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WINE IN TOURISM TOURIST DESTINATION ISTRIA Ana Teak Institute of Agriculture and Tourism Pore, Croatia e-mail: tezak@iptpo.

.hr Zdravko ergo Institute of Agriculture and Tourism Pore, Croatia e-mail: zdravko@iptpo.hr and Lenko Uravi Sveuilite Jurja Dobrile u Puli, Odjel za ekonomiju i turizam dr. M. Mirkovi Pula, Croatia e-mail: lenko.uravic@istra-istra.hr ABSTRACT This paper explores wine production possibilities in Istrian County and presents current wine offer in Istrian hospitality facilities. Since wine is perceived as an important segment of Istrian gastronomy, wine offer possibilities are an important part in wine offer because they are a basis for the development of wine tourism. Tourists mostly visit Istrian costal area and as an excellent way of getting them acquainted with Istrian wines is through wine offer in hospitality facilities, so they were chosen as research object. In this paper we use as a method plain comparison of relevant data and their graphic presentation. Key Words: wine offer, wine possibilities production, restaurants, gastronomy, Istria. INTRODUCTION There are many motives why people travel: holiday, business, health, education etc. and they are connected to different needs that long to be satisfied. Tourists try to satisfy a wide number of needs simultaneously. Since eating is physiological need, gastronomy can be considered as a very important segment of tourism offer in tourism destination. Gastronomy of particular tourism destination can become one of the most beautiful traveling memories, so it is very important how it is presented to tourists. For many people, food and drink consumption is one of the central components of their leisure/tourist experiences as well as being an experience in its own right (Beer 2008:153). There are many definitions of gastronomy (Ivanovi, Galii and Pretual, 2008) but a broader definition was taken as the most appropriate which defines it as enjoyment of good food and good beverages in good company. In this paper the focus is on wine as a type of beverage. Nowadays tourists are interested in gathering experiences on their traveling, so they are more interested in trying local cuisine. Local food and beverages may be regarded as a cultural symbols and distinctive hallmarks of various tourism destinations (ergo, Tomi and Rui 2004:208). Wine has long been associated to Mediterranean dating from ancient Greeks to present time, so in Istria, as a Mediterranean destination, beside the local food offer, very important gastronomy segment is wine. Istria, as a tourism destination, can be divided into two areas: costal area and rural (inland) area. Reasons for this segmentation can be found in Istrian history. While in costal area tourism is developed and most of the tourists visiting Istria spend their vacation in this part, tourism in rural Istria is at the developing stage. In rural areas, the predominant economic activities are traditionally primary activities (Carmichael 2005:185) and the same situation applies for Istrian rural area. The focal point of the development of tourism in Istrian rural area is placed on agro tourism. Wine tourism is considered as one of the segments of agro tourism, a possible segment in Istrian rural tourism offer. According to a research conducted in 2007 by Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, there is a little interest of tourists staying in Istrian costal area in visiting rural area as in a form of excursions, so excursion tourism is not enough in presenting Istrian wine roads. Restaurants in costal area were identified as one of the ways of presenting Istrian wine, Istrian wine roads and vineries in Istria. There are many praiseworthy contributions in the worldwide scientific community about the wine tourism (Poitras and Getz, 2006; Carmichael, 2005; Carlsen, 2004; Hall and Mitchell, 2000), food and beverage

consumption (Ivanovi, Galii and Pretula, 2008; Martinoska and Sekulovska, 2008; ergo, Tomi and Rui, 2004), restaurant service quality (Martinoska, 2008), and consumers perception of the quality wine (Caniglia, DAmico and Peri, 2008), but there has not been found records about the local wine representation in wine card. The main purpose of this paper is to present current wine offer in Istrian costal area from two aspects: producing possibilities and offer in hospitality industry mainly restaurants. There are two assumptions: first, Istria has a comparative advantage for the development of wine tourism over other regions in Croatia, and second, tourist interested in tasting wine want to taste wines produced in Istria so hospitality facilities will mostly offer wines produced in Istria and there will not be many facilities that offer imported wines or wines produced in other parts of Croatia. DATA SOURCE AND METHODOLOGY For the development of wine tourism, very important issue is wine offer. Wine tourists visiting one destination want to taste wine produced in the destination they are visiting. In order to fulfill this demand, the destination must have appropriate wine offer, or precisely saying a rich and diversified wine card with autochthonous wine in a proliferating net of restaurants and inns. In the first part of Istrian wine survey, the main goal was to identify possible wine production. It was done by using secondary data obtained from Croatian Bureau of Statistics, Croatian Institute of Viticulture and Enology and Istrian County. In the second part of Istrian wine survey, a research among facilities in tourism industry was conducted. The main purpose of this research was to explore wine offer in Istria. Facilities were chosen according to a list available on the Web page Istria Gourmet (http://www.istria-gourmet.com/hr). In the first part of the above mentioned research, existing wine offer in restaurants was identified. Facilities were selected base on parameters: offer quality, wine offer from various producers or exclusively own production and wines with protected geographical indication offered in their wine card. Offer quality was determined using gourmet guide from the above mentioned web page and was chosen as a parameter due to assumption that restaurants evaluated with higher marks would probably have richer and more diversified wine offer, than the once not present in the guide. Only restaurants numbered in this guide were chosen and their wine cards were observed or were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Questionnaires were sent by e-mail and some restaurants were personally visited. Wine offer from various producers and wine with geographically protected origin were taken as parameters based on the assumption that tourists, visiting Istria, interested in wine consumption, are interested in tasting various wines produced in Istria. Facilities that do not offer wine with protected geographical indication were excluded in the analysis process. Data was collected using two complementary methods: questionnaire and observation. There were 41 examples emitted or observed, 4 were discarded due to not satisfying the above mention parameters. Using observation method basis was made for construction of questionnaire. After the construction of questionnaire, facilities were chosen where the questionnaire was sent. There were two selective parameters used in choosing appropriate examples. The following table presents first selective parameter which determines wine offer in the selected facilities. Table 1 Selective parameter: Wine offer in the selected facilities Selection criteria Various wine producers with protected geographical indication Own production only Protected geographical indication not specified in the menu Total Examples 37 2 2 41

Using this selective parameter, two examples with own production only were discarded. The second selective parameter is presented in the table below.

Table 2 Selective parameter: Wines with protected geographical indication produced in Croatia Selection criteria Wines with protected geographical indication Wines without protected geographical indication Unable to answer Total Examples 34 2 3 39

Two examples were discarded automatically. Three examples with unable to answer criteria were taken into further analysis based on the data in which it was visible that those three examples do offer wines with protected geographical indication but, persons answering the questionnaire were unable to identify those wines as such. Based on the two selective parameters, 37 examples were taken for further analysis. WINE PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES IN ISTRIA Due to climate and pedology conditions, entire wine-growing area of the Republic of Croatia is divided in two regions: Continental and Costal region (Croatian Institute of Viticulture and Enology, 2008) and Istria, as a sub-region of Costal region, are divided into three sub-regions: Zapadna Istra (Western Istria), Centralna Istra (Central Istria) and Istona Istra (East Istria). Sub-regions of Istrian sub-region are illustrated on the following picture. Picture 1 Sub-regions of Istrian wine sub-region

Source: Croatian Institute of Viticulture and Enology, 2008

For every region different varieties are recommended, so in Sub-region Istria, recommended varieties are: Istrian Malvasia (blanc), Pinot blanc, Chardonnay, Pinot gris, Muscat blanc, Muscat blanc a petit grains, Muscat from Istria (momjanski), Muscat ottonel, Sauvignon blanc, Teran noir, Borgonja noir, Muscat rose from Porec, Zlahtina, Syrah, Barbera, Merlot, Cabernet franc, Cabernet sauvignon, Pinot noir, Hrvatica noir, Trebbiano toscano, Verduzzo, Ancellotta, Tocai friulano, Alicante bouchet, Carmenere (Croatian Institute of Viticulture and Enology, 2008). In 2006 there were about 270 wines with protected geographical indications registered by Croatian Institute of Viticulture and Enology. In the first part of Istrian wine survey the above mentioned varieties and wine producers with protected geographical indication for Istrian region were examined and different wines were chosen to be analyzed in the second part of Istrian wine survey. Selection of wine producers with protected geographical indication was important preparation for observation process and in the case if examples answering questionnaires were not sure if they offer wine with protected geographical indication. Although the main focus of this paper is wine produced in Istrian region, in order to comprise the entire wine offer of Istrian hospitality facilities, wines produced in other Croatian regions were included. In identifying wine production possibilities in Istria, data collected by Croatian Bureau of Statistics was used to illustrate available and used land in wine production in Istria compared to Republic of Croatia. The table below presents resources available for wine production in Istria and Republic of Croatia.

Table 3 Agricultural land and vineyards in Republic of Croatia and Istrian County in 2003 Istrian county Total % 13.534 3,02 72 5,28 9.309 6,05 19 13,01 55.581,39 52.823,39 2.758 24.643,16 22.040,16 2.603 3.047,99 2.651,99 396 2.991,25 2.608,25 383 3,99 4,54 1,20 2,29 2,56 1,20 11,01 11,65 8,04 11,27 11,89 8,32 Republic of Croatia 448.532 1.364 153.970 146 1.391.621,95 1.162.611,95 229.010 1.077.403,17 860.195,17 217.208 27.687,87 22.762,87 4.925 26.530,47 21.929,47 4.601

Agricultural households Business entities Households with vineyards Business entities with vineyards Total available land surface area, ha Agricultural land Agricultural households Business entities Utilized agricultural land, ha Agricultural land Agricultural households Business entities Vineyards, ha Total area Agricultural households Business entities Fertile area Total area Agricultural households Business entities

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, Agricultural Census 2003

On 1st June 2003 there were 13.534 agricultural households and 72 business in Istrian county which represent 3,02 % of total households in Croatia entities and 5,28% of business entities, there are 9.309 households with vineyards and 19 business entities in Istrian county which represents 6,05% of total households with vineyards and 13,01% of total business with vineyards. Istrian county participates with 3,99% in total available land surface area and 2,29% in utilized agricultural land, while in the case of vineyards this percentage is higher, 11,01% in total vineyard area, and 11,27% in fertile vineyard area. Due to inadequate agrarian policy in the past, Regional Program of co-financing and supplying the planting material was carried out in Istrian county since 1994 in order to activate employment of young people and their stay in the rural area, increase income of agricultural estates, and activate neglected resources suitable for the production of high-quality typical and traditional autochthonous products (Istarska upanija, 2008) and Plan of planting long-time plantations was carried out in the period 2004-2008. Viticulture is included it the above mentioned Program and Plan. The Plan of increasing long-time plantations is presented as a strategic interest for the Istrian County due to it objective to encourage faster planting of long-time plantations which will be limited when Croatia is admitted to European Union. WINE AND TOURISM IN ISTRIA Gastronomy is very important aspect of every tourism offer and for Istria, as a destination, this aspect includes wine. Wine tourism is being developed in many regions around the world (Poitras and Getz 2006:425), and the same situation applies for rural Istria, because in the case of wine tourism production and consumption come together in order to benefit both rural operators and visitors (Carmichel 2005:185) so it can be considered as a way of boosting the development of rural areas. According to Hall wine tourism can be defined as visitation to vineyards, wineries, wine festivals and wine shows for which grape-wine tasting and/or experiencing the attributes of a grape-wine region are the prime motivating factors for visitors (Hall and Mitchell 2000:447). In order to implement wine tourism as a form of Istrian agro tourism, a wine road project was formed by Istrian County. Five wine roads were formed (Buje, Pore, Pazin, Rovinj and Vodnjan) and they comprise 91 wine itineraries (Istarska upanija, 2008). As the last part of Istrian wine survey it is planned to examine this form of selective tourism offer by conducting a survey on wine tourists. Based on the above mentioned project and data presented so far, there is a fine basis for the development of wine tourism, but tourists mostly visit Istrian costal area. In order to promote and increase

interest for wine tourism, wine offer in restaurants is analyzed due to the assumption that tourists visiting the Istrian coast will more likely make the first contact with Istrian wines in a restaurant than visit a wine cellar. Most of the restaurants chosen for this research are located in costal area. In order to illustrate wine offer in restaurants three questions were chosen. Following graph illustrates wine offer in restaurants from the aspect of how many restaurant offer only wines produced in Croatia and both wines produced in Croatia and imported wines. Graph 1 Wine offer in restaurants in Istria
Croatian production and import 72,97%

Croatian production only 27,03%


Source: Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Pore, 2008, authors research

There are 73% of facilities in hospitality industry that offer both wines produced in Croatia and imported wine, while 27% of facilities offer only wines produced in Croatia. Although the assumption was that tourists interested in wine tasting would prefer wines produced in Croatia, most of the observed facilities offer imported wines too, which indicates quite a wide range of wines offered in hospitality facilities in Istria. Facilities that include imported wines in their offer were taken for analysis, in order to determine countries of origin of the offered wines. Countries of origin were selected based on the data obtained from The Wine Institute on World Wine Production by Country. There were 16 countries choose, but one country was not found present in wine offer of selected and emitted examples so it was excluded from the following. Table 4 Wine offer in hospitality facilities in Istria by import countries Country Italy France Slovenia Spain Australia USA Chile The Republic of South Africa Portugal Argentina Austria New Zealand Germany Hungary Macedonia Rang 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 10 11 Examples Frequency % 22 81,48 21 77,78 19 70,37 14 51,85 9 33,33 7 25,93 5 18,52 5 18,52 4 14,81 3 11,11 3 11,11 3 11,11 3 11,11 2 7,41 1 3,70

Source: Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Pore, 2008, authors research

There are 15 countries which were identified in wine offer of hospitality facilities in Istria and they are sorted based on the countries prevalence. The first country by the countries prevalence is Italy, while the last is

Macedonia. The prevalence of Italy is probably due to vicinity of Istria and their reputation for excellent wines. France is second probably due to their exclusive brand champagne, because most of the observed examples offer champagnes usually from various producers. For the above mentioned analysis, only 73% of 37 accepted examples were used, so there is a possibility that rang presented in the above table will differ than the current one by increasing the number of examples. To complete the presentation of current wine offer in restaurants, offered wines were sorted according to prevalence of wines. Following table present this data. Table 5 Wine offer in restaurants by offered wines Wine Malvasia Istarska Teran Merlot Chardonnay Cabernet Sauvignon Pinot gris Plavac Graevina Pinot blanc Sauvignon Rhine Riesling Pinot noir Frankovka Moslavac Rang 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 Examples Frequency % 37 100,00 36 97,30 35 94,59 34 91,89 32 86,49 30 81,08 28 75,68 24 64,86 24 64,86 22 59,46 15 40,54 8 21,62 3 8,11 1 2,70

Source: Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Pore, 2008, authors research

Malvasia Istarska is dominant in wine offer in Istria and it is present in all collected examples. Very dominant wine is Teran which is present in 97,30% of cases. Analyzed data presented in the table above indicates that in Istrians restaurants the most prevailing wines are wines typically cultivated in Istria and are in accordance with the varieties recommended by Croatian Institute of Viticulture and Enology. . CONCLUSION Tourists perceive local food and beverages as a distinctive symbol of the tourism destination they visit. Since Istria is a Mediterranean destination, beside the local food, wine plays an important role in its gastronomy. New trends in tourism industry focus on selective forms of tourism and one of the forms is wine tourism. In this paper wine production possibilities in Istrian County were examined and wine offer in hospitality facilities was presented, which was done in two stages. In the first stage wine production possibilities were examined since they are a basis for the development of the wine tourism. Due to different factors (history, Istrian county support etc.) a basis is formed for the development of wine tourism. In the second stage wine offer in Istrian hospitality facilities was identified and presented. Assumption was that tourists interested in wine consumption want to taste wines produced in Istria and that hospitality facilities, mostly restaurants, will mainly offer wines produced in Istria and there will not be many facilities that will offer imported wines or wines produced in other parts of Croatia. Although accepted examples offer wines produced in Istria and they are dominant in their wine offer, there are many facilities that offer imported wines too and wines produced in other parts of Croatia. The reason for this state may be found in a fact that the analyzed examples want to cover all possible demand for wines, which can be viewed as positive act from the side of facilities in Istrian hospitality industry. REFERENCES Beer, S. (2008). Authenticity and food experience commercial and academic perspectives. Journal of Foodservice, 19: 153-163 Caniglia, E., DAmico, M. & Peri, I. (2008). An analysis of consumers perception of the quality of the Etna DOC wine. New Mendit, 7(3): 32-40.

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