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# Math 175 Final Exam Formula Sheet

## Final Exam Formula Sheet

Math 175 Darren Creutz
12 December 2013
Space Curves The arc length of r(t) from r(a) to r(b) is L =
_
b
a
r

## (t) dt. The arc length

function is s(t) =
_
t
a
r

(t) dt. For a curve given by r(t), the unit tangent, normal and
binormal vectors are

T(t) =
r

(t)
r

(t)

N(t) =

(t)

(t)

B(t) =

T(t)

N(t)
and the curvature is
(t) =
_
_
d

T
ds
(t)
_
_
=

(t)
r

(t)
=
r

(t) r

(t)
r

(t)
3
.
If r(t) describes the motion of an object then the velocity is v(t) = r

## (t), the speed is

v(t) = v(t) and the acceleration is a(t) = v

## (t). The acceleration can be written as

a(t) = a
T
(t)

T(t) + a
N
(t)

N(t)
where
a
T
(t) =
r

(t) r

(t)
r

(t)
and a
N
(t) =
r

(t) r

(t)
r

(t)
.
Coordinate Systems
Polar Coordinates: (r, ), 0 r < , 0 < 2.
Conversions: x = r cos(), y = r sin(), x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
.
__
R
f(x, y) dA =
__
R
f(r cos(), r sin()) r dr d.
Cylindrical Coordinates: (r, , z), 0 r < , 0 < 2, < z < .
Conversions: x = r cos(), y = r sin(), x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
, z = z.
___
E
f(x, y, z) dV =
___
E
f(r cos(), r sin(), z) r dr d dz.
Spherical Coordinates: (r, , ), 0 r < , 0 < 2, 0 < .
Conversions: x = r cos() sin(), y = r sin() sin(), z = r cos(), x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= r
2
.
___
E
f(x, y, z) dV =
___
E
f(r cos() sin(), r sin() sin(), r cos()) r
2
sin() dr d d.
Surface Area The area of the surface with equation z = f(x, y) for (x, y) D is
S(A) =
__
D
_
1 + (f
x
(x, y))
2
+ (f
y
(x, y))
2
dA
Math 175 Final Exam Formula Sheet
Change of Variables
The Jacobian of a transformation T given by x = g(u, v), y = h(u, v) is
(x, y)
(u, v)
=
x
u
y
v

x
v
y
u
If T is a one-to-one C
1
-transformation with nonzero Jaobian that maps a region R in the
uv-plane to a region S in the xy-plane then for any continuous f(x, y),
__
S
f(x, y) dA =
__
R
f(g(u, v), h(u, v))

(x, y)
(u, v)

dv du.
The Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals
Let C be a smooth curve given by r(t) for a t b and let f be a dierentiable vector
function. Then _
C
f dr = f(r(b)) f(r(a)).
Greens Theorem
Let C be a positively oriented smooth simple closed curve in the plane enclosing a region D.
If P and Q have continuous partial derivatives then
_
C
P dx + Q dy =
__
D
_
Q
x

P
y
_
dA
Curl and Divergence
The curl of a vector eld

F = P, Q, R is
curl(

F) =

F =
_
R
y

Q
z
_

i +
_
P
z

R
x
_

j +
_
Q
x

P
y
_

k
and the divergence is
div(

F) =

F =
P
x
+
Q
y
+
R
z
Stokes Theorem
Let S be an oriented smooth surface bounded by a simple closed smooth curve C with
positive orientation. Let

F be a vector eld with continuous partial derivatives. Then
_
C

F dr =
__
S
curl(

F) dS
The Divergence Theorem
Let E be a simple solid region with boundary surface S given with positive (outward)
orientation. Let

F be a vector eld with continuous partial derivatives. Then
__
S

F dS =
___
E
div(

F) dV
Math 175 Final Exam Formula Sheet
Trigonometric Functions and Identities
sec(x) =
1
cos(x)
csc(x) =
1
sin(x)
cot(x) =
cos(x)
sin(x)
sin(x)
2
+ cos(x)
2
= 1 1 + tan(x)
2
= sec(x)
2
1 + cot(x)
2
= csc(x)
2
sin(x + y) = sin(x) cos(y) + sin(y) cos(x) cos(x + y) = cos(x) cos(y) sin(x) sin(y)
Single-Variable Derivatives
d
dx
x
r
= rx
r1
for r = 0
d
dx
ln(x) =
1
x
d
dx
sin(x) = cos(x)
d
dx
cos(x) = sin(x)
d
dx
tan(x) = sec(x)
2
d
dx
sec(x) = sec(x) tan(x)
d
dx
csc(x) = csc(x) cot(x)
d
dx
cot(x) = csc(x)
2
d
dx
sin
1
(x) =
1

1 x
2
d
dx
cos
1
(x) =
1

1 x
2
d
dx
tan
1
(x) =
1
1 + x
2
Single-Variable Integrals (the constants are omitted)
_
x
n
dx =
x
n+1
n + 1
(n = 1)
_
1
x
dx = ln |x|
_
e
x
dx = e
x
_
sin(x) dx = cos(x)
_
cos(x) dx = sin(x)
_
(sec(x))
2
dx = tan(x)
_
(csc(x))
2
dx = cot(x)
_
sec(x) tan(x) dx = sec(x)
_
csc(x) cot(x) dx = csc(x)
_
sec(x) dx = ln | sec(x) + tan(x)|
_
csc(x) dx = ln | csc(x) cot(x)|
_
dx
x
2
+ a
2
dx =
1
a
tan
1
_
x
a
_
_
dx

a
2
x
2
dx = sin
1
_
x
a
_
_
dx
x
2
a
2
dx =
1
2a
ln

x a
x + a

_
(sin(x))
n
dx =
1
n
(sin(x))
n1
cos(x) +
n 1
n
_
(sin(x))
n2
dx
_
(cos(x))
n
dx =
1
n
(cos(x))
n1
sin(x) +
n 1
n
_
(cos(x))
n2
dx
_
(tan(x))
n
dx =
1
n 1
(tan(x))
n1

_
(tan(x))
n2
dx
_
(cot(x))
n
dx =
1
n 1
(cot(x))
n1

_
(cot(x))
n2
dx