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OFDM MODULATION

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Discrete time-domain samples need to be mapped to continuous time-domain pulse shapes in order to obtain an analog signal suitable for modulation of a device such as a LED.

Bit Stream M-QAM Modulator Bit Stream M-QAM Demodulator Match Filter & Sample

AWGN

OFDM Modulator

OFDM Demodulator

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Real unipolar signals are required for IM/DD systems. Real Signals through Hermitian symmetry in frequency: S(f) = S*(-f)

Unipolar signals are obtained in a variety of ways: DCO-OFDM, ACO-OFDM, PAM-DMT, U-OFDM, Flip OFDM, etc.

lighting interference

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Frames are sent in two streams. In the second stream with reversed signs.

sn[n] = Stream with negative samples

sp[n]

sn[n]

sp[n]

sn[n]

cyclic prefix

cyclic prefix

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In U-OFDM, by design: sp[n] = -sn[n] Original signal is obtained as so[n] = sp[n] - sn[n]

sp[n] = - sn[n] => |sp[n]| = |sn[n]| Therefore, distortion from clipping is completely removed by the subtraction operation.

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Samples are represented by pulse shapes Different pulse shapes have different time and frequency characteristics

cyclic prefix

cyclic prefix

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Unipolar digital signals combined with unipolar pulse shapes produce unipolar analog signals. Unipolar digital signals combined with bipolar pulse shapes produce bipolar analog signals.

cyclic prefix

cyclic prefix

! Negative !

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Bipolar analog signals can be made unipolar by introducing a bias as presented below. Bias increases power dissipation.

bias

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Most of the analog signal is positive, so the negative values could be ignored (clipped). This, however, introduces distortion and out-of-band interference.

06/12/2012

Discrete bipolar signals are shaped with bipolar pulse shapes and clipping is performed afterwards.

cyclic prefix

cyclic prefix

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Discrete bipolar signals are shaped with bipolar pulse shapes and clipping is performed afterwards

cyclic prefix

cyclic prefix

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The useful signal is kept in the required band. Only the distortion term is attenuated by limited channel response. The necessary symmetry of the distortion term is kept after pulse shaping and after the channel effects for all three modulations.

Some distortion is still present. The non-causal response of the pulse-shaping filter disrupts the noise symmetry.

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A physical communication channel has a causal impulse response, which makes a cyclic prefix sufficient to maintain orthogonality. A band-limited pulse shape like the raised cosine filter has a noncausal impulse response.

Non-causal pulse shapes disrupt the symmetry of the distortion terms. A second guard interval (cyclic suffix) can mitigate this.

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Root-raised cosine filter with rolloff factor of 0.5, 16-QAM, Nfft=16

No suffix

With suffix

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Root-raised cosine filter with rolloff factor of 0.1, 16-QAM, Nfft=16

No suffix

With suffix

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Root-raised cosine filter with rolloff of 0.1, Nfft=32, 256-QAM

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S k = signal in frequency domain S k = distorted signal in frequency domain Signal-to-Distortion Ratio (SDR) =

Nfft 32 64 256 ACO-OFDM SDR [dB] Prefix Only Prefix & Suffix 27.33 39.19 30.5 42.26 36.6 48.33 PAM-DMT SDR [dB] Prefix Only Prefix & Suffix 29.15 41.61 32.46 44.76 38.2 50.19 U-OFDM SDR [dB] Prefix Only Prefix & suffix 28.7 40.69 31.01 43 36.72 48.38

! Cyclic suffix provides 12 dB improvement in SDR ! *Root-raised cosine filter with rolloff factor of 0.1 has been used in these calculations. The QAM constellation size is 256.

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Conclusions

Discrete unipolar signals require unipolar pulse shapes Bipolar pulse shaping can be applied as long as pulse shaping is applied before clipping the negative values. After pulse shaping, distortion terms still retain required symmetry to stay orthogonal to the useful information. Non-causal pulse shapes disrupt the symmetry of the distortion terms. A second guard interval (cyclic suffix) can mitigate this.

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Motivation

Demands for wireless data rates are growing exponentially. In 2015, more than 6 Exabytes of data are expected to be sent globally. RF spectrum is insufficient for growing demands. New physical domains for Wireless Communications are desirable.

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Only odd carriers are modulated. This leads to a symmetry in time domain: s[n] = -s[n+N/2] (Armstrong et al., 2006) N = number of carriers/number of FFT points s[n] = time domain signal Bipolar (unclipped)

cyclic prefix

Unipolar (clipped)

cyclic prefix

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ACO-OFDM Theory

Odd carriers only contain information <=> s[n] = -s[n+N/2] Even carriers only contain information <=> s[n] = s[n+N/2] CLIP( s[n] ) = ( s[n] + |s[n]| ) / 2 !!! This representation is important !!! In ACO-OFDM, s[n] = - s[n+N/2] => |s[n]| = |s[n+N/2]| Therefore, distortion from clipping falls only on the even subcarriers.

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Carriers are modulate with imaginary symbols only. This leads to a symmetry in time domain: s[n] = -s[N-n] (Lee et al., 2009) N = number of carriers/number of FFT points s[n] = time domain signal Bipolar (unclipped)

cyclic prefix

Unipolar (clipped)

cyclic prefix

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PAM-DMT Theory

Carriers are modulated with imaginary symbols <=> s[n] = -s[N-n] Carriers are modulated with real symbols <=> s[n] = s[N-n] CLIP( s[n] ) = ( s[n] + |s[n]| ) / 2 !!! This representation is important !!! In PAM-DMT, s[n] = - s[N-n] => |s[n]| = |s[N-n]| Therefore, distortion from clipping falls only on the real values in frequency domain.

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