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Biopotential

Achmad Rizal BioSPIN Institut Teknologi Telkom

1. Introduction

Biopotentials arise from cells, and more generally from organs. They hold rich physiological and clinical information. For example, action potentials give information on fundamental ion channel biophysics and molecular aspects of any pathology. Biopotentials from the organs of the body are of clinical diagnostic significance.

Examples:

  • 1. Action Potentials from Cells (and 3 Nobel prizes!)

Neuronal action potential (history of Squid axon and Hodgkin-Huxley work)

  • 2. Biopotentials from the organ/body

    • 1. Electrocardiogram (ECG) from heart -> use in heart attack, pacemakers

    • 2. Electroencephalogram (EEG) from brain -> use in epilepsy, brain trauma

    • 3. Electromyogram (EMG) from muscle -> use in muscle diseases, prosthesis

    • 4. Others…

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2. Electrical Activity of Excitable Cells

• Excitable cells

– Exist in nervous, muscular and glandular tissue

– Exhibit a resting potential and an action potential

– Necessary for information transfer (e.g. sensory info in nervous system or coordination of blood pumping in the heart)

- 70 mV Neuronal action potential repolarization: K+ outflux
- 70 mV
Neuronal action potential
repolarization:
K+ outflux

0 mV

depolarization:

Na+ influx

Cardiac action potential repolarization: K+ outflux
Cardiac action potential
repolarization:
K+ outflux

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Na+

Ca++

K+

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3. Action potential:

phenomenology

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4. Resting vs. Active State

• Resting State

– Steady electrical potential of difference between internal and external environments

– Typically between -70 to -90mV, relative to the external medium

• Active State

– Electrical response to adequate stimulation

– Consists of “all-or-none” action potential after the cell threshold potential has been reached

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5. Recording of Action Potential

6 ARL-EL4703- Instrumentasi Biomedis • Typical recording system (top) using microelectrode • Recording of an action
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• Typical
recording
system (top)
using
microelectrode
• Recording of an
action potential
in nerve cell
(bottom)
6. Resting Membrane Potential (1) • Cell potential is a function of membrane permeability and concentration
6. Resting Membrane Potential (1)
Cell potential is a function of membrane
permeability and concentration gradient to various
molecules (i.e. K + , Na + , Cl - , and Ca 2+ )
Equilibrium potential is the membrane potential at
which a given molecule has no net movement across
the membrane
– Nernst Equation (in Volts at 37 o C):
RT
[
K
]
[
K
]
o
o
E
=
ln
= 0.0615 log
K
10
nF
[
K
]
[
K
]
i
n is the valence of K + , [K] i and [K] o are the intra- and
extracellular concentrations, R is the universal gas constant,
T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin, F is the Faraday
constant, and E K is the equilibrium potential
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6. Resting Membrane Potential (2) • Equilibrium membrane resting potential when net current through the membrane
6. Resting Membrane Potential (2)
Equilibrium membrane resting potential when net
current through the membrane is zero
RT
⎡ P
[
K
]
+
P
[
Na
]
+
P
[
Cl
]
K
o
Na
o
Cl
i
E =
ln
F
P
[
K
]
+
P
[
Na
]
+
P
[
Cl
]
K
i
Na
i
Cl
o
– P is the permeability coefficient of the given ion
• Factors influencing ion flow across the membrane
– Diffusion gradients
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  • i – Inwardly-directed electric field – Membrane structure – Active transport of ions against electrochemical gradient

 

7. Action Potential

 

Stimulation of excitable cells causes “all-or- none” response

At threshold, the membrane potential rapidly depolarizes due to a change in membrane permeability

 

– P Na significantly increases causing the membrane potential to approach E Na (+60mV)

• A delayed increase in P K causes hyperpolarization and a return to resting potential

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9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell Membrane (1)

   

Na +

Na

Outside cell

 

+ + + Plasma membrane

+ + + + + + − − − − − − − − − K
+ + + +
+ +
− − − −
− −
− − −
K +

Inside cell

1
1

Resting phase

There is no Na + diffusion into the cell and K + out of the cell

 

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8. Action Potential and Ionic Conductance g Na and g K are the conductance of Na
8. Action Potential and Ionic
Conductance
g Na and g K are
the
conductance
of Na + and K +
v is the
membrane
potential
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Absolute and
refractory
periods
relative
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9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell Membrane (2)

− − − − − − − − − + + + + + + Depolarizing
− −
− − −
− − − −
+ + + +
+ +
Depolarizing phase
Na +
+ + +
K +
2

The Na + permeability increases, Na + enters the cell interior,

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9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell Membrane (3)

Na + + + + + + − − − − − K + + +
Na +
+ +
+ + +
− −
− − −
K +
+ + + +
− − − −
3
Repolarizing phase

K + permeability increases, K + flows out Na gate close, resting potensial regerated

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9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell Membrane (5)

4 2 1 3 t (mV) +50 0 −50 −100 Membrane potential
4
2
1
3
t
(mV)
+50
0
−50
−100
Membrane potential
9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell Membrane (5) 4 2 1 3 t (mV) +50 0

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10. Electroneurogram (ENG)

Measures nerve field potentials

Use of needle electrodes

Stimulate the periphery and measure the conduction velocity

Used in assessing neuromuscular disorders: peripheral nerve injury, muscular dystrophy

10. Electroneurogram (ENG) • Measures nerve field potentials • Use of needle electrodes • Stimulate the

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9. Action Potential Cycle in Cell Membrane (4)

Na +

Na + + − − − − − − + + + 4 Undershoot phase
Na + + − − − − − − + + + 4 Undershoot phase
+ + − − − − − −
+ +
− − − −
− −

+ + +

4
4
Na + + − − − − − − + + + 4 Undershoot phase

Undershoot phase

 

+ + + +

− − −

K +

K + flow out to reach resting potential

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Biopotential Signal examples

 
 

11. Electromyogram (EMG) (1)

Measures muscle

activity

Record

 

intramuscularly

through needle

electrodes

 
• • Record surface EMG using electrodes on biceps, triceps… Use in muscular

Record surface EMG using electrodes on biceps, triceps…

Use in muscular

disorders, muscle based prosthesis – prosthetic arm, leg

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  • 11. Electromyogram (EMG) (2)

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  • 12. Electroretinogram (ERG)(2)

12. Electroretinogram (ERG)(2) ARL-EL4703- Instrumentasi Biomedis 21 14. Measurement of the clinical EOG ARL-EL4703- Instrumentasi Biomedis
 

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14.

Measurement of the clinical EOG

12. Electroretinogram (ERG)(2) ARL-EL4703- Instrumentasi Biomedis 21 14. Measurement of the clinical EOG ARL-EL4703- Instrumentasi Biomedis

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12.

Electroretinogram (ERG) (1)

 

Biopotential of the eye (retina)

• Biopotential of the eye (retina)

Indicator of retinal diseases such as retinal degeneration, macular degeneration

Invasive

recording

Retinal

prosthesis?

 

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13.

Electrooculogram (EOG)(1)

 

• EOG electrical activity of eye muscles

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  • 15. Electrocardiogram (ECG)

- + Cardiac vector -has magnitude and direction => Dipole (electrical vector with magnitude and direction
-
+
Cardiac vector
-has magnitude and
direction
=> Dipole (electrical
vector with magnitude
and direction to the
source)
Measures activity of the heart
Source of cardiac activity: dipole model
– Electrical circuit representation: equivalent generator
Measurements on body surface or intracardiac

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– Put electrodes on the torso, arms, legs; catheter inside the heart

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16. Electroencephalogram (EEG) Averaged activity of • 10e8 neurons is very Averaged electrical activity of the
16.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Averaged activity of
10e8 neurons is very
Averaged electrical
activity of the brain
complex: indicative of
cells (100 billion!)
-
sleep stage
Synaptic potentials:
-
epilepsy
pyramidal neuron
-
event related
changes
structure forms a
dipole
-
brain-computer
interface???
dipole
Recording from the
scalp, from the
cortex surface
(epilepsy), intra-
cortex (research)
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18.
EEG Electrode Recording

System

EEG recording is done using a standard lead system called 10-20 system

Recall dipole concept to identify source of brain activity

Interest in mapping sleep stages, site of seizure, and cortical function

System • EEG recording is done using a standard lead system called 10-20 system • Recall
ARL-EL4703- Instrumentasi Biomedis 27 20. Progression of EEG during Sleep Clinical uses of EEG -Sleep staging:
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20. Progression of EEG during
Sleep
Clinical uses of EEG
-Sleep staging: note
different features
-
e.g. REM (rapid eye
movement stage)
- Monitoring in
neurocritical care
-
e.g. live/dead, coma
status
- Intraoperative monitoring
for depth of anesthesia
-
e.g. changes with
anesthesia and depth
status
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17. Rhythms of the Brain (alpha), 12 up (beta): delta/theta in infants, Different brain waves: divided
17. Rhythms of the Brain
(alpha), 12 up (beta): delta/theta in infants,
Different brain waves: divided by spectral
differences: 0—4 (delta), 4-8 (theta), 8-12
disease; alpha: sleep; beta: awake, eyes
Epilepsy – different types and forms
Brain injury – definition of death?
EEG in brain diesease and disorders:
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open

19. 10-20 Electrode system

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21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(1)

Measured from a baseline over the upper abdomen. reading containing a regular rhythm. In a normal
Measured from a baseline
over the upper abdomen.
reading containing a regular
rhythm. In a normal subject
EGG signal is recorded by
electrodes that are placed
Measures muscle activity
related to the stomach and
abdominal region.
a current increase is
observed after a meal.
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21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(2) ARL-EL4703- Instrumentasi Biomedis 31
21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(2)
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  • 21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(3)

• Bradygastrias : O-2.4cpm • Tachygastrias: 3.6-9.9cpm

• These Gastric Dysrhythmias have clinical relevance.

• Some problem :Nausea, Gastric Reflux, Peptic Ulcer, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Cirrhosis

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21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(4)

21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(4) ARL-EL4703- Instrumentasi Biomedis 33

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  • 21. Electrogastrogram (EGG)(5)

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