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Second order statistic analysis of selection macro-diversity

combining over Gama shadowed Rayleigh fading channels


Mihajlo Stefanovi
1
, Bratislav Miri
2
, etar S!alevi
2
, Stefan ani
"
,
1
Faculty of Electronic Engineerig, University of Nis
2
State University of Novi Pazar
3
Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, University of Pristina
Email! stefan"nc#yahoo$com
Abstract # $n this !a!er an a!!roach to the second order
statistics analysis of macrodiversity system o!erating over
the Gamma shadowed Rayleigh fading channels is
!resented% Sim&ltaneo&s infl&ence of m&lti!ath fading
and shadowing is allievated thro&gh the &sage of
macrodiversity system% 'e have considered S( )selection
combining* macrodiversity system consisting of two base
stations )microdiversity systems*% (ases of MR( )Ma+imal
Ratio (ombining* and S( diversity with arbitrary n&mber
of branches, a!!lied at microlevel over the Rayleigh fading
channels are disc&ssed% Selection between maco-combiners
is based on o&t!&t signal !ower val&es% ,&merical res&lts
for -(R )-evel crossing rate* at the o&t!&t of this system
are !resented and disc&ssed in the f&nction of vario&s
system !arameters%
1 $ntrod&ction
Multipath fading and shadowing conditions should be
simultaneously taken into account, since they both
coexist in wireless systems [1].
The shortterm signal !ariation "multipath fading#
can be described by se!eral distributions such as $oyt,
%ayleigh, %ice, &akagamim, and 'eibull. %ayleigh
fading describes multipath scattering with relati!ely
large delaytime spreads, with different clusters of
reflected wa!es. (n pro!ides good fits to collected data
in indoor and outdoor mobileradio en!ironments and is
used in many wireless communications applications.
The longterm signal !ariation "shadowing# is often
described by lognormal and )amma distribution. (n
cellular networks, longterm fading can put a hea!y
limit on system performance. *hadowing is the result of
the topographical elements and other structures in the
transmission path such as trees, tall buildings [+]. 'e
must simultaneously take short and longterm fading
conditions into account since they both coexist in
wireless systems.
,arious techni-ues for reducing shortterm fading
effect are used in wireless communication systems [.].
/pgrading transmission reliability without increasing
transmission power and bandwidth while increasing
channel capacity is the main goal of di!ersity
techni-ues. 0i!ersity reception is an effecti!e remedy
that exploits the principle of pro!iding the recei!er with
multiple faded replicas of the same informationbearing
signal. An efficient method for amelioration system1s
-uality of ser!ice "2o*# with using multiple recei!er
antennas is called space di!ersity. *e!eral principal
types of combining techni-ues can be generally
performed by their dependence on complexity
restriction put on the communication system and
amount of channel state information a!ailable at the
recei!er. 3ombining techni-ues like maximal ratio
combining "M%3# and e-ual gain combining "4)3# and
re-uire all or some of the amount of the channel state
information of recei!ed signal. *econd, M%3 and 4)3
re-uire separate recei!er chain for each branch of the
di!ersity system, which increase it complexity of
system. 5ne of the least complicated combining
methods is selection combining "*3#. (n opposition to
pre!ious combining techni-ues, *3 recei!er processes
only one of the di!ersity branches, and is much simpler
for practical reali6ation. )enerally, selection combining,
selects the branch with the highest signaltonoise ratio
"*&%#, that is the branch with the strongest signal [1,.
7], assuming that noise power is e-ually distributed o!er
branches.
'hile shortterm fading is mitigated through the use
of di!ersity techni-ues typically at the single base
station "microdi!ersity#, use of such microdi!ersity
approaches alone will not be sufficient to mitigate the
o!erall channel degradation when shadowing is also
concurrently present. Macrodi!ersity is used to
alle!iate the effects of shadowing, where multiple
signals are recei!ed at widely located radio ports,
ensuring that different longterm fading is experienced
by these signals [8].
The le!el crossing rate "93%# and the a!erage fading
duration "A:0# are secondorder statistical -uantities,
which complement the static probabilistic description of
the fading signal "the firstorder statistics#, and ha!e
found se!eral applications in the modelling and design
of practical systems and designing wireless
communication systems. Actually, these secondorder
statistical measures are related to criterion used to assess
error probability of packets of distinct length and to
determinate parameters of e-ui!alent channel, modeled
by a Marko! chain with defined number of states [;].
(n this paper 93% and A:0 !alues at the output of
the macrodi!ersity system operating o!er the )amma
shadowed %ayleigh fading channels are determined for
the cases when *3 and M%3 combining techni-ues are
applied at the microle!el.
2 System model
9et z be the recei!ed signal en!elope, and z& its
deri!ati!e with respect to time, with <oined probability
density function "=0:#
. .
6 6
p "6 6#
$ The le!el crossing
rate "93%# at the en!elope z is defined as the rate at
which a fading signal en!elope crosses le!el z in a
positi!e or a negati!e direction and is mathematically
defined by formula [;]>
( )
( )
.
. . .
?
6 6
@
& 6 6 p 6, 6 d 6

"1#
The a!erage fade duration "A:0# is defined as the
a!erage time o!er which the signal en!elope ratio
remains below a specified le!el after crossing that le!el
in a downward direction, and is determinated as [;]>

( )
( )
( )
6
?
?
: 6 ?
T 6
& 6

"+#
Macrodi!ersity combiner is *3 type combiner, which
consists of two microdi!ersity systems and selection is
based on their output signalAs a!erage power !alues.
5utput statistics can then be presented in the form.
( )
( )
1
. . .
1 1 1 1
+
. .
+ + 1 1
.
.
1 + 1 +
, , , 1
@ @
.
+ 1 1 +
, , +
@ @
,
,
,
z z z z
z z
z z
" z z d d " "
z z
d d " "




_
_

+


,
,
_

+


,


".#
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
1 1 +
+
+ 1 +
1 + 1 1 +
@ @
+ 1 + 1 +
@ @
B
B
z z
z
F z d d F z P
d d F z P




+
+


"7#
$ere %1 and %+ denote a!erage output powers of signals
of microcombiners and "&% 1, % +' represents their <oint
probability density function modeled by <oint )amma
distribution.
2%1 Selection combining at micro-level
The <oint probability density functions at the output of
the microcombiners, since a regular selection combining
is performed, can be written as>
( ) ( ) . .
. .
,
1 1
, B B B
i i
i( i)
i i(
i
N N
i i(
i i z i( i z i) i
z z z
( )
) (
" z z " z " z F z

_ _


, ,


"8#
with i*1,+ denoting microdi!ersity system and (*1,+,C
Ni number of di!ersity branches in each of
microcombiners. =robability density functions and
cumulati!e distribution functions of %ayleigh shortterm
"multipath# fading processes at the inputs of
microdi!ersity combiners are gi!en with>
( )
( ) ( )
+
+
@
+
, B exp
, B , B 1 exp
i(
i(
i( i(
i( i(
z i( i
i i
z
i(
z i( i + i( i i(
i
z z
" z
z
F z " + d+
_


,
_


,

";#
The probability density function of deri!ates z& of the
recei!ed signals z at the output of both microdi!ersity
systems, with respect to time, are )aussian =0:s>
( )
+
+
1
exp , 1, +
+ +
i i
i
i
z z
z
" z i
_



,
&
&
& &
"D#

where
i
z&
presents deri!ati!es of recei!ed
microdi!ersity en!elopes and can be expressed as>
{ }
max , 1,.., , 1, +
i i( i
z z ( N i & &
"E#

:or isotropic scattering, z& is a )aussian distributed
random !ariable with 6ero mean and !ariance can be
expressed as [D]>
+ + + +
, 1, +
i
z d i
f i &
"F#
where fd is a 0oppler shift fre-uency.
There is shadowing at the input of microdi!ersity
systems as well as at the input of macrodi!ersity system.
The slow fading is statistically independent due to
sufficient input antenna spacing. (n this case we achie!e
the highest decrease of the fading influence on systemAs
performances The slow fading is modeled by <oint
)amma =0: [7]>
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 + 1 +
1 +
1 +
, 1 + 1 +
1 1
1 1 + +
1 @1 + @+
@1 @+
,
1 1
exp exp
c c
c c
" " "
c c



_ _



, ,
"1@#

where
i @

present mean !alues at the inputs of


macrocombiner, while c1 and c+ present orders of
)amma distributions, and they determine measures of
the shadowing present in the channel.
After substituting ";#, "1@# and ".# in "1#, we obtain
following expressions for normali6ed le!el crossing
rate, 93%>
( )
1
+
.
1 + 1 1
1 + 1 1 1
@+ @1
@
.
1 + + +
+ 1 + + +
@1 @+
@
, exp
, exp
c
z
z
d
c
z
N z
, c d
f
, c d

_ _
+


, ,

1
_ _
1


, , 1
]

"11#
where G "m,x# represents the lower incomplete )amma
function, with>
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
1 1
1 +
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 + @1 @+
1
B B
( )
N N
z ( z )
c c
( )
) (
, " z F z
c c





"1+#
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
+ +
+ +
1 +
+ + + + +
1 1 1 + @1 @+
1
B B
( )
N N
z ( z )
c c
( )
) (
, " z F z
c c





"1.#
After substituting "7#, "1@# in "+#, and following
simillar mathematical procedure, we obtain following
expressions for normali6ed a!erage fade duration, A:0>
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
1 1
@1
1k 1
1
+ +
@1
+ k +
& c 1
1
1
6 1k 1 + 1 c
@+
k 1 1 + @1 @
k <
6
r
& c 1
+
+
6 +k + 1 + c
@1
k 1 1 + @+ @
k <
r
1
: 6 B e , c d
c c
T 6
& r
1
: 6 B e , c d
c c
& r




"17#
2%2 Ma+imal ratio combining at micro level
This macrodi!ersity system is of *3 type and
consists of two microdi!ersity systems with selection
based on their output signal power !alues. 4ach
microdi!ersity system is of M%3 type with arbitrary
number of branches in the presence of %ayleigh fading.
Treating the correlation between the branches as
exponential, the expression for the pdf of the *&% at the
outputs of microdi!ersity systems follows [E]>
( )
1
1
B exp
" #
i
i
M
M i i
i i i
i i i i i
N N
" z z z
M r r

_ _



, ,
"18#
(n per!ious e-uation, H"x# denotes the )amma
function. Ni denotes the number of identically assumed
channels at each microle!el. &umber of di!ersity
branches at the microle!el can be arbitrary. $owe!er,
since channels are consider correlated, micro di!ersity
system is applied on small terminals where spacing
between the di!ersity branches is small [.]. Also there is
no need to increase significantly number of di!ersity
branches, because achie!ed output performance
impro!ement with few di!ersity branches would not
increase !ery much with the appliance of more
branches. *o the limitation for the number of di!ersity
branches in the microdi!ersity system is the tradeoff
between the complexity of practical reali6ation and
re-uested performance impro!ement. =arameter ri is
related to the exponential correlation -i among the
branches and is gi!en with>
+ 1
1 1
1
+
1

]
i
N
i i
i i i
i i
r N N


"1;#
=arameter Mi is defined as>
+
i
i
i
N
M
r

"1D#
*ince the outputs of a M%3 system and their
deri!ati!es follow [D]>
+ +
1

i
N
i i)
)
z z
and
.
1
1, +
i
N
i)
i i)
i
)
z
z z i
z

"1E#
then
.
i z
is a )aussian random !ariable and with 6ero
mean>
i
i
.
+
.
i
i . .
+
6
6
6 1
p"6 # exp
+
+
_






,
"1F#
and !ariance gi!en with [D]>
+
.
+ +
.
+
1
i
i)
i
N
z
i)
z
i )
z
z

"+@#
:or the case of e-ui!alently assumed channels, when
satands>
1 +
+ + +
. . .
.... , 1,...,
i i i)
z z z ) N
per!ious
reduces into>
.
. .
+ + +
,
i i)
z z d i
f
"+1#
where fd is a 0oppler shift fre-uency.
3onditioned on Ii, the <oint =0:
.
i i i
p"6 , 6 B #
can be
calculated as "1@#
(t is already -uoted that our macrodi!ersity system is of
*3 type and that selection based on the microcombiners
output signal power !alues. This selection can be
written through the first order statistical parameters =0:
and cumulati!e distribution function "30:# at the
macrodi!ersity output in the form of ".# and "7#.
*ince base stations at the macrodi!ersity le!el are
widely located, due to sufficient spacing between
antennas, signal powers at the outputs of the base
stations are moddeled as statistically independent. $ere
longterm fading is described with )amma
distributions, which are as abo!e mentioned
independent, as>
After substituting "18#, "1F# and "+1# into "1#, and
following the procedure explained in them we can easily
deri!e the infiniteseries expression for the system
output 93%, in the form of>
( )
1 1
+ +
.
c 1 M 1B + + ? 1 1 1
1 + 1 6 1
d @+ @1 1 1 @
.
c 1 M 1B + + + + +
+ 1 + 6 +
@1 @+ + + @
& 6 & 6
' c , exp d
f r
& 6
' c , exp d
r


_ _
+


, ,
1 _ _

1

, , ]

"++#
with '1 and '+ gi!en with>
( )
( ) ( )
1
1
1
M
M 1
1
1
c .
1 1
1 + @1
& 1 6
'
M r
c c E 6

,
"+.#
( )
( ) ( )
+
+
+
M
M 1
+
+
c .
+ +
1 + @+
& 1 6
'
M r
c c E 6

,
"+7#
(n the similar manner from "7# we can obtain an
infinite series expression for the output A:0.
" ,&merical res&lts
(n order to show the influence of !arious parameters
such as number of the di!ersity branches at the
microcmbiners, fading se!erity and le!el of correlation
between those branches, and type of di!ersity applied at
microle!el on the system1s statistics, numerical results
are gi!en and graphically presented. &ormali6ed !alues
of 93%, by maximal 0oppler shift fre-uency fd are
presented at :igures 1 and +. &umerical results for
93% are presented in the function of normali6ed signal
le!el. *ignal le!el is normali6ed with the s-are root of
mean power of )amma distributed signal ,
@1
r 6 B .
-35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
&
1
J&
+
J+
1
J
2
J@.+
&
1
J&
+
J.
1
J
2
J@.+
&
1
J&
+
J7
1
J
2
J@.+
&
1
J&
+
J+
1
J
2
J@.8
&
1
J&
+
J.
1
J
2
J@.8
&
1
J&
+
J7
1
J
2
J@.8
&
1
J&
+
J+
1
J
2
J@.E
&
1
J&
+
J.
1
J
2
J@.E
&
1
J&
+
J7
1
J
2
J@.E
N
z

/

f
d
20 log z [dB]
c
1
Jc
+
J1

@1
J
@+
J1
.ig%1% &ormali6ed a!erage 93% of our macrodi!ersity
structure for !arious !alues of correlation le!el and di!ersity
order when M%3 techni-ues are applied at microle!el
'e can obser!e from :ig. 1, which shows applience
of M%3 techni-ue, that lower le!els are crossed with
the higher number of di!ersity branches at each
microcombiner, and lower le!el of correlation between
the branches.
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
SC c
1
=c
2
=1.5,
MRC c
1
=c
2
=1.5,
1
=
2
=0.2
MRC c
1
=c
2
=2,
1
=
2
=0.2
SC c
1
=c
2
=2,
N
R

/
f
m
20 log() [dB]
&
1
J&
+
J+
.ig%2% &ormali6ed a!erage 93% of our macrodi!ersity
structure for !arious !alues of correlation le!el and di!ersity
order when *3 and M%3 techni-ues are applied at microle!el
:rom :igure +, which shows applience of *3
techni-ue, can be seen, that for the normal6ed signal
le!els, which are rK@ dL, has smaller !alues in obser!ed
range in the presence of shadowing with smaller !alues
of parameters c1 i c+. :inally, as we ha!e expected, by
comparing 93% !alues, conclusion can be dri!en, about
better system performances for the case when M%3
combining is used at each base station.
/ (oncl&sion
=erformance analysis of macrodi!ersity combining
system o!er )ama shadowed %ayleigh fading channels
is presented in this paper. Analysis has been performed
for the cases when both M%3 and *3 techni-ues are
performed at each microle!el. &umerical results are
graphically presented in order to show the influence of
!arious system parameters on macrodi!ersity output
93% !alues.
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