because most team members enjoy building team mission statements about as much as they like unnecessary root canals, teams should first define their SMARTB goals before worrying about building purpose or mission statements. The concrete actions associated with setting goals are usually much more energizing than the wordsmithing of mission statements, so why lose momentum by spending a lot of time doing something that depletes rather then energizes the team? Once the team goals are clearly defined, a subgroup of team members can be assigned to work on a mission statement that can be shared with and edited by the rest of the team. lows: Talent: Who is on the bus? Many times people find themselves on teams with clear goals, but the teams do not have the people they need to succeed. The Talent component of the Rocket Model is concerned

with having the right number of people with the skills needed to accomplish team goals. The number and types of people needed varies with team goals, and as team goals change, so do the skills needed by team members. Teams have two choices when they face a shortfall in talentthey can either hire people from the outside or develop team member skills to fill talent gaps. This build or buy decision will depend on the availability and time needed to develop proficiency. Four common causes of team failure involving Talent include: (1) not having the right number of people (too many people can be just as problematic as not having enough people); (2) not have the people with the right skills; (3) having team members with ill-defined roles; and (4) having an expert who is not a team player. One would think that getting the right number of people on the teams with the right skills would be relatively easy, but unfortunately most organizations assign staff to teams based more on availability or politics than talent. The team killer problem can be tougher nut to crack. Because team killers sap team cohesiveness and morale, they either need to be convinced to get along with others or be replaced. And the sooner team leaders deal with this issue, the better off the team will be. Norms: What are the rules? Team norms are the unwritten rules that team members follow in their day-to-day work activities. Perhaps the most obvious team norm involves seating arrangements. How many times do people sit in the same seats at team meetings? Although seating arrangements are not formally assigned, teams adopt informal rules about where people sit. The power of these rules becomes evident once someone sits in another persons seat. It turns out that these implicit, informal rules have a strong influence on team member behavior. Seating arrangements are a simple example of a team norm; more powerful norms evolve when people start meeting on a regular basis. For example, groups quickly develop norms for greeting, meeting, seating, communicating, deciding, and executing, even though team members may not have formally discussed any of these topics. And because norms influence team member behavior, they can profoundly impact team cohesiveness and performance. A key question is whether a teams current set of norms helps or hinders team success. In other words, are team meetings, team communication and decision-making processes, and the unwritten rules regarding work hand-offs and accountability eroding morale and reducing team effectiveness? If so, then one way to fix this problem is to identify what norms are currently in place and work with the team to set new norms. High performing teams run meetings efficiently and adhere to agreed upon norms for communicating, making decisions, executing tasks, and handing off work to team members. . Buy-In: Are we all committed to succeed? Buy-In can be defined as the level of team member commitment to team goals, strategies, roles, and norms. Some teams have high levels of commitment, where all the team members are playing hard, adhering to team norms, and contributing to team success. Other teams have mixed commitment, where some team members are carrying the load and others are merely along for the ride. One way to determine team commitment is to examine how team decisions are executed by individual team members. If everyone in a team meeting agrees to a decision, but only some of the team members actually change their behavior

after the meeting, then team commitment is not particularly strong. Team leaders can foster team member commitment in three ways. One is to paint a compelling team mission that is aligned with team member values. Team members are likely to exert considerable effort when their teams goals are directly related to their personal wants and needs. Another way to foster commitment is to get team members involved with the creation of team goals, roles, and norms. The more involved team members are with the setting the teams direction and the rules governing team member behavior, the more committed they will be. Because nothing kills buy-in more quickly than perceptions of favoritism, a third way to foster commitment is to ensure everyone on the team contributes equally to team success and adheres to team norms. Power: What resources do we need? Teams often have material needs, such as funding, office space, hardware and software systems, specialized equipment, transportation, tech support, etc. These needed resources will be driven by team composition and goals--a football team requires different resources than a pharmaceutical research and development team. Teams will need to specify their resource needs, and team leaders may need to lobby key stakeholders in order to acquire needed resources. One resource that can be an area of contention for many teams concerns decision-making authority. Some teams are chartered to make decisions that will affect the larger organization, yet all their decisions must first be vetted by one or two key stakeholders with veto power. In some situations these teams become nothing more than vehicles to legitimize the opinions of the stakeholders. In essence, the teams explicit goals are in conflict with their stakeholders implicit goals, and the odds of team success in these situations are very low. Morale: Cant we all get along? It is relatively easy to see team members that working in harmony or engaging in backstabbing and in-fighting. As such, Morale is one of the more visible components of the Rocket Model. Polite teams often get polite results, and high performing teams have their fair share of conflict. But high performing teams get their conflicts out on the table and develop effective ways to work through team member disagreements. Dysfunctional teams either pretend conflict does not exist or deal with it by having team members participate in some team building activity, such as a golf outing or ropes course. Unfortunately, these team building events have only a temporary morale boosting effect, as they fail to address the root causes of conflict. It turns out that most team conflict can be tied back to misunderstandings or disagreements about team assumptions, goals or metrics (Mission), team member roles or skill gaps (Talent), the rules governing how the team operates (Norms), commitment levels (Buy-In), or needed resources (Power). Identifying and addressing these underlying issues will not only improve team functioning, they will also have a positive effect on team performance. Results: Are we moving the needle?

The Results component is the dependent variable in the Rocket Model. In other words, team results depend on team members having shared assumptions, exerting effort towards and being committed to team goals, having clear roles and the right skills, adhering to agreed upon norms, having the right resources, and effectively managing conflict. Problems in one or more of the first six components of Rocket Model will have a detrimental impact on team results. People typically look at an athletic teams regular season and playoff win-loss records to determine team success, but assessing business team success is sometimes not as obvious. The key to effective team evaluation is to compare team performance against team goals. Teams that are making good progress towards or have accomplished their team goals are deemed successful; those that are not making progress are usually judged as unsuccessful. Thus, like all the other components of Rocket Model, Mission drives Results. Therefore it is critically important that teams set SMART-B goals that are both aligned with important organizational outcomes and benchmarked in such a way that goal accomplishment results in truly superior performance. 6. Tcnicas de equipo de alto desempeo por: Jorge Castaares Grupo de Trabajo Tradicional La relacin con el objetivo puede ser baja. El lder continuamente tiene que orientar al equipo y darle seguimiento a las metas. La especializacin individual no es relevante para la tarea del equipo. Los roles varan entre los integrantes del equipo. En ciertos grupos se favorece la rotacin de roles. El protagonismo pocas veces se ve y, cuando sucede, es resultado de un complejo proceso de interaccin. La competencia entre grupos y miembros de un grupo se advierte como perjudicial para la operacin del mismo. Equipo de Alto Desempeo La relacin con el objetivo es elevada. Existe una conciencia individual de que si el equipo falla, el individuo se va con l. La especializacin individual es un factor clave para la realizacin de la tarea. Se estimula el rol del lder. Se fomenta el desarrollo de liderazgos alternativos y se confronta a los miembros del equipo. El protagonismo se fomenta y resulta de la conformacin del equipo. Se expresa a travs de un individualismo colectivo. La competencia entre equipos e individuos del equipo es fomentada para desarrollar el mximo potencial colectivo.

Por Hctor Vera Azargado Durante dcadas, expertos en management y grandes directores de empresa se han dedicado a estudiar cmo formar equipos de trabajo de alto desempeo. Los resultados, en muchos casos, han sido extraordinarios, generando beneficios notables en productividad, innovacin, rentabilidad y compromiso.

Pero hacerlo no es sencillo. Debes aprender a administrar factores humanos y estratgicos que te permitan crear un ambiente de colaboracin y encajar correctamente en las estructuras de una empresa. Si quieres sacar el mximo provecho a tus recursos -tanto humanos como de infraestructura-, lee con atencin estas recomendaciones. Define un objetivo. Necesitas fijar una meta, los pasos necesarios para llegar a ella y comunicar todo claramente y sin descuidar detalles. Puedes ayudarte con las siguientes preguntas: - Qu espera la compaa de ti y tu equipo? - Qu esperas de tu trabajo y de tu equipo? - Por qu lo quieres hacer? - Qu motiva a los integrantes de tu equipo a participar en este proyecto? - Cundo o cada cunto tiempo debes entregar resultados o informes? - Cul es tu escenario ideal cuando termine el proyecto? Recuerda que las metas deben ser especficas, medibles, realizables, realistas y con un plazo definido (en ingls se conoce como S.M.A.R.T.: specific, measurables, achievable, realistic y time). Adems, responder estas preguntas te ayudar a disear tu plan de trabajo. Busca a las personas correctas. El objetivo de trabajar en grupo es integrar personas con diferentes niveles de conocimiento y experiencia para alcanzar una meta especfica. De esta buena ?combinacin? depende, en gran medida, el xito de un proyecto. Por eso, es clave que analices con detencin qu habilidades profesionales y caractersticas personales debe tener cada integrante. No necesariamente necesitas a los mejores, sino a los correctos. Define un ?perfil ideal? para cada posicin y asegrate de que los elegidos disfruten el trabajo en equipo y tengan espritu de colaboracin. Crea una estructura de trabajo. Tu misin es liderar y, para hacerlo, necesitas apoyarte en una estructura que facilite la comunicacin entre los miembros y el seguimiento de los compromisos adquiridos internamente y con otros departamentos o empresas. Disea un plan de trabajo que incorpore al menos los siguientes elementos: a) Objetivo comn, b) Definicin de roles, c) Reglas de trabajo y de conducta, d) Fechas de reuniones, e) Estndar para la entrega de informes. Comunica con claridad. Tu equipo necesita saber hacia dnde va. Puede que t lo tengas claro, pero preocpate que todos tambin lo entiendan. No des nada por entendido e informa clara y detalladamente la meta del grupo y las responsabilidades de cada uno. Comunicar efectivamente te ahorrar disgustos y facilitar la el trabajo de todos. Invierte todo el tiempo necesario y no te olvides de pedir retroalimentacin. Crea las instancias para que todos puedan expresarse y nunca

olvides cumplir tus compromisos. En lo posible, s transparente con tus expectativas respecto a cada uno y sobre el equipo. Forma lderes. Un buen equipo debe trascender y, para que esto pase, lo mejor que puedes hacer es formar lderes al interior del grupo. Ellos tomarn tu lugar en ste u otros proyectos. Eso es bueno para ti y para todos. Ram Charan, el gur de la ejecucin, sostiene que las 8 habilidades de un gran lder son: 1) Encontrar la idea que permita satisfacer las demandas de los clientes y hacer dinero. 2) Detectar qu pasa fuera del grupo. 3) Recurrir a la gente correcta con las conductas correctas. 4) Aprender a juzgar a la gente. 5) Fomentar la coherencia. 6) Establecer metas correctas 7) Definir prioridades con precisin. 8) Anticipar las presiones sociales sin afectar al grupo. Finalmente, si tienes un buen candidato, fjate en sus fortalezas y no en sus debilidades, ensale como domesticar su ego en funcin de las metas del grupo y entrnalo para desarrollar una ?visin del negocio?. Delega y da poder de decisin. La mejor forma de controlar la evolucin de un equipo es organizar reuniones peridicas (semanales, quincenales o mensuales) y facilitar que todos puedan compartir ideas. El gran problema es que muchas veces las decisiones tomadas en estos encuentros no logran llevarse a la prctica. La razn? Los lderes no se atreven a delegar y entregar poder de decisin a los miembros del grupo. Si quieres equipos de alto desempeo, deja que las personas se responsabilicen de los resultados de los proyectos. Pdeles, con total claridad, que no slo identifiquen los problemas, sino que desarrollen y apliquen sus soluciones. Debes entrenarlos para la accin. Reconoce logros personales y grupales. Recompensa y celebra pblicamente los xitos individuales y colectivos. Recuerda que reconocer no es lo mismo que adular. Si la felicitacin es individual, concntrate en factores positivos que puedan ser tomados en cuenta y replicados por los otros integrantes. Si el xito es grupal, precisa los puntos clave y menciona los detalles que se pueden mejorar. Un abrazo o un fuerte apretn de manos te ayudarn a cerrar un buen momento. Fomenta la flexibilidad. Es en este punto donde sabrs si elegiste a las personas correctas. Es frecuente que los objetivos planteados en el inicio cambien o se redefinan. Cuando esto pase, necesitas equipos flexibles formados por personas flexibles. Preocpate de fomentar siempre un

?espritu de cambio y alerta permanente? entre los integrantes. Saber modificar el rumbo es uno de los activos ms preciados de un buen grupo de trabajo. Entrega los recursos necesarios. Un buen equipo sabe exigir y un buen lder debe aprender a conceder. Recuerda que debes proveer todos los recursos necesarios, aunque no ests de acuerdo en todas las peticiones. Evala con tranquilidad y transfrmate en un facilitador. Es muy probable, por ejemplo, que tu equipo necesite apoyo de otros departamentos (jurdico, tecnologa, recursos humanos o marketing) o de otras empresas. Tu misin es poner lo que requieren a su alcance. Cmo hacerlo? Para empezar, pregunta a cada integrante qu necesita antes de realizar tu presupuesto. Luego, presta atencin a sus necesidades, an cuando no te las soliciten (es ideal que seas realmente proactivo). Liderarte Desarrollar la inteligencia emocional de un equipo de trabajo posibilita En el mbito individual En el mbito relacional Actitud positiva ante resultados adversos. Responder positivamente ante los eventos que ocurren, incluso los inesperados. Dominio y manejo de las emociones, en especial la ansiedad y el stress. Dominio y manejo de los pensamientos negativos y limitantes. Manejo de la crtica, la desaprobacin y el juicio externo. Visualizar y materializar los resultados deseados. Alinearse tras los objetivos. Aceptacin de la diversidad dentro del equipo. Aprovechamiento de los talentos individuales a disposicin del equipo. Sinergia (suma de energas) esto hace que los resultados lleguen ms rpidamente y baja el nivel de stress individual. Aumenta el nivel de compromiso grupal. Comunicacin efectiva entre sus integrantes. Alinear los intereses personales y grupales a la visin.

Fuente: Mtodo Jurn. Anlisis y Planeacin de la Calidad Caracterstica Organizacin Tradicional Alcance del trabajo Cada individuo es responsable de un corto alcance Categoras de puestos para el Muchas categoras pequeas personal Organizar, programar y Principalmente por el asignar el trabajo supervisor o cuerpo administrativo Medir y tomar medidas Principalmente por el correctivas supervisor o cuerpo administrativo

Equipo Autodirigido El equipo es responsable de un corto alcance Unas pocas categoras grandes Principalmente por el equipo Principalmente por el equipo

Proporcionar capacitacin

Capacitacin para tareas asignadas al individuo Mnima Relacionada con el trabajo, desempeo individual y antigedad Principalmente por personal de supervisin o del cuerpo administrativo Limitada a informacin no confidencial Puede ser baja. El lder continuamente tiene que orientar al equipo y darle seguimiento a las metas No es relevante para la tarea del equipo La competencia entre grupos y miembros de un grupo se advierte como perjudicial para la operacin del mismo

Oportunidad de Rotacin de Puestos Sistemas de Recompensas

Manejo de Asuntos personales Compartir informacin de negocios Relacin con el objetivo

Capacitacin intensiva para tareas mltiples adems de capacitacin de habilidades interpersonales Alta por la amplia capacitacin Relacionado con el desempeo del equipo y el alcance de las habilidades adquiridas por el individuo Muchos temas son manejados por el equipo Se comparte abiertamente toda la informacin La relacin con el objetivo es elevada. Existe una conciencia individual de que si el equipo falla, el individuo se va con l Es un factor clave para la realizacin de la tarea La competencia entre equipos e individuos del equipo es fomentada para desarrollar el mximo potencial colectivo.

Especializacin individual Competencia

Equipos de Trabajo de Alto Desempeo (ETAD) Caractersticas de los ETAD Miembros Multifuncionales. La mayora de los ETAD estn formados por 5 a 15 personas multifuncionales que generalmente trabajan juntos, alineados con la estrategia del negocio, no es un equipo que se forma para algo especfico. La labor desempeada por cada integrante es reconocida y valorada por l y por los dems. Los miembros de los ETAD asumen entrenarse y entrenar con la finalidad de lograr el desarrollo de mltiples destrezas y el conocimiento requerido para el desempeo de varias tareas. El desarrollo personal, aprendizaje contino y la adquisicin de nuevas capacidades, es reconocido y recompensado por medio de promociones, reclasificacin o reconocimiento pblico. Las evaluaciones de desempeo peridicas de los miembros se emplean como herramienta de seguimiento. 8 Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo

Fin en mente. Los miembros de los ETAD conocen claramente y se identifican con la misin, visin, objetivos, valores y la estrategia de la empresa, en tal sentido poseen una slida comprensin del propsito del equipo, su razn de ser y su aporte a la empresa. Las estrategias dentro de los ETAD se establecen en funcin de la innovacin, rapidez y flexibilidad y los objetivos en trmino de la mejora continua de la calidad, mejora de costos y eficiencia en procesos. Desempeo, Aprendizaje y Capacitacin. Cuando se precisa establecer equipos de trabajo de alto desempeo, por lo general el personal no cuenta con la preparacin necesaria, por lo que se requiere integrar el desempeo y el aprendizaje, procurando constantemente enriquecer intelectualmente y dar ms facultades a los empleados para el xito del equipo y de empresa. En los ETAD se realizan entrenamientos cruzados con la finalidad de potenciar competencias en los aspectos tcnicos y humanos para realizar los cambios de cultura organizacional requeridos. Los programas de capacitacin incluyen trabajo en equipo, solucin de problemas, conduccin de reuniones, resolucin de conflictos, delegacin, toma de decisiones, mantenimiento productivo total, procesos de mejora, destrezas en comunicacin, entre otros. Cabe destacar, que el adiestramiento debe primordialmente contemplar a los lderes, quienes siguen utilizando las viejas formas de hacer las cosas y en quienes se encuentra la mayor resistencia para cambiar. Deben aprender a delegar, a manejar conflictos, a establecer dinmicos canales de comunicacin y a actuar en un ambiente donde la autoridad proviene del mismo equipo. 9 Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo El compromiso en el aprendizaje y capacitacin de todos los integrantes pertenecientes al ETAD genera un impacto positivo en el comportamiento, motivacin, rendimiento de los empleados y mejora en la eficacia de desempeo empresarial. Asignaciones de Trabajo Flexibles y Rotacin de Responsabilidades. En los ETAD es prctica comn brindar la oportunidad para la rotacin de tareas entre sus integrantes lo que contribuye al desarrollo de destrezas. Los miembros desarrollan la flexibilidad para ejercer diferentes funciones y el conocimiento para crear el producto o brindar el servicio. Cada miembro realiza tareas interdependientes y el xito se logra al juntar todos los esfuerzos orientados a la consecucin de resultados. Compromiso. Los Integrantes de los ETAD conocen y entienden la importancia de su trabajo y su incidencia en el logro de objetivos en un tiempo determinado, comparten un sentimiento de compromiso y un efecto sinrgico positivo que facilita la existencia de adecuados canales de comunicacin. Asumen completamente la responsabilidad por la calidad de productos y servicios por lo que se forma en el equipo un sentido de pertenencia.

Recurso Humano. Los ETAD llevan el control en todas las funciones bsicas de su proceso incluyendo la administracin y monitoreo del personal abarcando las funciones de reclutamiento, seleccin, induccin, entrenamiento, evaluacin del desempeo y sistemas de remuneracin de sus miembros. Los ETAD superan la satisfaccin de las 10 Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo necesidades bsicas del personal y brindan oportunidades para la realizacin y el desarrollo del potencial. El sistema de recursos humanos est diseado para posicionar al personal dentro del proceso de implementacin de la estrategia y para maximizar la calidad del capital humano en la organizacin, identificando las competencias, habilidades y conocimientos que se requieren. Es importante que en los procesos de contratacin se realice la escogencia de empleados con flexibilidad, creatividad, sentido de innovacin, orientacin al logro y otras destrezas indicativas de una adecuada actitud por aprender y cambiar. Bajo el sistema de EAD a los trabajadores no se les paga de acuerdo a lo que hacen sino de acuerdo a lo que ellos pueden hacer, lo que implica que cada empleado debe aprender ms para poder desempearse en puestos de trabajo diferentes. Algunas empresas establecen con buenos resultados sistemas de remuneracin para promocionar el aprendizaje, el desempeo y la capacidad para lograr metas y mejoras. Tambin se emplean sistemas en el que se comparten las ganancias, lo que hace que la gente se sienta duea del negocio compartiendo riesgos y beneficios. Otras empresas deciden pagar el salario completo, indiferentemente de los permisos, ausentismos o llegadas tardas los cuales maneja el ETAD y son ellos quienes deben cumplir la meta propuesta. Estructuras Organizacionales. Los ETAD trascienden las estructuras, rompiendo con jerarquas y estableciendo la propia como estndar en la organizacin. Se convierten en la base de los procesos dentro de las organizaciones. 11 Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo Escogencia y Rol del lder. El lder de los ETAD es escogido por los mismos integrantes tomando como criterio de seleccin sus conocimientos, habilidades y destrezas, pero suele ocurrir que el liderazgo rota entre sus miembros. El lder acta como entrenador, ayudando a maximizar talentos individuales y colectivos y como organizador, facilitador y coordinador en lugar de ser El que da las rdenes y controla. Suministra apoyo sin tomar el mando, da seguimiento y slo en casos estrictamente necesarios toma las decisiones. No intenta acaparar la atencin sino que permite que cada miembro se sienta responsable absoluto de su desempeo (auto supervisin) sin perder la brjula del compromiso colectivo. Los integrantes de los ETAD gozan de toda la autoridad para autodirigirse e implementar las acciones que consideren necesarias, por supuesto, bajo las normativas establecidas por la gerencia de la empresa.

Toma de Decisiones y Participacin. Como las decisiones son tomadas por consenso, la propiedad de las ideas es compartida por todo el equipo, existiendo por ende una activa participacin en el diseo e implementacin de las estrategias. 12 Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo Confianza y Comunicacin. Los ETAD se basan en relaciones de confianza en el trabajador y en sus capacidades, estimulando la iniciativa y la toma de riesgos. La comunicacin se caracteriza por ser directa y asertiva, destacndose por la regeneracin de relaciones laborales frente a conflictos y desacuerdos, lo que se logra en virtud del compromiso de sus miembros en mantener relaciones fundamentadas en la mutua responsabilidad, el respeto y la aceptacin. Se utiliza un lenguaje comn para comunicar ideas y sentimientos, por medio de procedimientos documentados ISO 9001:2008, control estadstico de procesos, declaracin de misin, principios y valores. Administracin participativa. Aunque reporta a un gerente, jefe o supervisor, tienen autonoma de ejecucin y responsabilidad directa en la planificacin, direccin y desarrollo de las labores productivas y administrativas de su rea de trabajo, tales como: Planear, controlar y mejorar sus procesos. Asignar tareas a sus miembros Implementar cambios en procedimientos de trabajo, ordenar los materiales e inspeccionar la calidad Controlar, monitorear y asegurarse de que se cumple con las normas Establecer sus metas e inspeccionar su propio trabajo. Hacer sus programaciones y evaluar su desempeo. Coordinar trabajo con otros departamentos. Frecuentemente preparar y controlar su presupuesto. Hacer requisiciones, administrar inventario y negocian con proveedores. Realizar el control de Inventario Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo Enfoque basado en hechos. La medicin es elemento clave para el xito ya que permite determinar que se estn haciendo las cosas bien en trminos de calidad, cantidad y costos. Los ETAD emplean el control estadstico de procesos y herramientas metodolgicas para la solucin de

problemas, definicin del rumbo, documentacin de los procesos, sistemas de medicin e indicadores de resultados, anlisis de datos e informacin. La medicin es el elemento clave para el xito del equipo y mostrar que estn haciendo las cosas bien tanto en trminos de Calidad, como en cantidad y costos. Enfoque de problemas. Logran un balance entre las exigencias de corto y largo plazo. Mejora incremental da a da que hace la diferencia a largo plazo.. Consideraciones para la implementacin de los ETAD Compromiso. Es indispensable por parte de la alta direccin su conviccin, compromiso y orientacin para la formacin y mantenimiento de los equipos de alto desempeo, as como el compromiso y participacin de todos los miembros del equipo. Metas comunes. Metas claramente definidas enfocan la energa en un solo propsito. Fijar metas (especficas, medibles, realizables, realistas y con un plazo definido), los pasos para llegar a ellas y comunicar todo claramente. Considerar escenarios, tiempo para entrega de resultados, expectativas, y motivaciones. 14 Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo Elaborar un Plan de Implementacin. Realizar un plan de implementacin que abarque 2-3 aos de duracin, que incluya las fases de: Planificacin (misin, actividades claves), Organizacin (estructura, personal, capacitacin), Accin y Desarrollo (Objetivos, pautas de operacin) y Evaluacin y Control (resultados, desviaciones, retroalimentacin) Elaborar un Plan de Capacitacin. Antes de la asignacin de nuevas actividades a los miembros y a los lderes se requiere identificar que competencias, habilidades y destrezas nuevas tendrn que desarrollar en la creacin de la cultura, liderazgo y el alineamiento organizacional y de esta manera posicionar el sistema de recursos humanos en el proceso total de implementacin de la estrategia. Es importante realizar el diseo de este plan cuidando de programar la capacitacin que realmente se necesita y cuando se requiere. Crear una estructura de trabajo. Que facilite comunicacin entre miembros y seguimiento de compromisos internos y con otros departamentos o empresas. Disea un plan de trabajo que incorpore objetivo comn, definicin de roles, reglas de trabajo y de conducta, fechas de reuniones y de entrega de informes. Comunicar con claridad. Hacia dnde van. Informa clara y detalladamente la meta del grupo y las responsabilidades de cada uno. Crea las instancias para que todos puedan expresarse y nunca olvides cumplir tus compromisos. Los miembros deben sentir que pueden hablar libremente y que tienen

tiempo para compartir y discutir la informacin con otros. 15 Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo Delegar y dar poder de decisin. Deja que las personas identifiquen problemas, desarrollen y apliquen sus soluciones y se responsabilicen de los resultados de los proyectos. Reconocer logros personales y grupales. Reconocer y valorar la contribucin de cada persona. Recompensar y celebrar pblicamente xitos individuales y colectivos. Si es individual, concentrarse en factores positivos que puedan ser tomados en cuenta y replicados por otros. Si es grupal, precisar puntos clave y detalles que se pueden mejorar. Cambiar el sistema de compensacin. De manera que considere y promocione el aprendizaje, el desempeo y la capacidad para lograr metas y mejoras. Manejar asertivamente los conflictos. Promover el respecto por las diferencias y un comportamiento integro entre los miembros del equipo. Permitir la tensin creativa y direccionar los conflictos de una manera saludable. Fomentar la flexibilidad. Fomentar un "espritu de cambio y alerta permanente" entre los integrantes. Es frecuente que objetivos planteados en el inicio cambien o se redefinan, saber modificar el rumbo es uno de los activos ms preciados. 16 Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo Entregar los recursos necesarios. Proveer todos los recursos necesarios, poner lo que se requiere al alcance oportunamente. Barreras para el desarrollo de los ETAD. Las principales barreras para el desarrollo de Equipos de Trabajo de Alto Desempeo son: a. Falta de direccin y propsito comn. La empresa debe tener bien definido el propsito, visin para 2 a 3 aos y objetivos que se desean alcanzar con sus respectivos indicadores y metas. b. Competencias y destrezas ausentes. Necesidad de entrenar o reubicar a sus jefaturas e incremento de los costos de capacitacin c. Mantener sistemas de remuneracin que no reflejen las habilidades adicionales adquiridas por los individuos.

d. Escasa disposicin para trabajar ante aparicin de conflictos. Los conflictos producen la tentacin en los integrantes de alcanzar por si solos los objetivos y dejar de lado al equipo. Las individualidades pueden ser tiles siempre que no quiebren la consistencia del grupo El lder debe lidiar con estas situaciones hbilmente y hacer cambios oportunos. e. Empresas con rgidas clasificaciones de puestos f. Resistencia a cambiar de los Gerentes, jefes o supervisores, quienes siguen utilizando las viejas formas de hacer las cosas. Gerentes que no saben delegar y quieren mantener el control, aunque si esperan que otros lo hagan. La principal excusa para no brindar el empowerment, es que los trabajadores no pueden tomar las decisiones porque su cmulo de experiencias no es suficiente. Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo Si no se les entrena, se les da un voto de confianza y se les permite hacerlo no podrn demostrar su capacidad. g. Competencia entre los miembros y prdida de entusiasmo de los miembros al inicio h. Falta de fe en las capacidades de los trabajadores para alcanzar resultados i. Falta de confianza entre la direccin y la fuerza de trabajo j. Incongruencia entre lo que se predica y lo que se hace Importancia de los ETAD Las ventajas de los equipos de alto desempeo incluyen: a. Mejora mtodos y procedimientos lo cual mejora el flujo de trabajo, la eficiencia y la productividad. b. La calidad de los productos y servicios aumenta y por ende se reduce la tasa de desperdicio y el costo de los productos se reduce c. Mejora la comunicacin, y la seguridad en el trabajo y por supuesto los costos. d. Mayor entrenamiento y educacin y destreza. Aumenta la flexibilidad y adaptabilidad de los empleados

e. Aumenta la satisfaccin y el logro en el trabajo produciendo actitudes positivas, altos desempeos. f. Disminuye el ausentismo, las llegadas tardas y la tasa de rotacin de empleados disminuye. 18 Si uno no se cambia a uno mismo, no puede cambiar el mundo g. Se reduce el nivel de supervisin. Con frecuencia, un nivel de la direccin puede eliminarse y as proporcionar recursos para la mejora de la calidad y proyectos de planeacin de sta. h. Evaluacin del desempeo es ms precisa, diferencias salariales son ms objetivas y el mismo grupo identifica candidatos a promover i. Se incrementa la confianza entre la direccin y la fuerza de trabajo. HR.COM Building high performance teams The Five Cs for team building: Confidence (Trust), Consensus, Commitment, Collaboration and Communication. In high performance teams the talents of each individual are used at its best; and therefore, the group obtains superior results. High performance teams requiere a sequence of building blocks to achieve a level of interactions that allows the group to excel. Effective interaction For a team to work effectively, it must build four basic attributes: Confidence (the best word to use is Trust), Consensus, Commitment and Collaboration. Each attribute is built on the previous attribute a domino effect that means that we cannot obtain Commitment if there is no Consensus, and we cannot obtain Consensus if there is no Trust. There is a fifth attribute: Open Communication, which plays an important role in the flow during the process of building Confidence, Consensus, Commitment and Collaboration. Confidence (Trust) The first attribute is Confidence (Trust); however, for the purpose of creating the 5 Cs, it is called Confidence. The rest of the attributes are based on Confidence (Trust), that is the primary base for the creation of a team.

Many times we expect to have Commitment from all the members in a team, without first building Trust among the members. Then, the result is a low level of Commitment that will crumble when confronted with adversity due to a weak foundation. Now, how do you build Trust? I believe that trust is actually an individual and group phenomenon. There are people who tend to trust others from the very beginning, and people who need more time to build trustworthy relationships. On the other hand there are environments that foster the creation of trustworthy relationships, and others that dont. The leader of a team plays an important role in creating an atmosphere where trust among its members can be developed. There are three key elements required to build trust: 1- Leadership 2- Facts 3- Open Communication To build Trust among members, an appropiate atmosphere is required. The leader of a team plays a key role in creating this atmosphere, and he/she can do that by setting the example and properly guiding the other members of the team, to be able to establish the trustworthy relationships. A team led by a person that does not inspire trust is surely a team where trust will not flourish. Trust is built based on facts and action, not based on words! When team members find that they can depend on each other, on more ways than one, and feel that they are not let down, then a solid and trustworthy relationship is built. The communication within a team can be divided into two main categories: Issues that the team is dealing with. Interaction within the team itself. Most of the time conversations are focused on the issues that the team is dealing with; however, time must be invested in talking about the interaction within the team itself. Within the atmosphere of trust that needs to be established, it is important to differentiate these two types of communications, and to fully understand that by dealing and clarifying aspects of the interaction, will only help to create a much more effective and productive team. Consensus We can agree or not, but once we reach a consensus it is considered to be definite and when we leave the room, the teams decision must continue to be supported by everyone. Perhaps this phrase exemplifies very well the meaning of consensus.

Consensus is not just the decision of the majority, nor the decision of those who have more power. Consensus is built by participating in dialogue and active listening. If a team has already developed mutual trust, the pathway leading to consensus becomes much shorter. If team members have a trustworthy relationship, dialogue and discussion to reach a consensus is then based on their different points of view and not on indiviual positions; so, there are no winners or loosers, but an exchange of ideas that can bring better solutions from a teams point of view. When trust exists, reaching a consensus is easy, as it is based on facts and not on personal positions! I believe that just like the trust, there are some other elements that help to build a consensus: Active listening = understanding other peoples point of view. Eliminating subjectivities = specifying them; if it is not possible to fully eliminate them. Having empathy = making use of dialogue as a means to reach better solutions. Another important factor is to understand and comply with the rules that the team has to reach a consensus. By rules I mean the process of decision making, how information is gathered and shared, how input is received from each member of the team, how feedback is processed, how new options are explored, and when a decision is to be made. Commitment Team members can participate in a team, but not consider themselves aligned with the teams objective. They participate and do their job, but are not commited! In this situation, team members are not willing to give the best of themselves to each other. When team members are commited, they give their best, at all times, and make all necessary efforts to reach the teams objectives! The lack of commitment can be due to many factors, but perhaps the key one is the lack of alignment between individual and team objectives. Building commitment is a difficult task because it has to do with the interests and values of the team members. Team members will be committed if they feel part of something, that they belong to something. Now, what makes people feel part of something? I believe this can better be answered by another question: Whats in there for them? An effective way to build Commitment is by identifying the motivation of each member of the team. Everyone has different things that motivate them, and those motivations change with the course of time. Thats why the leader of a team must understand and continuously monitor the things that motivate the team members. The team leader also needs to make sure that these factors are taken care of, so they will generate commitment.

Collaboration Collaboration happens only when commitment is achieved! Collaboration means that each member of the team is giving his/her best, and helps others to reach their individual objectives. Members of a team can lever on the strengths of each one and complement the weaknesses that they can have, to obtain extraordinary results. When each team member really works effectively and at its best, then we can say that we have created a High Performance team. Miguel Premoli is the Human Resources Director for PepsiCos Concentrate operations in the Americas Region overseen operations in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, USA and Canada Ver ms informacin sobre el tema: