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Brian T. Luke, Ph.D. ( btluke@aol.com) LearningFromTheWeb.net This section contains an overview of Fuzz !ets an" Fuzz Lo#ic. This information is taken from Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications , $eor#e %. &lir an" Bo 'uan, Prentice (all, )% (*++,) $iven three fuzz sets (-, B, .), the each have associate" membershi/ functions (0a, 0b, 0c). !ince there is no ambi#uit , - can be interchan#e" with 0a, B with 0b, an" . with 0c. Therefore, throu#hout this te1t, - re/resents both a fuzz set an" its associate" membershi/ function. 2f 1 is the /arameter or value that "etermines which set(s) the "ata belon#s to, the membershi/ functions can be written as -(1), B(1), an" .(1). -n al/ha3cut of the membershi/ function - ("enote" a-) is the set of all 1 such that -(1) is #reater than or e4ual to al/ha (a). !imilarl , a stron# al/ha3cut ("enote" a5-) is the set of all 1 such that -(1) is strictl #reater than al/ha (a). 0athematicall ,

aA = {x | A(x) >= a} a+A = {x | A(x) > a}

6That is, the al/ha3cut (or the stron# al/ha3cut) of a fuzz set - is the cri/s set a- (or the cris/ set a5-) that contains all the elements of the universal set 7 whose membershi/ #ra"es in - are #reater than or e4ual to (or onl #reater than) the s/ecifie" value of al/ha.6 a- an" a5- are cris/ sets because a /articular value 1 either is or isn8t in the set9 there is no /artial membershi/. 6The set of all levels al/ha in :;,*< that re/resent "istinct al/ha3cuts of a #iven fuzz set - os calle" a level set of -. Formall 6

L(A) = {a | A(x) = a for some x in X} L(A) = [min(A),max(A)] for all x in X

or

2f a* an" a= are two al/ha values such that a*>a=, the cris/ set a=- (or a=5-) is totall containe" in the cri/s set a*- (or a*5-). This lea"s to

a1A n a2A = a2A a1A u a2A = a1A a1+A n a2+A = a2+A a1+A u a2+A = a1+A (intersection) (union)

an

6-n obvious conse4uence of this /ro/ert is that all al/ha3cuts an" all stron# al/ha3cuts of an fuzz set form two "istinct families of neste" cris/ sets.6

The 6su//ort6 of a fuzz set - is all 1 in 7 that have nonzero membershi/ in -, which is i"entical to the cris/ set ;5-. *- re/resents all 1 in 7 that are com/letel in a (no other sets) an" is calle" the 6core6 of -. The 6hei#ht6 of a fuzz set -, h(-), is sim/l ma1(-(1)) for all 1 in 7, or all 1 in the su//ort, ;5-. - fuzz set is 6normal6 when h(-)?* an" 6subnormal6 when h(-)>*. - fuzz set - on @ (a membershi/ function that "e/en"s u/on one variable) is conve1 iff

A(l!x1 + (1"l)!x2) >= min[A(x1),A(x2)]

for all 1* an" 1= in @ an" all l in the ran#e :;,*<. -s l varies from ; to *, 1?lA1*5(l3*)A1= varies from 1= to 1*. This "efinition states that a fuzz set if conve1 if an /oint in between two other /oints resi"es in the al/ha3cut that is lar#est. 2f -(1*)?a* an" -(1=)?a=, an" a*>a=, the 1= has to lie in a*- (also a*5- since a* is less than a=), an" all /oints between 1* an" 1= must lie in a*-. This woul" be true, for e1am/le, if the mambershi/ function -(1) were a #aussian function. )ote that this function is not conve1 in itself since /oints on the line Boinin# two interior /oints can be outsi"e the curve, but the fuzz set "efine" b this membershi/ function woul" be conve1 b the /recee"in# "efinition. 2f this membershi/ function ha" a "i/ at the ma1imum (for form a =3hille" function), then the fuzz set woul" not be conve1 since 1* an" 1= coul" be on either si"e of the central minimum an" a* an" a= #reater than the central minimum. !tan"ar" Fuzz !et C/erationsD

#tan ar #tan ar #tan ar $om%liment 'ntersection )nion A&(x) = 1 " A(x) (An()(x) = min[A(x),((x)] (Au()(x) = max[A(x),((x)]

)ote that 1 in 7 where -(1) ? -E(1) are calle" 6e4uilibrium /oints6 of -. Functions that 4ualif as fuzz intersections an" fuzz unions are usuall referre" to in the literature as 6t3norms6 an" 6t3conorms6, res/ectivel . The stan"ar" fuzz intersection is the weakest fuzz intersection (the lar#est fuzz set is /ro"uce"), while the stan"ar" fuzz union is the stron#est fuzz union (the smallest fuzz set is /ro"uce"). Fuzz intersections an" fuzz unions "o not cover all o/erations that a##re#ate fuzz sets, but the are the onl ones that are associative. The remainin# a##re#atin# o/erations must be "efine" as functions of n ar#uments for each nF=. -##re#ation o/erations that, for an #iven membershi/ #ra"es a*, a=, ..., an, /ro"uce a membershi/ #ra"e that lies between min(a*,a=,...,an) an" ma1(a*,a=,...,an) are calle" 6a#era#in# o/erations6. For an #iven fuzz sets, each of the avera#in# o/erations /ro"uces a fuzz set that is lar#er than an fuzz intersection an" smaller than an fuzz union. 2f each 1 in 7 has to be a member of -, B an"Gor ., we have

( = A& n $&

which means that if a /erson is not oun# an" the are not ol", the must be mi""le a#e". ()ote that an attem/t to al#ebraicall show this faile".) !imilarl ,

Au(An() = A %roof* max[A,min(A,()] = max[A,A] = A if A(x)+=((x) max[A,min(A,()] = max[A,(] = A if A(x)>((x) so it is true for all x,

For an fuzz set - "efine" on a finite universal set 7, we "efine its 6scalar car"inalit 6, H-H, b the formula

|A| = sum(x) [A(x)] for all x in X

!ome authors refer to H-H as the 6si#ma count6 of -. For an /air of fuzz sets "efine" on a finite universal set 7, the 6"e#ree of subsethoo"6, !(-,B), of - in B is "efine" b

#(A,() = (|A| " sum(x) {max[-,A(x)"((x)]}).|A| = |An(|.|A|

-""itional Pro/ertiesD - an" B are fuzz sets. The followin# /ro/erties hol" for a,b in the rann#e :;,*<.

(i) (ii) a+A is a su/set of aA a += / im%lies t0at /A is a su/set of aA an /+A is a su/set of a+A (iii) a(An() = aA n a( an a(Au() = aA u a( (i1) a+(An() = a+A n a+( an a+(Au() = a+A u a+( (1) a(A&) = (1"a)+A& 20is means t0at t0e al%0a"cut of t0e com%liment of A is t0e (1"a) stron3 al%0a"cut of A com%limente , a(A&) is not e4ual to aA& a+(A&) is not e4ual to a+A&

Fuzzy ComplementsD -(1) is "efines an" the "e#ree to which 1 belon#s to -. Let c- "enote a fuzz com/lement of of t /e c. c-(1) is the "e#ree that 1 belon#s to c-, an" the "e#ree to which 1 "oes not belon# to -. (-(1) is therefore the "e#ree to which 1 "oes not belon# to c-.)

c(A(x)) = cA(x)

Axiom c1, c(-)=1 an c(1)=(/oun r5 con itions)

Axiom c2,

(monotonicit5)

2n most cases of /ractical si#nificance, it is "esirable to consi"er various a""itional re4uirements for fuzz com/lements.

Axiom c6, Axiom c7, c is a continuous function c is 8in1oluti1e8, 90ic0 means t0at c(c(a))=a for all a in [-,1]

These a1ioms are not in"e/en"ent since it can be shown that if a com/lement function c obe s -1ioms c= an" cI, then it also must obe c* an" cJ. 2n a""ition, it must be a one3to3one function, which means that the function is also 6biBective6. 2t therefore follows that all involutive com/lements for a s/ecial subclass of all continuous com/lements, which in turn forms a s/ecial subclass of all fuzz com/lements. The !tan"ar" Fuzz .om/lement is one t /e of involutive fuzz com/lement. Cne class of involutive fuzz com/lements is the 6!u#eno class6 "efine" b

c"lam/ a(a) = (1"a).(1+lam/ a!a)

where lamb"a is in the ran#e (3*,inf). Khen lamb"a?;, this becomes the !tan"ar" Fuzz .om/lement. -nother class of involutive fuzz com/lements (6'a#er class6) is "efine" b

c"9(a) = (1"a!!9)!!(1.9)

where w is in the ran#e (;,inf). Khen w?*, we a#ain have the !tan"ar" Fuzz .om/lement.

20eorem 6,2* :1er5 fuss5 com%lement 0as at most one e4uili/rium, 20is means t0at c(a)"a=- for at most one a in [-,1], (20e fu;;5 com%lements are assume to o/e5 all 7 axioms t0rou30out,) Assume t0at a 3i1en fu;;5 com%lement c 0as an e4uili/rium e, 90ic0 /5 20eorem 6,2 is uni4ue, 20en a+=c(a) iff a+=e a>=c(a) iff a>=e 'f c is a continuous fu;;5 com%lement, t0en c 0as a uni4ue e4uili/rium,

20eorem 6,6*

20eorem 6,7*

c( a) " 20eorem 6,<* a = a " c(a) 'f a com%lement c 0as an e4uili/rium e, t0en t0e e4uili/rium is its o9n ual %oint e = e >or eac0 a in [-,1], a = c(a) iff c(c(a)) = a, t0at is, 90en t0e com%lement is in1oluti1e,

20eorem 6,=*

This means that if the com/lement is not involutive, wither the "ual /oint "oes not e1ist, or it "oes not coinci"e with the com/lement /oint.

20eorem 6,? (>irst $0aracteri;ation 20eorem of >u;;5 $om%lements)* Let c /e a function from [-,1] to [-,1], 20en, c is an in1oluti1e fu;;5 com%lement iff t0ere exists a continuous function 3 from [-,1] on @ suc0 t0at 3(-)=-, 3 is strictl5 increasin3, an c(a) = 3A(3(1)"3(a)), 3A is t0e in1erse of 3 for all a in [-,1],

Functions # are usuall calle" increasin# #enerators. Lach function that 4ualifies as an increasin# #enerator "etermines an involutive fuzz com/lement b the e4uation above. For a !tan"ar" Fuzz .om/lement, #(a)?a. For the !u#eno class of com/lements, #3lamb"a(a) ? ln(*5lamb"aAa)Glamb"a (lamb"a F 3*) For the 'a#er class of com/lements, #3w(a) ? aAAw (w F ;) Ke can combine these to #ive

3"lam/ a,9(a) = ln(1+lam/ a!(a!!9)).lam/ a (lam/ a > "1, 9 > -)

which iel"s

c"lam/ a,9(a) = ((1"a!!9).(1+lam/ a!(a!!9)))!!(1.9)

which contains the !u#eno class an" the 'a#er class as s/ecial subclasses. -s one more e1am/le

3"3amma(a) = a.(3amma+(1"3amma)!a) (3amma > -)

c"3amma(a) = ((3amma!!2)!(1"a)).(a+(3amma!!2)!(1"a)) (3amma > -)

20eorem 6,B (#econ $0aracteri;ation 20eorem of >u;;5 $om%lements)* Let c /e a function form [-,1] to [-,1], 20en c is an in1oluti1e fu;;5 com%lement iff t0ere exists a continuous function f from [-,1] to @ suc0 t0at f(1)=-, f is strictl5 ecreasun3, an c(a) = fA(f(-)"f(a)), fA is t0e in1erse of f for all a in [-,1],

For a !tan"ar" Fuzz .om/lement, f(a) ? 3kAa 5 k for all k F ;. For the 'a#er class of com/lements, f3w(a) ? *3aAAw (w F ;).

Fuzzy Intersections: t-norms The intersection of two fuzz sets, - an" B, is s/ecifie" b a binar o/eration on the unit interval9 that is, a function of the form

i* [-,1] x [-,1] "> [-,1]

For each element 1 of the universal set, this function takes as its ar#uments the membershi/s of 1 in the fuzz sets - an" B, an" iel"s the membershi/ #ra"e of the element in the set constitutin# the intersection of - an" B.

(An()(x) = i[A(x),((x)]

This o/erator, i, must /osses certain /ro/erties in or"er ensure that fuzz sets /ro"uce" b i are intuitivel acce/table as meanin#ful fuzz intersections of a #iven /air of fuzz sets. The class of t3norms is now #enerall acce/te" as e4uivalent to the class of fuzz intersections. Therefore, 6t3 norms6 an" 6fuzz omtersections6 ma be use" interchan#abl . )ote that the function i is in"e/en"ent of 19 it "e/en"s onl u/on the values if -(1) an" B(1) (or a an" b that are in :;,*<, re/ectivel ). - 6fuzz intersectionGt3norm6 i is a binar o/eration on the unt interval that satisfies at least the followin# a1ioms for all a, b an" " in the ran#e :;,*<.

Axiom Axiom Axiom Axiom i1* i2* i6* i7* i(a,1) = a (/oun r5 con ition) / += im%lies i(a,/) += i(a, ) (monotonicit5) i(a,/) = i(/,a) (commutati1it5) i(a,i(/, )) = i(i(a,/), ) (associati1it5)

Lets call these four a1ioms the 6a1iomatic skeleton for fuzz intersectionsGt3norms6. 2t is often "esirable to restrict the class of fuzz intersections (t3norms) b consi"erin# a""itional re4uirements. Three of the most im/ortant areD

Axiom i<* Axiom i=* Axiom i?* i is a continuous function (continuit5) i(a,a) + a (su/i em%otenc5) a1 + a2 an /1 + /2 im%lies i(a1,/1) + i(a2,/2) monotomicit5)

(strict

!ince the re4uirement in -1iom iM is weaker than 6i"em/otenc 6, the re4uirement that i(a,a)?a, it is calle" 6subi"em/otenc 6. - continuous t3norm that satisfies subi"em/otenc is calle" an 6-rchime"ean t3norm69 if it also satisfies strict monotomicit , it is calle" a 6strict -rchime"ean t3norm6.

20eorem 6,C* 20e #tan ar >u;;5 'ntersection is t0e onl5 i em%otent t"norm,

The followin# are e1am/les of some t3norms that are fre4uentl use" as fuzz intersections (each "efine" for all a,b in :;,*<).

#tan ar intersection* Al3e/raic %ro uct* (oun e ifference* Drastic intersection* i(a,/) i(a,/) i(a,/) i(a,/) = min(a,/) = a/ = max(-,a+/"1) = a 90en /=1 / 90en a=1 - ot0er9ise

The "rastic intersection is also "enotes 2min(a,b). The full ran#e of all fuzz intersections, i(a,b) is s/ecifie" in the nest theorem.

20eorem 6,1-* for all a,/ in [-,1], 'min(a,/) += i(a,/) += min(a,/)

-s "escribe" above, a 6"ecreasin# #enerator6 is a continuous an" strictl "ecreasin# function f from :;,*< to @ such that f(*)?;. The /seu"o3inverse of a "ecreasin# #enerator f, "enote" f(3*), is a function from @ to :;,*< #iven b

f("1)(a) = 1 for a in ("inf,-) fA(a) for a in [-,f(-)] (fA is t0e in1erse) for a in (f(-),inf)

f1(a) = 1 " a!!% (%>-) f1("1)(a) = 1 for a in ("inf,-) (1"a)!!(1.%) for a in [-,1] for a in (1,inf) an f2(a) = " ln(a) for an5 a in [-,1] 9it0 f2(-) = inf, f2("1)(a) = 1 for a in ("inf,-) ex%("a) for a in [-,inf)

- "ecreasin# #enerator an" its /seu"o3inverse satisf f(3*)(f(a))?a for an a in :;,*< an"

f(f("1)(a)) = a f(-) for a in ("inf,-) for a in [-,f(-)] for a in (f(-),inf)

-n 6increasin# #enerator6 is a continuous an" strictl increasin# function # from :;,*< to @ such that #(;)?;. The /seu"o3inverse of an increasin# #enerator #, "enote" #(3*), is a function from @ to :;,*< "efine" b

3("1)(a) = for a in ("inf,-) 3A(a) for a in [-,3(1)] 1 for a in (3(1), inf) (3A is t0e in1erse of 3)

31(a) = a!!% (%>-) for an5 a in [-,1] 31("1)(a) = for a in ("inf,-) a!!(1.%) for a in [-,1]

an

for a in (1,inf)

32(a) = "ln(1"a) for an5 a in [-,1] 9it0 32(1)=inf 32("1)(a) = for a in ("inf,-) 1"ex%("a) for a in [-,inf)

-n increasin# #enerator an" its /seu"o3inverse satisf #(3*)(#(a))?a for an a in :;,*< an"

3(3("1)(a)) = for a in ("inf,-) a for a in [-,3(1)] 3(1) for a in (3(1),inf) Lemma 6,1* Let f /5 a ecreasin3 3enerator, 20en a function 3 efine /5 3(a) = f(-) " f(a) for an5 a in [-,1] is an increasin3 3enerator 9it0 3(1)=f(-), an its %seu o"in1erse 3("1) is 3i1en /5 3("1)(a) = f("1)(f(-)"a) for an5 a in @, Let 3 /e an increasin3 3enerator, 20en a function f efine /5 f(a) = 3(1) " 3(a) for an5 a in [-,1] is a ecreasin3 3enerator 9it0 f(-)=3(1), an its %seu o"in1erse f("1) is 3i1en /5 f("1)(a) = 3("1)(3(1)"a) for an5 a in @,

Lemma 6,2*

20eorem 6,11 ($0aracteri;ation 20eorem of t"Eorms)* Let i /e a /inar5 o%eration on t0e unit inter1al, 20en, i is an Arc0ime ean t"norm iff t0ere exists a ecreasin3 3enerator f suc0 t0at i(a,/) = f("1)(f(a)+f(/)) for all a,/ in [-,1],

1, [#c09ei;er an #Flar, 1C=6]* f(a) = 1 " a!!% (% is not -) f("1)(;) = 1 (1";)!!(1.%) t0en i(a,/) = f("1)(f(a)+f(/)) = f("1)(2 " a!!% " /!!%) = (a!!% + /!!% " 1)!!(1.%) 90en (2 " a!!% " /!!%) is in [-,1] ot0er9ise = (max(-, a!!% + /!!% "1))!!(1.%) 2, [Ga3er, 1CB-]* f(a) = (1"a)!!9 (9>-) 90en ; is in ("inf,-) 90en ; is in [-,1] 90en ; is in (1,inf)

f("1)(;) = 1 " ;!!(1.9) 90en ; is in [-,1] 90en ; is in (1,inf) t0en i(a,/) = f("1)(f(a)+f(/))

= 1 " min(1,[(1"a)!!9 + (1"/)!!9]!!(1.9)) 6, [>ranF, 1C?C] f(a) = " ln[(s!!a"1).(s"1)] (s>-, s is not 1)

f("1)(;) = lo3(s)(1 + (s"1)!ex%(";)) t0en i(a,/) = f("1)("ln[(s!!a"1)!(s!!/"1).(s"1)!!2]) = lo3(s)(1 + (s"1) ! (s!!a"1)!(s!!/"1).(s"1)!!2) = lo3(s)(1 + (s!!a"1)!(s!!/"1).(s"1))

i"9(a,/) = 1 " min(1,[(1"a)!!9 + (1"/)!!9]!!(1.9)) (9>-)

20eorem 6,12* Let i"9 enote t0e class of Ga3er t"norms 'min(a,/) += i"9(a,/) += min(a,/) efine a/o1e, t0en

Dom/i [1CB2]* i(a,/) = 1.{1+[((1.a)"1)!!ll + ((1./)"1)!!ll]!!(1.ll)} f(a) = ((1.a)"1)!!ll ll>i(a,/) = lo3(s) {1 + (s!!a"1)!(s!!/"1).(s"1)} f(a) = "ln((s!!a"1).(s"1)) s>-, s is not e4ual to 1

>ranF [1C?C]*

Hamac0er [1C?B]* i(a,/) = a/.[r+(1"r)!(a+/"a/)] f(a) = "ln[a.{r + (1"r)!a}] r > #c09ei;er I #Flar 1 [1C=6]* i(a,/) = [max(-,a!!%+/!!%"1)]!!(1.%) f(a) = 1"a!!% % is not e4ual to #c09ei;er I #Flar 2* i(a,/) = 1 " [(1"a)!!% + (1"/)!!% " {(1"a)!(1"/)}!!%]!!(1.%) f(a) = ln[1"(1"a)!!%]!!(1.%) % > #c09ei;er I #Flar 6* i(a,/) = ex%["(|ln(a)|!!% + |ln(/)|!!%)!!(1.%)] f(a) = |ln(a)|!!% % > -

#c09ei;er I #Flar 7* i(a,/) = a/.[a!!% + /!!% " (a/)!!%]!!(1.%) f(a) = a!!("%) " 1 % > Ga3er [1CB-f]* i(a,/) = 1 " min{1,[(1"a)!!9 + (1"/)!!9]!!(1.9)} f(a) = (1"a)!!9 9 > Du/ois I Jra e [1CB-]* i(a,/) = a/.max(a,/,al%0a) al%0a is in [-,1] Ke/er [1CB6]* i(a,/) = max(-,((a+/+ll!a!/"1).(1+ll)) f(a) = ln[1+ll!(1"a)].ll ll > "1 i(a,/) = max[-,(1+ll)!(a+/"1)"ll!a!/] f(a) = ln((1+ll).(1+ll!a)).ll ll > "1

Gu [1CB<]*

The followin# theorem shows ou how to #enerate new t3norms from e1istin# t3norms.

20eorem 6,16* Let i /e a t"norm an let 3 * [-,1} "> [-,1] /e a function suc0 t0at 3 is strictl5 increasin3 an continuous in (-,1) an 3(-)=-, 3(1)=1, 20en t0e function i"3 efine /5 i"3(a,/) = 3("1)(i(3(a),3(/))) for all a,/ in [-,1], 90ere 3("1) is te0 %seu o"in1erse of 3, is also a t"norm,

There are other metho"s for obtainin# t3norms from #iven t3norms, which are base" on various wa s of combininf several t3norms into one t3norm. Fuzzy nions: t-conorms The #eneral fuzz union of two fuzz sets - an" B is s/ecifie" b a function

u* [-,1]x[-,1] "> [-,1] or (Au()(x) = u[A(x),((x)]

Pro/erties that a function u must satisf to be intuitivel acce/table as a fuzz union are e1actl the same as /ro/erties of functions that are known in the literature as t3conorms. - fuzz unionGt3conorm u is a binar o/eration on the unit interval that satisfies at lease the followin# a1ioms for all a,b," in :;,*<D

Axiom Axiom Axiom Axiom u1* u2* u6* u7* u(a,-) = a (/oun r5 con ition) / += im%lies u(a,/) += u(a, ) (monotonicit5) u(a,/) = u(/,a) (commutati1it5) u(a,u(/, )) = u(u(a,/), ) (associati1it5)

These are calle" the 6a1iomatic skeleton for fuzz unionsGt3conorms6. The most im/ortant a""itional re4uirements for fuzz unions are e1/resse" b the followin# a1iomsD

Axiom u<* Axiom u=* Axiom u?* u is a continuous function (continuit5) u(a,a) > a (su%eri em%otenc5) a1 + a2 am /1 + /2 im%lies u(a1,/1) + u(a2,/2) (strict monotonicit5)

-n continuous an" su/eri"em/otent t3conorm is calle" 6-rchime"ean69 if it is also strictl monotomic, it is calle" 6strictl -rchime"ean6.

20eorem 6,17* 20e stan ar fu;;5 union is t0e onl5 i em%otent t"conorm, (i,e, it is t0e onl5 one 90ere u(a,a) = a),

(ere are some e1am/les to t3conorms that are fre4uentl use" as fuzz unions (each "efine" for all a an" b in :;,*<)D

#tan ar union* Al3e/raic sum* (oun e sum* Drastic union* u(a,/) u(a,/) u(a,/) u(a,/) = max(a,/) = a + / "a/ = min(1,a+/) = a 90en /=/ 90en a=1 ot0er9ise

20eorem 6,1<* >or all a,/ in [-,1] max(a,/) += u(a,/) += )max(a,/) 90ere )max enotes t0e rastic union,

20eorem 6,1= ($0aracteri;ation 20eorem of t"$onorms)* Let u /e a /inar5 o%eration on t0e unit inter1al, 20en, u is an Arc0eme ean t"cornom iff t0ere exists an increasin3 3enerator suc0 t0at u(a,/) = 3("1)(3(a) + 3(/)) for all a,/ in [-,1],

Dom/i [1CB2]* u(a,/) = 1.{1 + [((1.a)"1)!!ll + ((1./)"1)!!ll]!!(1.ll)} 3(a) = 1.{[(1.a)"1]!!ll} ll > u(a,/)=1"lo3(s){1+[(s!!(1"a)"1)!(s!!(1"/)"1).(s"1)]} 3(a) = "ln{(s!!(1"a)"1).(s"1)} s > -, s is not e4ual to 1

>ranF [1C?C]*

#c09ei;er I #Flar 1 [1C=6]* u(a,/) = 1 " {max(-,(1"a)!!% + (1"/)!!% "1)}!!(1.%) 3(a) = 1 " (1"a)!!% % is not e4ual to #c09ei;er I #Flar 2* u(a,/) = [a!!% ! /!!% " (a!/)!!%]!!(1.%) 3(a) = ln[1 " a!!%]!!(1.%) % > #c09ei;er I #Flar 6* u(a,/) = 1 " ex%("(|ln(1"a)|!!% + |ln(1"/)|!!%)!!(1.%)) 3(a) = |ln(1"a)|!!% % > #c09ei;er I #Flar 7* u(a,/) = 1 " [(1"a)!(1"/)].[(1"a)!!%+(1"/)!!%"{(1"a)!(1" /)}!!%]!!(1.%) 3(a) = (1"a)!!("%) " 1 % > Ga3er [1CB-f]* u(a,/) = min[1,(a!!9+/!!9)!!(1.9)] 3(a) = a!!9 9 > Du/ois I Jra e [1CB-]* u(a,/) = 1 " {[(1"a)!(1"/)].max((1"a),(1"/),al%0a)} al%0a is in [-,1] Ke/er [1CB6]* u(a,/) = min(1,a+/"(ll!a!/).(1"ll)) 3(a) = (1.ll)!ln((1+ll).(1+ll!(1"a))) ll > "1 u(a,/) = min(1,a+/+ll!a!/) 3(a) = (1.ll)!ln(1+ll!a) ll>"1

Gu [1CB<]

The 'a#er class of t3conorms, u3w(a,b), covers the whole ran#e of t3conorms.

20eorem 6,1?* Let u"9 enote t0e class of Ga3er t"conorms, max(a,/) += u"9(a,/) += )max(a,/) for all a,/ in [-,1] an all 9 > -, 20en

20eorem 6,1B* Let u /e a t"conorm an let 3* [-,1] "> [-,1] /e a function suc0 t0at 3 is strictl5 increasin3 an continuous on (-,1) an 3(-)=-, 3(1)=1, 20en, t0e function u"3 efine /5 u"3(a,/) = 3("1)(u(3(a),3(/))) for all a,/ in [-,1] is also a t"conorm,

Com!inations of "perations 2n classical set theor , the o/erations of intersection an" union are "ual with res/ect to the com/lement in that the satisf the De 0or#an laws *. The com/lement of the intersection of - an" B e4uals the union of the com/lement of an" the com/lement of B. =. The com/lement of the union of - an" B e4uals the intersection of the com/lement of an" the cmo/lement of B. Cbviousl , onl certain combinations of t3norms, t3conorms, an" fuzz com/lements satisf the "ualit . Ke sa that a t3norm i an" a t3conorm u are 6"ual with res/ect to a fuzz com/lement c6 iff

c(i(a,/)) = u(c(a),c(/)) an c(u(a,/)) = i(c(a),c(/))

These e4uations "efine the De 0or#an laws for fuzz sets. Let the tri/le (i,u,c) "enote that i an" u are "ual with res/ect to c, an" let an such tri/le be calle" a 6"ual tri/le6. The followin# t3norms an" t3conorms are "ual with res/ect to the !tan"ar" Fuzz .om/lement cs (i.e., "ual tri/les)D

(min(a,/),max(a,/),cs) (a/,a+/"a/,cs) (max(-,a+/"1),min(1,a+/),cs ('min(a,/),)max(a,/),cs) 20eorem 6,1C* 20eorem 6,2-* 20e tri%les (min,max,c) an ('min,)max,c) are res%ect to an5 fu;;5 com%lement c, ual 9it0

Li1en a t"norm i an an in1oluti1e fu;;5 com%lement c, t0e /inar5 o%eration u on [-,1] efine /5 u(a,/) = c(i(c(a),c(/))) for all a,/ in [-,1] is a t"conorm suc0 t0at (i,u,c) is a ual tri%le, Li1en a t"conorm u an an in1oluti1e fu;;5 com%lement c, t0e /inar5 o%eration i on [-,1] efine /5 i(a,/) = c(u(c(a),c(/))) for all a,/ in [-,1] is a t"norm suc0 t0at (i,u,c) is a ual tri%le, Li1en an in1oluti1e fu;;5 com%lement c an an increasin3 3enerator 3 of c, t0e t"norm an t"conorm 3enerate /5 3 are ual 9it0 res%ect to c, Let (i,u,c) /e a ual tri%le 3enerate /5 20eorem 6,22, 20en, t0e fu;;5 o%erations i, u, c satisf5 t0e la9 of exclu e mi le [u(a,c(a))=1] an t0e la9 of contra iction [i(a,c(a))=-]

20eorem 6,21*

20eorem 6,22*

20eorem 6,26*

20eorem 6,27*

Let (i,u,c) /e a ual tri%le t0at satisfies t0e la9 of exclu e mi le an t0e la9 of contra iction, 20en (i,u,c) oes not satisf5 t0e istri/uti1e la9s, 20is means t0at i(a,u(/, )) is not e4ual to u(i(a,/),i(a, )) for all a,/, in [-,1]

Aggregation "perations -##re#ation o/erations on fuzz sets are o/erations b which several fuzz sets are combine" in a "esirable wa to /ro"uce a sin#le fuzz set. Formall , an 6a##re#ation o/eration6 on n fuzz sets (nF?=) is "efine" b a function

or 0* [-,1]!!n "> [-,1] A(x) = 0(A1(x),A2(x),,,,,An(x))

2n or"er to 4ualif as an intuitivel meanin#ful a##re#ation function, h must satisf at lease the followin# three a1iomatic re4uirements, which e1/ress the essence of the notion of a##re#ationD

Axiom 01* Axiom 02* 0(-,-,,,,,-)=- an 0(1,1,,,,,1)=1 (/oun r5 con itions) >or an5 %air (a1,a2,,,,,an) an (/1,/2,,,,,/n) of n"tu%les suc0 t0at ai,/i are in [-,1] for all i, if ai+=/i for all i, t0en 0(a1,a2,,,,,an) += 0(/1,/2,,,,,/n) (i,e, 0 is monotonic increasin3 in all its ar3uments), Axiom 06* 0 is a continuous function,

-##re#ation o/erations on fuzz sets are usuall e1/ecte" to satisf two a""itional a1iomatic re4uirements.

Axiom 07* 0 is a 8s5mmetric8 functino in all its ar3umentsM t0at is 0(a1,a2,,,,an) = 0(a"%(1),a"%(2),,,,,a"%(n)) for an5 %ermutation % of t0e in ices, Axiom 0<* 0 is an 8i em%otent8 functionM t0at is, 0(a,a,,,,,a) = a for all a in [-,1],

-n a##re#ation o/eration h that satisfies -1ioms h= an" h, also satisfies the ine4ualities

min(a1,a2,,,,,an) += 0(a1,a2,,,,,an) += max(a1,a2,,,,,an)

for all n3tu/les (a*,a=,...,an) in :;,*<AAn. 2t is also true that an a##re#ation o/eration that satisfies the above ine4ualities also satisfies -1iom h,. This means that all a##re#ation o/erations between the stan"ar" fuzz intersection an" the stan"ar" fuzz union are i"em/otent, an" the are the onl ones that are i"em/otent. These a##re#ation o/erations are usuall calle" 6avera#in# o/erations6. Cne class of avera#in# o/erations that covers the entire interval between the min an" ma1 o/erations consist of 6#eneralize" means6. The are "efine" b the formula

0"x(a1,a2,,,,,an) = ((a1!!x+a2!!x+,,,+an!!x).n)!!(1.x)

where 1 is an real number e1ce/t ; an" all ai8s can8t be zero. 2f 1 ? 3*, h is the harmonic mean, as 1 3F ;, h a//roaches the #eometric mean, an" for 1 ? *, h is the arithmetic mean. -nother class of a##re#ation o/erations that covers the entire interval between the min an" ma1 o/erators is calle" the class of 6or"ere" wei#hte" avera#in# o/erations69 the acron m CK- is often use" in the literature to refer to these o/erations. Let

9 = (91,92,,,,,9n)

sum(i=1,n)9i = 1,

09(a1,a2,,,,,an) = 91/1 + 92/2 + ,,, + 9n/n,

where bi for an i is the i3th lar#est element in a*,a=,....,an (the b vector is a /ermutation of the a vector su#h that the elements are or"ere" from lar#est to smallest).

20eorem 6,2<* Let 0 * [-,1]!!n "> @+ (%ositi1e reals) /e a function t0at satisfies Axioms 01 an 02 an t0e %ro%ert5 0(a1+/1,a2+/2,,,,,an+/n) = 0(a1,a2,,,,an)+0(/1,/2,,,,,/n) 90ere ai,/i,ai+/i are in [-,1] for all i, t0en 0(a1,a2,,,,,an) = sum(i=1,n)9i!ai 90ere 9i > - for all i, Let 0* [-,1]!!n "> [-,1] /e a function t0at satisfies Axioms 01 an 06 an t0e %ro%erties 0(max(a1,/1),,,,,max(an,/n))=max(0(a1,,,,,an),0(/1,,,,,/n)) 0i(0i(ai))=0i(ai) 90ere 0i(ai)=0(-,,,,,-,ai,-,,,,,-) for all i, 20en, 0(a1,,,,,an)=max(min(91,a1),,,,,min(9n,an)) 90ere 9i is in [-,1] for all i, (20is is a 89ei30te 4uasi"a1era3e8, in 90ic0 t0e min an max o%erations re%lace, res%ecti1el5, t0e arit0metic %ro uce an sum,) Let 0* [-,1]!!n "> [-,1] /e a function t0at satisfies Axioms 01 an 06 an t0e %ro%erties 0(min(a1,/1),,,,,min(an,/n))=min(0(a1,,,,,an),0(/1,,,,,/n)) 0i(a/) = 0i(a)!0i(/) an 0i(-)=for all i, 90ere 0i(ai) = 0(1,,,,,1,ai,1,,,,,1), 20en, t0ere exist num/ers x1,x2,,,,,xn in [-,1] suc0 t0at 0(a1,a2,,,,,an) = min(a1!!x1,a2!!x2,,,,,an!!xn)

20eorem 6,2=*

20eorem 6,2?*

- s/ecial kin" of a##re#ation o/erations are binar o/erations h on :;,*< that satisf the /ro/erties of 6monotomicit 6, 6commutativit 6 an" 6asscoiativit 6 of t3norms an" t3conorms, but re/lace the boun"r con"itions with weaker boun"r con"itions

0(-,-)=- an 0(1,1)=1,

These a##re#ation o/erations are calle" 6norm o/erations6. Khen a norm o/eration also has the /ro/ert h(a,*)?a, it becomes a t3norm9 when it also has the /ro/ert h(a,;)?a, it becomes a t3conorm. Ctherwise, it is an 6associative avera#in# o/eration6. (ence, norm o/erations cover the while ran#e of a##re#atin# o/eratins, from 2min to Nma1. - /arameterize" class of norm o/erations that is neither t3norms or t3conorms is the calss of binar o/ertastions on :;,*< "efine" b

for all a,b in :;,*<, where ll is in (;,*), i is a t3norm an" u is a t3conorm. These o/erations are calle" ll3avera#es. !/ecial norm o/erations, referre" to in the literature as 6me"ians6, are "efine" in the followin# theorem.

20eorem 6,2B* Let a norm o%eration 0 /e continuous an t0ere exists ll in [-,1] suc0 t0at 0 = max(a,/) 90en a,/ are in [-,ll] min(a,/) 90en a,/ are in [ll,1] ll ot0er9ise for an5 a,/ in [-,1] i em%otent, 20en

#: F $$% A&IT'()TIC Fuzzy Numbers To 4ualif as a 6fuzz number6, a fuzz set - on @ must /ossess at least the followin# three /ro/ertiesD

(i) A must /e a normal fu;;5 setM (ii) aA (al%0a"cut of AM {x| A(x) >= a}) must /e a close inter1al for e1er5 a in (-,1]M (iii) t0e su%%ort of A, -+A (stron3 -"cut of AM {x| A(x) > -}), must /e /oun e ,

Therefore, ever fuzz number is a conve1 fuzz set. -lthou#h trian#ular an" tra/ezoi"al sha/es of membershi/ functions are most often use" for re/resentin# fuzz numbers, other sha/es ma be /referable in some a//lications, an" the nee" not be s mmetrical. This can inclu"e s mmetric or as mmetric 6bell3sha/e"6 membershi/ functions, or strictl increasin# or "ecreasin# functions (e.#. si#moi"s) that ca/ture the conce/t of a 6lar#e number6 or a 6small number6. The followin# theorem shows that membershi/ functions of fuzz numbers ma be, in #eneral, /iecewise3"efine" functions.

20eorem 7,1* Let A /e a mem/er of t0e fu;;5 sets, 20en, A is a fu;;5 num/er iff t0ere exists a close inter1al [a,/], 90ic0 is not em%t5, suc0 t0at A(x) = 1 for x in [a,/] l(x) for x in ("inf,a) r(x) for x in (/,inf) 90ere l is a function from ("inf,a) to [-,1] t0at is monotomic

increasin3, continuous from t0e ri30t, an suc0 t0at l(x)=- for x in ("inf,91)M r is a function from (/,inf) to [-,1] t0at is monotonic ecreasin3, continuous from t0e left, an suc0 t0at r(x)=- for x in (92,inf)

This im/lies that ever fuzz number can be re/resente" in the form of Theorem I.*. This form means that fuzz numbers can be "efine" in a /iecewise manner. The si#moi" increasin# or "ecreasin# functions can be "efine" in this form b e1ten"in# the function to 3inf an" inf b Bust settin# l(1) an"Gor r(1) to ;. Nsin# fuzz numbers, we can "efine the conce/t of a fuzz car"inalit for fuzz sets that are "efine" on finite universal sets. $iven a fuzz set - "efine" on a finite universal set 7, its fuzz car"inalit , H-OH, is a fuzz number "efine" b the formula

|AA|(|aA|) = a

for all a in Lamb"a(-). Arithmetic Operations on Intervals Fuzz arithmetic is base" on two /ro/erties of fuzz numbersD *. each fuzz set, an" thus each fuzz number, can full an" uni4uel be re/resente" b its al/ha3cuts9 =. al/ha3cuts of each fuzz number are close" intervals of real numbers for all al/ha in +;,*<. Therefore, arithmetic o/erations on fuzz numbers can be "efine" in terms of arithmetic o/erations on their al/ha3cuts (i.e. arithmetic o/erations on close" intervals), which is treate" in the fiel" of 6interval anal sis6. Let P "enote an of the four arithmetic o/eratins on close" intervalsD 6a""ition6 5, 6subtraction6 3, 6multi/lication6 A, an" 6"ivision6 G. Then,

[a,/] N [ ,e] = { fN3 | a+=f+=/, +=3+=e}

is a #eneral /ro/ert of all arithmetic o/erations on close" intervals, e1ce/t :a,b<G:",e< is not "efine" when ; is in the interval :",e<. Therefore, the result of an arithmetic o/eration on close" intervals is a#ain a close" interval. The four arithmetic o/erations on close" intervals are "efine" as followsD

[a,/] + [ ,e] = [a+ ,/+e] [a,/] " [ ,e] = [a"e,/" ] [a,/] ! [ ,e] = [min(a ,ae,/ ,/e),max(a ,ae,/ ,/e)]

[a,/] . [ ,e] = [a,/] ! [1.e,1. ]

)ote that a real number r ma also be re#ar"e" as a s/ecial ("e#erate") interval :r,r<. Khen one of the intervals in the above e4uations is "e#enerate", we obtain s/ecial o/erations9 when both of them are "e#erate", we obtain the stan"ar" arithmetic of real numbers. Lettin# -?:a*,a=<, B?:b*,b=<, .?:c*,c=<, ;?:;,;<, *?:*,*<, useful /ro/erties of arithmetic o/erations are as followsD

1, 2, 6, 7, <, A+( = (+AM A!( = (!A (commutati1it5) (A+()+$ = A+((+$)M (A!()!$ = A!((!$) (associati1it5) A = -+A = A+-M A = 1!A = A!1 (i entit5) A!((+$) is a su/set of A!( + A!$ (su/ istri/uti1it5) 'f /!c >= - for e1er5 / in ( an c in $, t0en A!((+$) = A!( + A!$ ( istri/uti1it5) >urt0ermore, if A = [a,a}, t0en a!(/+c) = a!( + a!$ - is a su/set of A"A an 1 is a su/set of A.A 'f A is a su/set of : an ( is a su/set of >, t0en A+( is a su/set of :+> A"( is a su/set of :"> A!( is a su/set of :!> A.( is a su/set of :.> (inclusion monotomicit5)

=, ?,

Arithmetic Operations on Fuzzy Numbers Ke assume in this section that fuzz numbers are re/resente" b continuous membershi/ functions. 2f P is an of the four basic arithmetic o/erations on teh Fuzz sets - an" B, we "efine a fuzz set -PB b "efinin# its al/ha3cut, a(-PB), as

a(AN() = aA N a(

AN( = )nion(all a in [-,1]) a(AN()

!ince a(-PB) is a close" interval for each a in +;,*<, an" - an" B are fuzz numbers, -PB is also a fuzz number. -s an e1am/le, consi"er two trian#ular sha/e" fuzz numbers - an" B "efine" as followsD

A(x) = for x += "1 an x > 6 (x+1).2 for "1 + x += 1 (6"x).2 for 1 + x += 6 ((x) = for x += 1 an x > < (x"1).2 for 1 + x += 6 (<"x).2 for 6 + x += <

aA = [2a"1,6"2a] a( = [2a+1,<"2a]

a(A+() = [7a,B"7a] for a in (-,1] a(A"() = [7a"=,2"7a] for a in (-,1] a(A!() = ["7!a!!2+12!a"<,7!a!!2"1=!a+1<] for a in (-,,<] [7!a!!2"1,7!a!!2"1=!a+1<] for a in (,<,1] a(A.() = [(2a"1).(2a+1),(6"2a).(2a+1)] [(2a"1).(<"2a),(6"2a).(2a+1)] for a in (-,,<] for a in (,<,1]

(A+()(x) = x.7 (B"x).7 (A"()(x) = (x+=).7 (2"x).7 for x += - an x > B for - + x += 7 for 7 + x += B for x += "= an x > 2 for "= + x += "2 for "2 + x += 2

(A!()(x) = for x + "< an x >= 1< [6 " s4rt(7 " x)].2 for "< += x + [s4rt(1+x).2] for - += x + 6 [7 " s4rt(1 + x)].2 for 6 += x + 1< (A.()(x) = (x+1).(2"2x) (<x+1).(2x+2) (6"x).(2x+2) for for for for x + "1 an x >= 6 "1 += x + - += x + 1.6 1.6 + x + 6

There is a secon" metho" for "evelo/in# fuzz arithmetic, which is base" on the e1tension /rinci/le (!ection =.J), where stan"ar" arithmetic o/erations on real numbers are e1ten"e" to fuzz numbers.

(AN()(;) = su%remum(;=xN5) {min[A(x),((5)]}

for all z in the set of real numbers. 0ore s/ecificall , we "efine for all z in @D

(A+()(;) = su%remum(;=x+5) {min[A(x),((5)]} (A"()(;) = su%remum(;=x"5) {min[A(x),((5)]} (A!()(;) = su%remum(;=x!5) {min[A(x),((5)]} (A.()(;) = su%remum(;=x.5) {min[A(x),((5)]} 20eorem 7,2* Let N /e an element of {+,",!,.}, an let A,( enote continuous fu;;5 num/ers, 20en, t0e fu;;5 set AN( efine a/o1e is a continuous fu;;5 num/er,

Just what is Fuzzy Logic? Fuzzy Logic was actually invented by Lofti Zadeh way back in 1965. es!ite its na"e# Fuzzy Logic is not the science of fuzzy thinking co"bined with fuzzy conclusions $%&. Fuzzy Logic is a "ethod fo' "odeling and 'easoning about i"!'ecise o' a!!'o(i"ate conce!ts. )'aditional logic# whe'e conce!ts "ust be t'ue o' false# ze'o o' one# has t'ouble at the bounda'ies of a !'oble"$ *s the wate' hot o' cold? *t+s neithe' and both# it is so"ewhat hot. Fuzzy logic conce'ns itself with the bounda'ies of a conce!t# things can be ,so"ewhat t'ue, and ,so'ta false,. Fuzzy Logic 'educes syste" co"!le(ity by avoiding the co"!le( "athe"atics and logic necessa'y to solve !'oble"s at these bounda'y conditions using t'aditional# e(ists-not e(ists# logic. *t is able to a!!'o(i"ate the behavio' of !'oble"s that a'e !oo'ly unde'stood o' non%linea'. Fuzzy Logic also e(hibits anothe' desi'able cha'acte'istic# it allows the use' to 'e!'esent o' "odel the !'oble" linguistically. Fuzzy Logic allows 'easoning about the !'oble" in ways natu'al to the use'$ *s the te"!e'atu'e hot? .ow long is the !'o/ect du'ation? 0sing linguistic va'iables 1si"ila' to 'egula' va'iables like 2 and 3 e(ce!t they take values like ,cold, o' ,not ve'y long,&# Fuzzy Logic !'ovides a close' "a!!ing between the actual# 'eal wo'ld# !'oble" and the co"!ute' 'e!'esentation of the !'oble". 4ltogethe'# Fuzzy Logic !'ovides a "echanis" fo' 'educing develo!"ent ti"e# "odelling co"!le( non%linea' syste"s# and inc'easing co"!'ehension and unde'standing of the solutions "ade.

Fuzzy Logic 1see Fuzzy Logic 5o"!onent Lib'a'y&# and Fuzzy Logic e(!e't syste"s 1see *nfe'ence 6ngine 5o"!onent 7uite&# !'ovide the ability to "ake you' solutions "o'e intuitive and natu'al# with less 'ules# and with g'eate' 'eadability and "aintainability. *t also "akes you' syste"s "o'e !owe'ful by "odelling !'oble"s ha'd to solve using t'aditional techni8ues. Fuzzy Logic !'ovides the following advantages fo' develo!ing syste"s$

9odels co"!le(# non%linea' !'oble"s 1,the difficult !'oble"s,& *"!'oved 5ognitive 9odeling between the e(!e't syste" o' you' code and the unde'lying !'oble" and decision "aking !'ocess

4ble to 'e!'esent "ulti!le ,e(!e'ts, on a !'oble"# including conflicting 'ules and decision "aking: ;educes coding and e(!e't syste" co"!le(ity# 'e8ui'ing less 'ules which a'e also "o'e easily unde'standable *"!'oved# "o'e consistent and "athe"atically sound "odeling of unce'tainty and !ossibilities

Fuzzy Logic is a g'eat "atch fo' !'ocess and cont'ol enginee'ing !'oble"s# business logic and 'isk analysis# and info'"ation decision su!!o't syste"s. Fo' e(a"!le# Fuzzy Logic can solve !'oble"s to auto"atically b'ake t'ains to a sto!# back 1< wheele' t'ucks u! to a loading dock# assess !'o/ect 'isk# calculate !'icing fo' new !'oducts# balance a !endulu"# cont'ol "i(ing of flow of li8uids# etc.

4s o!!osed to nu"be's and disc'ete sy"bols# Fuzzy Logic 'easons based on fuzzy set theo'y. 0nlike t'aditional sets though# whe'e a value "ay eithe' be in 1);06 o' one& o' not in 1False o' ze'o& a set 1a "e"be' of a set&# fuzzy sets a'e "o'e fle(ible allowing values to have a deg'ee of "e"be'shi! in the set between ze'o and one. 9o'e fo'"ally# fuzzy sets a'e ,functions that "a! a value# which "ight be a "e"be' of a set# to a nu"be' between ze'o and one# indicating its actual deg'ee of "e"be'shi!., 9e"be'shi! values of ze'o indicate that a value is not in the set# while "e"be'shi! values of one indicate a value is co"!letely in the set. Fuzzy set theo'y allows us to define the te'"s o' values that a linguistic va'iable "ay take. Fo' e(a"!le# we "ay define a fuzzy ty!e which is based on Temperature. 4ny va'iable of this ty!e "ay take fuzzy set values of cold, warm, and hot. 5old# wa'"# and hot a'e the fuzzy sets which define the te'"s of the ty!e. 6ach fuzzy set defines a "e"be'shi! function ove' the do"ain of te"!e'atu'e. *f# fo' ou' e(a"!le# te"!e'atu'e has a 'ange between = and 1== 5elsius# Cold could be a fuzzy set that defined any value unde' 1= 5elcius as co"!letely cold 1one o' )'ue&# any value ove' 5= as not at all cold 1ze'o&# and any value in between having a "e"be'shi! between ze'o and one. )he g'a!h below illust'ates this !oint$

>u;;5 Oaria/le* 2em%erature >u;;5 Oalues* col (!) 1,----!!!!!!! -,C<-!!

-,C---,B<--,B---,?<--,?---,=<--,=---,<<--,<---,7<--,7---,6<--,6---,2<--,2---,1<--,1---,-<--,----

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

>n the Left o' y a(is is the deg'ee of "e"be'shi! and on the botto" o' (% a(is is the unive'se of discou'se# in this case the te"!e'atu'e 'ange. 4 te"!e'atu'e 'eading of 1= "eans that ou' belief that the te"!e'atu'e is cold is 1==?. 4s the te"!e'atu'e inc'eases# ou' belief that the te"!e'atu'e is cold dec'eases until we don+t believe it at all at 5= 5elsius. @ote that ou' definition of a linguistic va'iable is slightly diffe'ent f'o" what is defined in )he Fuzzy 7yste"s .andbook by 6a'l 5o( 1highly 'eco""ended by the way&. Fo' the *657 and FL5L# a fuzzy linguistic va'iable can take a fuzzy set value# which is a fuzzy set "odified by 8ualifie's. >u' fuzzy set value is what 6a'l 5o( defines as a linguistic va'iable. Fuzzy 7ets can be co"bined into e(!'essions using ,and, and ,o', as well as "odified by 8ualifie's# called hedges in fuzzy logic no"enclatu'e. .edges "odify the sha!e of a fuzzy set in !'edictable ways. Fo' e(a"!le# the very hedge "odifies a fuzzy set by !ushing all values less than one towa'ds ze'o. )his has the effect of sh'inking the bounda'y# the fuzzy !o'tion# of the set close' to the a'ea that is co"!letely in the set$

>u;;5 Oaria/le* 2em%erature >u;;5 Oalues* col (!) 1er5 col (+) 1,----++++++! -,C<-++! -,C--+!

-,B<--,B---,?<--,?---,=<--,=---,<<--,<---,7<--,7---,6<--,6---,2<--,2---,1<--,1---,-<--,----

+!

! + ! + ! + + + + + + ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! +++ !! +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

)he cu've defined by the !lus signs in the g'a!h above defines the fuzzy set value# very cold. .edges a'e ve'y !owe'ful because they a'e !'edictable as well as intuitive. *ntuitively# if we think about a te"!e'atu'e being very cold we want the value to be the !'oto%ty!ical value of cold# close' to cold. 4 te"!e'atu'e of A= is ce'tainly a "e"be' of cold# but it should definitely be less of a "e"be' of ve'y cold# which is what occu's. )he'e a'e "any othe' hedges such as Not, Somewhat, Extremely, Above, Below, About, Near, Positively, and Generally. Bhat does it "ean to "ake fuzzy e(!'essions using and and or? Lofti Zadeh defined the 4@ o!e'ato' fo' fuzzy sets to "ean taking the inte'section of the two sets# o' the "ini"u" values in the sets. )he >; o!e'ato' is the o!!osite# taking the union of the two sets# o' the "a(i"u" values in the sets. *f we use an e(a"!le# it beco"es clea'. Bhen we talk about is a value hot ! cold# we can see it is ve'y likely that a value could be hot o' could be cold# whe'e only in the "id 'ange between the two conce!ts does the likelihood dec'ease. )he "a(i"u" of the two sets ca!tu'es this "eaning !e'fectly$

>u;;5 Oaria/le* 2em%erature >u;;5 Oalues* 0ot or col (!) 1,----!!!!!!! -,C<-!! !! !!!!!!

-,C--! ! -,B<-! ! -,B--! ! -,?<-! ! -,?---,=<-! ! -,=--! ! -,<<--,<--! ! -,7<--,7--! ! -,6<-! ! -,6---,2<-! ! -,2--! ! -,1<-! ! -,1--! ! -,-<-!! !! -,---!!! |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,-)ni1erse of Discourse* >rom -,-- to 1--,--

0sing fuzzy sets and hedges# it is !ossible to w'ite e(!'essive state"ents about a sub/ect# with the sa"e shades of se"antic "eaning used by e(!e'ts# e.g.# i" the temperature is very hot then set hot water "low to slow#

)he above ,'ule, begs the 8uestion# how does fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic wo'k with infe'encing in fuzzy e(!e't syste"s? Bith fuzzy e(!e't syste"s 1o' using the AssertRule "ethod of the Fuzzy Logic 5o"!onent Lib'a'y&# 'ules asse't fuzzy facts to co"bine evidence about a fuzzy fact. )he'e is no such thing as du!licate fuzzy facts on the fact list in a fuzzy e(!e't syste". ;athe'# fuzzy facts co"bine to "odify the sha!e of the fuzzy set in the one fuzzy fact. )he'e a'e actually two co"!onents to this !'ocedu'e$ how do fuzzy facts "atch with fuzzy 'ule !atte'ns and how does asse'ting fuzzy facts wo'k? Be will look at the second 8uestion fi'st. 4sse'ting fuzzy facts is no diffe'ent than asse'ting 'egula' facts# e(ce!t fo' one slight diffe'ence. Bhen a fuzzy fact is al'eady on the fact list of an e(!e't syste"# asse'ting anothe' fuzzy fact of the sa"e ty!e causes the inte'section 1"ini"u"& of the two fuzzy

facts to be asse'ted 1the old fuzzy fact on the fact list is 'e"oved&. .ow do fuzzy facts "atch with fuzzy 'ule !atte'ns and how does that affect 'ule e(ecution? 4t fi'st glance# it is not obviously how a 'ule with a !atte'n that if the te"!e'atu'e is ve'y hot should "atch with a fact about the te"!e'atu'e is so"ewhat wa'". >bviously# it see"s like they should "atch so"e even though it is not a !e'fect "atch. *n fact# they do. Fuzzy facts "atch with fuzzy 'ule !atte'ns based on the "a(i"u" value in the inte'section of the fuzzy fact with the fuzzy 'ule !atte'n fact. Fo' e(a"!le# the inte'section 1"ini"u"& of ve'y hot and so"ewhat wa'" could look like this$

>u;;5 Oaria/le* 2em%erature >u;;5 Oalues* [1er5 0ot] an

[some90at 9arm](+)

1,----,C<--,C---,B<--,B---,?<--,?---,=<-+++ -,=--+ -,<<-+ -,<--+ -,7<-+ + -,7---,6<-+ + -,6--+ -,2<-+ -,2--+ + -,1<-+ + -,1---,-<-+++ + -,----++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,-)ni1erse of Discourse* >rom -,-- to 1--,--

*n this case# the "a(i"u" of the inte'section is a'ound =.65. *n fuzzy e(!e't syste"s o' with 4sse't;ule# this "a(i"u"# the !atte'n "atch st'ength is usually co"!a'ed to so"e th'eshhold# if the st'ength is g'eate' than the th'eshhold then the 'ule is conside'ed activated 1fo' e(!e't syste"s# it would be !ut on the agenda# fo' 4sse't;ule# the old evidence and new evidence a'e co"bined&. )his nu"be' also beco"es the st'ength of the 'ule activation. @ote that if a 'ule has "ulti!le !atte'ns# the "ini"u" of all the !atte'n

"atch st'engths dete'"ines if the 'ule is activated. )he 'ule activation st'ength is used to "odify the sha!e of any fuzzy sets that a'e asse'ted on the 'ight hand side of a 'uleC this !'ocess is called fuzzy co''elation. Fuzzy co''elation cont'ols how the t'uth of a 'ule+s !'e"ise 1*F !o'tion& "odifies the t'uth of the 'ule+s conse8uents# e.g.# fuzzy facts asse'ted in a 'ule cannot have g'eate' t'uth than the t'uth values of the !'e"ise. *ntuitively# this "akes sense since you shouldn+t asse't a fuzzy fact that has st'onge' !ossibility than its !'ecedents. 0sually# the 'ule activation st'ength is eithe' used to cho! off any values of a fuzzy set above the st'ength 1which "odifes the sha!e of the fuzzy set by c'eating ,!lateaus,& o' "ulti!lied against the values of the fuzzy set 1which !'ese'ves the sha!e of the fuzzy set but has the effect of ,sh'inking, it&. Fo' e(a"!le# the following g'a!h shows the fuzzy set cold and how the fuzzy set cold 1D& would be asse'ted with a cutoff value of =.65 1E&$

>u;;5 Oaria/le* 2em%erature >u;;5 Oalues* col (!) col > -,=<--(+) 1,----!!!!!!! -,C<-!! -,C--! -,B<-! -,B--! -,?<-! -,?---,=<--+++++++++++++! -,=--+! -,<<-+ -,<--+ -,7<--,7--+ -,6<-+ -,6---,2<-+ -,2--+ -,1<-+ -,1--+ -,-<-++ -,---++++++++++++++++++++++++++ |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,-)ni1erse of Discourse* >rom -,-- to 1--,--

>bse've# how a !lateau is c'eated in cold once it e(ceeds =.65. )he ne(t g'a!h shows the fuzzy co''elation using the !'oduct of cold and =.65$

>u;;5 Oaria/le* 2em%erature >u;;5 Oalues* col (!) col ! -,=<--(+) 1,----!!!!!!! -,C<-!! -,C--! -,B<-! -,B--! -,?<-! -,?---,=<--++++++++ ! -,=--++ ! -,<<-++ -,<--+ ! -,7<-+ -,7--+ ! -,6<-+ ! -,6---,2<-+ ! -,2--+ ! -,1<-+ ! -,1--++! -,-<-++! -,---+++++++++++++++++++++++++++ |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,-)ni1erse of Discourse* >rom -,-- to 1--,--

>k# now we unde'stand how fuzzy co''elation "odifies asse'ted fuzzy facts# but the'e is one last ste! in asse'ting fuzzy facts in a 'ule$ Fuzzy *nfe'ence. )he Fuzzy *nfe'ence "ethod cont'ols how asse'tions a'e co"bined with facts al'eady on the fact list. @ote that this is diffe'ent f'o" the fuzzy fact asse'tions we desc'ibed above# that was fo' an unconditional asse'tion outside of a 'ule# and was the inte'section o' "ini"u" of the two fuzzy facts. *nside a 'ule fi'ing# we take the union o' "a(i"u" of the two fuzzy sets. )his union inside a 'ule is called the min-max "ethod of Fuzzy *nfe'ence. ;e"e"be'# though# that the asse'ting fuzzy fact has been "odified by the Fuzzy 5o''elation "ethod.

)he'e is one last !iece to using fuzzy sets. .ow do you get a 'e!'esentative value f'o" a fuzzy set? >bviously# it is ha'd to set a "aucet to slow o' a car to "ast. Be need a s!ecific value that ho!efully best 'e!'esents the fuzzy set in its do"ain. )his is a !'ocess called defuzzification. )he easiest "ethod would be /ust to a'bit'a'ily !ick a !oint f'o" the fuzzy set# !e'ha!s the !oint in the do"ain whe'e the fuzzy set 'eaches its "a(i"u". )his is easy# but is clea'ly not the best. Bhat if a fuzzy set looks

>u;;5 Oaria/le* 2em%erature >u;;5 Oalues* [(%i 6- <)] or [(%i =- 1-)](!) 1,---! ! -,C<--,C---,B<-! ! -,B---,?<--,?---,=<-! ! ! ! -,=---,<<--,<---,7<--,7---,6<-! ! -,6---,2<--,2---,1<-! ! ! ! -,1---,-<--,----!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,--

Bhich "a(i"u" !oint is the ,best, fo' the fuzzy set$ A= o' 6=? 4 bette' "ethod would be to take the ave'age of the "a(i"u" !oints# in this case F5. )his "ethod is ve'y co""on and is called mean of maxima defuzzification. .oweve'# the'e a'e even bette' "ethods fo' defuzzification. 5onside' the following fuzzy set$

>u;;5 Oaria/le* 2em%erature >u;;5 Oalues* [9arm > -,=<--] or [1er5 [extremel5 0ot]](!) 1,----,C<--,C---,B<--,B---,?<--,?--!!!!! ! ! !

-,=<-!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! -,=--! ! ! -,<<-! ! -,<--! ! -,7<-! ! ! -,7--! ! -,6<-! ! -,6--! -,2<-! -,2--!! -,1<-!! -,1--!! -,-<-- !! -,----! |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,-)ni1erse of Discourse* >rom -,-- to 1--,--

)he "ean of "a(i"a defuzzification "ethod would give a value of 9=. 5lea'ly# though# the bulk of this fuzzy set is in the hu"! in the "iddle. *t would see" that the'e "ust be a bette' defuzzification "ethod which would facto' in all !a'ts of a fuzzy set. 4 co""on defuzzification in cont'ol do"ains is the "o"ent# o' center of gravity# defuzzification "ethod because it accounts fo' the enti'e fuzzy set sha!e and tends to s"ooth out the fuzzy 'egion. )his "ethod finds the cente' of g'avity whe'e half of the ,weight, of the fuzzy set is on the left and half on the 'ight. )he "o"ent defuzzification "ethod figu'es out the a'ea unde' the sha!e of the fuzzy set and gets the cente' !oint. Fo' the fuzzy set above# the "o"ent defuzzification "ethod 'etu'ns 61.A9.

Fuzzy )-pressions

)he Fuzzy Logic classes 1see FuzzyLogic and *FuzzyLogic units& !'ovide a full%featu'ed synta( fo' c'eating fuzzy e(!'essions o' calculations. Fuzzy e(!'essions c'eate fuzzy sets# which a'e c'eated by defining the 23 value singletons that s!ecify the sha!e of the fuzzy set# by functions that 'etu'n a fuzzy singletons sha!e# o' by "odifying othe' fuzzy sets th'ough o!e'ations and hedges. Note that "u$$y sets are also called "u$$y terms or "u$$y values in the %ECS# )he *nfe'ence 6ngine 5o"!onent 7uite 1*657& and Fuzzy Logic 5o"!onent Lib'a'y 1FL5L& allow you to define o' "odify fuzzy sets o' values in the following ways$

efine Fuzzy 7ets using 7ingletons

efine Fuzzy 7ets using 7cala's o' Functions 9odify Fuzzy 7ets using .edges efine Fuzzy 7ets using othe' Fuzzy 7ets and >!e'ations

Fo' ou' discussion# we a'e going to assu"e that a fuzzy va'iable# te"!e'atu'e# has been defined like so$

> (%% eft5%e tem%erature) ( eft5%e tem%erature exten s (t5%e >)PPG) (ran3e -,---- 1--,----) (1alues (term lo9 ((-,---- 1,----) (1--,---- -,----) )) (term me ium (tri -,---- <-,---- 1--,----)) (term 0i30 ((-,---- -,----) (1--,---- 1,----) )) ))

> (%lot"fu;;5"1alue t !+" n n tem%erature) >u;;5 Oaria/le* tem%erature >u;;5 Oalues* me ium(!) 0i30(+) lo9(") 1,----"" ! + -,C<-- "" ! ! ++ -,C--""" !! !! +++ -,B<-"" ! ! ++ -,B--""" ! ! +++ -,?<-"" ! ! ++ -,?--"""!! !!+++ -,=<-!"" ++! -,=--! """ +++ ! -,<<-! "" ++ ! -,<--!! """ !! -,7<-! ++ "" ! -,7--! +++ """ ! -,6<-! ++ "" ! -,6--!! +++ """ !! -,2<-! ++ "" ! -,2--! +++ """ ! -,1<-! ++ "" ! -,1--- !!+++ """!! -,-<-- !++ ""! -,----++ " |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,--

)he "ost si"!listic way to define fuzzy sets is to define a singletons vecto' of 23 value !ai's. )he singletons vecto' defines a vecto' of 23 value !ai's that cont'ol the sha!e of the fuzzy set. )he synta( fo' a singletons vecto' is$ 11(= y=& 1(1 y1&... 1(@ y@&& Fo' e(a"!le$

1!lot%fuzzy%value t D n n 1c'eate%fuzzy%value te"!e'atu'e 11G=.==== =.====& 1A=.==== =.GGGG& 1F=.==== =.HHH<& 15=.==== 1.====& 16=.==== =.HHH<& 1H=.==== =.GGGG& 1<=.==== =.====& &&& Fuzzy Ia'iable$ te"!e'atu'e Fuzzy Ialues$ 11G=.==== =.====& 1A=.==== =.GGGG& 1F=.==== =.HHH<& 15=.==== 1.====& 16=.==== =.HHH<& 1H=.==== =.GGGG& 1<=.==== =.====& &1D& 1,---! -,C<-! ! -,C--! ! -,B<-! ! -,B--!! !! -,?<--,?---,=<-! ! -,=---,<<-! ! -,<---,7<-! ! -,7---,6<-! ! -,6---,2<--,2--!! !! -,1<-! ! -,1--! ! -,-<-! ! -,----!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!! |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,--

0sing singletons gives you the "ost cont'ol ove' the sha!e of you' fuzzy set# but it is easily the ha'dest "ethod to define a fuzzy sha!e. 3ou "ust labo'iously define eve'y !oint of the fuzzy sha!e. Bhich b'ings us to the ne(t "eans of defining a fuzzy set sha!e...

Define Fuzzy Sets using Scalars or Functions

7cala's 1nu"be's& and Functions a'e the easiest "eans of defining a fuzzy set sha!e. 7cala's define one !oint in the 'ange of the fuzzy va'iable whe'e the fuzzy set is t'ue# eve'ywhe'e else the fuzzy set is false.

> (%lot"fu;;5"1alue t ! n n (create"fu;;5"1alue tem%erature <-)) >u;;5 Oaria/le* tem%erature >u;;5 Oalues* <-(!) 1,---! -,C<--,C---,B<--,B---,?<--,?---,=<--,=---,<<--,<---,7<--,7---,6<--,6---,2<--,2---,1<--,1---,-<--,----!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,--

)he'e a'e so"e ve'y s!ecial hedges# discussed below# which a'e s!ecifically

intended to "odify scala' fuzzy sets to ,b'oaden, thei' t'uth "e"be'shi! 'ange. Functions "ay also be defined to 'etu'n fuzzy sets o' singletons. 3ou can use a function to "athe"atically define the sha!e of the fuzzy set cu've. Fo' e(a"!le# the singletons defined above could have also been c'eated using the !i function$

> (%lot"fu;;5"1alue t ! n n (create"fu;;5"1alue tem%erature (%i <- 6-))) >u;;5 Oaria/le* tem%erature >u;;5 Oalues* (%i <- 6-)(!) 1,---! -,C<-! ! -,C--! ! -,B<-! ! -,B--!! !! -,?<--,?---,=<-! ! -,=---,<<-! ! -,<---,7<-! ! -,7---,6<-! ! -,6---,2<--,2--!! !! -,1<-! ! -,1--! ! -,-<-! ! -,----!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!! |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,--

)he !i function c'eates a singletons vecto' which defines a bell sha!ed cu've based on its in!uts. *n the above e(a"!le# the fi'st a'gu"ent s!ecifies the "iddle of the bell sha!e# its high !oint# and the othe' a'gu"ent s!ecifies the s!'ead of the cu've f'o" the "iddle !oint. )he *657 cu''ently has F functions which 'etu'n fuzzy sha!e singletons$

s 1;etu'ns a fuzzy value using a g'owth cu've function# i.e.# the !'obability

inc'eases f'o" = to 1 between the a'gu"ents& z 1;etu'ns a fuzzy value using a decline cu've function# i.e.# the !'obability dec'eases f'o" = to 1 between the a'gu"ents& !i 1;etu'ns a ty!ical bell cu've fuzzy value# e.g.# the !'obablities inc'ease as the 2 value gets close' to the "iddle !oint& beta 14nothe' bell cu've function# ;etu'ns a fuzzy value with a beta bell cu've sha!e# e.g.# the !'obablities inc'ease as the 2 value gets close' to the "iddle !oint&

)he *657 and FL5L !'ovide an i"!o'tant class of fuzzy "odifie's called hed&es. .edges "odify the sha!e of a fuzzy set in !'edictable ways. Fo' e(a"!le# the very hedge "odifies a fuzzy set by !ushing all values less than one towa'ds ze'o. )his has the effect of sh'inking the bounda'y# the fuzzy !o'tion# of the set close' to the a'ea that is co"!letely in the set$

J 1!lot%fuzzy%value t DE n n 1c'eate%fuzzy%value te"!e'atu'e 1!i 5= A=&& 1c'eate%fuzzy% value te"!e'atu'e ve'y 1!i 5= A=&&& >u;;5 Oaria/le* tem%erature >u;;5 Oalues* (%i <- 6-)(!) 1er5 [(%i <- 6-)](+) 1,---+ -,C<-! ! -,C--!+ +! -,B<-!+ +! -,B--!! !! -,?<-+ + -,?--+ + -,=<-! ! -,=--+ + -,<<-! ! -,<--+ + -,7<-! ! -,7--+ + -,6<-! ! -,6---,2<-+ + -,2--!! !! -,1<-! + + ! -,1--! ! -,-<-! +++ +++ ! -,----+++++++++++++ ++++++++++++

|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,--

)he cu've defined by the !lus signs in the g'a!h above defines the fuzzy set value# very 'pi () *)+. .edges a'e ve'y !owe'ful because they a'e !'edictable as well as intuitive. *ntuitively# if we i"agine that 'pi () *)+ sha!e defines the fuzzy set te'"# warm 1e.g.# it is definitely wa'" at 5=# as the te"!e'atu'e dec'eases it gets less wa'" and "o'e cold# as the te"!e'atu'e inc'eases# it gets "o'e hot&# then when we think of a ve'y wa'" te"!e'atu'e# we want the value to be the !'oto%ty!ical value of wa'"# close' to wa'". 4 te"!e'atu'e of F= is ce'tainly a "e"be' of wa'"# but it should definitely be less of a "e"be' of ve'y wa'"# which is what occu's. )he hedges in the *657 and FL5L co"e as una'y o!e'ato's# such as very warm o' not warm# and as o!e'ands# such as warm , )#( or cold - )#*. )he following hedges a'e available in the *657 and FL5L$

4dd % 4dds value to 2 o' 3 of the sha!e 1E 1"odifies 3 co"!onent& E2 1"odifies 2 co"!onent&&$ low E =.5# low E2 A= 7ubt'act % 7ubt'acts value f'o" 2 o' 3 of the sha!e 1% 1"odifies 3 co"!onent& %2 1"odifies 2 co"!onent&&$ low % =.5# low %2 A= 9ulti!ly % 9ulti!lies value with 2 o' 3 of the sha!e 1D 1"odifies 3 co"!onent& D2 1"odifies 2 co"!onent&&$ low D =.5# low D2 5 ivide % ivides 2 o' 3 of the sha!e by value 1- 1"odifies 3 co"!onent& -2 1"odifies 2 co"!onent&&$ low - =.5# low -2 A= Kowe' % ;aises 2 o' 3 of the sha!e to the !owe' of value 1L 1"odifies 3 co"!onent& L2 1"odifies 2 co"!onent&&$ low L =.5# low L2 G 5utLess % 2 o' 3 sha!e values less than value a'e set e8ual to value 1M 1"odifies 3 co"!onent& M2 1"odifies 2 co"!onent&&$ low M =.5# low M2 A= 5utLess68 % 2 o' 3 sha!e values less than o' e8ual to value a'e set e8ual to value 1MN 1"odifies 3 co"!onent& MN2 1"odifies 2 co"!onent&&$ low MN =.5# low MN2 A= 5utO'eate' % 2 o' 3 sha!e values g'eate' than value a'e set e8ual to value 1J 1"odifies 3 co"!onent& J2 1"odifies 2 co"!onent&&$ low J =.5# low J2 A=

5utO'eate'68 % 2 o' 3 sha!e values g'eate' than o' e8ual to value a'e set e8ual to value 1JN 1"odifies 3 co"!onent& JN2 1"odifies 2 co"!onent&&$ low JN =.5# low JN2 A= Not % *nve'ts fuzzy sha!e 1not&$ not low Somewhat, .ore r/ess, Greatly, Plus, 0ery, Extremely % *ntensifies fuzzy sha!e by diffe'ent a"ounts 1so"ewhat# "o'eo'less# g'eatly# !lus# ve'y# e(t'e"ely&$ so"ewhat "ediu" Above % *nve't t'uth "e"be'shi! above 1to the 'ight& the high !oint of the fuzzy sha!e# wo'ks best with fuzzy sha!es that have one "a(i"u" 1above&$ above "ediu" Below % *nve't t'uth "e"be'shi! below 1to the left& the high !oint of the fuzzy sha!e# wo'ks best with fuzzy sha!es that have one "a(i"u" 1below&$ below "ediu" Sli&htly % *nc'eases t'uth "e"be'shi! at bo'de's of fuzzy sha!e# dec'eases eve'ywhe'e else 1slightly&$ slightly "ediu" Normali$e % @o'"alizes the fuzzy sha!e# st'etches the fuzzy sha!e so that the "a(i"u" 3 value e8uals 1 and eve'ything else scales !'o!o'tionately 1no'"alize&$ no'"alize Plow J =.AQ About, 0icinity ", Close, Near, Nei&hborin& % 4!!'o(i"ation .edges 1about# vicinity# close# nea'# neighbo'ing&$ about 5= Positively, Absolutely, 1e"initely % 5ont'ast *ntensification .edges 1!ositively# absolutely# definitely&$ absolutely "ediu" Generally % iffusion 1'educes cont'ast o' wildly va'ying values& .edge 1gene'ally&$ gene'ally low

@ote that the hedges about# vicinity 1of&# close, near# and nei&hborin& a'e called approximation hed&es. )hey a'e e(cellent hedges fo' "odify scala' values# e.g.# about 5= deg'ees. )he hedges positively, absolutely, and de"initely a'e called contrast intensi"ication hed&es as they intensify the cont'astC all 3 values a'e !ushed close' to = o' 1. )he Generally hedge is the o!!osite# it is a contrast di""usion hed&e. 4s we "entioned# the a!!'o(i"ation hedges a'e !a'ticula'ly good at "odifying scala's# e.g.# about ()$

> (%lot"fu;;5"1alue t !+ n n (create"fu;;5"1alue tem%erature a/out <-)) >u;;5 Oaria/le* tem%erature >u;;5 Oalues* a/out <-(!) 1,---! -,C<--,C--! ! -,B<--,B---,?<--,?---,=<-! ! -,=---,<<--,<---,7<-! ! -,7---,6<--,6--! ! -,2<--,2--! ! -,1<-! ! -,1--!!! !!! -,-<-!!!!!! !!!!!! -,----!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!! |""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,--

)he final way to "ake fuzzy sets-values-te'"s is to c'eate the fuzzy set by co"bining othe' fuzzy sets. )he si"!lest o!e'ations a'e and and o'. Bhat does it "ean to "ake fuzzy e(!'essions using and and o'? Lofti Zadeh 1fathe' of fuzzy logic& defined the 4@ o!e'ato' fo' fuzzy sets to "ean taking the inte'section of the two sets# o' the "ini"u" values in the sets. )he >; o!e'ato' is the o!!osite# taking the union of the two sets# o' the "a(i"u" values in the sets. )he following e(a"!le hel!s "ake it clea'. Bhen we talk about whethe' a value is high >; low# we can see it is ve'y likely that a value could be high o' could be low# whe'e only in the "id 'ange between the two conce!ts does the likelihood dec'ease. )he "a(i"u" of the two sets ca!tu'es this "eaning !e'fectly$

> (%lot"fu;;5"1alue t !+ n n (create"fu;;5"1alue tem%erature 0i30 or lo9))

>u;;5 Oaria/le* tem%erature >u;;5 Oalues* 0i30 or lo9(!) 1,----!! ! -,C<-- !! !! -,C--!!! !!! -,B<-!! !! -,B--!!! !!! -,?<-!! !! -,?--!!! !!! -,=<-!! !! -,=--!!! !!! -,<<-!! !! -,<--!!! -,7<--,7---,6<--,6---,2<--,2---,1<--,1---,-<--,---|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""|""""| -,-2-,-7-,-=-,-B-,-1--,--

Resides Zadeh+s "ethods# the *657 and FL5L su!!o't othe' o!e'ations fo' inte'section and union

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