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CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT, CLASSROOM INTERACTION AND TIME MANAGEMENT

Objectives
To expose readers to related components of classroom management To provide information of the component mentioned To give an idea of situation or problems that can occur during teaching pertaining to classroom management To stimulate student involvement in the classroom To make a variety interaction in classroom To make effective communication in classroom To manage the time in classroom

Overview
Class management in general, would be the components that demand a lecturers attention in creating conducive learning environment. However, four main components stand out. They are lecturers roles and expectations, reinforcement or encouragement, classroom climate and rules and limits (discipline). ach component is discussed with the aim to look into the !ualities, techni!ues and ways to enhance meaningful teaching as well as the learning in classrooms. "n that account, several situations and problems are provided to exemplify the real scenario of classroom management.

Class interaction is about students having an active discussion during class. #nteractions occur both between students with no lecturer present, and with the lecturer who probes student thinking among the whole group. There are many ways on how to communicate with students, especially in the classroom.

Time management is the thread running through almost all aspects of teaching $ organi%ing the day, organi%ing the classroom, deciding how long and how often to teach various sub&ects, recording student progress, or keeping time'consuming behavior problems to a minimum.

Content
(. )lassroom *anagement (.( ffective +ecturers ' ,oles and -ersonal .ttributes (.(.(. *otivating -ersonality (.(./. "rientation Towards 0uccess (.(.1. -rofessional 2emeanor (./ ,einforcement and ncouragement in the )lassroom (.1 ffective )lassroom )limate (.1.( (.3.( (.3./ (.3.1 (.3.3 (.3.5 (.3.6 The 0ocial nvironment stablishing ,ules .nd -rocedures *anaging 4ehaviour in the #nclusive )lassroom How to prevent -roblems in )lassroom Techni!ues for 2ealing with 4ehavioural -roblems 0uggestion for Handling -roblem 4ahaviour xample of 0pecific 4ehavioural -roblems (.3 2iscipline in )lassroom

/. )lassroom #nteraction /.(. )reate a )onducive )ommunicative nvironment /./. .sking ffective 7uestions /.1. The )ycle of 8eedback 1. Time *anagement 1.(. #n )lass Techni!ues

Classroom Management
E ective Lect!rers" Roles an# $ersonal Attrib!tes
The role of the classroom teacher is critical. The teacher is, after all, the point of contact between the educational program or innovation on the pupil operates through the pupil9s teachers. Thus maximi%ing teacher effectiveness is a ma&or goal of education (*edley, (:;6< p. 3) #n the light of the above !uotation, expectations and roles can also contribute in creating a conducive learning environment. +ecturers have to know how to use approaches to reach and to teach their students. This is because lecturers expectations for individuals and a class as a whole are affected and influenced by the kinds of interactions and relationship lecturers establish with students as well as with what the students learn. .ccording to .rends ((::3), lecturers9 expectations can =create a cyclical pattern of behaviors on the part of lecturers and students> (p. (3:). #n other words, it can be seen that lecturers need to be aware of what is possible with respect to attitudes and expectations and act accordingly. .s mentioned, lecturers roles become prominent agents in determining the learning and teaching process that take place in the classrooms. This is transparent from the types of activities and materials selected for students. #n simpler terms, lecturers personalities, attitudes and teaching styles reflect lecturers roles in the classrooms as well as their expectations towards their students. )hitravelu et. al. ((::6) describes several important roles of lecturers in classrooms. 0he claims that lecturers are guides in learning, motivator, organiser, assessor, evaluator and others (p. (?). 4ut ,obiah 0idin in her book Classroom Management (p. ; @ (/) states that there are two ma&or roles of a lecturer @ the task roles and the social roles.

T%$ES O& ROLE (. Task roles -

DESCRI$TION 8ocused towards reali%ing the philosophy and goals and ob&ectives of the school as an educational institution. Two ma&or roles in classroom < a. to impart knowledge and skills by a variety means to the learners b. to create the conditions under which learning can take place "ther roles< a. a guide @ learning difficulties and personal problems b. a resource person @ students can seek answers and provide further explanation c. a &udge @ to determine progress and grades

/. 0ocial roles

,evolves around how the public values a lecturer #nvolves responsibilities towards parents and community

+ikewise, lecturers will also have to reali%e that their students come from various background. They have to consider their students preferred learning styles in order to inculcate positive attitudes and motivation to learn nglish. However, it has been one of the ma&or challenges faced by lecturers in managing their language classrooms when they are not able to sort out their expectations in accordance to their students. The miscommunication that exists in between resulted in misbehavior in class and other discipline related problems. 8urthermore, some lecturers might not be able to fulfill all the stated roles of a lecturer as it all depends on the lecturers beliefs, values and goals. The lecturers themselves are responsible to strive to earn respect from their students. #n short, a student will tend to fulfill the positive expectations of a lecturer whom he respects ()ohen and *anion, (::1). Therefore, knowledge and information on how to become an effective lecturer is crucial to achieve the stated benchmark.

.s proven through out many researches, effective lecturers are those who helped their students to learn more that other lecturers with similar students. "ne common finding reveals that classrooms behaviors of effective lecturers are determined by some common attributes and abilities, in which is intended to increase students9 learning and satisfaction with teaching and to enhance students9 self'concept. attributes become the primary concern of the studies. Hence, personal These attributes, verbal and

nonverbal behavior, are difficult to change because they are so much a part of one9s personality. Aet, most of the attributes can be modified through awareness. To support, effective lecturers9 personal attributes can be organi%ed around three broad characteristics< motivating personality orientation toward success professional demeanor

.ccording to )ruickshank, 2. ,. et al. ((::5), the specific attributes that are related to each of the above. They are discussed in the following sections.

Motivating $ersonalit'
Ent(!siasm .n enthusiastic lecturer has the following !ualities. They are ' .ppear confident and friendly stablish and convey the relevance of the sub&ect to their students Bse broad, animated gestures to emphasi%e or reinforce points .re creative and varied in their instructional approach .re engaged and dramatic when they teach *aintain eye contact with all students Bse varied pitch, volume, inflection, and pauses to make vocal delivery more interesting .re patient

.re insistent that students successfully complete tasks .re aware of and !uickly deal with off'task behavior *aintain a !uick lesson pace Have a sense of humorC they can laugh at themselves Bse movement to maintain interest and attention

)armt( an# *!mor 0ense of humor and warmth can make learning more fun. Thus, a lecturer can try out the steps below. Dreet students by name at the door. )omment on their personal achievements outside your classroom, their appearance, or other aspects of their personal lives. 0mile fre!uently. 4e yourself. )onvey your personality, likes, dislikes, even opinions. Bse under threatening physical proximity to students. *oving closer to students can be used to convey a sense of trust and openness. ncourage students to approach you and to be open with you. Eeep most in'class interactions on academic topics, but express interest and willingness to talk with students about nonacademic concerns outside of class. 2raw out students9 opinions, feelings and ideas and actively incorporate these into your instruction. -rovide remediation and time for all students to master the material and to be successful. Fhile conveying genuine interest, concern, and acceptance of all students, avoid becoming Gone of the students9 by lowering expectations or &oining them socially. This especially true for new lecturers who may be very close in age to their students. Cre#ibilit' . credible lecturer is a lecturer that has gained his or her students9 trust. The level of trust given by students varies according to their age. The more mature the students are,

the more sub&ective the trust is perceived. Therefore, in order to promote trust and credibility, three elements must be studied. They are @ Cre#entials

These are necessary to exemplify a lecturer9s knowledge of the sub&ect because they can have impact in motivating students9 perception and to further motivate them to succeed. Content o t(e messages

. credible lecturer is often looked at as being able to present and to relate topics that are related to the students9 needs as well as interests. +e(aviors

. lecturer must be open, honest and e!uitable in his or her actions in teaching. He or she should also be able to handle students9 comments or criticisms. 0imilarly, demonstrating interest and concern can also be influential in earning students9 trust and credibility.

Orientation Towar# S!ccess


*ig( E,-ectations or S!ccess .n encouraging and a supportive lecturer must not only have respect and genuine belief in his or her students9 abilities, but also recognition for the students9 effort and potential. 4y using encouragement and support, a lecturer is able to relay to the students of his or her expectations on their success. The list below explains a lecturer9s behaviors that convey high expectations of students and themselves. )learly informs students of the lesson ob&ectives -rovides extended, organi%ed, well'paced explanations *akes clear the relation of content to students9 interests 0ets reasonable standards and modifies them regularly -lans for and provides remediation when necessary *aintains consistent discipline and task direction 0olicits and incorporates input from students in their instruction

8re!uently smiles, nods and maintains eye contact )alls upon all students fre!uently and e!uitably to respond Bses wait time to allow students to consider before responding Helps students modify incorrect or inade!uate responses Bses criticism infre!uently -rovides extensive, fre!uent and specific feedback 0eldom interrupts students while they are working

Enco!raging an# S!--ortive #t is strongly believed that a lecturer9s expectations are very closely related to encouragement and support. The following points illustrate how a lecturer may go about demonstrating encouragement and support of his or her students. 8ocus on using positive comments about students9 abilities rather than negative comments about their performance. 4e aware of and note improvement, not &ust perfection. Help students learn to work through their own problems and evaluate their own work. 4e optimistic, positive and cheerful. 2emonstrate good, active listening when students are speaking (focus your attention on the students, nod, etc.) -rovide several alternatives routes to task completion and allow students some degree of choice. $ro essional Demeanor +!sinessli.e . businesslike lecturer functions to make learning, the business of the classroom, efficient, successful and effective. #n other words, a lecturer is in charged to ensure that the learning process in a classroom is meaningful. He or she must be goal'oriented, serious, deliberate and organi%ed. Thus, certain emphases are essential to establish the businesslike !uality in a lecturer. 0ome considerations that can be highlighted are '

stablish clear academic goals and ob&ectives )ommunicate the goals and ob&ectives to students -lan lessons directed at helping students reach the ob&ectives 0eek input from students about the reasonableness of goals mphasi%e activities and time devoted to academics Treat the sub&ect seriously and respectfully *aintain a professional image #nvolve all students in the instructional activities "rgani%e the room and e!uipment to minimi%e disruptions Bse aides or volunteers to provide additional academic attention for students

A#a-table / &le,ible 0ince teaching can be unpredictable despite of all the preparations, a lecturer must therefore be always prepared to adapt to his or her current circumstance. .ppropriate and !uick responses are important to make sure that the learning process takes place accordingly. 0everal tips that can be useful to help to enhance flexibility and adaptability in a classroom are as follows ' )learly define goals, ob&ectives or intentions and make them known to students. Fhen planning instruction, consider students9 characteristics, attributes, preferences and interests. -lan instruction which is interesting to the students and is directed toward the intended learning outcomes. Fhile implementing the planned instruction, systematically and continually monitor students9 verbal and nonverbal behavior to determine the appropriateness of your instruction ( xamples< pu%%led or frustrated looks, inability to answer !uestions or to complete tasks and students9 !uestions or comments that indicate a lack of understanding). Fhen necessary, implement an alternative, and again monitor its effectiveness as noted above.

0nowle#geable .s being defined of the word GknowledgeableG in relation to the teaching context, a knowledgeable lecturer is perceived to have ' knowledge of his or her sub&ect This is crucial as to a lecturer needs to be know his or her sub&ect well. This is proven true in many researches for knowledge of sub&ect matter is very helpful in a lecturer9s teaching. knowledge of pedagogy Enowledge of pedagogy re!uires a lecturer to be e!uipped of the information necessary to teach. lecturer9s teaching. knowledge of his or her students Hence, knowledge of teaching (teaching techni!ues, methodologies, learning processes, etc) is a fundamental that can contribute to a

.s students are the target group in a teaching process, a lecturer must put in effort to get to know his or her students9 background. This knowledge is useful as it allows the lecturer to select and implement instruction that can best address students9 potentials. (Taken and adapted from Cruickshank, D. R. et al. (1995). Mc!ra"#$ill% &nited 'tates of merica) The ct of Teaching.

Rein orcement an# Enco!ragement in Classroom


,einforcement or encouragement also plays an important part in managing the classroom. xtrinsic rewards are considered as an essential part of reinforcement in .ccording to the reinforcement theory, learning occurs and encouraging learning.

teaching succeeds when desired behavior has been ade!uately rewarded (Hamachek, (::5< p. /5(). Thus, reinforcement (like praises and approval) can help teachers in controlling and monitoring the teaching process in the classroom.

,einforcement can be categori%ed into two main components.

-ositive

reinforcement basically deals with =the most potent method for encouraging learning, but also more learning that is resistant to forgetfulness (Dlasser, (::?C Elein, (:;H) whereas, negative reinforcement refers to =learning that is less permanent, but tends to lead to more negative association related to the setting in which the learning occurred> (as cited in Hamachek, (::5< p. /3H). 8rom both types of reinforcement, it is obvious that positive reinforcement is more preferred as compared to the other as it can provoke students sense of good feelings of themselves and their work. )onse!uently, students are also able to work confidently and comfortably in an environment that they en&oy. To add, the positive reinforcement can be in various form. .mong them are<

T%$ES O& REIN&ORCERS (. Ierbal '

E1AM$LES written praise, encouragement, learning names,

congratulating someone - touches, pats, hugs (Jmight only be applicable K appropriate in certain communities), giving a thumbs'up sign, holding a door, extending a hand ' smiles, winks, warm looks, head nods, giving wait time ' being allowed to play games or to listen to records ' points, chips, stars, Gsmiley faceG stickers ' cookies, fruits, sugarless soft drinks (offering refreshments), etc.

/. -hysical

1. Lon'verbal 3. .ctivity 5. Token 6. )onsumable

( dapted from% (urke) and *o+ak, 19,-, $amachek, 1995 and .orich, 199/) 8urthermore, )ohen and *anion ((::1) write, =the concepts of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards can aid to motivation and to classroom management and control> (p. //:). 4esides, lecturers are mainly responsible to maintain students interest through stimulations, challenges and inspirations. "ne way is through motivation. Though there are no fixed formulae to motivate students, there are general strategies compiled by researches in the area for lecturers practice. These guidelines are @ )apitali%e on students existing needs

*ake students active participants in learning .sk students to analy%e what makes their classes more or less =motivating>

0imilarly, lecturers further need to look into their instructional behaviors that can motivate their students. . few hints that are useful to ponder include @ To hold high but realistic expectations for your students To help students set achievable goals for themselves To tell students what they need to do to succeed in your course To strengthen students self'motivation To avoid creating intense competition among students To be enthusiastic about your sub&ect To further explain, the following lists several verbal comments that are fre!uently found in classroom. They are illustrative and serve as a checklist for lecturers who are already practicing the inviting praises and who are trying to have them better. 0ome phrases of motivators that can be tried out in class are as follows<

Motivator

2se -(rases s!c( as 3 Avoi# -(rases s!c( as 3 Aou9ve got it K Dood work K That9s a dumb answer K Dood try K That was !uick. K Aou9re being la%y again K # Thats even better K # like can see you never study K

Bsing

praise

and that idea K # am impressed

Aou

can

never

pay

encouragement

attention, can youM K # know that youre not that stupid K That is dead wrong K Aou cant be that dumb

The -roviding explanations doing

reason this

this

is

so Today you will learn this or

important is N K Fe are else N K )omplete this assignment exerciseC otherwise there9ll be trouble N K 0o whatM this is so Today you will learn this or because N K The reason this

-roviding explanations

important is N K Fe are else N K )omplete this doing assignment exerciseC otherwise there9ll be trouble N K 0o whatM because N K

0hould you need help, #9ll #f you have to ask for help, be here K .sk if you need you must not have studied K help K 2on9t be afraid to ask -lease don9t ask a dumb "ffering to help a !uestion if you9re having !uestion K ,aise you hand trouble K *ay # help youM K only if you9re stuck on a # think you can do it difficult problem K 0it down and shut up That9s not the answer # That9s not the kind of expected, but # can see your answer we can accept point K That9s not how # see around here K .ccepting diversity others might see -lease use

it, but # can understand how ideas that fit in with what # it say in class K 4ecause # said so, thats why K stupid Thats a childish viewpoint K Thats differently.

mphasi%ing reinforcement .ll homework completed 8ive points off for missing and reward means five extra points K #f homework K #f you don9t you have a 4 average, you have a 4 average, you must get to choose any topic for choose your term paper your term paper. topic from restricted list of difficult topics. K Aoull

never make it (Taken and adapted from (urke) and *o+ak, 19,- and .orich, 199/) "n the other hand, it can also be considered that one ma&or drawback that can derived form this classroom management component is the notion of overemphasi%ed reinforcement. Teachers are challenged with the view that not every positive reinforcement works for all students. Teachers must be able to reali%e that human responses are unpredictable and in such, vary according to each individual. Through various studies conducted, researchers argue that extrinsic rewards that are give fre!uently and routinely can lose their effectiveness (Thomas, (:;?C 4ates, (:H:C +epper and )habay, (:;5 as cited in Hamachek, (::5< p. /5H). *oreover, different styles of learning among students too can influence the selection of teaching approaches, especially in providing a conducive learning environment for students.

E ective Classroom Climate


T(e Social Environment )an vary from authoritarian (lecturer is the primary provider of information, opinions and instruction, to lai%%e% faire (students become the primary providers of information, opinion and instruction. 4etween these extremes lies the middle ground in which you and students share responsibilities (students are given freedom of choice and &udgment under your direction). Three types of classroom climate<
A!t(orit' 4este# in St!#ent Lone A!t(orit' 4este# in Teac(er To organi%e the instructional present the stimulus material, and evaluate correctness of

Social Climate
Com-etitive

De inition 0tudents compete for right answers among themselves or with a standard

E,am-le Activit' 2rill and practice

established by the teacher. The teacher is the sole &udge of the appropriatenes s of a Coo-erative response. 0tudents engage in dialogue that is monitored by the teacher. The teacher systematically intervenes in the discussion to sharpen ideas and move the discussion to a In#ivi#!alistic higher level. 0tudents complete assignments monitored by the teacher. 0tudents are encouraged to complete the assignment with the answers they think are best. mphasis is on getting through and #ndependent seatwork To complete the assignment with the best possible responses. 0mall and large group discussion To present opinions, to provide ideas, and to speak and discuss freely and spontaneously.

responses.

To stimulate the discussion, arbitrate differences, organi%e summari%e student contributions and

To assign the work and see that orderly progress is made toward its completion

testing one9s self.

#n addition to encouraging the proper climate for a given instructional activity, you must decide to which segments of the class each climate applies. Targets for three types of classroom climates<
Com-etitive 0tudents compete with other students by having the correct answer when its their turn. 0ubgroups compete against each other as opposing teams. Coo-erative 0tudents are allowed to call out hints or clued when a student is having difficulty finding the right answer. 0ubgroups work on different but related aspects of a topic combining their results into a final report to the class. #ndividuals compete with each other by having to respond to the same !uestion. The !uickest most accurate response GwinsG. -airs of individuals cooperate by exchanging papers, sharing responses, or correcting each other9s errors. ach subgroup completes its own assigned topic, which is independent of the topics assigned the other subgroups, no shared report is given to the class. #ndividuals complete seat work on their own without direct teacher involvement. In#ivi#!alistic The entire class recites answers in unison

&!ll Class

Gro!-s

In#ivi#!al

Classroom climate is the atmosphere or mood in which interactions between you and your students take place. Your classroom climate is created by the manner and degree you exercise authority, show warmth and support, encourage competitiveness or cooperation, and allow for independent judgment and choice. One fundamental aspect of an effective classroom climate is the social environment -the interaction patterns you promote in the classroom. Disci-line in t(e Classroom
stablishing !ules and "rocedures
. healthy classroom environment cannot be created if students do not respect lecturers or lecturers do not respect students. +ecturer is the leader of the classroom and is responsible for the welfare of the entire class. Though lecturers should involve students in setting class rules and take student needs or input into account when organi%ing the classroom. +ecturers who have not established their authority in the classroom are likely to spend too much time dealing with behavior problems or yelling at students to be instructionally effective. 8urthermore, the clearer the structure and routine procedures in the classroom, the more freedom the lecturers can allow students. xamples of classroom rules related to academic work<
R!les Relate# to Aca#emic )or. *aterials re!uired for class Homework completion *akeup work #ncomplete work *issed !ui%%es and examinations

R!les t(at nee# to be comm!nicate# irst #a'

R!les t(at can be comm!nicate# later

2etermining grades Iiolation of rules .bsences Lotebook completion "btaining help 0haring work with others Bse of learning center )ommunication during group work Leatness +ab safety

#ssues which must take into consideration in applying the rule areas<
R!le Area Res-on#ing, S-ea.ing O!t Ma.e!- )or. 4iolation o D!e Dates *ust hands be raisedM .re other forms of acknowledgement acceptable (e.g. head nod)M Fhat will happen if a student speaks when others are speakingM Fhat will you do about shouting or using a loud voiceM Fill makeup work be allowedM Fill there be penalties for not completing itM Fill it be gradedM Fhose responsibility is it to know the work is missingM Fhat percentage will !ui%%es and tests contribute to the total gradeM Determining Gra#es Fhat percentage will class participation countM Fhen will notification be given of failing performanceM How much will coursework countM Fhat happen when repeated violations occurM Fhere can a student learn the due dates of absentM Fhat penalties are there for copying another person9s assignmentM Fill makeup work be re!uired when a due date is missedM Iss!es

General S!ggestions or Creating Classroom R!les"

*ake the rules consistent with the classroom climate you wish to promote. xamples< 2o you want your classroom climate to emphasi%e independent

&udgement and risk taking, or do you want it to emphasi%e teacher'initiated exchanges, formal classroom rules, and teacher solicited responsesM 2on9t establish rules that you can9t enforce. xamples< group work. 0pecify only necessary rules. . rule that says< GLo talking,G or GLo getting out of your seat,G may be

difficult to enforce when you continually encourages spontaneity, problem solving and

8our reasons to have rules< nhance work engagement and minimi%e disruption -romote safety and security -revent disturbance to others or other classroom activities -romote acceptable standards of courtesy and interpersonal relations

0tate your rules at a general enough level to include a range of specific behaviors. xamples< G,espect other people9s propertyG covers a variety of problems, such as

stealing, borrowing without permission, etc. G8ollow the lecturer re!uests immediatelyG allow you to put an end to a variety of off' task and disruptive behaviors. However, minor deviations in a rule may not be worth your effort to respond when #t would provide an untimely interruption to your lesson or #t is only momentary and not likely to recur.

Managing +e(avior in t(e Incl!sive Classroom

Im-lementation

Eey *anagement -rinciples


stablishing a -ositive +earning )limate #mplement -reventive -lanning fficiently 0chedule .nd *anage Time 2eliver .ppropriate #nstruction stablish a climate that encourages learning and focuses on meeting all students9 individual needs. )areful planning can eliminate a great deal of misbehavior and increase learning. #f the teacher does not use time carefully, students and teachers waste valuable time and energy in a disorgani%ed instructional program. *atch the instructional methods to the students9 stage of learning, diverse learning and behavior styles, and consider their cultural backgrounds as well. .ppropriate use of methods, materials, and positive grading tactics will create an environment that fosters Bse materials and e!uipment effectively 2evelop ffective 2iscipline -lans student success. )arefully select and adapt instructional materials, technology, and activities to meet individual student needs. . discipline plan that clearly defines teacher expectations and consistently applies conse!uences supports task'oriented behavior arn Ooy and 0atisfaction from Teaching and discourages disruptive behavior. ffective management of instruction and self can help teachers derive great satisfaction from teaching.

*ow to $revent $roblems in Classroom


S(ow 'o!r st!#ents t(at 'o! are 5wit( it67 +ecturers who prove to their students that they know what is going on in a lecture room usually have fewer behavior problems than those who appear to be unaware of incipient disruptions. Strive to maintain smoot(ness an# moment!m in class activities7 0ome lecturers caused problems for themselves by constantly interrupting activities without thinking about what they were doing.

They seem unaware of the rhythm of student behavior '' student inattention and restlessness, but instead moved ahead in an almost mechanical way. "thers flip'flopped from one activity to another and a few delivered lectures individual, instead of group. To counteract such tendencies, lecturers might carry out a movement analysis of own teaching from time to time. *aintain a smooth flow of activities might reduce discipline problems.

Tr' to .ee- t(e w(ole class involve# even w(en 'o! are #ealing wit( in#ivi#!al st!#ents7 0ome well'meaning lecturers had fallen into a pattern of calling on students in a predictable order and in such a way that the rest of the class served as a passive audience. G.udienceG is almost certain to become bored and may be tempted to engage in trouble making activities &ust to keep occupied. Aou are more likely to maintain interest and limit mischief caused by boredom of you use techni!ues such as following< .sk a !uestion, and after pausing a few seconds to let everyone think about it, pick out someone to answer it. Fith subse!uent !uestions, call on students in an unpredictable order so that no one knows when she will be asked to recite. #f you single out one student to go to the board to do a problem, ask all other students to do the same problem at their desk. Fhen dealing with lengthy or complex material, call on several students in !uick succession, and ask each to handle one section. +e aware o t(e ri--le e ect7 Fhen critici%ing student behavior, be clear and firm, focus on behavior rather than on personalities, and try to avoid angry outbursts.

Tec(ni8!es or Dealing wit( +e(avior $roblems


In l!ence Tec(ni8!es

$lanne# ignoring

0ome lecturers might be able to extinguish inappropriate attention'seeking behaviors by merely ignoring students. 0uch behaviors include finger snapping, body movements, book dropping, hand waving and whistling. #f you plan to use this techni!ue, make sure the student is aware that he is engaging in the behavior and that the behavior does not interfere with the efforts of other students.

Signals

#n some cases, a subtle signal can put an end to budding misbehavior. #f successful, will stimulate the student to control himself. However, this techni!ue should not be used too often and that it is effective only in the early stages of misbehavior. xamples< )lear your throat 0top what you are saying in mid'sentence and stare 0hake your head (to indicate no)

0ay, =0omeone is making it hard for the rest of us to concentrate>

$ro,imit' an# to!c( control -lace yourself close to the misbehaving student. Bse supportive reactions to help students develop self'control.

xample< Falk over and stand near the student Interest boosting )onvey interest in the misbehaver. xample< 7uestion such as =2aniel, are you paying attentionM>

=2ont you agree, 2anielM> Do over and examine some work the student is doing. *!mor #s an excellent, all'around influence techni!ue, especially in tense situations. #t should be good'humored humor @ gentle and benign rather than derisive. .void irony and sarcasm. *el-ing over (!r#les 0ome misbehavior undoubtedly occurs because students do not understand what they are to do or lack the ability to carry out an assignment Try to make sure your students know what they are supposed to do. .rrange for students to have some thing to do at appropriate levels of difficulty. Have a variety of activities available.

$rogram restr!ct!ring Teaching is an art because lessons do not always proceed as planned and must occasionally be changed in midstream The essence of this techni!ue is to recogni%e when a lesson or activity is going poorly and to try something else. xample< =Fell, class, # can see that many of you are bored with this discussion of the pros and cons of congressional term limits. +ets turn it into a class debate instead, with the winning team getting bonus points toward its final grade.>

Antise-tic bo!ncing 0ometimes restlessness, uncontrollable giggling will carry a student away. #f you feel that this is non'malicious behavior and due simply to lack of self'control, ask the student to leave the room.

Direct a--eals Fhen appropriate, point out the connection between conduct and its conse!uences. This techni!ue is most effective if done concisely and infre!uently. xample< =#f everyone would stop talking, wed be able to get this finished and go out to recess.>

Criticism an# enco!ragement "n those occasions when it is necessary to critici%e a particular student, do so in private if possible. Fhen public criticism is the only possibility, do your best to avoid ridiculing or humiliating the student. -ublic humiliation may cause the child to resent you or hate to attend the lectures, to counterattack, or to withdraw. 4ecause of the ripple effect, it may also have a negative impact on innocent students. "ne way to minimi%e the negative after effects of criticism is to tack on some encouragement in the form of suggestion as how the backsliding can be replaced by more positive behavior.

De ining limits #n learning about rules and regulations, students go through a process of testing the limits, especially with new teachers and new situations. Fhen someone tests the rules, show that they are genuine and that there are limits.

$ost sit!ational ollow9!. post situational discussion held in private if an individual is involved, or with the whole class if it was a group wide situation.

Fhen confronted by a student, it is usually better to arrange for a private conference or appeal to an outside authority than to engage in a showdown in front of the class. xamples< #n a private conference< GOohn, #9m sorry # had to ask you to leave the room, but you were getting kind of carried away.G GFell, everybody, things got a bit wild during those group work sessions. # want you to en&oy yourselves, but we practically had a riot going, didn9t weM .nd that9s why # had to ask you to stop.G

Marginal !se o inter-retation .nalysis of behavior can sometimes be made while it is occurring rather than afterward. The purpose here is to help students become aware of potential trouble and make efforts to control it. xamples< To a restless and cranky pre lunch class, you might say, G# know that you9re getting hungry and that you9re restless and tired, but let9s give it all we9ve got for ten minutes more. #9ll give you the last five minutes for some free time.

I9 Message Tell how you feel about an unacceptable situation xample< =# get angry when # see bread thrown around. This room needs cleaning.> Duilty students who are told why a lecturer is angry will reali%e the lecturer is a real person, and this reali%ation will cause them to strive to mend their ways. $roblem Owners(i 2etermine who owns a problem before deciding on course of action. #f a student9s misbehavior (such a disrupting the smooth flow of instruction with inappropriate comments of &oking remarks) results in the teacher feeling annoyed,

frustrated, or angry or not being able to complete a planned lesson, the teacher owns the problem and must respond by doing something to stop the disruptive behavior. 4ut if a student express anger or disappointment about some classroom incident (getting a low grade on an exam), that student owns the problem. The preferred way to deal with a student who owns a problem ''' active listening. The listener is active in the sense that interest is shown and the talker is encouraged to continue expressing feeling. The listener does not actively participate by interpreting, explaining, or directing. The listener does respond, however, by recogni%ing and acknowledging what the student says. 8or teacher'owned problems '' #' messages are appropriate. #nstead of ordering, threatening, morali%ing, using logic, offering solutions, or commenting on personal characteristics, teacher should explain why they are upset. No9 lose Met(o# )ome to mutual agreement about a solution to a problem. 0ix steps for coming up with no'lose solutions< (. /. 1. 3. 5. 6. xample< 2efine the problem. Denerate possible solutions. valuate the solutions. 2ecide which solution is best. 2etermine how to implement the solution. .ssess how well the solution solved the problem.

. student who is disruptive during a work and engage in a dialogue something like this< Aou< 0tudent< Aou9re making such a ruckus over here by talking loudly that # can9t hear the group #9m working with. # think this exercise is stupid. # already know how to do these problems. # rather work on my -hysics9 pro&ect.

Aou<

Fell, suppose we try this. Aou do one page of problems. #f you get them all correct, we9ll both know you can do them, and you should be free to work on your -hysics9 pro&ect. 0uppose you do a page and then ask me to check it. Then we can take it from there. How does that soundM

S!ggestions or *an#ling $roblem +e(avior


*ave a variet' o in l!ence tec(ni8!es -lanne# in a#vance Aou may save yourself a great deal of trouble, embarrassment, and strain if you plan ahead. -roblems of control fre!uently erupt unexpectedly, and they often demand e!ually sudden solutions. #nitial attempts at control that are ineffective tend to reinforce misbehavior, and you will find yourself trapped in a vicious circle. 4eing familiar with several of the techni!ues mentioned in the preceding section will prepare you for the inevitable difficulties that arise. However, if you find yourself forced to use prepared techni!ues too often, some self' analysis is called for. How can you prevent so many problems form developingM 8re!uent trouble is an indication that you need to work harder at motivating g your class. +e -rom-t, consistent, an# reasonable Lo attempt to control behavior will be affective if it is remote from the act that provokes it. 2ont postpone dealing with misbehaving students or make vague threats to be put into effect sometime in the future. 4y that time, most students will have forgotten what they did wrong. ,etribution that is too immediate, that is applied when a student is still extremely upset, may also be effective, at such times it is often better to wait a bit. 4eing consistent about classroom control can save la lot of time, energy and misery. 0trictness one day and leniency the next, or toughness on one student and gentleness

with another, invite all students to test you every day &ust to see whether this is a good day or bad day or whether they can get away with something more fre!uently than others do. stablishing and enforcing class rules are an excellent way to encourage yourself to be consistent. Avoi# t(reats #f at all possible, avoid a showdown in front of the class. 8re!uently, you will not be able to make good on the threat, and you will lose face. #ts far safer and better for everyone to settle extreme differences in private. Fhen two people are upset and angry with each other, they look silly at best and completely ridiculous at worst. Aou lose a great deal more than a student does when this performance takes place in front of the class. #n fact, a student may actually gain prestige by provoking you successfully.

)(enever 'o! (ave to #eal (ars(l' wit( a st!#ent, ma.e an e ort to reestablis( ra--ort #f you mist use a drastic form of retribution, make a point of having a confidential conference with your antagonist as soon as possible. "therwise, sheKhe is likely to remain an antagonist for the rest of the year. #ts too much to expect chastised students to come to you of their own volition and apologi%e. Aou should set the conference and then explain that the punishment has cleared the air as far as you are concerned. )(en 'o! (ave control, ease !- some7

#t is extremely difficult, to establish a controlled atmosphere after allowing chaos. 2ont make the mistake of thinking you will be able to start out without any control and suddenly take charge.

#t is far better to adopt the authoritative approach of starting our on the structured side and then easing up a bit after you have established control.

E,am-les o S-eci ic +e(avior $roblems


+e(aviors Correction *atch academic tasks with student skills 2etermine whether the curriculum should be modified to match the students knowledge and skills. Fhen task are too difficult, check to see that the student has the prere!uisite skills to complete the assignment. #dentify rewards mphasi%e practical learning )ooperative learning @ try various forms of cooperative learning. )onsider placing the student in a small group to work on an academic task that re!uires cooperative effort C(eating St!#ents co-' rom ot(ers or !se crib notes :C(eat notes; 0tudents take credit for someone elses work or deliberately break the rules. from all participants. .naly%e why cheating occurs stablish rules about cheating @ make it clear to all that cheating is not permitted. *ake the conse!uences for cheating clear. -rivate talk @ talk with the student about your suspicions. 0tate only what you saw, remain calm. Try to convey the notion that you think the student is an honest person who has made a mistake. 0ituational changes @ if you suspect several students are cheating, remove as many

Detection

Unmotivated to Learn

0tudents achievement level is low relative to their capability

0tudent turn in incomplete or sloppy work They may not understand or attend to assignments

temptations as possible ( e.g. separate desks during a test, and move around the room monitoring performance. Inattention 2istracted , unfocused, impulsive and generally inattentive 2aydream, fidget or forget Hyperactive @ very talkative ,edo assignment ,edo large assignment $rivate tal. < to solicit in o t(at will (el- to !n#erstan# t(e -roblem Bse prompts. Tapping on the whiteboard and saying, = veryone look at this,> Fhen giving instruction, insert such phases as, =.nd the next step is really important,> =+isten carefully to what #m going to say next> )hange the tone and volume of your voice to emphasi%e key concepts. #nsert little humor in the lesson, and praise students for noticing your subtle plays on words. #n written directions, make important letters, words, or instructions stand out by using highlighters, colored marker, large or bold print, and son on. Bse the students name 2irectly focus students attention to tasks by using their names. xamples< =*ike, do you understandM 4ill, can you explain the instructions to 2ianeM Oohn, listen carefully because you will be asked to explain this 0ue, who is absent. The use of students names helps focus attention and may also make lessons more meaningful. .ctive lessons .ctively involve students by presenting participatory activities and make the concepts memorable.

Low Sel 9Esteem

0tudents may make self' depreciating remarks, set unrealistically high goals, lack confidence, verbali%e in low tones or avoid eye contact

-rivate talk @ try to determine specific areas in which students feel inade!uate and suggest ways in which they can gain success in these areas.

.cademic success @ students are not likely to feel good about themselves if they are doing poorly in school. The basic task is to arrange thins so that they will have many academic successes.

0tudents may appear unaware of their talents, have deficient skills, or compensate by showing off, boasting, or critici%ing others.

#dentify talents stablishing friendships @ help students make new friends. )ooperative learning @ ask student to &oin another student in carrying out an assignment. 0uch cooperative efforts can have good effects on a students self'image.

-eer tutoring @ ask the student to tutor others.

Classroom Interaction
There will be times when no student can answer a teacher9s !uestion, but often students do not answer even if they understand the !uestion, know the answer, and are able to produce the answer. 8urthermore, students can often be very reluctant to give feedback or ask the teacher a !uestion in front of the class. #f there were any !uestions, they readily asked the student sitting next to them. 4elow are ways to maintain interaction with students.

Felcome the ideas of students. +et them know directly that an ideal discussion section is about discussion of ideas and perspectives among students.

Dive all ideas and points of view reasonable consideration without rushing to &udgment. 0ometimes a student may be factually wrong about a topic and it is "E to point out their error. However, when discussing more sub&ective topics try to give all ideas and all students e!ual time and consideration.

*aintain the focus of the class on discussion of ideas rather than the &udgment of people. 0ome topics can evoke powerful emotions. Try not to let the discussion of ideas degrade into the &udgment of people.

Create a Con#!cive Comm!nicative Environment


There are a number of different specific methods for generating a safe and comfortable environment for students to communicate with their lecturers< Get to .now t(e st!#ents an# (ave t(em get to .now 'o!7

The discussion should really be an interaction among the students instead of all the individual students talking to you, or to each other through you. Detting students to know each other will stimulate their interaction with each other. Here are some suggestions on how to build familiarity among students< )all on students by name Have them refer to each other by name -lay some sort of name game or ice'breaker on the first day Have the students address each other instead of &ust you .sk students to react to other students9 comments

+rea. t(e st!#ents into smaller gro!-s7

. popular method of making students feel comfortable about sharing ideas is to break them down into small groups (about 1'3 people) and have them discuss the topic of the day. Droup work is a great way to get students to know each other and to get them talking (people who are nervous about speaking up in front of /5 people may feel comfortable with &ust 1.) +et them talk it over for about (? ' (5 minutes and then reconvene the group. Aou could have one member of each group report their ideas, or make a list on the board of what the groups come up with. Droup work has two ma&or advantages. "ne was already listedC student may feel more comfortable talking with three people rather than /5. The other is that when the ideas are reported to the class as a whole the ideas are

somewhat separated from the individuals that offered them. Thus students can find comfort in a degree of anonymity. )(at i 'o! #isagree wit( 'o!r st!#ents= There are some cases when students might be factually incorrect, but what if they hold an opinion that is different from yoursM How do you deal with this situationM 2o you make your bias clear or pretend to be neutralM How can you show them how to respectfully disagree with each otherM xplicitly tell the students that they are safe voicing their opinions. )onsider writing student responses on the board to validate them and organi%e them )reate group activities 0how your own vulnerability. 2on9t pretend you know everything. #f you admit you don9t know something the students will be less intimidated. ,espond with more than &ust GgoodG and GokayG. 2escribe specifically what you thought was good. *ow #o 'o! #eal wit( st!#ents w(o #on>t -artici-ate= 0hould you call on them by nameM Hopefully if you get to know the students well, and everybody feels comfortable and interested, you won9t have too many of these. 4ut if you do< Have students write down answers to your !uestions. Then you can ask them what they wrote without putting them on the spot to generate an answer. ' .sk the student a !uestion that has no wrong answers

*ow #o 'o! #eal wit( st!#ents w(o mono-oli?e t(e #isc!ssion= (. .sk for other people to contribute /. Talk to the student specifically

Ma.e t(e co!rse material relevant to st!#ents> ever'#a' lives7 2iscuss how to make the material relevant to the students. #f a discussion is too abstracted students might lose interest. 8ind ways to remind them that what they are studying is important, practical, or real. Dive credit for bringing newspaperKmaga%ine articles to office hours 0how the students your own interest in the topic. *uster up some energy without being falsely enthusiastic. specially if you are teaching on a topic that is your field of interest, you should be able to convey why you have devoted your life to its study. Talk about why you find the material interesting. .sk the students to relate the material to something in their own lives.

As.ing E ective @!estion


.sking !uestions in the appropriate way is key to leading a good discussion. Here are a few ideas. 4e aware of the difference between !uestions that have one right answer and !uestions that have many. #f you are tying to generate discussion among students asking for the GrightG answer is probably the wrong thing to do. #nstead, formulate !uestions that are open ended ' that is !uestions that either have no clear right or wrong answer or that might have multiple right answers. "n the other hand, if you are trying to get students to exercise their factual knowledge of a sub&ect, it might be appropriate to ask GrightKwrongG !uestions or those sort of !uestions that have a single answerer. .im your !uestions at varying levels< knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, etc. Fait at least (? seconds for responses. #t seems like a long time, but it usually takes this long to formulate a response. ,esearch has shown that most teachers answer their own !uestions to !uickly.

.sk open'ended !uestions .sk follow'up !uestions -repare some !uestions beforehand

T(e C'cle o &ee#bac.


#mproving classroom interaction involves continually assessing your teaching, students learning, and your relationship with the students. The students have a relationship with you, with each other, and with the material. #t9s important to get feedback about all three of these relationships. 8eedback happens on many timescales. How did this go todayM How is the !uarter goingM Try a written mid'!uarter evaluation. 8or example< .sk which exercise was most helpfulM Fhich was leastM Bse office hours to talk informally about how things are going

Have your teaching observed or videotaped. *ake sure students understand your assignments. .sk if there is anything else that they need to handle the assignment.

*ake your teaching transparent. .sk the students if they understand why we are doing this assignment. +ecturers initiate a verbal interaction, typically by asking a !uestion. . student or

students will give a response and the lecturer will evaluate that response (e.g say it is correct ) before initiating another interaction. #n the past, +ecturers !uestions have been largely rhetoricalC they knew the answers and were using the !uestions to test studentsP knowledge of facts or sometimes as attentions'getting or disciplinary devices. .s teachers adopt the philosophy of reform and attempt to create communities of learners in which they play a legitimate role, they will tend to ask !uestions that are actually !uestions to themC that is, broader !uestions for which discussion and exploration are necessary.

Fhen lecturer the asked a !uestion, he was usually greeted with poker'faced stares, as before. 4ut when he moved closer, looked specifically at a student, or pair of students, and repeated the !uestion, the students usually tried to answer. #n general, the instructor was paying much more attention to the students, moving closer to them, and looking at specific students and trying to make a better connection with them. The students did interact with the teacher by nodding, some did answer the instructor9s !uestions, and two, on their own initiation, even asked !uestions before the class.