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Edward Jenner

Edward Jenner by James Northcote Born Died Residence Nationality Fields Alma mater Doctoral advisor Known for Edward Anthony Jenner 17 May 1749 Berkeley, Gloucestershire 26 January 1823 (aged 73) Berkeley, Gloucestershire Berkeley, Gloucestershire English Microbiology St George's, University of London University of St. Andrews John Hunter Smallpox vaccine; Vaccination

Edward Anthony Jenner, FRS (17 May 1749 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist from Berkeley, Gloucestershire, who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine. He is often called "the father of immunology", and his work is said to have "saved more lives than the work of any other man". A. Early life Edward Jenner was born on 17 May 1749 (6 May Old Style) in Berkeley, as the eighth of nine children. His father, the Reverend Stephen Jenner, was the vicar of Berkeley, so Jenner received a strong basic education. Edward Jenner went to school in Wotton-under-Edge and Cirencester. During this time he was inoculated for smallpox, which had a lifelong effect upon his general health. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed for seven years to Mr Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon of Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire, where he gained most of the experience needed to become a surgeon himself. In 1770, Edward Jenner became apprenticed in surgery and anatomy under surgeon John Hunter and others at St George's Hospital. William Osler records that Hunter gave Jenner William Harvey's advice, very famous in medical circles (and characteristic of the Age of Enlightenment), "Don't think; try. Hunter remained in correspondence with Jenner over natural history and proposed him for the Royal Society.

Returning to his native countryside by 1773, Jenner became a successful family doctor and surgeon, practicing on dedicated premises at Berkeley. Jenner and others formed the Fleece Medical Society or Gloucestershire Medical Society, so called because it met in the parlor of the Fleece Inn, Rodborough, in Rodborough, Gloucestershire, meeting to dine together and read papers on medical subjects. Jenner contributed papers on angina pectoris, ophthalmia, and cardiac valvular disease and commented on cowpox. He also belonged to a similar society that met in Alveston, near Bristol. B. Monuments and buildings 1. Edward Jenner is buried in the Jenner family vault at the Church of St. Mary's, Berkeley. 2. Jenner's house in the village of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, is now a small museum, housing, among other things, the horns of the cow, Blossom. 3. A statue of Jenner by Robert William Sievier was erected in the nave of Gloucester Cathedral. 4. Another statue was erected in Trafalgar Square and later moved to Kensington Gardens. 5. Near the Gloucestershire village of Uley, Downham Hill is locally known as "Smallpox Hill" for its possible role in Jenner's studies of the disease. 6. London's St. George's Hospital Medical School has a Jenner Pavilion, where his bust may be found. 7. A group of villages in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, United States, was named in Jenner's honor by early 19th-century English settlers, including Jenners, Jenner Township, Jenner Crossroads, and Jennerstown, Pennsylvania 8. Jennersville, Pennsylvania, is located in Chester County. 9. A section at Gloucestershire Royal Hospital is known as the Edward Jenner Ward; it is where blood is drawn. 10. A ward at Northwick Park Hospital is called Jenner Ward. 11. Jenner Gardens at Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, opposite one of the scientist's former offices, is a small garden and cemetery outside the walls of the upper town of Boulogne sur Mer, France. 12. In The Henry Cort Community College, Fareham, Hampshire, a building is named after him. 13. A street in Stoke Newington, north London: Jenner Road, N16. C. Publications 1. 1798 An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variol Vaccin 2. 1799 Further Observations on the Variol Vaccin, or Cow-Pox. 3. 1800 A Continuation of Facts and Observations relative to the Variol Vaccin 40pgs 4. 1801 The Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation 12pgs. D. In popular culture The Walking Dead television series's character Edwin Jenner, a doctor affiliated with Atlanta's Centers for Disease Control, is a homage to Edward Jenner.

Robert Koch

Born Died Nationality Fields Institutions Alma mater Doctoral advisor Known for Influenced Notable awards Signature

11 December 1843 Clausthal, Kingdom of Hanover 27 May 1910 (aged 66) Baden-Baden, Grand Duchy of Baden German Microbiology Imperial Health Office, Berlin, University of Berlin University of Gttingen Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle Discovery bacteriology Koch's postulates of germ theory Isolation of anthrax, tuberculosis and cholera Friedrich Loeffler Nobel Prize in Medicine (1905)

Robert Heinrich Herman Koch (11 December 1843 27 May 1910), the founder of modern bacteriology, is known for his role in identifying the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax and for giving experimental support for the concept of infectious disease. In addition to his pioneering studies on these diseases, Koch created and improved significant laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of microbiology, and made a number of key discoveries pertaining to public health. His research led to the creation of Kochs postulates, a series of four generalized principles linking specific microorganisms to particular diseases which remain today the gold standard in medical microbiology.[2] As a result of his groundbreaking research on tuberculosis, Koch received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905.

Louis Pasteur

Born Died Nationality Fields

December 27, 1822 Dole, France September 28, 1895 (aged 72) Marnes-la-Coquette, France French Chemistry Microbiology University of Strasbourg Lille University of Science and Technology cole Normale Suprieure Pasteur Institute cole Normale Suprieure Charles Friedel

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Louis Pasteur (/lui pstr/, French: [lwi past]; December 27, 1822 September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist who is well known for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases, and his discoveries have saved countless lives ever since. Pasteur reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. Pasteur is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is popularly known as the "father of microbiology". Pasteur also made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. He was the Director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, till his death, and his body lies beneath the institute in a vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Byzantine mosaics.

Alexander Fleming

Born Died Citizenship Nationality Fields Alma mater Known for Notable awards Signature

6 August 1881 Lochfield, Ayrshire, Scotland 11 March 1955 (aged 73) London, England United Kingdom Scottish Bacteriology, immunology Royal Polytechnic Institution St Mary's Hospital Medical School Imperial College London Discovery of penicillin Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1945)

Sir Alexander Fleming, FRSE, FRS, FRCS(Eng) (6 August 1881 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist, pharmacologist and botanist. He wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.