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You are on page 1of 4

Mihajlo Stefanovi

1

, Bratislav Miri

2

, etar S!alevi

2

, Stefan ani

"

,

1

Faculty of Electronic Engineerig, University of Nis

2

State University of Novi Pazar

3

Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, University of Pristina

Email! stefan"nc#yahoo$com

Abstract # $n this !a!er an a!!roach to the second order

statistics analysis of macrodiversity system o!erating over

the Gamma shadowed Rayleigh fading channels is

!resented% Sim<aneo&s infl&ence of m<i!ath fading

and shadowing is allievated thro&gh the &sage of

macrodiversity system% 'e have considered S( )selection

combining* macrodiversity system consisting of two base

stations )microdiversity systems*% (ases of MR( )Ma+imal

Ratio (ombining* and S( diversity with arbitrary n&mber

of branches, a!!lied at microlevel over the Rayleigh fading

channels are disc&ssed% Selection between maco-combiners

is based on o&t!&t signal !ower val&es% ,&merical res<s

for -(R )-evel crossing rate* at the o&t!&t of this system

are !resented and disc&ssed in the f&nction of vario&s

system !arameters%

1 $ntrod&ction

Multipath fading and shadowing conditions should be

simultaneously taken into account, since they both

coexist in wireless systems [1].

The shortterm signal !ariation "multipath fading#

can be described by se!eral distributions such as $oyt,

%ayleigh, %ice, &akagamim, and 'eibull. %ayleigh

fading describes multipath scattering with relati!ely

large delaytime spreads, with different clusters of

reflected wa!es. (n pro!ides good fits to collected data

in indoor and outdoor mobileradio en!ironments and is

used in many wireless communications applications.

The longterm signal !ariation "shadowing# is often

described by lognormal and )amma distribution. (n

cellular networks, longterm fading can put a hea!y

limit on system performance. *hadowing is the result of

the topographical elements and other structures in the

transmission path such as trees, tall buildings [+]. 'e

must simultaneously take short and longterm fading

conditions into account since they both coexist in

wireless systems.

,arious techni-ues for reducing shortterm fading

effect are used in wireless communication systems [.].

/pgrading transmission reliability without increasing

transmission power and bandwidth while increasing

channel capacity is the main goal of di!ersity

techni-ues. 0i!ersity reception is an effecti!e remedy

that exploits the principle of pro!iding the recei!er with

multiple faded replicas of the same informationbearing

signal. An efficient method for amelioration system1s

-uality of ser!ice "2o*# with using multiple recei!er

antennas is called space di!ersity. *e!eral principal

types of combining techni-ues can be generally

performed by their dependence on complexity

restriction put on the communication system and

amount of channel state information a!ailable at the

recei!er. 3ombining techni-ues like maximal ratio

combining "M%3# and e-ual gain combining "4)3# and

re-uire all or some of the amount of the channel state

information of recei!ed signal. *econd, M%3 and 4)3

re-uire separate recei!er chain for each branch of the

di!ersity system, which increase it complexity of

system. 5ne of the least complicated combining

methods is selection combining "*3#. (n opposition to

pre!ious combining techni-ues, *3 recei!er processes

only one of the di!ersity branches, and is much simpler

for practical reali6ation. )enerally, selection combining,

selects the branch with the highest signaltonoise ratio

"*&%#, that is the branch with the strongest signal [1,.

7], assuming that noise power is e-ually distributed o!er

branches.

'hile shortterm fading is mitigated through the use

of di!ersity techni-ues typically at the single base

station "microdi!ersity#, use of such microdi!ersity

approaches alone will not be sufficient to mitigate the

o!erall channel degradation when shadowing is also

concurrently present. Macrodi!ersity is used to

alle!iate the effects of shadowing, where multiple

signals are recei!ed at widely located radio ports,

ensuring that different longterm fading is experienced

by these signals [8].

The le!el crossing rate "93%# and the a!erage fading

duration "A:0# are secondorder statistical -uantities,

which complement the static probabilistic description of

the fading signal "the firstorder statistics#, and ha!e

found se!eral applications in the modelling and design

of practical systems and designing wireless

communication systems. Actually, these secondorder

statistical measures are related to criterion used to assess

error probability of packets of distinct length and to

determinate parameters of e-ui!alent channel, modeled

by a Marko! chain with defined number of states [;].

(n this paper 93% and A:0 !alues at the output of

the macrodi!ersity system operating o!er the )amma

shadowed %ayleigh fading channels are determined for

the cases when *3 and M%3 combining techni-ues are

applied at the microle!el.

2 System model

9et z be the recei!ed signal en!elope, and z& its

deri!ati!e with respect to time, with <oined probability

density function "=0:#

. .

6 6

p "6 6#

$ The le!el crossing

rate "93%# at the en!elope z is defined as the rate at

which a fading signal en!elope crosses le!el z in a

positi!e or a negati!e direction and is mathematically

defined by formula [;]>

( )

( )

.

. . .

?

6 6

@

& 6 6 p 6, 6 d 6

"1#

The a!erage fade duration "A:0# is defined as the

a!erage time o!er which the signal en!elope ratio

remains below a specified le!el after crossing that le!el

in a downward direction, and is determinated as [;]>

( )

( )

( )

6

?

?

: 6 ?

T 6

& 6

"+#

Macrodi!ersity combiner is *3 type combiner, which

consists of two microdi!ersity systems and selection is

based on their output signalAs a!erage power !alues.

5utput statistics can then be presented in the form.

( )

( )

1

. . .

1 1 1 1

+

. .

+ + 1 1

.

.

1 + 1 +

, , , 1

@ @

.

+ 1 1 +

, , +

@ @

,

,

,

z z z z

z z

z z

" z z d d " "

z z

d d " "

_

_

+

,

,

_

+

,

".#

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

1

1 1 +

+

+ 1 +

1 + 1 1 +

@ @

+ 1 + 1 +

@ @

B

B

z z

z

F z d d F z P

d d F z P

+

+

"7#

$ere %1 and %+ denote a!erage output powers of signals

of microcombiners and "&% 1, % +' represents their <oint

probability density function modeled by <oint )amma

distribution.

2%1 Selection combining at micro-level

The <oint probability density functions at the output of

the microcombiners, since a regular selection combining

is performed, can be written as>

( ) ( ) . .

. .

,

1 1

, B B B

i i

i( i)

i i(

i

N N

i i(

i i z i( i z i) i

z z z

( )

) (

" z z " z " z F z

_ _

, ,

"8#

with i*1,+ denoting microdi!ersity system and (*1,+,C

Ni number of di!ersity branches in each of

microcombiners. =robability density functions and

cumulati!e distribution functions of %ayleigh shortterm

"multipath# fading processes at the inputs of

microdi!ersity combiners are gi!en with>

( )

( ) ( )

+

+

@

+

, B exp

, B , B 1 exp

i(

i(

i( i(

i( i(

z i( i

i i

z

i(

z i( i + i( i i(

i

z z

" z

z

F z " + d+

_

,

_

,

";#

The probability density function of deri!ates z& of the

recei!ed signals z at the output of both microdi!ersity

systems, with respect to time, are )aussian =0:s>

( )

+

+

1

exp , 1, +

+ +

i i

i

i

z z

z

" z i

_

,

&

&

& &

"D#

where

i

z&

presents deri!ati!es of recei!ed

microdi!ersity en!elopes and can be expressed as>

{ }

max , 1,.., , 1, +

i i( i

z z ( N i & &

"E#

:or isotropic scattering, z& is a )aussian distributed

random !ariable with 6ero mean and !ariance can be

expressed as [D]>

+ + + +

, 1, +

i

z d i

f i &

"F#

where fd is a 0oppler shift fre-uency.

There is shadowing at the input of microdi!ersity

systems as well as at the input of macrodi!ersity system.

The slow fading is statistically independent due to

sufficient input antenna spacing. (n this case we achie!e

the highest decrease of the fading influence on systemAs

performances The slow fading is modeled by <oint

)amma =0: [7]>

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

1 + 1 +

1 +

1 +

, 1 + 1 +

1 1

1 1 + +

1 @1 + @+

@1 @+

,

1 1

exp exp

c c

c c

" " "

c c

_ _

, ,

"1@#

where

i @

macrocombiner, while c1 and c+ present orders of

)amma distributions, and they determine measures of

the shadowing present in the channel.

After substituting ";#, "1@# and ".# in "1#, we obtain

following expressions for normali6ed le!el crossing

rate, 93%>

( )

1

+

.

1 + 1 1

1 + 1 1 1

@+ @1

@

.

1 + + +

+ 1 + + +

@1 @+

@

, exp

, exp

c

z

z

d

c

z

N z

, c d

f

, c d

_ _

+

, ,

1

_ _

1

, , 1

]

"11#

where G "m,x# represents the lower incomplete )amma

function, with>

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

1 1

1 1

1 +

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 + @1 @+

1

B B

( )

N N

z ( z )

c c

( )

) (

, " z F z

c c

"1+#

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

+ +

+ +

1 +

+ + + + +

1 1 1 + @1 @+

1

B B

( )

N N

z ( z )

c c

( )

) (

, " z F z

c c

"1.#

After substituting "7#, "1@# in "+#, and following

simillar mathematical procedure, we obtain following

expressions for normali6ed a!erage fade duration, A:0>

( )

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

1

1 1

@1

1k 1

1

+ +

@1

+ k +

& c 1

1

1

6 1k 1 + 1 c

@+

k 1 1 + @1 @

k <

6

r

& c 1

+

+

6 +k + 1 + c

@1

k 1 1 + @+ @

k <

r

1

: 6 B e , c d

c c

T 6

& r

1

: 6 B e , c d

c c

& r

"17#

2%2 Ma+imal ratio combining at micro level

This macrodi!ersity system is of *3 type and

consists of two microdi!ersity systems with selection

based on their output signal power !alues. 4ach

microdi!ersity system is of M%3 type with arbitrary

number of branches in the presence of %ayleigh fading.

Treating the correlation between the branches as

exponential, the expression for the pdf of the *&% at the

outputs of microdi!ersity systems follows [E]>

( )

1

1

B exp

" #

i

i

M

M i i

i i i

i i i i i

N N

" z z z

M r r

_ _

, ,

"18#

(n per!ious e-uation, H"x# denotes the )amma

function. Ni denotes the number of identically assumed

channels at each microle!el. &umber of di!ersity

branches at the microle!el can be arbitrary. $owe!er,

since channels are consider correlated, micro di!ersity

system is applied on small terminals where spacing

between the di!ersity branches is small [.]. Also there is

no need to increase significantly number of di!ersity

branches, because achie!ed output performance

impro!ement with few di!ersity branches would not

increase !ery much with the appliance of more

branches. *o the limitation for the number of di!ersity

branches in the microdi!ersity system is the tradeoff

between the complexity of practical reali6ation and

re-uested performance impro!ement. =arameter ri is

related to the exponential correlation -i among the

branches and is gi!en with>

+ 1

1 1

1

+

1

]

i

N

i i

i i i

i i

r N N

"1;#

=arameter Mi is defined as>

+

i

i

i

N

M

r

"1D#

*ince the outputs of a M%3 system and their

deri!ati!es follow [D]>

+ +

1

i

N

i i)

)

z z

and

.

1

1, +

i

N

i)

i i)

i

)

z

z z i

z

"1E#

then

.

i z

is a )aussian random !ariable and with 6ero

mean>

i

i

.

+

.

i

i . .

+

6

6

6 1

p"6 # exp

+

+

_

,

"1F#

and !ariance gi!en with [D]>

+

.

+ +

.

+

1

i

i)

i

N

z

i)

z

i )

z

z

"+@#

:or the case of e-ui!alently assumed channels, when

satands>

1 +

+ + +

. . .

.... , 1,...,

i i i)

z z z ) N

per!ious

reduces into>

.

. .

+ + +

,

i i)

z z d i

f

"+1#

where fd is a 0oppler shift fre-uency.

3onditioned on Ii, the <oint =0:

.

i i i

p"6 , 6 B #

can be

calculated as "1@#

(t is already -uoted that our macrodi!ersity system is of

*3 type and that selection based on the microcombiners

output signal power !alues. This selection can be

written through the first order statistical parameters =0:

and cumulati!e distribution function "30:# at the

macrodi!ersity output in the form of ".# and "7#.

*ince base stations at the macrodi!ersity le!el are

widely located, due to sufficient spacing between

antennas, signal powers at the outputs of the base

stations are moddeled as statistically independent. $ere

longterm fading is described with )amma

distributions, which are as abo!e mentioned

independent, as>

After substituting "18#, "1F# and "+1# into "1#, and

following the procedure explained in them we can easily

deri!e the infiniteseries expression for the system

output 93%, in the form of>

( )

1 1

+ +

.

c 1 M 1B + + ? 1 1 1

1 + 1 6 1

d @+ @1 1 1 @

.

c 1 M 1B + + + + +

+ 1 + 6 +

@1 @+ + + @

& 6 & 6

' c , exp d

f r

& 6

' c , exp d

r

_ _

+

, ,

1 _ _

1

, , ]

"++#

with '1 and '+ gi!en with>

( )

( ) ( )

1

1

1

M

M 1

1

1

c .

1 1

1 + @1

& 1 6

'

M r

c c E 6

,

"+.#

( )

( ) ( )

+

+

+

M

M 1

+

+

c .

+ +

1 + @+

& 1 6

'

M r

c c E 6

,

"+7#

(n the similar manner from "7# we can obtain an

infinite series expression for the output A:0.

" ,&merical res<s

(n order to show the influence of !arious parameters

such as number of the di!ersity branches at the

microcmbiners, fading se!erity and le!el of correlation

between those branches, and type of di!ersity applied at

microle!el on the system1s statistics, numerical results

are gi!en and graphically presented. &ormali6ed !alues

of 93%, by maximal 0oppler shift fre-uency fd are

presented at :igures 1 and +. &umerical results for

93% are presented in the function of normali6ed signal

le!el. *ignal le!el is normali6ed with the s-are root of

mean power of )amma distributed signal ,

@1

r 6 B .

-35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

&

1

J&

+

J+

1

J

2

J@.+

&

1

J&

+

J.

1

J

2

J@.+

&

1

J&

+

J7

1

J

2

J@.+

&

1

J&

+

J+

1

J

2

J@.8

&

1

J&

+

J.

1

J

2

J@.8

&

1

J&

+

J7

1

J

2

J@.8

&

1

J&

+

J+

1

J

2

J@.E

&

1

J&

+

J.

1

J

2

J@.E

&

1

J&

+

J7

1

J

2

J@.E

N

z

/

f

d

20 log z [dB]

c

1

Jc

+

J1

@1

J

@+

J1

.ig%1% &ormali6ed a!erage 93% of our macrodi!ersity

structure for !arious !alues of correlation le!el and di!ersity

order when M%3 techni-ues are applied at microle!el

'e can obser!e from :ig. 1, which shows applience

of M%3 techni-ue, that lower le!els are crossed with

the higher number of di!ersity branches at each

microcombiner, and lower le!el of correlation between

the branches.

-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

10

-6

10

-5

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

SC c

1

=c

2

=1.5,

MRC c

1

=c

2

=1.5,

1

=

2

=0.2

MRC c

1

=c

2

=2,

1

=

2

=0.2

SC c

1

=c

2

=2,

N

R

/

f

m

20 log() [dB]

&

1

J&

+

J+

.ig%2% &ormali6ed a!erage 93% of our macrodi!ersity

structure for !arious !alues of correlation le!el and di!ersity

order when *3 and M%3 techni-ues are applied at microle!el

:rom :igure +, which shows applience of *3

techni-ue, can be seen, that for the normal6ed signal

le!els, which are rK@ dL, has smaller !alues in obser!ed

range in the presence of shadowing with smaller !alues

of parameters c1 i c+. :inally, as we ha!e expected, by

comparing 93% !alues, conclusion can be dri!en, about

better system performances for the case when M%3

combining is used at each base station.

/ (oncl&sion

=erformance analysis of macrodi!ersity combining

system o!er )ama shadowed %ayleigh fading channels

is presented in this paper. Analysis has been performed

for the cases when both M%3 and *3 techni-ues are

performed at each microle!el. &umerical results are

graphically presented in order to show the influence of

!arious system parameters on macrodi!ersity output

93% !alues.

References

[1] *tuber ). =rinciples of Mobile 3ommunication.

.oston! /lu0er 1cademic Pu2lishers3 2444$

[+] *hankar =.M, 5utage analysis in wireless channels

eith multiple interferers sub<ect to shadowing and fading

using a compound pdf model, 5nt$ 6$ Electron$

7ommun$ &1E8', ;1 "+@@D#, +88 M +;1

[.] 9ee '3N. Mobile communications engineering,

Ne0 9or)! Mc:ra0,ill3 +@@1.

[7] *imon MO, Alouini M*. 0igital 3ommunication

o!er fading channels. Ne0 9or)! ;ileyP 2444$

[8] *hankar =.M, Analysis of microdi!ersity and dual

channel macrodi!ersity in shadowed fading channels

using a compound fading model, 5nt$ 6$ Electron$

7ommun$ &1E8', ;+ "+@@E#, 778 M 77F

[;] A. Mitic, M. Qako!l<e!ic, R*econd5rder *tatistics

in 'eibull9ognormal :ading 3hannelsR, <elsi)s 244=,

Ser2ia, Nis, Se"tem2er 2>2?,244=

[D] (skander, 3. 0., Mathiopoulos =.T.> Analytical

9e!el 3rossing %ate and A!erage :ade 0uration in

&akagami fading channels. 5EEE <ransactions on

7ommunications, !ol. 8@ &o.E, pp 1.@11.@F, "+@@+#.

[E] Aalo, ,. A.> =erformance of maximalratio di!ersity

systems in a correlated &akagami fading en!ironment.

5EEE <ransactions on 7ommunications !ol. 7., &o +,

pp. +.;@+.;F "1FF8#.

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