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Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources Carrizozo News. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86063539/1910-01-14/ed-1/seq6/#date1=1836&index=4&rows=20&words=Law+law+laws+vaccination&searchType=b asic&sequence=0&state=&date2=1922&proxtext=vaccine+laws&y=-221&x=1060&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1>.

This is a copy of a newspaper from 1910. It is an entire page on vaccinations, apart from a little ad. It notes the confusion of the vaccinations. It talks about the questions that were commonly asked. It also says that it is part of hygiene and needed in everyday life. The Fulton County News. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86081889/1905-10-11/ed-1/seq1/#date1=1836&index=14&rows=20&words=law+Law+LAWS+vaccinated+Vaccinatio n+vaccination&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=&date2=1922&proxtext=vaccine +laws&y=-221&x=-1060&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1>. This newspaper was printed in 1905. The article is called "Conflicting Laws." It says anyone who is not vaccinated will be arrested. Teachers were not doing anything about it, and just waiting out the law. It tries to help the public understand the law. Jacobson v. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 197 S. Ct. Supreme Court of the US. 1905. Egalitarian Information Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/197/11>. This is a primary source due to the fact that it is a copy of a written decision of the prescribed court case. This also

includes the five dollar fine if you are not vaccinated. We figure this is mostly due to the fact that Jacobson is a minor in a public school. They were found guilty. National Vaccine Information Center. NVIC, 2013. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://www.nvic.org/vaccine-laws.aspx>. This website is a modern primary source where we were able to find information on the laws of vaccines. Seventeen states currently allow exemptions due to philosophical reasons. However, they have to refuse all vaccinations to be considered lawful. For the religious exemption, it is allowed everywhere besides California, Mississippi and West Virginia. All states allow medical exemption, meaning it excludes any case that may be detrimental to the person's health. It also states that some states require proof of immunity as an exemption. Rock Island Argus. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn92053934/1894-01-11/ed-1/seq5/#date1=1836&index=9&rows=20&words=school+vaccinate+vaccinated+vaccination+ vaccine&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=&date2=1922&proxtext=school+vaccin e&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1>. This is a primary source due to the fact it is a photocopy of an 1894 newspaper. It is incredible to see the report of the requirement of vaccines in schools as a public announcement. It is said it was already an idea but it was being put into action. It talks about how most of the children entered into the school that year were unvaccinated and how they would be told to. The Spokane press. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88085947/1908-10-08/ed-1/seq2/#date1=1836&index=7&rows=20&words=LAW+law+VACCINATION+vaccination& searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=&date2=1922&proxtext=vaccine+laws&y=-

221&x=-1060&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1>. This newspaper photocopy is from 1908. There are two highlighted sections that two people were trying to fight against the vaccinations. One was an eight year old boy who thought no one had the right to inject him with what he called poison. Another article is very clear on groups forming to go against the vaccines. A man says he is happy for it. The Sun. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030272/1914-06-21/ed-1/seq34/#date1=1836&index=10&rows=20&words=law+laws+vaccination&searchType=basi c&sequence=0&state=&date2=1922&proxtext=vaccine+laws&y=-221&x=1060&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1>. This is a primary source because it is a newspaper from 1914. It talks about how the smallpox vaccine actually works. It give a little graph that was drawn. It includes data that is important as well. It also downplays very sternly anyone who does not get vaccinated and calls them immoral. Travel. Government, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. This is a primary source because it is current information on influenza, H1N1 and H5N1. This gives us vital information on the vaccinations for these diseases. The current 'bird-flu' endemic is an avian infection that has shown up in humans. However, it is from dire contact. They are very worried that it will mutate into a stronger stain capable of possessing the power to transport itself worldwide from person to person. It gives you the basic information of washing your hands frequently to the intermediate vaccinations and urge to research. US Const. amend. XIV, sec. 1. Print. The piece of the Constitution that is used states, "...nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." The

two Supreme Court Cases specified used this amendment as a defense of their liberty. However, it is arguable that you could say the lack of a vaccine deprives the people of their right to life. This is a primary source due to the fact that it is the Constitution of the United States. The Weekly Times-record. Library of Congress. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89074274/1918-10-10/ed-1/seq3/#date1=1836&index=16&rows=20&words=school+School+schools+vaccinated+vacci nation+VACCINE&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=&date2=1922&proxtext=sch ool+vaccine&y=0&x=0&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1>. This newspaper was printed in 1918. It talks about how the Supreme Court will come up with its stance on the vaccination law. People argue that it is unlawful and void. People argue it is unhelpful and against their rights. Zucht v. King. 260 S. Ct. Supreme Court of the US. 1922. Legal Information Institute. Government, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/260/174>. This is primary due to the fact that it is a copy of the script of the original US Supreme Court Case prescribed above. This is more specific along the line of public schooling. They stated that no child is allowed to go to school unvaccinated. The child refused and was excluded from the public school. It even states the previous court case that settled it was in the states power to permit compulsory vaccination.

Secondary Sources Blume, Stuart. "A Brief of Polio Vaccines." Science: n. pag. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://www.medicinenet.com/mumps/article.htm>. This talks about how diseases are close to eradication like polio (paralytic poliomyelitis). It talks about a hypothesis that HIV was transferred from monkeys to humans through Polio and how it could also be eradicated through vaccines. It gives us more information on scientists that helped spring the vaccination movement into effect. Center for Disease Control. CDC, 2 May 2001. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056803.htm>. This shows the worry of a fall in population by the CDC. They are especially worried for the downfall of the entirety of humanity. They talk of a desire to use vaccines to completely eradicate future viruses and diseases. Center for Disease Control. CDC, 30 Sept. 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/laws/state-reqs.htm>. This website helped us figure out the requirements of vaccines. There is no federal law in existence, but all states require certain vaccines to attend schools. Most require MMR shots and polio, and a few even require pertussis. Children in Line for Vaccination Check. Synaesthetic. Blogspot, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://synaesthetical.blogspot.com/2010/12/history-of-vaccines.html>. This photo is used in the header on every page. Colgrove, James, and Ronald Bayer. "Manifold Restraints: Liberty, Public Health, and the Legacy of Jacobson v Massachusettes." American Journal of Public Health 95.4 (2005): n. pag. American Journal of Public Health. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

<http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2004.055145>. This article talks about the two cases prescribed in the given information. It talks of a case named Buck v. Bell, which is an effect of the twin cases. It is mainly about forced sterilization of females and some males to prevent the reproduction of imbeciles. It also includes more information stated earlier, such as the fines of the unvaccinated and it draws the line needed to specify where the states right go. Collier, James Lincoln. Vaccines. Tarrytown: Benchmark, 2004. Print. This book gives us definitions and history on the vaccination development. It shows how Edward Jenner inoculated affected and unaffected people with an attenuated strain of cowpox and that he cured it. It gives us specific instances of vaccination use and how they saved people. The Greater Good Vaccines Documentary. YouTube. Google, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2NlxVrR_LM>. There is a clip of an old vaccination commercial that we were unable to find anywhere else in this documentary. This clip is used in the consequences section of our website. The Great Pandemic. US Government, n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. <http://www.flu.gov/pandemic/history/1918/the_pandemic/legacypendemic/index.html>. This has a history of pandemics including many influenzas. It talks of how easily it is forgotten that many people died from them. It includes how the virus changes almost yearly and how a new vaccine is needed that often. Healthy Children. American Academy of Pediatrics, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/immunizations/pages/SoundAdvice-on-Vaccines.aspx>. This website contains many audio clips regarding vaccines and their effectiveness. These audio clips are used throughout the website.

Hendriks, Jan, 1, and Stuart Blume, 2. "Measles Vaccination: Before the Measles-MumpsRubella Vaccine." American Journal of Public Health 103.8 (2013): n. pag. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://0web.ebscohost.com.topekalibraries.info/mobsmart/citations/citation?sid=016fd939-6e7d4282-999a9e70840df3a6%40sessionmgr12&vid=1&hid=22&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPQ%3d%3d#d b=ofm&AN=88958470>. This talks about how, because of the vaccine for measles, major countries have stopped many deaths from the virus. It includes specific acts that were passed for immunizations in major countries and how this helped the virus count go down exceedingly. Some people believe measles is a part of childhood development, however, it can kill a child. History of Vaccines. N.p., 2013. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. <http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/history-anti-vaccinationmovements>. This talks about the opposition to smallpox in England and how Jenner inoculated a cowpox blister and about the opposition to various vaccines. It talks sanitary reasons and religious defenses. It downplays the faults of it being 'unaffective'. We used many of the pictures from this website's gallery throughout our website. Immunization Action Coalition. IAC, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://www.immunize.org/timeline/>. This is a very interesting website that has a list of the different medical discoveries made. It begins in 400 BC with Hippocrates finding out about certain diseases and calling them such. Its earliest is May of 2013 where it says the Booster for Yellow Fever is not needed according to WHO.

Link, Kurt. The Vaccine Controversy: The History, Use, and Safety of Vaccinces. Westport: Praeger, 2005. Print. This has more general information and more on the flu and how it is ever changing. It gives information on side effects that could kill and says that it is taken that vaccines do not work. It gives us more background about rights of states in public health issues and how it led up to the two cases. MedcineNet. MedicineNet, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://www.medicinenet.com/mumps/article.htm>. This gives us information on Mumps. It is a highly contagious viral disease. It has an incubation of 14-18 days before symptoms show. We will use this as basic, informative information. Mnookin, Seth. The Panic Virus: A True Story of Medicine, Science, and Fear. New York: Simon, 2011. Print. This book mainly talks about conspiracies towards vaccines, which are against them. Some think vaccines cause Autism. This was proven to be completely random and none of the evidence was proven or substantial. Offit, Paul A. Deadly Choices: How the Anti-Vaccine Movement Threatens Us All. New York: Basic, 2011. Print. This book talks about anti-vaccine movements such as the cases we are using. It talks of the outbreak of pertussis in California. It gives us specific FDA requirements, exemptions, reasons why people do not get their vaccines and background on the cases and their outcomes. - - -. Vaccinated: One Man's Quest to Defeat the World's Deadliest Diseases. New York: HarperCollins, 2007. Print. This book gives us specific examples of after the vaccination creation. It also gives us some information on who opposes vaccines. One example is the papillomavirus, which is otherwise known as the 'political vaccine'!

100 Greatest Discoveries: The Beginning of Vaccinations. How Stuff Works. Discovery, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/30004-100-greatestdiscoveries-the-beginning-of-vaccinations-video.htm>. This video was converted into an audio clip for our website. This clip is used in the background section of the website. PBS. PBS, 1998. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm79sp.html>. This talks about how smallpox grew but only slowly. This is a reason many people did not think it was necessary to get a vaccine. As soon as it mutated, it spread to new areas like hot climates. Picture of Victoria Harden. Office of History, National Institutes of Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://history.nih.gov/about/harden.html>. This photo is used to show who is speaking in an audio clip in the background section of the website. "Vaccination Campagne." Wikimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vaccination_campagne.jpg>. This photo is used in the header on every page. The Vaccine Song. By Brainwarmups. YouTube. Google, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1xw0Ob5bqs>. This video is a pro-vaccination song. This is used to draw attention to the subject of vaccination and to spark the interest of the audience. Weinberg, Geoffrey A., and Peter G. Szilagyl. "Vaccine Epidemiology: Efficacy, Effectiveness, and the Translational Research Roadmap." Journals of Infectious Diseases: n. pag. Oxford Journals. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. <http://hid.oxfordjournals.org/content/201/11/1607.long>. This gives us diseases that were a part of WW1 and how they needed a vaccine. It includes special information

about viruses that go beyond just the recipient. It also talks about how it is good for everyone to get the vaccine. WHALE. Roman Bystrianyk, 18 Nov. 2002. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://www.whale.to/a/bystrianyk3.html>. This source shows us a bit of both sides of the argument. It includes how the rates of infection went down before vaccinations were even available. It is contradictory, however important to note that vaccines helped as well as better living conditions. World Health Organization. WHO, 2008. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/86/2/07-040089/en/>. This gives us information about how the reduction of infectious diseases in history have gone down. They downplay the vaccine scares that have no evidence. They also talk about how vaccines are safe. It gives us the information on how scientists will go about eradicating disease. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine os (2008). Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2553651/#R3>. This journal talks about how the elderly and babies are especially prone to disease and infection and how we must vaccinate to protect them in their vulnerable state. It talks how Amish are a very common, anti-vaccination group and how a disease that is mutated could quickly spread elsewhere, and gives examples of some urban groups becoming ill. It includes Tort Law, or a civil wrong that can be fixed judicially. It has been brought to attention that you can file suit against a specific individual who did not get the HPV vaccination, because it is a situation where you can blame one individual.