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# UNIT 1 -PHYSICS ON THE GO Motion in one dimension

Distance the length of the path betweeen two points. It is a scalar Displacement the shortest distance between two points in a given direction. It is a vector distance time Total distance Total time

speed =

Average speed =

velocity =

displacement time

Average velocity=

## Total displacement Total time

average acceleration =

## inal velocity initial velocity time taken for change

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time, so it is also a vector. Acceleration happens when there is: A change in SPEED, or A change in DIRECTION, or A change in speed AND direction

If an objects speed is constant but its velocity is changing, we say it is also accelerating
Question: A man runs around a circular track of radius 100 m. It takes him 120 s to complete a revolution of the track. If he runs at constant speed, calculate:
1. his speed, 2. his instantaneous velocity at point A, 3. his instantaneous velocity at point B, 4. his average velocity between points A and B, 5. his average speed during a revolution. 6. his average velocity during a revolution. S W
b

## CHSE / Physic Dept.

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Equations of motion
v = u + at (u + v ) t 2 1 ut + at2 2 u2 + 2as
u = initial velocity (ms1) at t = 0 s v = nal velocity (ms1) at time t s = t = displacement (m) time (s)

s = s = v2 =

a = acceleration (ms2)

conditions to use equations of motion 1. Acceleration should be constant 2. Motion should be along a straight line. Question: A motorcycle, travelling east, starts from rest, moves in a straight line with a constant acceleration and covers a distance of 64 m in 4 s. Calculate a) b) c) d) its acceleration its nal velocity at what time the motorcycle had covered half the total distance what distance the motorcycle had covered in half the total time

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## Projectile motion - motion under gravity

1. Object thrown vertically No horizontal component - consider vertical motion only. In calculations, acceleration is taken -9.81ms-2 if thrown upwards and +9.81ms-2 if downwards If the object is thrown upwards, it continues to rise until v = 0

v=0

-9.81 ms-2

+ 9.81 ms-2

u = max

v = max

Question: A ball is thrown upwards with an initial velocity of 10 ms1. 1. Determine the maximum height reached above the throwers hand. 2. Determine the time it takes the ball to reach its maximum height.

Question: A cricketer hits a cricket ball from the ground so that it goes directly upwards. If the ball takes, 10 s to return to the ground, determine its maximum height.

## CHSE / Physic Dept.

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2. Object projected horizontally Initial velocity has no vertical component, only a horizontal one Acceleration is g = 9.81 ms-2 vertically; no horizontal acceleration The horizontal velocity is not altered by acceleration downwards. Neither is the acceleration downwards changed by the horizontal motion. They are independent.

Height (h)

Range (x)

Final velocity

All objects launched horizontally or dropped from the same height will hit the ground at the same time. Their vertical component of velocity is the same at all times.

## CHSE / Physic Dept.

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Question 1. A dartboard is 3.0 m away. A dart is thrown horizontally from height 1.90 m and hits the board at 1.60 m. Calculate the (a) time of flight (b) initial speed of the dart (c) speed of the dart when it hits the board.

2. A boy throws a stone horizontally off a cliff. It hits the sea 2 seconds later, at a distance of 40 m from the foot of the cliff. Calculate the (a) height of the cliff (b) initial speed of the stone (c) direction in which the stone is moving when it strikes the water.

## CHSE / Physic Dept.

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3. Launched at an angle to the horizontal Initial velocity has both horizontal and vertical components Acceleration is g = - 9.8 ms-2 vertically; no horizontal acceleration Object continues to move until it falls to the ground.

Question : A skater of mass 60 kg leaves the ice with a velocity of 10 ms1 at an angle of 25 to the horizontal. (a) Show that the vertical component of the skaters velocity is approximately 4 ms1. (b) Calculate the time taken to reach the top of the jump. (c) Calculate the maximum height reached.

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