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R. RAU-|ENBACHand J. GEBEL 46 Turmstrae der RWTH Aachen, Institutfr Verfahrenstechnik Aachen D-5100

STJMMARY energy- and tube multiple effecthas provedto be reliable. Horizontal plants. desalilltion seawater sized mediuri in a number of efficient cost capitai the brine the stackedversion,especiaily studiedextensively W! ourselves ji"riu"iion b), ri;;ttr"yt. opii-l stackdesign with respeci jo lo-* vapor5icie ot lt Seemed condenstbles. non removal of the efficient losses and Dressure couldbe usedfor the concentration/crystailisation this design wherher in it wouldbe operate-d ater RO plants,i.e. whether from brackisch of brines caiciumsulfate. like w.ith re-spect to components the supersaturated.range hvdroxide andsilica. masnesium of the plantsfar inlandthe concentration Foilargebraikishwaterdesalination the wasteof about 20% of the water sinc-e essential RO-brineshas become cannotbe affordedanymoreand since the area requiredfor the large solar ponds is oftennot avaiiabie. evaooration Scaiingof. r,aporatorheat transfer surfacescan be controlledin this bedtechnique. or a fluidized range only by eithera seeding concentration with tube evapofator oTa horizontal .Oes of operation This paperciiscusies on results Experimentai sieve'tiav brine distribution in case of seeding. rvetting ratesrvill be presented. minimum

INTRODUCTION hasmaturedto osmosis reverse waterdesaiination, In the areaof brackish a reiiable and economicprocess,Setting the Standardwith respect to The water for all other processes. investment costsand energyconsumption of the recoverv on the individualcomposition dependent rate of RO, although plant where the desaiination feedrvater is in general about707aIn cases source, is situatedfairly cioseto the opensea,the RO-retentatecan be discharged For easilr'- the corresponding remain the only disadvantage. water losses plantsfar inland, the common solutionfor brine brackish water desalination
( l ( 1 1 1 - 9 t d3 {, ts.\'. 9 , S 0 3 . ; l r! l E l s e v i e r Science Publishers

S not injectionis in nost case ponds' Deep_rr,ell are e\,aporation disposal of the salt concenirations of increasing of the danger because iecommenriable t of 50000-E0000 for large piants with capacities Especialiy feed source. is questionable' per cial'.rhe conceptof solar brine evaporation rreshrvarer pondsand,evenmoreimportant' for the evaporation are required Largeareas important since contrary't0 iarse amountsof \\.ater are rvasted.This is wateris limited' of the localbrackish the delivery desalination seawarer the step is required,concentrating desalination a seconcj For thesereasons

Ro-brineasfaraspossible.Suchaconcept-twostagedesalina at veil' high overall brackish*,arer $'ith RO as the first step' operating frequently l1'Z'31'It can be successful rates,has been proposed recovery as the stageis as reliableand about as economic if the second oni1, ho$,ever firststage. is that in concentratlng stage by the second difficultyencountered The general in the RO-brine iimits of almostall the varioussaltscontained the saturation or b1' process whetherby a membrane Brine concentration, are exceeded. can be if scalingof the transfersurfaces distillation,can oniy be successful reliablY. prevented at the required levels of Promising principles for scaling prevention are supersaturation - the seeding technique - the fludized technique' Particle onprocesses f 1,5,6,7I in evaporat haveprovedtheir efficiency Both techniques in aPPlied canbe successfuliY techniques that these evidence and thereis some osmosis reverse 18,9,101. RO4rine by rvater of brackish with the concentration This paperis concerned to the technique the seeding applying of first experiments Resuits evaporation. The horizontaltube film horizontaltube film evaporatorare discussed.

evaporatorrvithbrinedistributionbysievetrayS'whetheroper is an vaporcompression' (MES)unit or with mechanical multiple+ffect-srack with small driving forces(= iol sinceit ailowsoperation c6ncept inreresting costs' at reasonable consumption) energy specific wherescaling fluidizedparticletechnique, interesting the othenvise Definitelv

be cannot in thefeed, fluidized tnertparticles bY coarse is controlled fiim boiiing. realizing tubeevaPorators horizontal

lo apoiied

TFIE SEEDINGTECHMQUE thus Basically seedingcrystals ad. as nuciei for desupersaturation. For this purpgse on the heat transfer surfaces. crystallisation preventing like gypsum in case of caso-. sufficientamounts of suitable crystals and partiaily rec-Vcieci' are addedto the feed,iater separated supersaturation AccordinglyanySystemempioyingtheseedingtechniquemustinciu or a gravitysettler(gJ)' suchas a hydrocvclone separator

C o nd en s er

c e n tr o t or Con

S ep o r o to r ond Solution
Qr rcnanriori


Fig. 1:

system. of the brine concentrator schematic simplified

Fig.2 shows the results of batch experimentsin a stirred tank with solution and gypSumcrystals (particle size: calciumsuliate supersaturated rate is fairlr' to fig.2, the desupersaturation < 80 pm) 1111.According 95Vo of 2.57oormore' highfor seeding crystalconcentrations heat has been first applied to a forced convection The seeding technique of the water.Scaling (fig.3,l12l) for brackish exchanger of a flashevaporator preventedas must be conciuded has been successfully heat transfersurfaces coefficient' heattransfer fromthe time-independent

on l 1 2m S / c m isucersoturotic



.9 c c c o a

3 0 9i 1 0 %

contents / 11/' at differentseedcrystal Desupersaturation


^ ^ ^ U

6 9 5 00 0
o e


O No Jlldg. O 0,8-2* tlu69t a 0 6 . 1 , 8 4t l q 6 9 .

3 0 0 0L 0


1oo 120 ro
lime of operolron


1 8 CF

Heat transfer coefficient vs Pilot Piant evaPorator: operutnI t/.1.

. i . ^ I



Co.) introducedsuccessfulll' Conservation N{orerecentlyRCC (Resources of for the evaporation rvith seeding film (longtubevertikal)evaporators failing that it proves This is importantsince plant effluents 1131. po\ver to can preventscalingin film boiling anci is not restricted r seeding liquidheatexchange, using one type of seed in casesrvhere r scalingcan be prevented areexceeded. limits of severai components the saturation SEEDINGIN THE HORTZONZALTUBE EVAPORATOR of muitipieeffectstack the concept rvepursued Duringthe past 10 years, as shownin fig. 4. The a stagedesign and developed desalination sea\!,ater a compiete thusensuring by sieve traysto the tubebundle, brineis distributed of at the surface occurs of the tubesin form of thin films.Evaporation w,ettins is provided b-'"tube side enthalpv evaporation the liquidfilms. the required stage. in the preceeding of the vaporproduced conden:ation


s r e v e t r qy



for horizontal tubes. Principle design of a MES-stage

are of titisconcept The aovantages of t he possibilit.rand.henc1. o hieh overall heat transfercoeiiicients shiftingtheperformanceratiotodefinitell'higi'.'figuresconrparedt costs' investment \iSF at still reasonable .sinpiebrinedistributionbylori.<ostsier.etrays' energl")' (lorvtemperatule heatutilisation of $,aste r possibilitv or mechanicalvapor r possibilityof a combinationrvith thermal compresslon. couldbe aPPlied whetherseeding intriguing it seemed advantages With these must range.In this caseresearch to MES in order to extendits appiication on two Probiems: concentrate cr'vstals traysby seeding - plugging of the sieve

imPortant. more a n d ,e v e n _stabilityoftheliquidfilminthepresenceofseedingcrystalssi incomplete\\,ettingrvillleadimmediatelytoscalingonthedrl'area

Tuberr'ettingi.e.theformationofliquidfilms,theirstabiiityan groups(fig. 5) or four groups by six dimensionless is go'erned hydrod,vnamics of a fixedgeometry' in case
T nr= Re= frI

= "4^ Xo ftr= ffi

t l:= ---





T-( = ; -


G=e geometry, relevant





groups' and dimensionless Darameters

I L,)

it must be and from some theoreticalconsiderations Fron experiments of film rupture: to the problem arerelevant thrt of groups !^ ! v r these Lrrcl 2

florv with f (kgi.'s) as brine mass Re=-f number _ the Reynolds ratePertube lengthand sideand '9 tension. with o (N/m) assurface 11 = at number - theKapitza " p .o " oniv materialproperties of containing The Kapitzanumberhasthe advantage gravityacceleration' andthe constant at conditionsguaranteeing Fi&_6 shorvsa wetted tube bundle operated the Reynolds wetting. Loweringthe flow rate or more precisely complete would soonresult in film break-up into rivuletswith drv areasin number betrveen.

Fio A'

tubes. of horizontal on the surface Florvcharacteristics

Re, is plotted againstthe The criticaiReynoids numberfor a safeoperation $'here fluid properties of experiments Kapitzanumber in fig. 7 for a number

, v v

^ ^



l 2CCr

o r e s e ns l t ud Y M l r ' o : l e r n o r o ni l 3 /

ss teel-woler 0 = 35 3o (sloinles

O 2 x f


0,633'xoqitsl Re=





1 r e c i p r o c o lK o P i t z on u m b e : Ko

-3n e Y = --7-

Fig.7:ReynoidsnumbervsKapitzanumberinthecaseofsa|eoperatio andexperiments' theorY a n d f l o r v r a t e s h a v e b e e n v a r i e d . i n a d d i t i o n f i g . T c o n t a i on n sa lesult the florv of water for valid Maron and l14l' from \Ioalem experiments /15/ and of Hartley/Murgatroyd \,eltical flat plate, and the relationships

\'likieieu'iez/Moszy'inkil16l,vaiidforthebreak-upofiaminarfilmso flat Piates. Vertical form areof the general relationships These
Ra, = a'Ka-o'2

HartleY/MurgatroYd cz,Moszvnski Mi kieiewi


= 0,633
= l l 1 1 4



angleO the factor" 4" is a functionof the contact authors, to these According tubesand water-glYcerine u'ith horizontal (seefig. 5). Our o*'n experiments

i ll

covereda wide ranse of the Kapltza different compositions nixtures of rvith the fairiy accurately to fig. 7, theseresultscoincide nrrurr. Accorrling fluids rvith different in our experiments Since .qu^tionof Hartley/Murgatroyd. that in the it must be concluded couldnot be kept constant, ,i. .onru., angle importance' angleis of lesser the contact of our experiments range pureliquidsor liquidmixtures' sofar concerned discussed Theexperiments tubesin the of liquid films on horizontal the wetting behaviour Fi*J shorvs crystalsuspension the gypsum In our experiments, crystals. of seeding frr.n* 8570 ! 80 pm) have beentestedwith a soiid contentbetween lparticie size the generalwetting experiments, sqorr, and 1.0%wt.Accordingto these can and the rangeof safeoperation is not aiteredby suchcrystals behaviour the calculations. (1) and (2). In these from fig. 7 or equations still be predicted water of the p1r1e be usedinstead should of the suspension properties material properties.


?@F +dpp






", ..

. ..;!;-o .-'



on the surface suspension of a gypsum-water Florvcharacteristics tubes. of horizontal

i li;


s e e d i n g i n c o m b i n a t i o n r i ' i t h h o r i z o n t a l t u b e s i s s u p e r iwhich ortosee to LTV evaporators contrary (LT\): tubes 'erticai *.ith combination



evaDoratorscanbeop.,ut.datmuchlou,erbrineflorvratesbecaus thedangerofscaiing'thefilmscanbethinnerthaninLTVevaporators.
crvstals bY seeding of sieve-Plate-holes that plugging be mentioned It should fluid flor.r'on bY ProPer are prevented regions stasnant provided. is no probiem the plates.


T h e c o n c e p t o f a h o r i z o n t a l t u b e e v a p o r a t o r o p e r a t e d w i t h s e efor d i nthe gtech in the process integrated is hydrozyclone a shorvnin fig,9. Here At steady{tate conditions' the separation of the grown oystais' haveto be kept in the system and the particiesizedistribution soiids-content









tubebrineconcentrator' horizontal of a seeded Scheme

l l

since the svstemnot oniv This soundsdifficult but is possible constant.

produceslargercrystalsbycrystallisationofscalin gcomponentsonthesu break-{p of largercrystalsin as weli by mechanical nuciei ne"v but seecl of the nucleation)' pump(secondary ther.cir.,rlotion at the Institut fr Verfahrenstechnik a piiot plant is beinginstalled At present and separator the optimal coupiingof evaporator concerning for experiments (hvdrocYclone)'

CONCLUSIONS FortheconcentrationofRo-<oncentratesfrombrackishwate effluentsindustriai of sait-contaminated -or desalination from the treatment

e v a p o r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a r e r e q u i r e d c a p a b l e o f o p e r a t i n g i n tthe hes upersatu heat rvithout scaiingof calciumsulfate like components scaling of range surfaces' transfer or technique eitherby applyingthe fluidizedbed can be solved This probiem Fluidized bed techniqueis presently by applving the seedingtechnique' systems' evaporator to verticaitubeheatexchangers/flash however restricted with horizontai tube/falling film In this paper seedingin combination

evaporatorsisdiscussed.Thisevaporatordesignissuperiortomost consunption costsand energ,v to investment with respect riesigns evaporator plates)and its high overallheat (sieve of its simplebrine distriburion because coefficients. transfer beendiscussed' to criteriafor a propertube wettinghave leadine Experiments in the brinehas crystals of seeding the presence to our observations, According on film formation' effects no nesative

LIST OF SYMBOIS of tube outerdiameter d


- /s2 m bar

g k p

acceleration gravitational roughness surface pressure

f f q p o

soacing tr.r'l.e flo*' rate per tube iength brinemass andside fiin thickness brineviscositY briie ciensit,v tension sunace angle contact Filmre,vnoldsnumber Kapitzanumber

m kg/m's m kg/m's Kg/m" kg/s'


g. = -!,-'o K=.-.--:r:..l

p .o -

REFERENCFS K'H'Henne R.Rautenbach' i^ water of brackish il;i desalinaiion s81-s83 (ie8o) 32 rinuiion G'F'Leitner 2 reject osmosis for reverse r ponds vs evaporatlor Wast. Concentration

d w aterRe-use, an ion, s alinat ,;,1 ??l T,T lll,t; " De FuptttVol'1'p'31-38 italy' WJiklng
Fiorence, B1lMay 198'3,

by R/o rectamation wastewarer and recycling of brine XuL:1,1,,0n andwater Desaiination ^i{",' jz,' gss, ?i:.H-T#1i-''il: !:"'1d congress -on a6 Vol'3' p31 Bermua' t i il;;;.,
K.R.Frhner F. Bulda, Seeding?rocess fi. garlumSulfate 1977 n, 2r, 59-70, iulinutlo J.L' Sinek F.C.StanOiford, Evaporators in Searvater StopScale p'58 No' 1' Jan'1961' Eng.Progrer;;^V.i5?; Chem. D.G.Kiaren
ti't. ftuiO BedHeatExchanger

FoulingConditions Ser:erd Digest'Vol' 5' No. 1, March 1983 dJsearch Preventatton Fouiing

under Resurts rransrer Heat ii,.nliii: ff ffi'.r"i'io, and

R. Rautenbach,J. Kollbach

.r-^--ro- ^r prarrcnl' for Preventing BedHeatTransfer i{;;il;;l.pmnts ln^F-ruioizeo

1986 i*Tit'r,.* 8,No.5,47-55.

R.C.Harries of a for the Desaiination Osmosis Reverse i'Fi.ld i;i of Seeded 14ine^Water ing-T YPe Scal and Water Desalination Cong.resson oI Ine rnO W-o'!a Proceedtngs

HGh R.;;;ry om ;h;;g Osmosis Penn''264 Oct' Int. Water Conf',Pittsburgh' 42ndAnnualMeeting 198i K.P. Arz 10 R. Rautenbach, bei"it rri V.rminderungvon Belagbiidung rennverfahren Membrant FRG, p'339 Aachen oqiu*, 14.-16.3.1989, Membran Aachener 11 W. KopP^ bei durchMembranverfahren ausGrundwsiern Nitratentternung anfaiienden der Entsorgung ;l;;;;iiiil;Zk"dti*tt Konzentrate.

t' p2llss Bermue'Y9l' i{;-{i;. S;i. it-22,1g85. Kirc.lner''w'J-' ?av. Reverse t.M:'S;ii.;.h;.;.ry'J'. erakish water with seeded

FRG RwrFIAachen, ijiriiiiion 1e87.



R:H.c;i".y, C.A. Thorp,-EA' Cadwallader Scale' s'CaSOn Prevent iSO, Seeing Ind. andEng.Chem.No. 3, 3943' 1963 R. LoPPer R.E. Deschei, s at a west ern Zero-Discharge rement ;; ; ; i;iL i_nil'y[i. Requi

1 A IT



No' 8, p'2248' 1977 Vol. 121, Control i'olu.r-poifution Bralner N' p. tvtoaiem Ingel, G. Maron, with surfaces w.;i;biri in ui.r.-uiiiri" filmson inclined feed' intermittnd ;;;ii;;;;( ""d 87-96 a2 Q982) Desalination W. MurgatroYd E. Hartlev; Flowing ;i,;i;;; th; B;;k-p of rhin LiquidLavers Surfaces' Soiid over Isothermally 1003-1015 7 (1964) il:'i:.oi r"r"it Transfer, J'R.Moszyinski J. Mikielervicz; -.. ona Down venically oiliq"la Film Flowing Thictness Minimum Surface. Soiid 771:775 19(1976) Transfer, I;;:1. H;i Mass