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MINISTRY OF LABOUR, TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN SURINAME

GREENSTONE BELT GOLD MINING REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

September 2003

PlantProp
Paramaribo, Suriname. Ph: (597) 441236 - Fax: (597) 441223 - E mail: plantprop@cq-link.sr

For further information please contact

1436 Layman Street, McLean, VA 22101, USA Phone 703 847 2604 - Fax 703 847 2605

e-mail: buursink@buursink.com - www.buursink.com

SUMMARY
The Greenstone Belt Regional Environmental Assessment was carried out within the framework of the NIMOS Environmental Management Program, in which the Government of Suriname cooperates with the Inter-American Development Bank and the European Union. For this study NIMOS and GMD entered into a Memorandum of Understanding in which the joint responsibility for the implementation of the Gold Mining Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to be developed is stated. Gold mining activities in Suriname are currently characterized by the coexistence of a formal and an informal sector. The informal gold mining sub-sector, dominated by small-scale gold miners, is responsible for the major share of gold production in the country. The present study was considered necessary since a number of factors stagnation of the national economy is a major one pushed people into informal gold mining, and the high mobility of small-scale mining operations created and continues an uncontrolled situation that is detrimental to the environment and public health. Preceding the development of the EMP a comprehensive environmental assessment including biological, physical and socio-economic assessments of the region of study, the Greenstone Belt (GSB) was undertaken. Relevant legislation and policy was also reviewed and shortcomings identified. Past and present gold mining activities are described including the situation of mining rights granted. The assessments consisted of compilation of baseline data scattered over numerous published and unpublished sources, and identification and analysis of impacts, followed by recommended measures to address environmental impacts resulting from gold mining in the GSB. Before, during and upon completion of the study seminars were held to solicit, discuss and integrate opinions of stakeholders, and to obtain information of planned and ongoing efforts regarding environmental management of gold mining. The stakeholders comprise a wide range of organizations and individuals from Government, NGOs, private sector, Maroon and Brazilian miners, local communities, and the international donor community. Environmental Management Plan The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) proposed in this study is also devised according to a number of principles regarding best practices: strategic environmental planning, integrated environmental management, modern government public administration (good governance), and a landscapes approach to environmental management. The EPAs overall objective is to organize management and control of gold mining activities in the GSB region, with emphasis on small- and medium-scale mining, in such a way that environmental conditions and quality of life in the region are substantially improved. Its specific objective is to integrate all recommended major mitigation measures into one coherent plan that will be easy to implement. The EMP is composed of a program aimed at capacity building for mining development and environmental regulation, including coordinated action among government and non-government organizations, and improvement of health care and other social conditions of communities engaged in small-scale old mining. Tasks incorporated in the Capacity Building Program for Gold Mining include detailed review of relevant policy documents with focus on small-scale gold mining and environmental protection, and review of forest policies to avoid conflict between sectors; awareness campaigns to sensitize high-level government

officials, and miners and their families; survey of miners and mining right holders e.g. numbers and legal status; establishment of an information system that integrates data on mining exploitation, social conditions and other; review and modification of existing mining legislation; identification of areas appropriate for spatial planning regarding e.g. best mining sites and intensity of exploitation; institutional development including in-depth analysis of government institutions (GMD, Labor Inspection, NIMOS) and review of the proposal to create a Mineral Institute; development of an adequate institutional model to coordinate mining policy implementation. Under the EMP five projects are proposed: 1. Rehabilitation of an abandoned mining site in the Brownsberg Nature Park situated in the GSB to demonstrate the possibility of restoring a mined plot of land and use the experience to rehabilitate other similar areas. 2. Control of pollution caused by mining and tailings, and by gold shops by defining appropriate methods for small- and medium-scale gold mining. 3. Assessing and monitoring environmental management activities in large-scale gold mining operations to assist the Government in gold mining development and application of environmental protection instruments. 4. Improving of access to health care for communities and miners in the GSB in particular for the prevention of malaria and sexually transmitted diseases. 5. Study on aspects of the cause and effect relationships of mercury contamination in the GSB with focus on the food chain, surface water and sediments and development of criteria for mercury contents in consumption fish. 1 The Plan further proposes that NIMOS create a Unit for Environmental Management of Gold Mining to coordinate and monitor the implementation of the capacity building program in which NIMOS, GMD and Labor Inspection will be represented. This unit will establish specific technical working groups to guide the execution of the projects as needed. An Advisory Committee should be established responsible for overall program and project implementation, performance evaluation and periodic reviews. Relevant partners will be responsible for project execution following the strategic environmental planning principle. Some partners are evident e.g. STINASU to execute the Brownsberg Park project and the Medical Mission for the project on health care improvement in the GSB. Once the Government adopts the EMP the main program and complementary projects need to be separately detailed with participation of involved institutions and interested groups in order to Refine the objectives of program and projects; Detail proposed tasks and prepare work plans; Detail indicated budgets; Decide on the best way to continue public involvement and participation (distances in the GSB are large).
1

While writing the final report the University of Suriname (CMO) and WWF entered into an agreement to implement a study with similar goals and activities.

Budget In the overview below the indicative budget for EMP program and complementary projects is summarized.

Green Stone Belt Gold Mining Environmental Management Plan


5 year Budget Summary Capacity Building Program Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Personnel Services Technical Assistance $623,250 $73,500 $ 7,700 $ 7,700 Transportation and Per Diem $210,600 $ 5,000 $ 6,700 $ 5,000 Other Direct Costs $106,000 $13,700 $10,700 $ 7,200 Vehicles and Equipment Training & Seminars Subcontracts and Fees Studies and Assessments $77,000 $29,000 Project 4 Project 5 Total $260,000 $271,600 $ 36,000 $107,000 $972,150 $498,900 $ 7,800 $181,400 $213,000

$14,000

$ 3,500

$ 7,000

$20,000

$ 5,000 $49,500

$15,000 $8,500

$53,500

$ 5,000

$73,500 $ 7,200 $53,200

$17,000 $20,500

Total

$1,054,350

$195,200 $50,600 $26,900 $694,600 $20,000 $2,041,650

Funding options Funding options for the EMP include the Inter-American Development Bank. The IDB has expressed strong interest in the EMP since the Banks environmental program objectives coincide with the goals of the EMP in a number of areas. Other options are the Dutch Government (bilateral treaty funds, other smaller funds), EU, and other external donor agencies including international NGOs (WWF, PAHO, UNDP). Justification The gold mining sector is potentially one of the most productive for Suriname in the short term. It is also a sector that is almost completely, managed by the private sector whether small-, medium- or large-sized corporations. The government can profit from this situation by making the necessary policy decisions to enhance the sectors performance. Large-scale operators in the gold mining sector should be encouraged to work in partnership with the small-scale sub-sector e.g. by providing assistance services and training on site rehabilitation and environmental damage abatement. Adoption and implementation of the proposed Environmental Management Plan will improve the Governments ability to provide guidance to the gold mining sector, in particular the spontaneous development of small-scale gold mining activities, and to assist in developing policies for environmentally and economically sound exploitation of gold.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION .1 1. 2. LOCATION OF THE GREENSTONE BELT .. GOLD MINING ACTIVITIES . 3 5

Past Gold Mining Activities Present Gold Mining Activities and Methods Situation of Mining Rights Granted .. Potential for Gold deposits in the Greenstone Belt ..
3. POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK .

5 7 11 13
14

Policy Framework .. 14 Legal Framework 15 3.3 Institutional Framework ..


4. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE DATA 30

24

Physical Baseline Data 30 Social Baseline Data .. 41 Cartographic Database 45


5. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF GOLD MINING . 49

Macro-economic context Economic Importance of Small Scale Gold Mining for Local Communities
6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF GOLD MINING .

49 53
55

Physical impacts. Biological impacts Social Impacts


7. OVERVIEW OF KEY IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES .. 75

55 61 67

7.1. Recommended Measures to address Physical and Biological Impacts .. 7.2. Recommended Measures to address Social Impacts ..
8. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN .. 82

76 77

8.1. Environmental Management Principles .. 82 8.2. General Objective 83 8.3. Proposed Activities . 8.4. Further Planning Phases ...
9. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN.. 99

83 96

9.1 Feasibility of the Plan . 99 9.2 Implementation of the Plan 101


10. COST OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN . 103

10.1 Costs of the Environmental Management Plan 103 10.2 Funding options 104
ANNEXES

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37

: Location of the Greenstone Belt : Small-scale mining operations at the Brownsweg : Main gold mining areas in the Greenstone Belt : Overview of type, number, area and location of Mining rights : List of ongoing and planned projects and activities related to Gold Mining in the Greenstone Belt : Geology of the Greenstone Belt : Geomorphological zones of Suriname : Maroon and Amerindian ethnic groups in the Greenstone Belt : Estimates of difficult population groups in the Greenstone Belt : Overview of existing topographic maps : Thematic maps relevant for mining and environmental management in Suriname : Digital map information relevant for mining and environmental management : Overview of economic importance of gold sector in Suriname : Contribution of gold value added in the economy : Typical earnings of small-scale gold mining : Example of damage done to soils in the GSB by gold mining operations : Overview of (potential) negative environmental impacts of small-scale gold mining and gold processing activities : Links between macro-economic, political, social and cultural developments affecting the Suriname interior since 1980`s : Percentage of meals containing fish in 4 Maroon villages along the Tapanahony river : Overview of positive and neutral social impacts of gold mining in the Greenstone Belt : Overview of negative social impacts of gold mining in the Greenstone Belt : Typical problems related to Small-scale Gold Mining : Overview of mitigation measures to address environmental impacts in the Greenstone Belt : Overview of mitigation measures to address socioeconomic impacts in the Greenstone Belt : Impacted areas by gold mining at the Brownsberg Nature Park : Logical framework Environmental Management plan for the Greenstone Belt : Implementation of the Greenstone Belt Environmental Management Plan : Costs of program on Environmental Management in Gold Mining in the Greenstone Belt : Costs of project on Mining Site Rehabilitation of Brownsberg Nature Park : Costs of project on Mining Pollution Control : Costs of project on Large Scale Mining Environmental Program : Costs of project on support on Gold Mining Related Public Health Services : Costs of project on Mercury Contamination Research : Expenditure by activity for Environmental Management Plan Greenstone Belt : Budget Summary of the Greenstone Belt Environmental Management Plan : Disbursements of the Greenstone Belt Environmental Management Plan

INTRODUCTION

Gold mining has gained increasing importance in Suriname, both as a source of subsistence for ten thousands of people and as cause for environmental degradation. Gold mining activities are mainly concentrated within areas of Eastern Suriname, better known as the Greenstone Belt (Figure 1). The Greenstone Belt (GSB) is rich in minerals, including gold, and, at the same time, is rich in biodiversity and inhabited by a variety of tribal communities and covers approximately 15% of Surinames landmass. Many efforts have been done to study specific environmental impacts of gold mining in certain areas of the Greenstone Belt. In order to develop comprehensive policies for the Government of Suriname to deal with environmental degradation and pollution on a regional basis, the National Institute for Environment and Development in Suriname (NIMOS), commissioned the preparation of the Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment (GREA). The specific purpose of the GREA is to identify and promote environmentally friendly gold mining and gold processing procedures, including minimization of land, water, and ecosystem degradation and the alleviation of related social problems. The study considers not only the site-specific environmental- and social impacts but also the cumulative and interactive effects among those. It was prepared on the basis of World Bank guidelines for Regional Environmental Impact assessments. The GREA is designed to provide a realistic approach towards addressing the socio-economic development of the area as a whole by incorporating adequate mitigation- and protection measures against environmental damaging activities. The regional environmental assessment provides the Government of Suriname with a modern tool for long-term planning. The first five chapters of this report present an overview of the current situation with respect to gold mining in the GSB. The study area is defined in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes the past and present gold mining activities, including the methods used and mining rights granted. It also addresses the gold mining potential of the GSB. Chapter 3 deals with the legal, policy and institutional framework including shortcomings or gaps in these areas. Chapter 4 presents the available baseline data of the study area including physical, biological, social and cartographic information. Chapter 5 addresses the economic importance of gold mining. Subsequent chapters identify environmental and social impacts and present an Environmental Management Plan to deal with the impacts. Chapter 6 presents a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts of gold mining including identification of major impacts. In Chapter 7 an overview of major impacts and proposed measures is presented, including policy and legal issues. In Chapter 8 the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is presented which includes a program aimed at capacity building for environmental management of gold mining and five specific projects. The final Chapters 9 and 10 deal with implementation of the EMP, its costs, and options for funding. A PLANTPROP multidisciplinary team of national and international experts, as listed in Annex 2, conducted the GREA study, which included both office and extensive field investigations. The team consulted with many Government agencies, NGOs, and individual professionals while executing the study. All persons contacted are listed in Annex 5. In addition, the study was based on extensive pubic participation - three seminars were held to discuss results of the different phases of the study with stakeholders (Annex 6).

NIMOS/PLANTPROP Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment

Figure 1: Location of the Greenstone Belt

NIMOS/PLANTPROP Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment

CHAPTER 1 LOCATION OF THE GREENSTONE BELT

This chapter provides the geographic context for the Regional Environmental Assessment of gold mining in the Greenstone Belt. It defines the region that is the subject of the assessment: the Greenstone Belt, hereafter referred to as GSB. The GSB, as defined in this study, is an area of approximately 24,000 km2, located in eastern Suriname, as outlined in figure 1. For purposes of this report the GSB is defined mainly on the basis of its geology forming part of a nearly continuous, E-W to SE-NW striking green stone belt along the NE margin of the Guiana Shield, splitting into two branches from French Guiana eastwards and continuing into NE Brazil. In Suriname it covers the area from Benzdorp in the South going NW to Goliath Mountain in the central part of the country. In Suriname the formations of the Trans Amazonian Green Stone Belt are known as the Marowijne Group. This group is characterized by low-grade metavolcanics, which consists of three distinct formations, Rosebel, Armina and Paramakka Formations (for details see chapter 4.1), each one of which may be gold bearing. The geology of the area determines the gold mining activities and is the key criterion for its identification. The area of study is not limited to the formations of the Marowijne Group, because the direct impacts of gold mining go well beyond the geological boundaries of the GSB, mainly along the watersheds of the gold mining areas. The effects of these impacts beyond the confines of the GSB are include d in the discussion of chapter 6.

The characteristic geology of the GSB is reflected in its geomorphology, hydrology, and vegetation as rock composition determines weathering patterns. It is noted that in NW Suriname some small areas with greenstone characteristics are found. No gold mining activities are reportedly occurring in these areas and they are therefore not further considered in this Assessment.

NIMOS/PLANTPROP Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment

CHAPTER 2 GOLD MINING ACTIVITIES

2.1

PAST GOLD MINING ACTIVITIES

Early history The first gold exploration activity in Suriname was undertaken in 1687 - 1688 by Governor Van Aersen van Sommelsdijck, co-owner of the colony and driven to find the gold of El Dorado. The expedition that went upstream the Suriname River to find Lake Parima and the legendary golden town of Manoa was unsuccessful. The first gold finds in Suriname were reported in the beginning of the 18th century and led in 1718 to the founding of the Societeits Goudmijn at the Parnassus Berg (Blauwe Berg). In the period 1729 1741 a second Societeits Goudmijn operated in an area opposite the present palm oil plantation of Victoria (Van den Bempdenberg). The first private gold company, the Geoctroyeerde Surinaamsche Mineraal Compagnie, started mining in the same Victoria area on conc essions obtained from the Societeits Goudmijn during the period 1742 1745. Their activities ended when a mine gallery collapsed killing 40 workers. It took more than a century after this major accident before gold exploration was resumed (Benjamins & Snelleman, 1981). In 1874, stimulated by important gold finds in the neighboring area in French Guiana, the first official gold exploration was carried out in the Marowijne region, between the Arawara Creek and Gran Creek. Some small discoveries were made, including a gold deposit in the Nassau Mountains. In 1876 gold was found in the Sara creek area. Gold mining really boomed after the period 1876 1879, when more than 185 new placers were discovered in the Boven Suriname and Saramacca rivers, the Boven Tempati Creek, the Mindrinetie Creek and the most important find in the Boven Sara Creek.In 1885 the Lawa goldfields were discovered.

The gold industry in the early 20th century At the end of the 19th century mechanical mining was introduced. In 1896 the company Goldfields of Suriname started hydraulicking their Montana concession at the Browns Mountain, some 80 km due South of Paramaribo. Before this date gold mining was a manual operation. Partly as a result of improper planning (wrong choice of minin g methods and equipment) and mainly because the ore distribution was more irregular than anticipated, introduction of mechanical mining methods was not successful. A considerable decline of the gold industry followed. The industry survived this period because subtenants or so-called porknockers partially replaced the larger mechanized companies. Their mining methods were exclusive application of hand labor, gold pans (bat), long-toms and sluices. They were allowed by the concession holder to work on their land in exchange for a certain percentage, generally 10 15%, of their recovery. This system of exploitation was in use for quite some time until the government created conditions for the individual to work independently, comparable with the present small- scale mining right. The government boosted the industry by the construction of a 106-km long railroad, in the period 1903-1912, from Paramaribo to Dam at the Sara Creek. Up to the late 1960s the gold industry in Suriname consisted of a number of small-scale, mainly artisanal, mining operations.

NIMOS/PLANTPROP Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment

The gold industry in the latter part of the 20th century From 1970 to 1986 considerable effort was made by the Geological and Mining Service (GMD) to increase the knowledge of the Greenstone Belt in eastern Suriname. In this respect a geochemical exploration by means of soil and stream sampling was conducted and a manual for the small-scale miner was published2. A detailed gold exploration was carried out in several selected areas. In 1986 all activities were terminated because of the start of the civil war in the interior. By then about half of the Greenstone Belt area had been covered by regional geological surveys. An important new development in Suriname, expanding quickly, was the introduction of small floating suction dredges in the late 1970s. During the early 1990s illegal gold mining boomed as the price of gold increased. Brazilian small-scale miners, known as garimpeiros, were expelled from French Guyana and moved into Suriname. Because their mining technique was better than the one locally used at the time, it was gradually adopted. The start of the boom in illegal gold mining occurred when the Brazilians teamed up with the Maroons, who knew the locations of former mining sites. Illegal gold mining activities increased as a result of the internal war, as the government agencies had lost control over the hinterland. A number of foreign exploration companies such as Golden Star Resources, Canarc Resource Corporation and Blue Ribbon Resources started with exploration activities in various parts of the Greenstone belt.

Dahlberg. E.H. 1984. Small-scale gold mining: A manual based on experience in Suriname. Intermediate Tech. Publ. Londen 51pp.

NIMOS/PLANTPROP Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment

2.2 2.2.1

PRESENT GOLD MINING ACTIVITIES AND METHODS Mining and exploration activities

Gold mining and exploration activities in Suriname are still concentrated in the Greenstone Belt (Figure 3). Most of the gold deposits mined in Suriname are either colluvial (weathered rock accumulated by soil creep at the base of a slope), alluvial (detrital deposits of rivers) or eluvial (resulted from the decomposition of a rock in place). The Ros ebel mines will be an exception to this, where gold in saprolitic (eluvial) and lateritic material and primary gold in hard rock will be mined. A few holders of a small-scale mining right are practicing artisanal mining operations. They operate mostly along rivers. Some of these small-scale miners use floating suction dredges exploiting the alluvial deposits in creeks and rivers (Figure 2). The holder of a Reconnaisance Mining Right is expected to execute at least some stream and/or soil sampling and some geological mapping to obtain an idea of the potential of an area. In practice most holders of this right employ third parties to mine gold - making it an illegal operation (see also 2.3) - mostly by hydraulicking or a combination of dry excavation to a stockpile and subsequently hydraulicking to feed a sluice box.
Figure 2: Small-scale mining operation at Brownsweg

The majority of small-scale and medium scale -mining operations are executed in areas for which a Mining Right of Exploration was granted thus making the operation illegal (see 2.3). Third parties, often garimpeiros execute quite a number of these operations, whereas the Mining Right holder is an investor living in the city Paramaribo. Some multinational companies are the major players in the gold sector in terms of financial investment, geolo gical and mining knowledge and scale of operations. These include Golden Star/Cambior, Canarc (jointly with Wylab), and Suralco (at present only conducting exploration activities). In 1994, Golden Star reached a tripartite agreement with the Government and Grassalco for the Gross Rosebel area, granting Golden Star the right of exploration (Grassalco used to be the Mining Right holder for the area). Gold reserves and project economics were favorable and Golden Star planned to start the mine with her partner Cambior in 1998. A feasibility study was completed in 1997. The study showed that the project was economically viable at world market prices for gold above $380 per ounce. Due to the fall of the gold price on the world market the development of a mine and subsequent construction of a cyanide -based extraction plant was postponed. In the middle of 2002 Cambior closed an agreement with Golden Star obtaining 100% interest in the area under Mineral Right and decided to continue with the development of the Rosebel Gold Mine. Commencement of operations is envisaged at the end of 2003. The measured and indicated reserves total over 68 million tons at an average grade of 1.5 g gold/t for over 3.2 million ounces of contained gold, 42% of this tonnage is in soft lateritic and saprolitic ore.

NIMOS/PLANTPROP Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment

Figure 3: Main gold mining areas in the Greenstone Belt

NIMOS/PLANTPROP Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment

Sarakreek Resource Corporation is a joint venture of Carnarc with the Surinamese company Wylab. They mine an alluvial deposit by hydraulicking and operate a mercury-free gravity beneficiation plant at their mine at Sara Creek. Young Poong, a Korean company is mining an alluvial gravel deposit in the Brokolonko area. They also operate a mercury-free gravity beneficiation plant. Nana Resources holds Mineral Right of Exploitation in a couple of areas in the Benzdorp region in the SE of the country. The company contracts small-scale miners as third parties who, by means of hydraulicking, are working various small alluvial deposits in the area. They are obliged to make use of retorts to recycle the mercury when extracting the gold from the amalgam. Furthermore they are obliged to use sedimentation ponds and to fill in the mining pits. Surinam Diamond Company holds Mineral Right of Exploitation in an area near the Bemau Mountains, South of the Brokolonko area. It contracts small-scale miners as third parties who by means of hydraulicking are working alluvial deposits in the area. In the majority of cases exploration is not properly executed because of lack of expertise and/or adequate funding. At present only Cambior, Golden Star, Canarc and Suralco are carrying out a sound exploration program. A few other holders (3-4) carry out exploration activities in agreement with Golden Star but they themselves do not have the right of exploration.

2.2.2 Beneficiation methods in gold mining In artisanal and small-scale mining, depending on the size of the operation and the available funds, a number of mining and beneficiation methods exist. With artisanal mining the method of mining can be manual excavation by pickax and shovel followed by eye picking and washing in a bat, or by washing in a long tom using small pumps (1 3). The gold is concentrated by mercury in riffles. The gold is recovered by burning the amalgam, sometimes utilizing a retort to recycle the mercury. If the small-scale operation is somewhat larger and plenty of water is available mining is executed by hydraulicking and concentration of gold is done utilizing a sluice box. The gold is recovered by mercury amalgamation subsequently followed by burning, sometimes utilizing a retort to recycle the mercury, preventing it to enter the environment. It is estimated that about 90% of all small-scale mining operations use hydraulicking as method of excavation while some of them combine this with dry excavating methods. The remainders use either electronic device such as the pieuw-pieuw- a metal detector, combined with dry excavating methods and/or small crushers and sluice boxes. Small-scale operations in rivers use floating suction dredges to excavate the alluvial material and a sluice box for concentration. The gold is recovered by mercury amalgamation subsequently followed by burning, sometimes utilizing a retort to recycle the mercury. The recovery rate of the concentration operations is not known. It is believed that the efficiency of the small scale and artisanal mining operations is not very high (30 40%). No documented study is available on this topic.

NIMOS/PLANTPROP Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment

From the eight companies granted Mining Rights for exploitation the three that are inactive at present are Matoewi, Plaminco and Grassalco (the Mining Rights of Exploitation held by the latter for the Benzdorp area is expired). The five others are actually operating and two of them, Nana Resources and Suriname Diamond Company, use third parties to mine by hydraulicking and recover the gold with the mercury amalgamation method, followed by burning, utilizing a retort to recycle the mercury. The remaining three use a mercury-free operation: Young Poong, a Korean company mining in the Brokolonko area. Here the ore (alluvial gravel) is excavated in a shallow open pit by hydraulic backhoes and transported by trucks to a screen, the material is then sieved and mixed with water, classified in two stages using a shaking table and a cyclone. The gold is separated from the concentrate by means of a concentrating table. The gold is then molten down to small bullions. Sarakreek Resources Corporation, mining in the Sarakreek area. The company is using the strip mining method, backfilling the mined out area with the tailing of the mined out strips. Mining is done by hydraulicking, feeding a sluice box. Separation of gold from the concentrate is by gravitational methods. Rosebel Gold Mine in the Nieuw Koffiekamp area. This mine will be operational by the end of 2003. The ore will be mined in an open pit and will be excavated by a mix of hydraulic backhoes, shovels and frontend loaders, transported in trucks and stockpiled near the processing plant. Here lateritic and saprolitic soft ore and hard ore will be crushed, screened, cycloned and leached by cyanidation technology. Recovery will be by electro- followed by smelting into bullions.

NIMOS/PLANTPROP Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment

2.3 SITUATION OF MINING RIGHTS GRANTED In Suriname there are four types of mining rights known to the gold industry: 1) Right of Reconnaissance, granted for 2 years with the possibility of extension for 1 year. 2) Right of Exploration, granted for 3 years with the possibility of two extensions of 2 years each. 3) Right of Exploitation, granted for 5 years with the possibility of extension during the remai nder of the operation. 4) Small-scale Mining Right, granted for a maximum of 2 years with a possibility of maximal 2 years extension and a maximum area of 200 hectares. If the operation is still ongoing there is the possibility of extension during the remainder of its life. With this Mining Right the holder is entitled to conduct reconnaissance, exploration and exploitation. An overview of the area granted for mining is given in Annex 19. For the types 1 and 2 of Mining Rights there is an obligatory quarterly reporting of progress and planning of activities according to a format prescribed by GMD. For the types 3 and 4 of Mining Rights there is an obligatory quarterly reporting of production figures and planning of activities according to a format prescribed by GMD. The Right of Reconnaissance and the Small-scale Mining Right are not transferable and cannot be rented out or make use by third parties. The government instituted the Small-scale Mining Right, with the individual in mind using simple mining methods and having limited investment funds available. Figure 4 gives an overview of the number, the areal extent and location per type of mining right as well as the status as of March 06, 2003 in respect to rights granted, extended or expired. Whether or not the mining right holder reports on his/her activities is also included. Figure 4:Overview of mining rights granted in the GSB
Right of Reconnaissance Status of Mining Right as per 06 March 2003 Granted and still valid Granted, expired, extension applied, regular reporting Granted, expired, extension applied, no reporting Expired Right of Exploration Mining Area (ha) Right holders 17 312597 16 25 43 277481 347970 456688

Mining Right holders 1 8 5 10

Area (ha) 12500 418656 238300 676500

Location (district) Marowijne Sipaliwini, Brokopondo Sipaliwini, Marowijne Sipaliwini, Brokopondo

Location (district)

Brokopondo, Para, Sipaliwini Brokopondo, Para, Sipaliwini Brokopondo, Para, Sipaliwini Brokopondo, Para, Sipaliwini

Right of Exploitation Status of Mining Right as per 06 March 2003 Granted and still valid Granted, expired, extension applied, regular reporting Granted, expired, extension applied, no reporting Expired

Mining Right holders 10* 0 0 3**

Area (ha) 89695 0 0 12240

Location (district) Brokopondo Para, Sipaliwini Sipaliwini

Small-scale Mining Right Mining Area (ha) Location (district) Right holders 0 0 1 10 45 200 1845 7969 Brokopondo Sipaliwini, Brokopondo, Commewijne Sipaliwini, Brokopondo, Commewijne, Para, Marowijne

Source: Geological and Mining Service (GMD), Mine Inspection Section (2003) * 10 Mining Rights of Exploitation are granted to seven companies ** 3 Mining Rights of Exploitation are expired and held by two companies

NIMOS/PLANTPROP Greenstone Belt Gold Mining Regional Environmental Assessment

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Figure 4 shows that: There are quite a numbe r of Mining Right holders who do not keep to the obligatory reporting. Three out of eight companies mentioned do not conduct any activities at the moment (2nd part of figure 4). The number of expired Mining Rights is high (includes exploitation rights of Grassalco). All holders of a Mining Right that is expired and still operate in the field do so illegally. This is true for all four categories of Mining Rights. It is not known how many cases fall into this category, but as the tables show the numbers of expired Mining rights are high. Furthermore operations are considered illegal when: An individual or a company without a Mining Right conducts reconnaissance, exploration or exploitation activities on any property, An individual or a company with a Mining Right conducts reconnaissance, exploration or exploitation activities outside his or hers area of Mining Right, An individual or a company with a Reconnaissance Mining Right conducts exploration or exploitation activities on his or hers area of Mining Right, An individual or a company with an Exploration Mining Right conducts exploitation activities on his or hers area of Mining Right, An individual or a company with either a Reconnaissance or a Small Scale Mining Right let third parties conduct activities in their area of Mining Right, According to the GMD illegal operations occur especially with Reconnaissance Mining Right holders who are engaged in exploration or exploitation activities on their concession areas (c), and Exploration Mining Right holders engaged in exploitation on their concession areas (d). Most of the time Brazilian garimpeiros are the third party. The number of cases is not documented.

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2.4 POTENTIAL FOR GOLD DEPOSITS IN THE GREENSTONE BELT All gold deposits (except the Rosebel depos it) were found by classical methods aimed at the detection of visible and recoverable gold in secondary deposits and gold bearing quartz veins. This implies that certain types of gold deposits, especially those with very fine gold or with gold in sulfides as well as a large potential of gold in laterites and saprolites may have remained undetected (de Vletter & Hastege, 1998). The Rosebel, Benzdorp, Sara Creek and Merian Creek gold deposits show that gold deposits were overlooked. In the Rosebel area artisanal, small scale and even mechanized mining have been conducted for more than a century, but none of the operators ever knew what was still underneath their deposit. The Benzdorp and Sara Creek areas were extensively mined in the past by small-scale miners and mechanized operations. Both areas still have very promising gold deposits because of their geological features. The same goes for the Merian Creek area. Because of lack of expertise and/or funding systematic exploration is only carried out by a few Mining Rights holders. Such exploration generally includes soil-geochemical studies, pitting, trenching, and drilling. Only the holders of exploration mining rights who work in joint venture with specialized foreign companies are usually able to execute such a program.

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CHAPTER 3 POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

3.1 POLICY FRAMEWORK 3.1.1 Policy Background The policy of the Government of Suriname on gold mining and environmental management is specified in the Government Declaration 2000-2005 and the corresponding Multi-year Development Plan 2000-2005. The multi-year development plan specifically emphasizes the formalization of the small-scale gold miners. Similar attempts have been made in the past2. Many of the proposed policy measures focus on increasing Government income out of the gold mining sector, for example: 1) improve inspection of the sale of gold, 2) evaluation of the purchase of gold by the Central Bank of Suriname, 3) install a commission of experts to promote investment in the mining sector, 4) grant mining rights only after approval of an investment program. The multi-year development plan also demonstrates that planning is done on a sectoral basis, not taking into consideration the crosscutting effects from other sectors that might have an impact on environment and human health. A specific comprehensive policy document on gold mining is absent. The government plans to mitigate the negative impacts of gold mining on the environment and human health by the introduction of applicable technologies, with awareness programs, and financing mechanisms to support pollution abatement technologies. Furthermore, policy statements reveal that specific areas within the GSB will be allocated to gold mining for tribal communities, thereby recognizing the rights of land tenure for indigenous peoples and maroons in the Interior. In line with these Government plans, the Ministry of Natural Resources-GMD and NIMOS took joint responsibility for the present environmental assessment and agreed upon collaborative execution of the proposed environmental management plan, as stated in a MOU in February 2003.

3.1.2 Policy Shortcomings The policy of the current Government concerning the gold mining sector is predominantly focused on regulation of the small-scale gold mining sector. However, a comprehensive document dealing with national policies on mineral rights and mining is not available. The policy does not address the potential for increased levels of productivity in the sector through improved infrastructure, increased employment, and increased economic revenues. Also, there is no clear policy to manage environmental damage that arises from gold mining. The government is aware of shortcomings in the mining legislation and proposes to review the mining code, while taking into consideration international guidelines for environmental assessment, monitoring and evaluation.

Past initiatives started in 1998 with the establishment of the commission for regulating the gold sector (CRGS). This com mission proposed to create a number of mobile inter -departmental units in the GSB, comprising of representatives from natural resources, health, regional development, finance, justice and police. Another initiative was the establishment of the commission for revision of the law on gold taxes in 1999. All initiatives were compiled into a series of recommendations

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3.2 LEGAL FRAMEWORK This section presents an overview of the legal framework related to small-scale gold mining and environment in the Greenstone Belt. Consideration is given to the Suriname Constitution, to relevant international agreements, and to key national legislation. A short presentation of two important pieces of draft legislation completes the section. Whe rever appropriate, shortcomings in existing and draft legislation have been identified.

3.2.1 The Suriname Constitution The Suriname Constitution (SB 1987, no.116) is the basic legal instrument of the country and as such governs the gold mining sector. The Constitution embodies in particular three fundamental concepts: Ownership of natural resources by the State, Management and protection of nature, and The place of international agreements. Article 41 of the Constitution states that complete and inalienable ownership and control of all resources in Suriname is vested in the State. This includes ownership and control over gold resources, at the surface of the land or deep underground. Article 6.g of the Constitution establishes the basic notion of environmental protection. In this article the State declares as one of its social objectives to create and promote conditions necessary for nature protection and for the preservation of an ecological balance. The Constitution lacks a provision for specific basic rights of citizens to a healthy environment. According to art. 105 of the Constitution, international and domestic law are an integrated whole. Article 106 of the Constitution indicates that directly applicable international law prevails over national law, even where there is a conflict. The provision includes the Constitution itself (Kooijmans, 2000).

3.2.2 International Agreements Suriname has ratified a number of International Agreements that relate to gold mining and environment in the Greenstone Belt. According to international law the provisions of these Agreements may or may not be directly applicable. Provisions of international law are directly applicable if the norm of the ratified international instrument seeks to afford protection to individuals or groups. Provisions of international law are not directly applicable if the norm is directed at the legislator or the government. Such norms include obligations for the ratifying states that the rights recognized in the international instrument are implemented and that effective remedies to enforce those rights be instituted in national legislation. In general, International Agreements should be interpreted and executed in good faith in accordance with the ordinary meaning given to the terms of the treaty in their context and in light of its object and purpose (Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties art.13.1, Kambel & MacKay, 1999). The International Agreements presented here include two environmental conventions and agreements related to occupational health and safety and human rights concerns, as follows. Convention on Biological Diversity

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The objectives of this Convention are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. Under the Convention, governments undertake to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity. They are required to develop national biodiversity strategies and action plans, and to integrate these into broader national plans for environment and development. Suriname ratified this convention in 1996. Subsequently the GOS drafted a National Strategy for the Sustainable Use and Conservation of Biodiversity. This document serves as a framework for the assessment that NIMOS is currently undertaking in preparation of the National Biodiversity Action Plan (Nelom,2003). The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity is directly affected by small scale gold mining in the GSB. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification The objective of this Convention is to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through integrated strategies that focus simultaneously, in affected areas, on improved productivity of land, and the rehabilitation, conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources, leading to improved living conditions, in particular at the community level (art.2). Desertification is understood to be all land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities (art.1.a). Suriname ratified this convention in 2000. It has entered a National Report in 2002. While the phenomenon of desertification is not considered an immediate issue of concern for Surinam, land degradation is becoming increasingly problematic. One of its causes is uncontrolled gold mining (National Report, 2002). Occupational safety and health conventions Suriname is a member of the International Labour Organization. ILO has enacted 185 Conventions, 28 of which were ratified by Suriname. The labour legislation in Surinam is based on the ILO Conventions, even though not always fully in accordance with these international standards. The GOS aims to have a good working relationship with the ILO and submits annual reports to ILO (Belfort, 2003). In 1995, ILO adopted the Convention on Safety and Health in Mines (No. 176). This Convention covers all mines and provides the minimum safety requirement against which all changes to mine operations should be measured. The accompanying Recommendation (No. 183) - which is advisory -provides more specific guidance on the different sections of the Convention. The Convention sets out procedures for reporting and investigating accidents and dangerous occurrences in mines. Governments that ratify it undertake to adopt legislation for its implementation, including the designation of the competent authority to monitor and regulate the various aspects of safety and health in mines (Walle & Jennings, 2001). Currently ratification of this Convention is under consideration by the GOS. Due to the lack of possibilities for implementation and enforcement the advising bodies recommended not to ratify this Convention (Belfort, 2003). Even if the Convention were ratified and implemented, most workers in small-scale mining would not benefit from it. The working relationships in small-scale mining usually lack the relationship employer/employee, which is a prerequisite for the application of these regulations. For those that do work under an employment contract, occupational and health regulations are not implemented due to the lack of inspections, as a result of shortage of resources and personnel (MacNack, 2003). Human Rights Conventions Suriname is contracting party to a number of International Human Rights instruments that are of significant importance to the legal framework concerning gold mining in Suriname. Under the Inter-American system, the rights and consequent obligations for the State put forward in the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Men and the American Convention on Human Rights are of importance. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) has recognized that

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state policy and practice concerning resource exploitation and resource use cannot take place in a vacuum that ignores the human rights obligations of that state (Zarsky, 2002). Under the United Nations system, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination may apply. On the basis of standards set by these two international systems, indigenous peoples and Maroons in the GSB have the collective right to own, use, and peacefully enjoy their traditional lands, territories and resources, to freely dispose of their natural resources and to be secure in their means of subsistence. States have a corresponding duty to recognize these rights by, among others, titling, demarcating, and ensuring the integrity of these lands and territories (Kambel MacKay, 1999). Although historically the land rights of indigenous peoples and Maroons have been acknowledged in (peace) treaties signed during colonial times and in subsequent legislation, the Government no longer appears to recognize these treaties and consequent land rights. The Suriname Constitution does not mention the rights of indigenous peoples and Maroons. The States position holds that indigenous peoples and Maroons are permissive occupiers of state lands and that whatever rights they may have will always be superceded by the larger interests of the State. Furthermore, the GOS tends to an assimilation approach in which, during a transitional period, indigenous peoples and Maroons are to be assimilated into the larger Surinamese society and economy (Kambel MacKay, 1999; Buursink International Consultants, 2002). The Governments position that indigenous peoples and Maroons are permissive occupiers of state lands contradicts the Governments formal obligation to allow indigenous peoples and Maroons to own, use, and peacefully enjoy their traditional lands, as stipulated by the Human Rights Instruments mentioned above to which Suriname is a contracting party. The States current position is reflected in all legislation regarding the utilization of natural resources, including gold mining. Thus mining rights are regularly granted for mining on land claimed by indigenous peoples and Maroons. The unresolved issue of the rights of indigenous peoples and Maroons, especially their land rights, leads to an uncertain situation for indigenous peoples and Maroons and holders of mining rights alike. Both the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the (UN) Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination have recently, each as a result of formal complaints by representatives of indigenous peoples and Maroons in Suriname, taken the human rights situation in Suriname under their consideration.

3.2.3 National legislation Suriname national legislation applicable to gold mining and its environmental and social management is spread over several laws and regulations. The key legislation is briefly discussed below, with emphasis on elements that appear inadequately covered by existing law. The Mining Decree Gold mining in Surinam is governed by the regulations concerning mining in general as stipulated in the Mining Decree (SB1986, no.28). The objective of the Mining Decree is to facilitate an orderly development of the mining sector in such a way that it fits within the national economic policy. It also aims to provide incentives and guaranties to private local and foreign investors (Explanatory Note).

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The Mining Decree is based upon the principle that ownership of the subsurface is distinct from ownership of the surface and that all minerals within Surinames territories are owned by the State (art. 2). It is forbidden to undertake any activities pertaining to mining without a permit granted by the Government (art. 2.6) a so-called mining right. All mining rights pertaining to gold mining are granted by Ministerial Order, issued by the Minister of Natural Resources (art. 6.3). All mining operations require the following mining rights corresponding to the various stages of mining activities undertaken: reconnaissance, exploration, and exploitation. In addition to the general regulations pertaining to all mining rights (paragraph I, II, III and IX till XIV) each of the above-mentioned rights has its own regulations (paragraph IV, V and VI). The Mining Decree has made an exception for small-scale mining (paragraph VII). Due to its nature a small-scale mining right is granted only to individuals, residents of Surinam (art. 36.4; Explanatory Note) and encompasses the right of reconnaissance, exploration and exploitation (art. 39.1). The administrative procedures regarding this right are kept simple (Explanatory Note). Small-scale mining rights are not transferable (art. 11.1). The special provisions regarding small-scale mining have been introduced to regulate the practice of small-scale mining by so-called pork knockers (Explanatory Note). Currently, these regulations are interpreted in such a way by the Minister of NH and the GMD that most small-scale mining rights are granted to small-scale gold mining operations much more extensive than the ones the Mining Degree originally intended; in practice the general regulations regarding gold mining are considered to be too drastic to be applied to these small-scale gold mining operations. Environment. The Mining Decree lacks modern-day instruments such as the obligations to carry out an environmental impact assessment. To some extent though it provides tools to regulate and minimize the environmental impact of mining. According to article 4.1 all mining activities should be done in the most efficient way, and should take into account prevailing norms relating to the protection of ecosystems. There are provisions regarding the rehabilitation of the mined area and the protection of the environment at the termination of the mining right (art. 16.1, 16.2 and 17.2). Small-scale mining is only allowed in areas to be designated by the Minister of Natural Resources (art. 36.3). During reconnaissance, exploration and exploitation detailed technical information on the mining activities and its results needs to be provided to the Minister (art. 24, 29 and 35). This information should enable the GOS to manage its natural resources the best possible way (Explanatory Note). For small-scale mining the information to be provided is less detailed (art. 40) but can still serve the same purpose. However in general these stipulations are not complied with nor enforced (Buursink International Consultants, 2002). Good Governance. Mostly the Mining Decree lacks defined procedures and time limits. This leads to a lack of transparency in the allocation of mining rights and might create opportunity for corruption. Even though in practice the GMD advises the Minister regarding applications and in general the GMD will include the advise from the DDD, the District Commissioner and the SBB, the Minister has full discretionary power in the granting of mining rights (Buursink Internationa l Consultants, 2002). Occupational Safety and Health . Although article 4.1 of the Mining Decree determines specifically that all mining activities .should take into account prevailing norms concerning safety and health of workers workers are not protected by this stipulation. In general these regulations are not complied with nor enforced (Buursink International Consultants, 2002). Indigenous peoples and Maroons. Unlike its predecessor, the Mineral Ordinance (GB1952, no.28), the Mining Decree does not take into account the rights of indigenous peoples and Maroons. The reason for this omission has not been addressed in the Explanatory Note. The one provision regarding indigenous peoples and Maroons (art. 25.1.b.) stipulates that applications for exploration permits must include a list of

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all tribal communities located in or near the area to be explored. On at least one occasion, noncompliance with this article has not led to the repercussions defined by de Mining Decree. Even though it could be argued that indigenous peoples and Maroons do have some protection as third parties entitled to land, this would still mean that they would have to accept mining on their lands (Kambel & Mackay, 1999). This is in conflict with the rights of indigenous peoples and Maroons as defined by international law.

Hindrance Act Although outdated, the Hindrance Act (GB 1930, no. 64) and its amendments form the legal base to prevent danger, damage, or hindrance caused by undertakings (industries) outside their boundaries. All new undertakings need a written permit by the District Commissioner who seeks advice from different government departments. The Hindrance Act essentially seeks to protect public health. However the permit may include environmental requirements. In case of hindrance by air, noise, industrial, and household waste, the Act is rarely enforced. Executive resolutions are lacking. No Environmental/Social Impact Assessment (EIA) is required. (Buursink International Consultants, 2002). Under the Hindrance Act no permit is required for gold mining. Through interpretation of the current legislation however it might be possible to apply the Hindrance Act to gold mining (Badal, 2001). In light of the existing lack of enforcement of the provisions of this Act however priority should be given to the implementation and enforcement of the hindrance regulations specific to gold mining either existing or to be adapted after evaluation of the existing mining legislation. The gold shops, where gold is refined, do need a permit under the Hindrance Act. The requirements specific to gold shops such as those regarding the use and storage of mercury and the use of filters in the gold shop mostly concern the health of the workers. Medical examination of the workers twice a year is mandatory. In Paramaribo inspections under the regulations of the Hindrance Act take place every five years (Ford, 2003). Inspections by BOG take place once every year. Due to the lack of the right equipment though the amount of mercury in the vicinity is not measured. For the same reason the effectiveness of some of the filters can not be inspected. The medical examination does not take into account the special working conditions of the workers in the gold shops and is identical to the one for e.g. food handlers (Stuart, 2003). Gold shops operating in the Greenstone Belt area are illegal. No permits under the Hindrance Act have been issued for this area (Koboleng, 2003; Vrede, 2003). It is unlikely that health and hindrance regulations are observed for illegal gold shops

Nature Protection Act In accordance with the Nature Protection Act (GB 1954, no.64) nature reserves may be established on domain land by the President. The Act contains regulations on the use of these protected areas. Mining activities are prohibited. It is explicitly forbidden to afflict damage either on purpose or as a result of carelessness to the soil, natural beauty, fauna and flora of the nature reserve (art.5.a.). Exemption to this rule is only permitted under certain conditions for scientific, educational, cultural or other purposes as determined by the Head of the Forestry Department (art. 6). Of the 16 protected areas in the country, 11 were established as nature reserves under the Nature Protection Act. Two of these, Nature Reserve Brinkheuvel, and the Brownsberg Nature Park are located in the Greenstone Belt. However, this area is not a nature reserve under the Nature Protection Act. The Park is held in leasehold by the Foundation for Nature Conservation in Suriname (STINASU), which

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acquired it in 1970 from the GOS for the development of recreational and educational purposes. Stinasu has managed it ever since as a nature park, and has in 2002 even acquired the use of additional adjoining land. The nature protection in the Park is the direct result of efforts by STINASU through the years as owner of the leasehold and as park manager. Suralco owns a concession to mine bauxite within the boundaries of the Brownsberg Nature Park. Even though this concession lies within the boundaries of the Park, it is explicitly exempted from the area held in leasehold by Stinasu. At this time, illegal gold mining takes place within the boundaries of the Park. In addition to the provisions of the Mining Decree, which forbids illegal mining, Stinasu could take action against these illegal activities under civil and penal law which protects its leasehold rights to the land. Occupational Safety and Health Regulations Most workers in small-scale mining are not protected under the general occupational safety and health regulations, due to the nature of their work which lacks the relationship employer/employee, a prerequisite for the application of the regulations. For those that do work under an employment contract, occupational and health regulations are not implemented due to the lack of inspections, as a result of shortage of resources and personnel (MacNack, 2003).

Workers in gold shops usually do have a employer/employee relationship. Furthermore gold shops do need a permit under the Hindrance Act, which mostly concerns occupational safety and health regulations. Requirements specific to gold shops are those concerning the use and storage of mercury and the use of filters in the gold shop. Furthermore; medical examination of the workers twice a year is mandatory. The medical examination however does not take into account the special working conditions of the workers in the gold shops and is identical to the one for e.g. food handlers (Stuart, 2003). Gold shops in the Greenstone Belt are illegal. No permits under the Hindrance Act have been issued for this area (Koboleng, 2003; Vrede, 2003). It is unlikely that health and hindrance regulations are observed for illegal gold shops.

3.2.4 Proposed National Legislation Two important documents applicable to gold mining and its environmental and social management are currently on the drawing board. They are briefly discussed below, including elements that appear inadequately covered. Draft Mining Act The draft Mining Act of 2002 comprises a revision of the Mining Decree. Thus the draft incorporates most of the existing legislation, its scope and objective. At the same time it seeks to address its shortcomings. An overview of the principal propositions of the draft follows. Small-scale mining . The administrative procedures regarding small-scale mining are kept even more simple than under the existing law. The right is granted for three years instead of two, (art. 55), reporting is less frequent (art. 58.a) and according to a preconceived format (art. 54.3.g). In accordance with World Bank recommendations the draft proposes the transferability of this right (art.16.2, Explanatory Memorandum). Individuals as well as legal entities may apply for a small-scale mining right (art. 7.2). If the area concerned is not owned by the State or for instance given in concession by the State, small-scale mining rights will not be granted to third parties (art.52.3). The allotted area has decreased from a maximum of 200 hectares to 100 hectares (art. 56). The definition of small-scale mining is similar to the

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definition given in the Mining Decree. Thus leaving it open to differences in interpretation as is currently the case. Large scale mining. A definition for large scale mining development is introduced (art 1.l). According to this definition mining activities that involve an investment of at least 50 million US dollar for installations, facilities, equipment etc. during the start-up phase leading towards exploitation are considered large-scale mining development. It is not clear why this definition is introduced. The Explanatory Memorandum does not elaborate on this, nor is large scale mining development otherwise mentioned in the draft. In fact, as in the Mining Decree, general regulations for all mining activities, and special regulations applicable to reconnaissance, exploration and exploitation and exceptions for small-scale mining are proposed. The draft seeks to prevent potential conflict between holders of small-scale mining rights and larger scale miners. According to article 15 the applicant of an exploration right for an area where small-scale mining takes place has to enter into an agreement of cooperation with the small-scale miners. It is not clear why this stipulation is not applied to exploitation rights. Environment . An Environmental Impact Assessment as well as an Environmental Management System is introduced as a condition to obtain an exploitation right for mining other than small-scale gold mining (art.42). No environmental conditions are set for obtaining a small-scale mining right. Aware of the environmental damage of small-scale mining however, the possibility of additional stipulations regarding public health, public safety, interests of third parties and preservation of the environment by State decree is proposed (art. 54.4; Explanatory Memorandum). Good Governance. More transparency in the allocation of mining rights is introduced. No provisions are introduced however on the internal administrative procedure regarding the applications for mining rights. The advising bodies such as GMD nor the status of their advice (binding/non-binding) are mentioned in the draft. There are no requirements as to the quality of most of the documents to be entered by the applicant. The impression is created that as long as the documents are entered the Minister will have to grant the mining right (art. 25, art.32.1, art.43.1, art.54.1). Clear grounds for refusal of the requested mining permit are lacking. Occupationa l Safety and Health. The possibility of additional stipulations by State decree is proposed, in order to oblige the holder of all mining rights to be responsible regarding health, hygiene and occupational safety of its workers (art. 68; Explanatory Memorandum). Relation to the Forestry Sector. The draft seeks to prevent potential conflict between mining activities and concessions under the Forest Management Act. It is proposed that the owner of an exploitation right and the owner of a small-scale mining right should give special consideration to existing forest concessions when harvesting wood for their own use (art.49.3.d and art.57.2.b). To fully protect forest concessions the provision should be broader as damage may also be done as a result of exploration activities or without the owner of the mining right harvesting the wood for his own use. If the area concerned is given in concession for forestry purposes small-scale mining rights will not be granted to third parties (art.52.3). Indigenous peoples and Maroons. Provisions regarding the rights of indigenous peoples and Maroons are proposed. Indigenous peoples and Maroons will have to allow mining on land they utilize or live on(art. 76.1). For this they will be compensated (art.76). The applicant of an exploitation right is required to enter into an agreement with the indigenous peoples or Maroons concerned regarding their access and use of the area, and compensation (art.77). Unlike landowners or for instance holders of a concession who are protected against small-scale mining on their land (art.52.3) indigenous peoples and Maroons are not. This is due to the definition of their rights under this draft and the lack of recognition of their rights
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under the Surinamese law. No provisions have been made for an agreement as mentioned above for applicants of an exploration right, nor regarding applicants for small-scale mining rights.

Draft Environmental Act With the Rio Declaration (1992) States have adopted the principle that environmental impact assessment, as a national instrument, shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority (principle 17). Also that States shall enact effective environmental legislation (principle 11). To this accord the Government has undertaken to draft legislation that introduces environmental impact assessment in Suriname. In concurrence with the Rio Declaration the draft is based on the principles of participation, access to information and effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy (principle 10); the precautionary approach (principle 15) and the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution, (principle 16) are also reflected in the draft (Explanatory Memorandum). Institutions, boards and consultative bodies. The draft proposes the institution of an Environmental Authority (art. 2), and contains regulations regarding its responsibilities, administration, supervision and financing. The draft also proposes the institution of a Supervisory Board (art. 14 through 16), an Environmental Fund (art.19) and an Inter Ministerial Advisory Committee (art.20). The National Environmental Council (NMR), established in 1997 by Presidential Decree, is incorporated in the draft (art. 17,18). Environmental Impact Analyses. The draft proposes mandatory Environmental Impact Analyses preceding all new economic activities that might have an adverse impact on the environment (art. 30). The Environmental Authority is the central advising body and its advice is binding (art.30) even towards intended activities of the Government (art.35). The Environmental Authority is empowered to adopt the relevant regulations regarding Environmental Impact Analyses and its ensuing Environmental Impact Report, and the review thereof (art.32). Pollution Control. Under article 36 through article 48 the Environmental Authority is given extensive power as to pollution control and waste management. The Environmental Authority is allowed to define environmental pollution (art.36), its tolerated limits (art. 38), and is authorized to issue permits for pollution above the tolerated limits under certain conditions (art.39). The Environmental Authority has to register all sources of pollution (art.37.2) and the permits issued under article 39.1, which documents are open to the public. The Environmental Authority is empowered to regulate waste management (art.43 through 45), including the issuance of permits for waste removal and its subsequent processing as well as the stipulation of pertaining conditions (art.44). Under article 46 the Environmental Authority may require a contingency plan for potential accidents that might cause environmental pollution. Environmental Offences. Just as for economic offences, a specialized system regarding offences of the proposed legislation is introduced (paragraph VI). These rules are also applied to offences of other (existing) legislation that due to their character are considered environmental offences (art.51). Good Governance . The draft proposes participation of the public in the decision making process (art.24) and proposes to open documents to public inspection (art.22.4, art.23.2, art.24, art.25.2, art.28.2, art.33, art.37.2, art.39.2). Throughout the draft the Environmental Authority is granted extensive power to issue rules and regulations. The Explanatory Memorandum confirms this but does not elaborate on the motives.

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3.2.5 Conclusions and recommendations Existing national legislation and small-scale mining National legislation with regard to small-scale gold mining in the GSB is in general outdated, and does not offer sufficient protection to the environment nor to those working in small-scale gold mining. The rights of indigenous peoples and maroons are neglected, creating a source of conflict and uncertainty for these peoples and small-scale miners alike. In addition, the supervising Government agencies have to contend with lack of available funds and personnel. As a result, the applicable national legislation is rarely enforced. Proposed draft Mining Act and small-scale mining The draft Mining Act 2002 provides for better protection of the environment and of workers in smallscale mining than is currently the case in the Mining Decree. The proposed provisions regarding the rights of indigenous peoples and maroons does not take into account their rights as stipulated under international law. As a result these stipulations not only form a potential source of conflict between the Government and these peoples, it also forms a potential source of conflict between these peoples and holders of mining rights. It is recommended to undertake a critical analysis of the draft. Especially the existing practice of small- to medium-scale mining operations, the desirability of an mandatory agreement of cooperation between small-scale miners and miners holding an exploitation right, and the lack of provisions regarding internal administrative procedures concerning the mining rights should be taken into account. It is recommended to address the rights of indigenous peoples and Maroons in Suriname in a general and systematic fashion in view of its complex nature. It is of the utmost importance to the proper regulation of gold mining in de Greenstone Belt as well as with regard to the proper fulfillment of international obligations of the GOS under international human rights law that these recommended actions take place in an expeditious manner. Proposed draft Environmental Act and small-scale mining The draft Environmental Act proposes a basic framework for environmental management. It provides tools to facilitate an integrated coordinated environmental government policy, and provides the umbrella under which specific environmental regulations can be adopted in the future. Therefore the draft itself does not contain any stipulations regarding small-scale mining. The draft is not without consequence for small-scale mining howeve r, as it forms the basis for future pollution control for this activity. It is recommended to undertake a critical analysis of the draft and in particular of the institutional arrangements made for national environmental management; the power of the Environmental Authority to issue rules; the transformation of NIMOS into the Environmental Authority should be explained in the Explanatory Memorandum. Due to the significance of the Environmental Act and the likelihood that it will be extensively scrutinized in the future either as a result of conflict or otherwise, it is recommended that the Explanatory Memorandum provide detailed information. It should also elaborate on the motives for and the consequences of as well as the background of the proposed legislation. Subsequently, adoption of draft legislation and regulations as required in accordance with the findings of the legal analysis, as well as the preparation and adoption of its ensuing rules and regulations should take place.

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It is of the utmost im portance to the protection and management of the environment in Suriname as well as with regard to the proper fulfillment of international obligations of the Government under the Rio Declaration that the revision and adoption process takes place in an expe ditious manner.

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3.3 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK This section provides the institutional framework for gold mining and environmental management in Suriname. Both government agencies and private organizations are involved in management of the gold mining and environment sectors. The Government institutions directly involved in gold mining are the Geological and Mining Services of Suriname (GMD) - Ministry of Natural Resources and the National Institute for Environment and Development (NIMOS) - Ministry of Labor, Technological Development and Environment, which are briefly described below.

3.3.1.Geological and Mining Service, Ministry of Natural Resources The Ministry of Natural Resources has a preeminent responsibility for managing mineral resources in Suriname. The tasks of its Geological and Mining Service (GMD) can be summarized as follow (Wong et al., 1998): 1) to survey and prepare geological maps of Suriname 2) to compile an inventory of mineral resources 3) to advice the Minister of Natural Resources on mining legislation, exploration and rights 4) to monitor the activities of government and private organizations operating in the sector 5) to render consulting services to government and private organizations. Based on these tasks the services cover three main operational sections: geological field activities, laboratory, and mine inspection, and supporting activities. Geological field activities After the publication of the Geological Map of Suriname in 1977, the GMD concentrated on the exploration of gold, copper and industrial minerals. However, all GMD field activities came to an abrupt end because of the Civil War from 1986-1992. At present, the GMD has a limited number of staff with the appropriate qualifications to effectively manage mineral resources development. With one senior geologists, one junior geologist, two junior mine engineers, the GMD works under difficult conditions. The geological information collected through the years is incomplete and generally not available in readily accessible form. Information services are limited, with little of the data being held on computer-based systems. In addition, the geological data is incomplete. It is important to note that the methods in use at GMD for recording and identifying claimed areas for mining rights are totally inadequate to support any small-scale mining rights, as envisaged by the Mining Code of 1986. Laboratory The laboratory of the GMD is supposed to support the nationwide investigation of mineral resources, in particular for ore dressing and for petrographical and metallurgical investigation. However, the laboratory is currently not operational. Outdated equipment, lack of maintenance and lack of qualified staff are the main reasons. Mine inspection

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The mine inspection section of GMD is responsible for ensuring that holders of mining rights comply with the terms of those licenses, with respect to their activities and expenditures. The mine inspection is presently inactive, and has been for quite a long time because of lack of qualified staff. As a result there is little or no Government monitoring of either gold exploration or gold mining activity. The need to reactivate the mine inspection is of high importance, if serious investors are to acquire the rights to areas, which they have identified as being prospective, without having to negotiate with dozens of small rights holders.

3.3.2 National Institute for Environment and Development in Suriname, Ministry of Labor, Technological Development and Environment The National Institute for Environment and Development in Suriname (NIMOS) was established in March 1998 by Presidential decree and is currently part of the Ministry of Labor, Technological Development and Environment. The Ministry works towards the preparation, coordination and monitoring of an environmental policy and its implementation. NIMOS has as specific task to provide technical support to the Ministry of Labor, Technological Development and Environment. NIMOS also provides technical support to the National Council for the Environment3, a body established in 1997 by presidential decree (PB 017/97) to provide advises on environmental issues to relevant institutions and organizations, including government departments and NGOs. NIMOS coordinates the environmental monitoring, the direct responsibility of which lies with the sectoral Departments. In case of the gold mining sector the direct responsibility lies with the GMD. A Board of Directors of 5 members currently governs NIMOS. The institute is projected to have eight offices, of which five are currently operational. The staff of NIMOS consists of seven professionals on public education and outreach, environmental and social assessment, monitoring and enforcement, legal review and financial mechanism. The remaining personnel provide support services within the office of administration. NIMOS scientists have been trained in environmental management (assessment, public participation, law, pollution management, and standardization, transport issues) over the course of the past three years. The Suriname Government, the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) and the European Union (EU) jointly fund NIMOS. Recent outputs are an Environmental Framework Law and State of the Environment Report. Presently efforts are made on a forestry sector assessment, EA review manual, and guidelines for best practices in forestry, mining and others.

3 The council consists of a total of 10 members. Five are derived from Government in the areas of welfare, planning, economic development, biodiversity and sustainable development; one member from the private sector; one representative from the trade unions; one member on behalf of the maroon community; one member from the indigenous community and one member of the consumers organizations.

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3.3.3 Other Government organizations In addition to the above two organizations with primary responsibility in mining and environmental management, several other government departments play an important role in the regulation and monitoring of the gold mining sector. Government organizations that are significantly contributing to environmental management in the GSB related to gold mining are shown in figure 5. Figure 5: Other Government organizations involved in gold mining in the GSB
Government Organization Ministry of Natural Resources
administration

Service Office of title registry Central Bureau of Arial mapping Bureau for Geodetic Control Department of Finance Labor Inspection Department of Regional Development

Main task Register mining rights Construct topographical maps Verify situation of mining right on figurative map Identify and collect taxes, royalties for gold through the Central Bank of Suriname Provide immigrant gold miners with a labor permit Advise on application for mining right Develop policy which reconciles the rights of the indigenous peoples living in the GSB

Ministry of Finance Ministry of Labor, Technological Development and Environment Ministry of Regional Development

development

Ministry of Justice and Policy


security

Department of immigration

Guard against criminality in gold mining areas Provide immigrant gold workers with visa Provide military security for specialoperations

Ministry of Defense

Department of Defense

Medical Mission
health

Care to people living in the GSB Monitor health of people living in the GSB Train technical- and scientific staff on geology and mining Research on environmental and social aspects in gold mining Conservation and the sustainable exploration of certain protected areas Prepare, coordinate and monitor of an environmental policy and the implementation of it

Ministry of Health Ministry of Health Ministry of Education ADEK University of Suriname and Institutes CMO, CELOS and IMWO Nature Technical Institute

education

environment

Foundation for Nature Conservation in Suriname Ministry of Labor, Technological Development and Environment

Environmental Unit

3.3.4

Ongoing and planned environment-related project activities in the Greenstone Belt

Several efforts are currently underway in the Greenstone belt aimed at improving environmental and social conditions. Some are carried out by private organizations. Most are financed by international organizations. Efforts are made in capacity building, research and applicable technology, sustainable development, monitoring, policy formulation, institutional development, awareness and education. An overview of these efforts is shown in figure 6.

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Figure 6: List of ongoing and planned projects and activities related to gold mining in the Greenstone Belt

Implementing Organization World Wildlife Fund in collaboration with national- and international institutions: GMD, UVS, STINASU, National Science Foundation, University of Wisconsin.

Project

Overall objective

Specific objective related to gold mining and environment To contribute to the improved management of the small to medium scale gold mining sector, thereby reducing the pressure exerted on priority ecosystems of the Guyanas with a view to maintain and eventually restore their biological diversity

Project activities

Status

Guyanas Sustainable Forest Resources Management Project

To maintain the integrity of the different forest ecosystems of the Guyanas so that they may sustain their ecological functions and processes, while supporting the regions socio-economic development

1.

2.

3.

4.

Policy and regulations improvement (assistance for formulation and/or amendment, revision, approval and endorsement of policies and regulations, stakeholders consultations) Environmental education and awareness (development, implementation and evaluation of program) Industry practices improvement (assessment, promotion of collaboration among miners, assistance for identification of alternative practices, field demonstrations) Institutional development (support to national agencies and field training of personnel for improved management of gold mining sector, workshops on concession monitoring and evaluation Establish regional organizations (Foundations) in the area of Brokopondo, Tapanahony and Langatabiki Design of a visitor center Establishment of an office and training facility Training for park- and community members Development of marketing- and operational plans

Ongoing until 2005

Forum NGOs

Support to local NGOs in Nieuw Koffiekamp and Godo-Holo Demonstration project for amenity area in the Brownsberg Nature Park Project profiles (4) for the abatement of the negative impact on health and environment from artisanal gold mining To strengthen regional cooperation in conservation management and sustainable development.

Caribbean regional Environmental Programme (CREP)

To organize the informal gold mining sector and convince them to practice sustainable agriculture and forestry To develop models through 11 projects in the Caribbean for sustainable development of sensitive natural areas having key economic and ecological value. Reduce the negative impact of artisanal gold mining on health.

1.

Ongoing

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ongoing

Ministry of Natural Resources in collaboration with the Pan American Health Organization

To sustain to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature (Agenda 21, first declaration of principles)

1.

Reduce the negative impact of artisanal gold mining on environment.

2.

Reduce the negative social impact of artisanal gold mining for the local communities

3.

Development of information material on use of mercury, introduction of retorts, development of safe workin g conditions and practices with mercury, feasibility study on health services in mining regions, conduct risk assessment of methyl mercury in fish and development of data collection system for monitoring negative health impacts. Develop programs to improve safe mining techniques without use of mercury, adopt relevant legislation for the clean up and rehabilitation of exhausted mining sites, development of information system for monitoring. Focal group sessions to study social, economic and cultural impacts of gold mining, information campaign

Planned

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Optimize the contribution of artisanal gold mining to the economy 4.

for the general public, local communities, government and miners to reduce negative impacts from gold mining Studies to estimate the quantity of extracted gold, establish a plan to build up an organizational structure to regulate the development of artisanal gold mining.

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Organization United Nations Development Program in collaboration with Foundation GodoHolo

Project GEF-small grants program 2nd operational phase

Overall objective Pilot project: Mercury-free gold mining in the Tapanahony area. Foundation for Godo-Holo

Specific objective related to gold mining To execute a pilot project for the mercuryfree extraction of gold in the Tapanahony area.

Project activities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To build a laundry facility for mercury-free extraction of gold To demonstrate and promote mercury-free extraction process To provide training for local technicians and miners on mercury-free extraction To provide assistance for mercury-free extraction To establish a organizational structure for maintenance of laundry facility Review and draft revised legislation (firm) Consult with stakeholders Initiate process of adaptation

Status Planned

Ministry of Natural Resources Geological and Mining Department

Revision of Mining Act and Mineral agreements, establishment of Mineral institute

To review existing Mining Degree and adapt to its shortcomings with regard to small- and large scale mining

Define small- and large scale mining and the rights granted corresponding to the international standards, improve conditions on which these rights are granted e.g. environmental impacts assessment, regulations to prevent social conflict.

1. 2. 3.

Ongoing

Ministry of Labor, Technological Development and Environment National Institute for Envir onment and Development in Suriname

Environmental Management Program

To support the Government of Suriname to implement sustainable development by advancing the design of a national and legal framework for environmental policy and management

Preparation of mining guidelines for the Environmental Assessment system for Government institutes, mining private sector and consultants Review of environmental case study of Gross Rosebel Gold Mining project-1997 Achieve sustainable development in mining Development of an environmental framework law

Review of documents, discussion of findings with relevant stakeholders and preparation of EA guidelines

Planned

Planned Review of documents, discussion of findings with relevant stakeholders and develop standard review format for EAs

Planned Ongoing

Review of laws and regulations, stakeholders sessions, formulation of mother law and discussion of findings with stakeholders Ministry of Natural Resources Geological and Introduction of sustainable mining methods in the To raise awareness of the general public and more specifically that of miners and people in the interior on the To develop intervention strategies that should lead to positive changes in the behavior of the miners and the affected communities, 1. 2. Workshop on small-scale gold mining with all stakeholders Focal group sessions with local population in Planned

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Mining Department/ Maatschap van Geologen en Mijnbouwers

small-scale and artisanal gold mining sector in Suriname

social, health and environmental hazards associated with artisanal gold mining practices.

improved working- and living conditions and a cleaner environment

3. 4. 5.

selected villages Focal group sessions with miners in selected mining camps Development and dissemination of information material Training of selected key persons and strengthening of the mining section of the GMD.

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3.3.5 Shortcomings and gaps in Government institutional capacity At this time there is no integrated coordination of gold mining and environmental management. In February 2003, NIMOS and GMD have signed a memorandum of understanding to collaboratively work on the environmental management of the gold mining sector The GMD cannot fulfill its mandate due to lack of qualified staff and inadequate funding. This results in little or no monitoring of either exploration or extraction activity in gold mining. The limited availability of environmental and geological baseline data makes it difficult to identify target areas for environmental mitigation, control and monitoring in gold mining.

3.3.6 Recommendations for the improvement of the Government institutional framework A proper institutional framework is a prerequisite for the establishment of a viable and sustainable gold mining sector in Suriname. It is essential that a strong national institute be established. The proposed project for establishment of the Mineral Institute should be carried out. This institute should play a far more creative and influential role than the GMD do at present, particularly in the formulation and implementation of a mineral policy. This will facilitate systematic inspection of medium and small-scale miners to ensure that they oblige to the conditions, as stated in the regulations and laws. To effectively mitigate and control impacts on the environment, it is recommended that a basic infrastructure support system be established for gold mining. Units similar to the inter-departmental units proposed by the commission for regulating the gold sector (1998) could serve as the basic infrastructure to do so.

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CHAPTER 4 ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE DATA

This chapter presents a summary of the physical, biological and social baseline information available on the GSB as defined in Chapter 1 - Location of the Greenstone Belt. Physical data are provided for climate, geology, geomorphology, soils, hydrology, water quality and use of water resources. Biological data cover vegetation types, wild flora and fauna, including endemic and internationally endangered species, and protected areas. The social data concern demographic and related social aspects. 4.1 PHYSICAL BASELINE DATA 4.1.1. Climate According to Kppens classification the major part of the GSB has a Tropical Rainforest Climate (Af), because the average monthly rainfall of each month exceeds 60 mm. A small part in the Lawa area has a Tropical Monsoon Climate (Am), because the average rainfall in some months reaches below 60 mm. There are only slight differences between these climate types within the GSB. In Suriname, four seasons are distinguished, based upon rainfall distribution (Scherpenzeel, 1977): long rainy Season; from the end of April to mid August long dry season; from mid August to early December short rainy season; from early December to early February Short dry season; from early February until the end of April The available meteorological data for the different stations in the GSB are not consistent over time and for many periods data are incomplete or completely lacking. Generally, the data presented in annex 8 refer to the period 1961-1986, except for temperature and relative humidity for which data over the period 1961-1978 have been used. The average annual rainfall in the area ranges between 2,136 and 2,482 mm, with the lower recorded at Kwakugron and the higher one at Stoelmanseiland. The average daily air temperature is 26.6-27.0 C, with an annual range of about 3 C. January is the coldest month (average about 25.7 C), and October the warmest (average about 28.5 C). The relative humidity is high to very high. It closely follows the seasons, with the highest average daily humidity in the rainy season (up to 85%) and the lowest in the dry seasons (down to 68%). The average duration of sunshine reflects the rainfall distribution pattern. From December to June the average daily sunshine is lowest, and is estimated to be 6 hours. September and October are the sunniest months with an average of approximately 8-9 hours of sunshine per day. Average wind speeds are low (1.4 m/s for Afobaka) to very low (0.7 m/s for Stoelmanseiland). During the night and early morning it is usually calm. During the day the wind speed may increase to about 5 m/s, and in some seasons to 5-8 m/s. Most frequently occurring wind directions vary between east-southeast and east-northeast. Wind speeds of 20-30 m/s have been occasionally recorded during thunderstorms, but only for a very short period (locally known as sibibusi). Suriname is free of hurricanes.

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4 . 1.2 Geology The low-grade metavolcanics of the Marowijne Group (the Trans -Amazonian Greenstone Belt) dominate the GSB (Figure 2). They form part of a nearly continuous, E-W to SE-NW striking greenstone belt along the northeastern margin of the Guiana Shield, splitting into two branches from French Guiana eastwards, and continuing into NE Brazil. The Marowijne Group metamorphic volcanic sedimentary complex was formed during the TransAmazonian orogenic cycle (Lower P roterozoic). It consists of:

Meta-quartz arenites and phyllites, locally metavolcanics (Rosebel Formation) Metagraywackes and phyllites, locally metavolcanics (Armina Formation) Ocean-floor basalts, island-arc andesites, cherts and mudstones (Paramakka Formation).

Basalts dominate the lower sections of the Marowijne Group, which are overlain by compositionally more diverse and more porphyritic mafic, intermediate and felsic volcanics. The volcanic rocks are interbedded with and overlain by tuffaceous, volc anoclastic and chemical sedimentary rocks, derived mainly from the associated volcanic rocks. The proportion of sedimentary rocks increases towards the top. The three formations are as follows:

The Rosebel Formation in NE Suriname is meta -arenitic and consists of sandstones alternating with phyllites and locally with intermediate volcanics. They uncomfortably overly the Paramakka Formation. The occurrence of phyllite pebbles that commonly show a foliation divergent from that of the matrix indicates metamorphism and folding prior to its deposition. The Armina Formation consists of schists and a rhythmic sequence of graded greywackes and phyllites. Sedimentary structures indicate deposition by turbidity currents. The Paramakka formation is on its northeastern part uncomfortably overlain by the Armina Formation and consists mainly of volcanic sedimentary rocks.

The asymmetric structure of the greenstone belt, the basic to acidic succession of the Paramakka Formation and the geochemical characteristics are suggestive of an island-arc to back-arc marginal-basin tectonic setting. It has been a general view that the tectonics of the Marowijne group are fairly simple even though some researchers suggested that greenstone-belt successions are much more tectonized than generally accepted (De Vletter et al. 1998). In NW Suriname, west of the Bakhuis horst, small areas with greenstone characteristics have been found (Ston Formation) and correlated with the Rosebel Formation. However, because its folding pattern and composition differ significantly and the Ston Formation is conformably overlain by the Dalbana metarhyolites, its inclusion into the greenstone belt is not known. Geochemical studies in central Suriname indicated that the metabasalts are of tholeitic nature with MidOcean Ridge Basalt affinities, except for their unusually low potassium contents ascribed to metamorphism. The most reliable ages determined so far are by U/Pb zircon methods for the early volcanism in the greenstone belt and amount to 2.25 Ga (2.25 billion yrs) from volcanoclastic greywackes, while the age of metamorphism in the greenstone belt is around 2 Ga (2 billion yrs). Metamorphism is the strongest in the peripheries and in the contact zones with the diapiric granitoids, where the metamorphic grade reaches the amphibolite facies and locally even the granulite facies.

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Figure 7: Map of the Geology of the GSB

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Gold deposits in the greenstone belt originated from intrusive granitoids. The superimposed effects of granite intrusion, metamorphism and deformation are largely responsible for the migration of gold from its original source towards the dilatational zones related to folding and faulting. Primary gold occurs related to quartz veins and sometimes in gold bearing pyrites related to those veins or disseminated in the source rock close to the quarts veins. In the Gross Rosebel area the primary gold mineralization is associated with quartz and quartz/carbonate veins and occurs at the intersections of a synclinal structure with shear zones. The Benzdorp area contains two Proterozoic west striking greenstone belts separated by a granitic basement; here gold mineralization is in a shear zone. In the Sara Creek area gold mineralization is associated with quartz-diorite stocks and shear zones. Because of prolonged chemical weathering laterite/saprolite profiles are formed that can reach quite deep. The laterite cover over the ore zones is usually enriched in gold, sometimes nuggets are found.

4.1.3 Geomorphology and soils Four major geomorphological zones can be distinguished in Suriname. From North to South, we distinguish (Figure 8): the Young Coastal Plain; the Old Coastal Plain; the Cover Landscape or the Savanna Belt; the Interior uplands of the Precambrian Guiana Shield. Details on these zones are described in Noordam (1993). Figure 8 : Geomorphological zones of Suriname

The GSB is entirely situated within the Interior Uplands of the Guiana Shield. The surface of this shield has been shaped during billions of years of tectonic movements, weathering, denudation and deposition under a range of different climates, and it can thus be characterized as a landscape of very old age. The current land surface is dominated by low hills, with a multi-convex topography.

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Above this hilly lowland some higher residual hills, plateaus and mountains arise, which often form prominent features in the landscape. These higher parts are often covered with a duricrust of laterite or bauxite. The general elevation of the GSB is gradually rising from below 50 m above sea level in the north to 250 m in the south (Annex 9). The mountains and plateaus may rise to elevations over 500 m, with the highest point in the Lely Mountains (694 m above sea level). The soils of the GSB have developed in an intensively weathered and usually deep regolith. Soil characteristics may vary depending mainly upon parent material and position in the landscape. They have in common that they usually possess a good structure and a low to very low fertility. The nutrients are mostly concentrated in the biomass, the litter layer and the humic topsoil. Annex 10 shows the distribution and the main characteristics of the soils in the GSB, down to the 4th degree. The plateau, top and slope soils are well drained. Nearly all small-scale gold mining activities are practiced in the alluvial creek valleys and on their neighboring colluvial foot-slopes. In addition, some scattered activities are found on some of the terraces along the main rivers. The creek valleys and adjacent foot-slopes have a width of less than one hundred meter to some hundreds of meters at most. The valley soils are poorly drained and have a rather heterogenic soil pattern ranging from sand to clay, and sometimes with a thin peat layer on top. The footslopes are imperfectly drained with variable textures, often containing gravel, depending on the parent material. The terraces have usually (moderately) well drained sand to loam sometimes overlaying sandy clay. In the gold mining areas gravel is usually found in the deep subs oil. The soils in the GSB are used for shifting cultivation. The largest areas are found in the populated parts of the GSB, along the rivers and the larger creeks and along the roads. The total shifting cultivation area within the GSB is an estimated 60,000 ha. Predominantly, well-drained soils of the river terraces and low hills are used for this type of agriculture.

4.1.4 Water Resources Hydrology The GSB is mainly drained by the Marowijne River (60% of the GSB surface area), the Suriname River (21%), the Saramacca River (10%) and the Commewijne River (8%). Only a very small portion of water drains through the Coppename (1%) River. It should be noted that approximately 40% of the total discharge of the Marowijne River originates in French Guiana, where also gold mining activities occur in the watershed. Annex 11 shows the main rivers and larger creeks, the surface of the river basins and their discharge. Within the basin of the Suriname River, the Brokopondo Lake (also known as the Van Blommenstein Reservoir) is found. The lake collects the drainage water of approximately 15% of the GSB, which water is subsequently drained towards the Suriname River at Afobaka. In all rivers, peak flows and high waters occur from May to July, while low flows and water levels reach a minimum around November. The majority of creeks, except the larger ones that are shown in Annex 11, can be classified as intermittent: they have no discharge during a shorter or longer period in the dry seasons, depending on the size of their drainage area and the rainfall. Hydrogeology In many cases, the mountains and hills have no groundwater present at shallow depth. Within the upper layers a substantial lateral flow occurs towards open water and to saturated zones at lower positions. Underneath the soil water may accumulate in the deeper saprolite zones and occasionally occurs within fractures and faults in the underlying bedrock. Most of this water is confined and flow, if any, is very slow.

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A different system is found below terraces along the main rivers. Here, layers and lenses of sandy to gravelly materials occur, with a relatively high hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater may accumulate in these layers, but usually the inter-flow above the groundwater table discharges the water down-slope towards the open water in these areas.

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Water quality Pertaining to water quality, the surface waters of Suriname can be classified as clear waters, black waters and white waters. White ("milky") waters, characterized by an extensive sediment load, are found only in the downstream parts of the largest rivers in Suriname, but not in the GSB. The water of the Brokopondo Lake is discussed separately as its characteristics differ from those of the other open waters. ? Clear waters Nearly all rivers and creeks in the interior are clear waters, which is the most prevalent water type in the GSB. Clear waters are greenish to transparent, and are nearly saturated with oxygen and they contain few suspended particles. The pH ranges from very acid to neutral (pH 4.5-7.8). As clear waters are oligotrophic, their natural productivity is low. However, in the GSB many of the larger food-fish species are found in clear waters because of deep light penetration. The natural sediment influx of the main rivers is very low, as natural erosion is very limited under tropical rainforest. From data by Nedeco (1968) the average sediment content of the river water from the interior has been estimated at 0.01-0.02 g/l. ? Black waters Black waters are colored dark brown due to dissolved tannins leached from peat layers, leaf-litter in savanna forest (xerophytic forest) and from humus-iron banks in white sand (podzolic) soil profiles. Black waters are soft, their pH is low, are oligotrophic and almost depleted of oxygen. In addition, the shallow light penetration minimizes biological production. Only smaller food fish species and many smaller species (such as aquarium fishes) inhabit this type of water. Black waters are occasionally found in the GSB. Black waters drain the very few, small savanna and xerophytic forest areas found here. ? The Brokopondo Lake The Brokopondo Lake with an average depth of 14 m and a maximum depth of 48 m is characterized by stratification. The lower water layer (hypolimnion) has a relatively low temperature (in relation to the air temperature), a low pH and anaerobic (anoxic) conditions, while the upper layer (epilimnion) has a higher temperature, a neutral to slightly acid pH and a fair dissolved oxygen content (aerobic conditions). Organic matter is accumulating at the bottom of the reservoir, as its breakdown is very slow under prevailing anaerobic conditions. In the period October-February some mixing of the two layers may occur as a result of a lowering surface temperature while also stronger winds may stimulate mixing of hypo- and epilimnion. Water use ? Transport The Saramacca and the Marowijne River, and their tributaries the Tapanahoni and Lawa Rivers, are the main access routes to the communities along their upper stretches. The majority of persons and cargo that travel to and from these hinterland communities are transported over water, including boats with tourist groups. Along the Brokopondo Lake, persons and cargo are transported between Afobaka and the Sara Creek area, as well as to some recreation resorts in and along the lake. Transport here is far less frequent than along the above -mentioned rivers. The other rivers and major creeks of the GSB are no major transportation routes, but they are occasionally used for sport fishing and for sightseeing boating trips. All navigable waterways in the inhabited areas of the GSB are important for the local population to travel to nearby villages, to their hunting and fishing grounds, to their agricultural fields, and to public places such as schools, health clinics and nearby airstrips. ? Fishing In nearly all rivers and main creeks the local population practices fishing for subsistence. Some small-scale commercial fishing occurs on the Brokopondo Lake. This lake is also a popular location for sport fishing.

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? Washing, bathing and recreation Near villages and camps, the river is used for bathing and washing laundry. Within the study area several tourist resorts are found, where tourists use the open water (rivers and the Brokopondo lake) for bathing and swimming. ? Drinking water In most villages rai nwater is collected during the rainy season and used as drinking water. During the dry season (boiled) river water or creek water is used for this purpose. During the dry season, most villages along the Marowijne River use river water because they are located on islands, while villages along other main rivers prefer creek water, which is generally less polluted. Some villages have piped drinking water systems. Water is pumped from the nearby river or nearby creek, sometimes from groundwater aquifers below a river terrace. After treatment (slow sand filter) drinking water is piped to the distribution points. ? Generation of hydropower The Brokopondo Lake was created in 1964 for the generation of hydropower, by damming the Suriname River at the Afobaka villa ge. The lake has a surface of 1,579 square km, a maximum depth of about 48 m and an average depth of about 14 m. The hydroelectric power station at the Afobaka dam (189 MW installed capacity) supplies electricity to the alumina plant at Paranam, to the public electricity supply of greater Paramaribo and to many villages in the district of Brokopondo.

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4.2 BIOLOGICAL BASELINE DATA 4.2.1 Vegetation Ten vegetation types are described here, eight of which are directly or indirectly (the Brokopondo Lake) shown on the GSB vegetation map (Annex 12) that has been compiled using information of NARENA, 1996 and SPS, 1988. The remaining two types that could not be shown on the map are Creek forests and Creeks, rivers and rapids. However, to a large extent their location can be deduced from the courses of creeks and rivers on the map. All forests discussed are considered to be different types of tropical rainforest. Mountain forests In mountain areas above 500 meter, the species composition of forest differs from tha t of lowland forest. On such mountains, two main types of forests can be distinguished. Mountain areas with deeper soils are covered with "mountain high dryland forest". On the shallower soils lying above rocks (including laterite caps), where soils desiccate during dry seasons, xerophytic forest is found, in Suriname known as "mountain savanna forest" (Lindeman and Moolenaar, 1959). Locally cloud forest occurs, characterized by its richness in epiphytes such as mosses, ferns, bromeliads and orchids. A large part of the mountain forest of the Browns Mountain is included in the Brownsberg Nature Park (see 4.2.4). (Bauxite) mining concessions are found on many of the higher parts of the GSB, but no actual mining is performed yet. Bauxite exploration was recently conducted at Browns Mountain, while large bauxite exploration program is currently undertaken by Suralco at the Nassau Mountains. Lowland forests The majority of the study area is covered with lowland forest, in Suriname known as "lowland high dryland forest". This high dryland forest is found on the well-drained soils of mountains, plateaus and hills lower than 500 m, and on the imperfectly drained soils of colluvial foot slopes and river terraces. In all cases soils do not desiccate during dry seasons. The presence of several strata and a high diversity of flora and fauna characterize the forest. As a rule, palms are prevalent in the sub-growth. Part of the lowland forests in the study area has been exploited by selective logging in particular in the accessible parts in the north. In addition, in inhabited areas considerable portions of these forests have been cleared for shifting cultivation (see also Secondary forests). Secondary forests In the traditionally populated areas, mixed secondary forests in different stages of succession are found interspersed with shifting cultivation fields. The shifting cultivation zones occupy relatively narrow zones on both sides of the main rivers, along some of the larger creeks and along some of the roads. Liana forest and shrub Lindeman and Moolenaar (1959) characterize liana forest by the absence of strata. Larger trees stand so far apart that it is impossible to identify a canopy layer. Trees are frequently draped with lianas, which sometimes fill the gaps between the trees with an impenetrable tangle (scrub). Lightwood species are relatively important. As far as known men are not using this vegetation type.

Xerophytic forests High and low xerophytic forests are found on soils that desiccate during dry seasons. Although high xerophytic forests are usually of mixed species composition, they are often dominated by species adapted to dry conditions, like walaba (Eperua falcata), blackberry (Humiria balsamifera), dakama (Dimorphandra conjugata), savanna ironheart (Swartzia bannia) and others. Low xerophytic forests are considered a

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succession stage between shrub savanna and high xerophytic forests. In accessible areas (e.g. northwest of Brownsweg) selective logging for walaba takes place. Savannas A large group of savannas of the Sabanpasi type is found near Koffiekamp (such as the Gross Rosebel and De Jong Noord savannas, and savannas in the Brinckheuvel Nature Reserve). In the remaining part of the GSB, savannas are scarce and only a few small, isolated savannas occur surrounded by xerophytic forest. Savannas are found at locations where adverse soil and/or hydrological conditions, in combination with man-made fires, favor their survival (Teunissen, 1984). Without burning eventually all savannas will disappear by vegetation succession; xerophytic forests will succeed them. Savannas are considered important areas for nature tourism and recreation. A savanne of this type is protected within the Brinckheuvel Nature Reserve. The savannas within the Gross Rosebel concession of Cambior are strongly affected by gold exploitation and planned exploration activities. Several roads and one powerline cross the savannes and some campsites and an airstrip have been constructed here.In these savannas some (illegal) gravel- and sand exploitation occurs as well. Floodable forests Along the rivers and several larger creeks, relatively low areas occur that are briefly inundated during rainy seasons. Often the forest does not differ significantly from the nearby lowland forest, although some characteristic species may be present. Apparently most trees withstand short periods of inundation. In accessible areas some selective logging may occur. Creek forests The narrow creek forests are discussed because the majority of small-scale gold mining occurs in creek valleys. Creek valleys may be inundated during part of the rainy season. They are characterized by swamp forest in which babun (Virola surinamensis), mataki (Symphonia globulifera) and pina palm (Euterpe oleracea) are the cha racteristic species, next to a great number of species from the surrounding high dryland forest. No activities take place within this vegetation type. Creeks, rivers and rapids In most cases, forest creeks are too dark (by overhanging trees) and water levels fluctuate too much to allow aquatic vegetation. In larger rivers, -the depth, - water flow and water level fluctuations may prevent vegetation development. In most rapids and waterfalls of Suriname, aquatic vegetation is common. Teunissen (1978) describes the aquatic ecosystems of upper rivers, rapids and falls in Suriname. Brokopondo Lake The early vigorous water plant development following the filling of this lake disappeared after some years. Water level fluctuations prevent the development of aquatic vegetation in the shallower parts of the lake.

4.2.2

Wild flora

Plant diversity Suriname is rich in plant species. According to Werkhoven (in: Mittermeier et al., 1990), the flora includes 5,072 species of flowering plants (Angiospermae), 330 species of ferns and fernlike allies (Pteridophyta) and 380 species of mosses (Bryophyta). These numbers also include species that are exclusively found in the coastal area, so the number of species in the interior is certainly somewhat lower. The number of plant species found in the GSB and their status (common, uncommon or rare) can be derived from the literature (as far as collecting areas have been published)4 and from consultations of herbarium collections5.

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Endemic and rare plant species As part of the Conservation Action Plan for Suriname, Werkhoven (in: Mittermeier et al., 1990) published a list of rare and endemic plants in Suriname, and their collecting areas. This list contains 191 endemic plants (only found in Suriname), 27 species that are endemic or rare and 550 rare plant species. Using this list, the GSB may be subdivided in 16 collecting areas, which are listed Annex 13. For the GSB, this table shows 55 endemic species, 8 species that are classified as endemic or rare, while 148 species can be considered as rare in Suriname. About 50% of the endemic and rare species were collected at elevations higher then 500 m, at the Brownsberg-, Nassau- and Lely Mountains (Annex 14). Internationally endangered and vulnerable plants found in Suriname Since February 1981, Suriname has been a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). The Appendices of the Convention present lists of species threatened by extinction (Appendix I; international trade forbidden) and vulnerable species (Appendix II). CITES Appendix I includes one orchid species (Peristeria pendula; Orchidaceae) known to occur in Suriname. CITES Appendix II includes all other Orchid species and all cactus species of Suriname. (LBB-NB, 1997). Export and import of Appendix II species are only possible by special CITES permits. Conclusions The GSB shows high plant diversity and includes several endemic, rare, and internationally endangered and vulnerable species. Many of the latter species can be found above 500 m, as can be deduced from Annex 14. It should be noted that data in this figure are based on a limited number of inventories, and it may be that many more "mountain" species are still awaiting their discovery. On the other hand it will appear that with an increasing number of inventories in neighboring countries (especially French Guiana and Brazil), some species will no longer be endemic to Suriname. In the most accessible northern areas of the GSB, some extensive selective logging has occurred, while in the inhabited areas logging and shifting cultivation are common agricultural practices. Next to this, past and present gold mining may already have reduced the species diversity of parts of the GSB. In the non-protected areas of the GSB the Forest Management Act regulates logging and collecting of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP). Plant trade is subject to international CITES regulations and nationally yearly established restricted export quota.

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4.2.3 Wild fauna Species diversity Suriname is rich in wildlife, including 184 known species of mammals, 670 species of birds, 152 species of reptiles, 95 species of amphibians and over 300 species of freshwater fishes (Mittermeier et al., 1990). The invertebrate fauna is less intensive ly explored. These numbers include species exclusively found in the coastal area, so the number of species in the interior is certainly somewhat lower. The real number of animal species found in the GSB and their status (common, uncommon or rare) can only be derived by extensive literature study (as far as collecting localities are published)6 and from inventories of zoological collections in Suriname and abroad7. The Conservation Action Plan for Suriname (Mittermeier et al., 1990) does not include a "list of rare and endemic animals in Suriname and their collecting areas", similar to the one for plants published by Werkhoven (1990). Endemic species are mentioned, but their collecting areas are not specified. Endemic and rare animal species For the entire Surinamese land area, Mittermeier et al (1990) mention as endemic species: two bat species (Tonatia schulzi and Molossops neglectus), the legless lizard Amphisbaena myersi, five species of frogs (Centronella geijskesi, Dendrobatus azureus, Hyla fuentei, Eleutherodactylus grandoculis) and the legless salamander Ceacilia albiventris). To our present knowledge, this small number of endemic animals has since then been reduced, because the bat Tonatia schulzi has also been collected at several locations in French Guiana (Brosset & Charles-Dominique, 1990), while the frog Eleutherodactylus grandoculis is considered a synonym of E. marmoratus, a species also found outside Suriname (Frost, 1985). The other mentioned endemic species were collected outside the GSB (Genoways & Williams 1984, Goin 1971; Hoogmoed 1969; Williams and Genoways 1980). No endemic mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians are known from the GSB area. However, occurrence of endemic species or subspecies may be expected at the higher isolated mountaintops of Brownsberg, Nassau and Lely. From fish surveys (Ouboter and Mol, 1993) it has been concluded that the species composition of the fish fauna in various river systems differs considerably while some species are only known from one single river system. Based on these and other unpublished surveys they consider at least 57 fish species to be endemic for Suriname which implies that endemic fish species may be found elsewhere in the country and therefore also in river systems of the GSB. Internationally endangered and vulnerable animal species in Suriname In Annex 15, the animal species that are internationally endangered and occur in Suriname are listed. The five CITES Appendix I species are still common in the undisturbed forests of Suriname including the GSB. International trade is prohibited except for the scarlet macaw for which CITES allows Suriname limited export (LBB-NB, 1997). Also the CITES Appendix II species are still common in the undisturbed forests of Suriname including the GSB. International trade is only possible by special CITES permit (LBB-NB, 1997).

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Conclusions In conclusion, it can be stated that the GSB shows a high animal diversity with a high number of internationally endangered and vulnerable animal species that are still common in undisturbed parts of the GSB forest. Endemic animal species may be found among the fishes. In the logged areas in the north and near inhabited areas, the natural animal diversity and especially animal density will been diminished as a result of habitat changes. These changes are caused by shifting cultivation, gold mining practices (deforestation, increased suspended solids and mercury in aquatic ecosystems), and hunting and fishing for subsistence by the local population. In addition, hunters and fishermen from the coastal plain are active in the north and mid -western part of the GSB, some of which are operating on a commercial scale. In the non-protected areas of the GSB, hunting is regulated by the national Game Act and animal trade is regulated according to international CITES regulations and nationally yearly established restricted export quota.

4.2.4 Protected areas Suriname has a total of 16 protected areas covering 13% of Surinames land surface. Within the GSB two protected areas are found (Annex 12):

The Brinckheuvel Nature Reserve (approximately 60 square km): established in 1966 for the conservation of geological and geomorphological features and the protection of a special type of savanna (Sabanpasi-type). The Brownsberg Nature Park (approximately 120 square km): obtained by STINASU in 1969 on a long-term lease. The park is located at the northern part of the Brownsberg, a plateau mountain, completely covered with rainforest. The park has been developed by STINASU for educational, ecotourism and field research purposes. In 2001 clearance from the Ministry of Natural Resources was obtained to proceed with the acquisition of an additional 4,800-hectare of the Brownsberg Mountain range south of the original park. On the other hand 1,000 hectare of the original park in the north, severely impacted by gold mining, has been decommissioned and allocated to the inhabitants of Brownsweg.

Bordering the GSB and directly affected by activities in the GSB is the Boven Coesewijne Nature Reserve (approximately 270 square km) that has been established in 1986. One of the reasons to establish this reserve was the protection of the aquatic blackwater ecosystem, with its manatees, giant otters, water birds, caimans and rich fish fauna. Many of the endemic or rare plant species and most of the internationally endangered animal species that occur in the GSB are also protected within one or more of the countrys protected areas. A thorough inventory of the flora of the Central Suriname Nature Reserve (CSNR) may reveal that most, if not all, plant and animal species of the GSB also occur in this nature reserve.

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4.3 SOCIAL BASELINE DATA This section describes the Greenstone Belt populations that affect or are affected by the Suriname small-scale gold mining industry. We provide population estimates and characterizations of the different ethnic and occupational groups. The section concludes with an evaluation of public services in the Greenstone Belt. The assessment is primarily concerned with the Greenstone Belt and will explicitly inform the reader when data apply to entire Suriname or to its interior as a whole.

4.3.1 Population The population of Suriname comprises of about 441,356 people. The majority of the population (90.5%) lives at the coast, primarily in the capital city of Paramaribo (ABS, 2002). Approximately 9.5% of the total population lives in the minimally impacted tropical rain forest that covers the remaining 80% of the country. This forest houses and provides sustenance to an estimated 10 to 22 thousand indigenous Amerindian- and 45 thousand Maroon ethnic groups (Kambel and MacKay, 1999). These groups settled along the main rivers in more than 50 villages (Annex 16). Five culturally distinct groups of Maroons; Ndyuka or Aukaner, Saramaka, Paramaka, Aluku or Boni, and Matawai, and three Amerindian groups; Wayana, Caraib and Arowaks claim different forest territories within the Greenstone Belt (Figure 9). These groups operate largely independently of the nation state in socioeconomic, legal, political, and religious matters. In addition, 15 to 20 thousand Brazilians live and work in the Suriname interior. Brazilian migrants are typically transient, clandestine, and concentrated around places where gold is being exploited. The mining area has attracted commercial sex workers and occasionally miners from Colombia, the Dominica Republic, Guyana, and Peru. Little is known about these groups as their numbers are small and they keep a low profile in the country. High mobility, seasonal labor migration, and inadequate registration of inhabitants make population count in the Greenstone Belt at best approximations (Figure 10). Noted is that half of the interior population resides in the GSB, with an estimated population density of 1.5 compared to the estimated average population density in the interior of 0.3.
Figure 9: Maroon and Amerindian ethnic groups in the Suriname Greenst one Belt

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Extrapolation suggests that between 18 and 20 thousand small-gold miners are active in the region at any given time8, although some believe that there may be twice as many (Quick et al. 2001). It is estimated that three-quarters of the mining population are Brazilian miners called garimpeiros. The remaining quarter is Maroons, many of whom were born and raised in the capital city of Paramaribo (Veiga, 1997). Figure 10: Estimated numbers of different population groups in the GSB
Maroons Amerindians Other Suriname Brazilians Total Gold miners Ratio Brazilian miners : Maroon miners Source: ABS, 2003. Medical Mission, 2002 22,000 3,000 < 1,000 15,000-20,000 41,000-46,000 18,000 - 20,000 3:1

4.3.2

Profiles of local population groups

Maroons. Maroons are the descendants of runaway African slaves who established independent communities in the rainforest in the 16th and 17th centuries. Maroon societies have historically integrated subsistence production with market activities to obtain goods from outside. Maroon women manage their households and subsistence agriculture. Men clear the forest for agriculture, hunt, build boats and houses, and supply their wives with cash money and manufactured goods such as oil, sugar, preserved fish and meat, clothes, and kitchen tools. To earn cash income, men traditionally leave the forest communities for prolonged periods of time to work in the city, in transport services, in extractive industries at the coast, and in small-scale gold mining. These jobs typically generate household incomes that are low, unpredictable, and intermittent. Amerindians. Compared to their Maroon neighbors, the Amerindians have traditionally remained more self- sufficient. This is especially truth for the Wayana, who live isolated from the urban center in the Southern tip of the GSB (Figure 9). Nevertheless, they depend upon outsiders for many daily life necessities, including clothing, shotguns, and metal and plastic tools. To acquire the cash to buy these goods, some communities have invited ecotourism. Others are involved in trade of fish and bush meat with nearby Maroon communities. Even though very few Amerindians work in the gold mining sector, several of their villages are impacted by nearby mining activity. Small-scale gold miners - Maroons. Maroons have traditionally mined for gold, especially the Alukuand Ndjuka groups. However, it is only since the 1980s that mining has become a critical source of income for many Maroon households in the Greenstone Belt (Heemskerk, 2001). Maroon miners explain their occupational choice by the lack of other jobs that earn sufficient income to sustain a family and their limited formal education (Heemskerk, 2002). These conditions are linked to a rise in rural poverty, national economic instability, and disintegration of public services in the interior following the 1986-1992 civil war. Other reasons to enter into mining are high living expenses in the city, a preference for self -employment rather than wage labor and perceived discrimination by urban employers. The latter is for example the reason that some Nieuw Koffiekamp villagers refuse employment by the large -scale mining company Rosebel Gold Mines N.V. (Cambior). Instead, they prefer to dig gold independently -and illegally. Small-scale gold miners Garimpeiros. The arrival of garimpeiros in the 1980s has been crucial in modernizing small-scale mining methods and management in Suriname. Most Brazilians worked for many years as miners before coming to Suriname. They became gold miners for largely the same reasons as

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Maroons: increased costs of living, usually coupled with unemployment and limited formal education. Their exodus out of Brazil into the larger Amazon area is a response to efforts by the Brazilian government to regulate, limit, and control small-scale mining (MacMillan, 1995). Suriname is attractive for its relative lack of government control and rich gold deposits. Better organized than local miners, many garimpeiros are members of a cooperative where they exchange information, sell gold, and find labor and legal assistance. Few Brazilians integrate into Suriname culture and speak local languages. Instead, they have transformed entire neighborhoods in Paramaribo with Brazilian restaurants, music, stores, and services. Smaller numbers have settled in Suriname and sent for their families or began relationships with Suriname women. Relations between local and migrant miners. Maroon- and Brazilian gold miners mutually depend upon one another in mining. Brazilian miners need local people for transport, food, lodging, and access to mine sites in the hardly accessible Suriname interior. However, they complain about Maroon food, their tribal customs, and their lack of professionalism. Maroon miners recognize the mining expertise of garimpeiros and find Brazilians typically rude, violent, and untrustworthy.

4.3.3 Public services and Gove rnment presence Between 1986-1992 a civil war was fought between Maroons and the military Government. The conflict destroyed much of the physical- and social infrastructure of the Greenstone Belt communities and eliminated many public services in this area. Upon termination of the conflict, the Government promised to rehabilitate the infrastructure, generate employment opportunities (recruitment and training), and secure land titles in the interior of Suriname. More than 10 years later few promises have been kept. 4.3.3.1 Public healthcare

The Medical Mission, a government subsidized institution, provides primary health care in the GSB. The medical mission has 21 clinics in the region that provide free healthcare to approximately 25,915 inhabitants (Medical mission, 2002). Each health clinic is staffed by at least one full time health care worker, with a minimal of three years of professional training. Doctors visit the clinics once a month, ensuring a doctor/patient ratio of 1:1000 for local health care. Constraints to financial and human resources jeopardize public health in the GSB. The medical mission is under-funded, health clinics are under staffed, poorly stocked, and far away for people in smaller settlements. The main threats to good health are communicable diseases as malaria and, more recently, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS (Terborg, 2001).

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4.3.3.2 Education In theory, children in the Greenstone Belt have access to elementary education. Elementary schools are subsidized by the Government and located in the larger villages of the GSB, enforcing students from smaller villages to travel great distances to school. The Greenstone belt has 25 primary schools. Over the last years, eight of these schools have been closed, of whic h the majority is situated along the Marowijne River, near the border of French Guyana. With a teacher to student ratio of 1:24, the school system provides primary education to 2412 students (Minov, 2002). Higher education requires that children go to the capital city of Paramaribo, but few parents can afford to send their children to boarding school or to family in town (Heemskerk, 2002). With the interior conflict, the educational infrastructure was completely destroyed, leaving GSB communities without access to education for more than six years (Healy, 1997). Ever since, the Government is trying to restore the educational system but in practice schools function poorly; a scarcity of motivated teachers for the interior; language and cultural barriers between teachers from the city and children from the forest; limited educational resources and frequent illness among teachers and students. The people living in the GSB have limited means of using their education within the interior and job opportunities are usually related to their historical skills, for example guiding, boat riding.

4.3.3.3 Access to mining right According to Suriname law, all land and subsoil resources within the territory of Suriname belong to the state. Although, they are legally in charge of allocating mining concessions, Surinames Ministry of Natural Resources and Geological Mining Service (GMD) has limited control over small-scale gold miners. It is a fact that very few miners bother to seek legal endorsement of their activities as they feel it is unnecessary to apply for a permit to work on lands that they traditionally view as theirs, although they do not have legal titles. Moreover, the bureaucratic application procedure is complicated, slow, and believed to favor government allies. Despite non-compliance with national regulations, many local miners will adhere to tribal rules about stakes in the mining area. Because only legal residents of Suriname can obtain legal small-scale mining rights (Article 36.4 of the Mining Decree), garimpeiros usually work with a Suriname associate or pay a Suriname mining right holder for the privilege of working on the land.

4.3.3.4 Public assistance including social welfare Like urban residents, people in the interior are entitled to receive child benefits, social welfare, and pensions for their elderly. In practice, many interior inhabitants receive no or only partial public financial assistance, mainly because they have never registered, lost their official documents, requested assistance but were refused and others were promised welfare but never received it. Public services are inadequate in many other areas. Most people in the interior live far from police posts and public administrative offices and need to travel for hours or days to report a crime, register a newborn child, or apply for a mining right. Electricity, running water, and sanitation are absent or function poorly in most villages in the Greenstone Belt. Recently, workers from Non-Governmental Organizations (Peace corps) have he lped to establish such services in a selected few villages.

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4.4. CARTOGRAPHIC DATABASE This section provides an overview of available cartographic material of the GSB. The overview includes maps and satellite images that are directly related to mining and environmental management and cartographic material produced for other purposes. . For the GREA study digitized data from several sources was used to produce thematic maps presented in this report.

4.4.1

Topographic maps

As a result of the mapping efforts of the past 50 years, a vast amount of topographic data of Suriname is available at the Central Bureau for Aerial Survey (CBL). An overview of these maps and their coverage is given in Figure 11. These maps are the base-reference tools in mining and for environmental management. At CBL all data are available in analog format, no facilities for reproduction are available, but recently a program was started to digitize the topographic map series at 1: 50,000.
Figure 11: Overview of the existing Topographic Maps 1948 Year Stereographical Projection Projection Scales 1:10,000 - 1:20,000 - 1:40,000 1:100,000 1:200,000 1:500,000 1:1,000,000

1967/1968 SurTM 1: 25,000 - 1:50,000

4.4.2 Thematic maps A vast amount of thematic maps were compiled by several governmental agencies. The National Planning Office (SPS), the Geological and Mining Service (GMD), the Forestry Service (LBB) and its successor the Foundation for Forest Management and Forest Control (SBB), and the Soil Survey Department (DBK) created a series of specialized maps: economical development plans, land use studies, land classification plans, urban and regional development plans, demographic plans, traffic and transportation data, concession information, soil maps, land classification plans, atlas data, etc. An overview of thematic maps that are directly related to mining and environmental management is presented in Figure 12.

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Figure 12: Thematic maps relevant to Mining and Environmental Management in Suriname
Map Title Gold Concessions Gold Concessions Nature Reserves Ecosystems Soil Classification Maps Aministrative Boundaries Parcel/Acre maps Economical Studies Vegetation Maps Demographical Maps Regional Planning maps Soil Maps Occupation Maps Cultural/Technical Maps Rainfall Maps Road Maps Economical Provision Maps Economical Activity Maps Energy Maps Concession Maps Economical Growth Maps Bridges Landscapes Road Profiles Education Maps Drainage Maps Ressort Maps Development Maps Social Studies Geodetical Data Maps Scale 40,000 1,000,00 0 500,000 200,000 Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable Medium Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Locatio n GMD GMD GMD STINASU DBK SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS Remarks Map composition based upon CBL-Topo-mapsheets. Concessions sketched with pencil. Unique example Overview map of the 1:40,000 map on a smaller scale. Unique ex ample Overview map for reference purposes. Overview lowland ecosystems 8 map sheets No information available Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales Studies, performed by SPS were mapped on topographic maps of the CBL at different scales

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4.4.2

Digital data

Several organizations are active in the field of digital mapping. The Technological Faculty of the University of Suriname has used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (ArcView 3.2, ArcView Spatial Analyst, ILWIS, ER Mapper) to perform spatial analysis and mapping studies of several regions of Suriname, such as the coastal area (mangrove mapping) and several areas in the interior (hydrological studies). The Natural Resources and Environmental Assessment Department (NARENA) of CELOS has digitized a large amount of topographic and thematic data of Suriname. However, none of the information is available to the Government for quality control and no meta-data of the information was ever published. Other agencies that are generating digital data are: GISSAT, Medical Mission, Bureau of Public Health, and Pan American Health Organization. An overview of digital map information available at GISSAT and related to mining and environmental management is given in Figure 13. Figure 13: Digital map information relevant for Mining and Environmental management
Description Suriname Country Borders Scale 1:500,000 Projection UTM recalibration Format ArcView Shapefile Description The map was generated based upon the CBL Topographic map on a scale 1:500,000 and recalibrated based upon tracks and numerous control points. Accuracy approx. 1 km. The map was generated based upon the CBL Topographic map on a scale 1:500,000 and recalibrated based upon tracks and numerous control points. Accuracy approx. 1 km. The map was generated based upon the CBL Topographic map on a scale 1:500,000 and recalibrated based upon tracks and numerous control points. Accuracy approx. 1 km. The map was generated based upon the CBL Topographic map on a scale 1:500,000 and recalibrated based upon tracks and numerous control points. Accuracy approx. 1 km. The map was generated based upon the CBL Topographic map on a scale 1:500,000 and recalibrated based upon tracks and numerous control points. Accuracy approx. 1 km. The map was generated based upon the Plan Atlas of Suriname. The map was generated based upon the CBL Topographic map on a scale 1:500,000 and recalibrated based upon tracks and numerous control points. Accuracy approx. 1 km. The data-layer was positioned on the digital CBL Topographic map on a scale 1:500,000. Map is presently being updated using GPS. The data-layer was positioned on the digital CBL Topographic map on a scale 1:500,000 using GPS-coordinates and figurative control. Mapcoordinates-accuracy approx. 1 km., Airstrip coordinates accuracy less than 10 meters.

Suriname District Boundaries

1:500,000

UTM recalibration

ArcView Shapefile

Suriname Resort Boundaries

1:500,000

UTM recalibration

ArcView Shapefile

Suriname Rivers and Creeks

1:500,000

UTM recalibration

ArcView Shapefile

Suriname Soil Map (between 4th and 6 th deg. N) Suriname Vegetation Map Suriname Roads, Towns, Villages & Settlements

1:500,000

UTM recalibration

ArcView Shapefile

1:10,000,000 1:500,000

UTM recalibration UTM recalibration

ArcView Shapefile ArcView Shapefile

Suriname Policlinics

1:500,000

UTM recalibration UTM recalibration

ArcView Shapefile ArcView Shapefile

Suriname airstrips

1:500,000

For the present study digitized topographic and thematic data from CBL, DBK and CELOS were used to produce the maps on the GSB, which are presented this report.

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4.4.2 Remotely Sensed Data The Central Bureau for Aerial Mapping (CBL) is the official agency responsible for aerial photo registrations. Recent aerial photos were were madeby private firms. Examples for the GSB are: Aerial photographs were taken of concession areas of BILLITON and SURALCO; In November, 2000 An aeromagnetic survey was performed of the Nassau concession area of SURALCO; In 2001, Smaller remote sensing activities were conducted for other private companies. In the past few years, satellite imagery has been used by several mining companies, by the State Oil Company, and agencies active in the field of forest management (including Center for Agricultural Research (CELOS) and the Foundation for Forest Management (SBB).

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CHAPTER 5 ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF GOLD MINING

5.1

MACRO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT

The importance of gold for the Surinamese economy goes back to the 19th century, when the colonial governments took the initiative to stimulate the development of a gold industry in Suriname. Many exploration activities, although not systematic, were initiated and a number of firms were established. The Sara Creek and Lawa areas experienced the highest concentration of activities. At the end of the 19th century the feasibility of constructing a railroad to the main gold mining areas was conducted, and in the early 20th century construction started and was completed up to Dam in the Sara Creek area. This gave a strong boost to gold production. In 1912 gold production reached 1200 kg, from 756 kg in 1883. However, because of unsystematic exploration, widely scattered gold deposits and difficulties in reaching the deposit sites with mechanical exploitation methods, gold production started to decline. By the Second World War this sector was only of interest to small-scale miners (Essed, 1973). Renewed interest for large-scale gold operations emerged when in the mid seventies an agreement was signed between the Surinamese government and the Canadian Placer Development Company for exploration and exploitation of gold in the so-called Gross Rosebel area. (Essed et. al., 1975) Gold mining activities in Suriname are currently characterized by the coexistence of a formal and an informal sector. The formal sector consists of mining firms that hold government permits for exploration and exploitation. These firms operate on the basis of a business plan, modern management, and professional mining methods. They are also subject to government regulation. The degree of transparency of operation in this sub-sector is relatively high. Some medium sized and large firms (e.g. Rosebel Gold Mines N.V, Sara Creek Resource Corporation) are active in this sector. Given the potential identified in the Gross Rosebel area, the prospect is that a large gold mining operation will soon be started in the district of Brokopondo.

5.1.1

Small Scale Gold Mining Sub-Sector

The informal gold mining sector established momentum during the civil war that erupted in 1986 in the interior of Suriname and lasted until 1992. In this period it was impossible to undertake formal exploration and exploitation activities. After 1992, it became clear that a small but informal gold mining industry had been developed in the interior of Suriname. Gold miners from Brazil (the so-called garimpeiros) were deeply involved in the sector. They introduced prospecting and extraction methods that are widely used in Brazil and other South American countries and which have proven to produce a higher output than methods that were previously in use in the informal sector in Suriname. After peace was signed with the rebel groups, people from other rural and urban areas also rushed into the sector, making it a significant, but unregulated, source of employment and income. It is estimated that at least 4,000 people from Suriname and about 8,000 Brazilians are directly employed in the sector. For Suriname this represents about 8% of the labor force. Indirectly, other sectors of the economy are also benefiting from the gold sector through supplying the sector with the necessary inputs (food, fuel, spare parts, equipments etc.) and a market for selling the production. In this sense, the gold sector is already integrated with other sectors of the economy.

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The informal gold mining sector is responsible for the major share of the gold production in Suriname. The attraction of the informal sector is governed by socioeconomic variables derived from the overall health of the national economy as well as by the development in the international gold price. The lack of opportunities in other economic sectors and the stagnation of the national economy, has pushed people into the informal gold mining sector. These factors, plus a lack of capital and an ambiguous land tenure and mineral rights situation contribute to create an environment whereby small-scale miners who do not operate on the basis of systematic exploration and sound exploitation methods are able to dominate the sector. This behavior, combined with the relative isolation of the principal mining areas and the high mobility of small-scale mining operations, has created a situation that is detrimental to the environment. Regulation of activities in this sub-sector therefore, poses significant challenges for the government of Suriname 9. The most reliable official estimations of the level of informal gold production in Suriname are based on data from the Central Bank concerning the amount of gold purchased by the Bank. Assumptions are then made about the amounts that are not reflected in the official statistics of gold purchased. Some fieldwork has also been undertaken to assess the dynamics of the sector. Data regarding the methods and equipment used in the different locations and the number of people involved provides useful additional information for extrapolating the overall level of the gold production. Adjustments to the level of production are then derived from consultation with experts in the field. As Figure 14 shows, the annual level of production in the period 1995 and 2001 ranged between 18,000 and 22,000 kg10

5.1.2

Impact on the Economy

Official Government involvement with the informal gold sector actually started with the purchase of gold by the Central Bank of Suriname in July 1994. The Central Bank Act of 1956 gives the Bank the right to intervene in the gold sector in general. The objective of the Bank however was simply to replenish its international reserves as a way of backing the Surinamese guilder and to restore confidence in the currency. Since the Central Bank action, a number of other public sector entities have also undertaken initiatives to get involved with the informal gold sector for a variety of reasons: regulating the sector, generating revenues and collecting taxes. The establishment of a government body with specific regulatory authority over the gold sub-sector 11 is still awaiting government approval. To increase the level of gold purchased from the informal sector, the Central Bank created a network of private agents who, under a formal agreement with the Central Bank, purchase unprocessed gold from small miners and others and deliver it to the Bank. Some steps have also been taken recently by the government to liberalize the gold export through granting export licenses to private agents. This has permitted the government to establish a limited fiscal authority over the gold sector in general. The results show promise in terms of increasing the contribution of the informal gold sector to officially registered exports. Licenses have been awarded to five major agents in the gold export sector. Testing, weighing and labeling are done by the Central Bank through its gold laboratory.

Biller (1994) described the difficulties that Brazilian governments encountered in regulating the informal small-scale gold mining sector, especially those associated with the change of mining sites (mobility of garimpeiros). 10 See Stichting Planbureau Suriname (2003). 11 SIDUs (Stichting Interdepartementale Unit) in which different public sector entities are represented.

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An overview of gold production, of gold purchased by the Central Bank, and of other relevant data concerning the gold sector and the national economy is presented in the table in Figure 14.
Figure 14: Overview of the economic importance of the gold sector in Suriname
Year Gold Production (MT) Gold Price (US$/gram) Exchange Rate (Sf/US$) Value of Production (Million US$ M) Value of Production (Billion Sf) Central Bank Purchases: Kg. International Reserves (Million US$) Of which, Gold: 1995 18.46 12 442 221.5 97.2 2200 185.4 41.9 1996 20 13 396 260 103 1020 177.2 58.9 1997 21.82 10 396 218.2 86.4 3680 190.8 55.2 1998 22.43 9 396 205.2 81.3 6120 120.6 11.5* 1999 20.02 8 995 176.1 175.2 6610 84.9 4.4 2000 20.22 8 1311 161.8 212.1 6200 71.5 4.8 2001 18.48 7 2157 129.4 284.6 4800 178.3 6 Average 20.49 10 NR 196 148.6 4376 144.1 24.31

Source: Planning Office of Suriname, Central Bank of Suriname. * gold swap agreement of US$ 66.7 million between 1998 2001

In the period between 1995 and 2001 the total value of gold produced is estimated to be on average US $196 million per year. The amount of gold purchased by the Central Bank was on average US $40 million per year (or 20% of the production value). Assessing the importance of the gold sector for the Surinamese economy can only be based on estimations for the present. This is due to the largely informal character of the sector. Nevertheless, based on the estimated value added in 2001, the gold sector was the largest sector within the Surinamese economy, representing just over 16% of total value added. Moreover, a large part of the Surinamese economy has in one way or another derived some indirect benefit from the informal gold sector.
Figure 15: Contribution of Gold to Value Added in the Economy (in billion Sf)
Year GDP: Excluding Informal Sector (Billion Sf) GDP: Including Informal Sector (Billion Sf) Of which, Value added by Gold (Billion Sf) (% of Total GDP) Value added by Government (% of Total GDP) Tax revenues from Gold (Billion Sf) 1995 159.6 212.6 43.1 20.3 15.1 7.1 0.00006 1996 200.3 256.2 43 16.8 26.4 10.3 0.075 1997 255.9 316 48.9 15.5 43.3 13.7 0.169 1998 347. 424.2 62.4 14.7 85.3 20.1 0.227 1999 611.7 752.3 114.2 15.2 115.1 15.3 0.275 2000 915.1 1143.4 185.4 16.2 193.7 16.9 0.364 2001 1338.7 1648.6 267.8 16.2 201.3 12.2 n.a. Average 547 679 109 16 97 13.7 0.158

Source: Planning Office of Suriname, Central Bank of Suriname, International Monetary Fund

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The biggest loser, however, is the Government. A comparison of the figures from the tables in figures 14 and 15 shows that although fiscal receipts have steadily and significantly increased, government tax collection in 2000 (in terms of income and profit tax) represented less than half a percent of the total value of the gold production between 1995 and 200112. Given the informal nature of the sector, this is to be expected. Only with increased formalization of the sector can increased fiscal pressure be exerted. More troubling is the impact on the governments regulatory authority in terms of the inability to impose mitigating measures for damage done to the environment. The main offenders are small-scale, itinerant operators who are difficult to target. Indeed, the persistence of informality and small-scale technology in the sector is largely derived from the fact that they permit operators to avoid the costs associated with responding to government regulation. The government is faced with the challenge of balancing social costs such as environmental damage and the loss of fiscal resources implied in allowing the continued existence of an informal gold mining sector versus declines in production and employment, which could very well accompany more strict regulation.

12

To compare: profit tax from the oil sector in 2000 was Sf 24.6 billion or 18.9% of oil revenues of Sf 131 billion (See Annual Re port State Oil Company 2000).

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5.2

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF SMALL-SCALE GOLD MINING FO R LOCAL COMMUNITIES

The crisis in the economy in the nineties forced people to look for alternative sources of income. For the inhabitants of the GSB jobs were limited to ones with low entry levels of education and finances. Smallscale gold mining was thus an attractive alternative, and ever since communities have depended economically on small-scale mining on two levels, for direct income and indirect income.

5.2.1

Direct income from small-scale gold mining

In villages near mining areas more than half of the men may directly work in mining as machine-operators or as pit-workers. Even though their incomes are variable and they may work only a few months per year, gold mining is typically the main source of cash income for their households. Small-scale gold mining production varies widely between individuals, regions, and seasons. It depends on one's occupation and personal skills, geology (quality of the ore deposit), geography (accessibility of ore), mining method (landbased or riverine mining), rainfall, and a great deal of luck. Typical earnings of small-scale gold miners in different types of operations are reported in Figure 16. In gold mining areas, earnings from gold are mostly spent within the mining camps. Although data are lacking on the magnitude of such, it is clear that the well being of the mining community relies largely on the gold that miners find.

5.2.2

Indirect income from small-scale gold mining

The service economy surrounding small-scale mines employs many other men and women living in the surrounding villages. They work as carriers, forest clearers, transportation providers, merchants, cooks, sex workers and in various other professions. Typical earnings of mining service occupations have been recorded elsewhere, and can be relatively high (Heemskerk, 2000; Heemskerk and Van der Kooye, 2003). In addition, households without direct income from mining may receive substantial financial support from mining family members. A gold mining son may support his mothers financial needs for land to be cleared or a canoe to be built. Without such support, many women are unable to produce food for their children and themselves. Surveys results from 4 villages (Mooitaki, Jawsa, Manlobi, Vandaagi) along the Tapanahony River reveal that 56 percent of households are depended on gold mining in one way or another (Heemskerk et al. unpubl. data 2003). Earnings from mining are widely distributed throughout the community and are significantly higher than wages in formal jobs available to most Maroons (Figure 16). An additional benefit of working in the mining area is that the mine operator will provide for food and housing, thus allowing all the money earned to be saved up. With the current inflated prices for food and housing, the on-average better mining income may provide more security than a salary paid in Suriname guilders.

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Figure 16: Typical earnings of small-scale gold miners, and comparative wages for unskilled labor and mid-level professionals in Suriname
Mining method Large automated raft (skarljan) Large hydraulic unit 6 person team plus backhoe excavator Small manual raft (pondo) Large hydraulic unit 6 person team Manual digging ore and washing (only possible with rich deposits of ore dust) Small hydraulic unit: 2 person team Alternative employment Cambior - lowest unskilled Cambior - certified welder Low or unskilled labor in capital city Mid-level professional (teacher, nurse) in city Typical production per work unit across various areas 4-5 kg/month 1.5 - 2 kg/month (12-hr system) 3 - 4 kg/month (24-hr system) 3-4 kg/month 0.5 kg 1.5 kg/ month 1 g/sack ; 1 sack / day 50-60 g/week Earnings in US$ per person per month 1000-3000 1000-1500 900-1200 250 - 750 250 250

2,500 Sfl/hr; 10 hr/day 55,750 Sfl/day Sfl 250,000-300,000 Sfl 500,000-600,000

200 425 100 200

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CHAPTER 6 OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

The analysis of the impacts of gold mining in the GSB considers both natural and social aspects in an integrated way and identifies the impacts of mining operations per se and of gold processing activities. Effects of gold mining are discussed for different locations, including mining sites along stretches of rivers or creeks, waters downstream from mining sites, surrounding forest and protected areas. The discussion includes effects on the wild flora and fauna (including endemic and internationally endangered species), forest types, the impacts of pollution on human health as well as some indirect impacts. In several cases the influence of environmental impacts of gold mining in the study area go well beyond the boundaries of the GSB. The environmental impacts presented below cover in three groups: physical, biological, and social and represented in Figure 18, 21 and 22.

6.1 PHYSICAL IMPACTS 6.1.1 Increase in atmospheric mercury

In gold processing in small-scale gold mining in Suriname, both in areas with small-scale gold mining and in and near gold purification shops, the ambient mercury levels in the air pose a major risk for human health. This is particularly the case for individuals who burn mercury-gold amalgam. A comparative study by De Kom et al. (1997) confirmed, on a group basis, the exposure to mercury for individuals working in gold mining in Suriname. Since 1995, several gold miners have been hospitalized for symptoms associated with chronic exposure to mercury (Pollack and De Rooy, 2000). Actions to introduce retorts in order to prevent the vaporization of mercury have not been successful. Reviewing many sources, Lacerda and Salomons (1991) indicate that the majority (65-83%) of the mercury used in small-scale gold mining enters the atmosphere through vaporization during amalgamation and final purification. The remainder is deposited in tailings and in surface water. Very high atmospheric mercury concentrations may occur in and near shops and work places (hereafter referred to as gold shops) where purification of the gold sponge takes place. This is especially severe if no preventive measures are taken to filter out the contaminated air or when ventilation is poor. The mercury content of the gold sponge is on average 5%. Contamination of workers, traders and people living near those facilities may occur. The facilities are situated in the gold mining areas but also in the capital city of Paramaribo, where much of the gold is melted in formal and informal gold shops, and occasionally even in the open air. Only a few of these gold shops have official status and equipment to prevent the escape of mercury vapor. Part of the atmospheric mercury has a short residence time and is deposited close to the point source. Another part, traveling over much longer distances, enters the global mercury cycle. From this global atmospheric reservoir, mercury is deposited all over the world. However, the pathways and fate of atmospheric mercury are still not fully understood, and specific knowledge on the behavior under tropical conditions is less so. A case study related to the dispersion of atmospheric mercury in Suriname is currently being undertaken (Quik, personal communication 2003). No systematic survey has been made on the number and the locations of the informal gold shops, let alone on their mercury dispersion quantities and patterns, and its impact on the environment and human health.

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6.1.2

Air pollution by gaseous and particulate emissions from equipment

No relevant impacts are expected. Emissions from equipment like pumps, excavators and bulldozers are very localized and not exceeding levels normally encountered from traffic in urban areas. No negative impacts for the local population, vegetation or wildlife are expected.

6.1.3

Noise pollution

Noise is not a significant factor. Equipment and pumps produce some noise, but the local topography and the vegetation around the mines will reduce it, and in general noise levels will hardly exceed background levels.

6.1.4

Degradation of landscapes and soils

The negative impact of small-scale gold mining , including campsites and access roads, on the landscape and soils is considered major and virtually irreversible. NIMOS (2002) mentions smallscale gold mining as being one of the main sources of land degradation in the interior of Suriname. The mining operations used by small-scale miners typically turn a valley upside down. A moonscape is left behind replete with silt-laden ponds alternated by dumps of bare gravel and soil. In some locations working at the foot-slopes has resulted in the silting up of the original creek valley, creating a swamp in the rainy season. In both cases the original landscape disappears.
Figure 17 : Example of the damage done to soils in the GSB by Gold mining operations

No detailed field data are available yet. From 1997 satellite imagery it is estimated that only a relatively small portion (probably between 0.5 and 1.0%) of the GSB area was affected by clearing of mine pits at that time. This portion predominantly comprises creek valleys and their surroundings concentrated in 15 mining areas, scattered over the GSB (Figure 4). In order to provide some detail on the extent of the impact in one of these areas, the Merian Creek area, is used as an example. A rough estimate indicates that land along 40 km of the catchments of the stream had been cleared and degraded, covering an area of about 600-800 ha. From satellite imagery of 1997 it is estimated that at that time between 0.5-1.0% of the GSB had been cleared for this purpose. In Annex 17 some examples of such sites are shown for Merian creek, Sara Creek and Sela Creek areas

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6.1.5

Loss of agricultural land

The loss of potential agricultural land through small-scale gold mining is considered minor to negligible. Creek valley soils: Most small-scale gold mining activities take place in the creek valleys. Land in such valleys has never been used for agricultural purposes, neither by the local population, nor by outsiders. The soils are considered unsuitable for agricultural use due to their poor to imperfect drainage, the risk of flooding, their low fertility and the heterogenic distribution pattern of soil types. Terrace soils: Terrace soils are conside red suitable for shifting cultivation and they have a moderate to low suitability for some types of permanent agriculture (e.g. oil palm, cattle grazing). The terrace soils in the small-scale gold mining areas are however seldom used for shifting cultivation. Only a very small area of terrace soils is being mined.

6.1.6

Soil pollution

The gold processing in small-scale gold mining will lead to minor overall mercury pollution of tailings, but hotspots with high mercury concentrations may occur. Soils close to gold shops may contain moderate to high mercury concentrations. The mercury pollution of forest soils near gold mines will be negligible, as concentrations are very low. Soils and tailings form reservoirs for mercury from which it can be gradually released to surface water over a prolonged time. In Suriname elemental mercury is widely used by small-scale miners to separate fine gold particles through amalgamation. The general practice used results in various mercury dispersal patterns, and mobility rates and biological availability. Variable amounts of metallic mercury are lost to the tailing deposits during concentration, amalgamating and/or panning. High mercury concentrations may be found at abandoned amalgamation spots (hot spots), but in general the mean mercury concentration in tailings is very low (Lacerda and Salomons, 1991). In the absence of soil organic matter mercury at the surface is relatively easily washed out with run-off water. Soils in the areas surrounding mines may be slightly polluted with deposited atmospheric mercury. Higher deposits may be expected near gold shops in the interior and in Paramaribo. The impact covers a small area only. Much of the mercury in the soil will be bound to bulk organic matter and is susceptible to wash out in runoff, when attached to suspended soil or humus. Mercury is not easily volatized when bound to particles but has a long retention time in soils. Therefore, mercury that has accumulated in soils may continue to be released to surface waters and other media for long periods of time, possibly hundreds of years. No data are available on the extent and degree of soil pollution for Suriname.

6.1.7

Altered hydrogeological regimes

Some changes in the pattern of the groundwater behavior will occur due to changes in the soil conditions and the surface hydrology, but the impact of these changes is considered negligible.

6.1.8

Modification of surface drainage

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The negative impact of small-scale gold mining on hydrological regimes of creek systems ranges from major to minor. Depending on creek characteristics and the intensity of mining in a given watershed, the impact will usually continue for a long period, possibly decades. In the absence of adequate field data a more precise assessment is not possible. Small-scale gold mining activities are predominantly taking place on secondary alluvial gold deposits in creek valleys and bordering colluvial foot-slopes. These deposits are predominantly mined using hydraulic operations. Most of the affected creeks can be classified as intermittent, clear water streams. They dry up during the Long Dry Season. The original creek course disappears as result of the mining operations. Excess rainfall is drained from one pond into the other until a neighboring watercourse is met. Where the mining takes place on foot-slopes, the original creek valleys can silt up, creating a swamp in the rainy season. In both cases the drainage system at the mining location has changed drastically. Water collects and stagnates in the dugout areas or in the newly created swamps, potentially increasing the incidence of malaria and other water borne diseases. Downstream sedimentation of soil particles may lead to minor changes in hydrology of creeks.

6.1.9

Effects on drinking water resources

The negative impact of small-scale gold mining on the surface drinking water resources is locally major, and overall minor. The impact on groundwater resources is probably negligible. An impact of mercury on the aquaculture activities in the Young Coastal Plain has not yet been found . In certain gold mining area, the local population claims that the gold mining activities have destroyed their drinking water source. They sometimes associate a high turbidity with an increase of diseases like diarrhea and skin itching. Although some of these complaints may have a political or even psychological background, some of them may be justified, especially in cases where people are used to drink the water of a newly polluted creek. The contamination of drinking water sources is prevented by traditional rules. Gold miners do not comply with these rules (even if their own families live in downstream villages) and discharge excremental bacteria into the creek water, together with the solids that are blamed for the occurrence of diseases. However, filtering (through sand filters) in combination with boiling will prevent any contagion. The risk of mercury exposure through drinking water is of minor importance compared to that of methyl mercury (MeHg) contaminated fish (Goede, 1999). However, Goede recommends frequent monitoring. The potential for the use of surface water of rivers as drinking water in the coastal plain, for local use or for export as bottled water, is strongly diminished due to the elevated mercury content of the water -- or even due to the threat of it. Quik and Ouboter (2000) report that the low mercury levels in the fish found at the Commewijne River mouth nowadays, indicate no threat from gold mining to the aquaculture activities in the lower Commewijne area. However, only a limited number of non-systematic data is available on the water quality and the biochemical behavior of mercury in ecosystems is still poorly understood. Although Quik and Ouboter (2000) found that the mercury levels in the Commewijne River were below the generally accepted norm of 1 g/L for drinking water, the current insecurity on future behavior of mercury in polluted rivers may discourage investments in drinking water extraction and aquaculture.

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Mercury pollution of groundwater is considered negligible. The few mining areas on terraces pose a potential risk of mercury pollution for small local aquifers, which probably are not tapped. However, mercury concentrations will probably be low. From the available studied documents no potential locations with mercury-polluted groundwater could be identified.

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6.1.10 Contamination of surface waters by mercury The few studies of surface waters in Suriname have indicated slightly elevated mercury levels in connection with small-scale gold processing. The negative impact is considered minor. Under certain conditions the impact may become moderate to major, as a consequence of bioaccumulation of methyl mercury in the food chain. Sediments at the bottom of surface waters, including the Brokopondo Lake, can serve as a mercury reservoir, with sediment-bound mercury recycling back into the aquatic ecosystem for decades or longer (US EPA, 1997). The magnitude and extent of this impact cannot be assessed due to lack of sufficient field data. The contribution of small-scale gold mining to the contamination cannot be precisely assessed due to the superimposed effect of natural depositions. Increased levels of mercury and derived products will impact aquatic life and piscivorous animals inclu ding rare or endangered species, surface waters, fishery resources, human health. Mercury from small-scale gold mining activities enters surface waters either directly, through run-off from dredges, tailings or forest soils, or by deposition from the air. This mercury is initially in the form of inorganic mercury salts, but it will partly be transformed into (di-)methyl mercury and elemental mercury. A portion will be accumulated in bottom sediments in organic and inorganic complexes, with generally low mobility. Elemental mercury and di-methyl mercury is lost from the water by volatilization. Mercury in water also associates with suspended particles (minerals and organic compounds) and consequently can be transported over long distances. These compounds will finally end up in the ocean through river discharge. Certain environmental factors in the aquatic ecosystems, including high bacterial activity and acidic conditions, favor accelerated methylation rates of inorganic mercury, thereby forming organic methyl mercury, which is readily absorbed into body tissues. Both mercury and methyl mercury are known to biomagnify in food chains through successive trophic levels. Research has indicated that mercury contamination is particularly critical in blackwater rivers, which, due to their low pH, low conductivity and high dissolved organic content, promote correspondingly high methyl mercury concentrations. The same conditions prevail in the anaerobic hypolymnion of the Brokopondo Lake, where the formation of methyl mercury is favored. It should be stressed that the water and sediments of artificial lakes might exhibit elevated mercury and methyl mercury concentrations without direct anthropogenic mercury enrichment. Upon flooding of the lake area, mercury will be released from the flooded biomass and the soil (Veiga, 1997), while continuous leaching of atmospheric mercury from the global mercury pool occurs. For Suriname data on mercury levels in surface water are very limited. The available information indicates that in- and near small-scale mining areas, the mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in surface water are elevated compared to local uncontaminated baseline values (Ouboter and Sahdew, 2000, Quik and Ouboter, 2000, Quik, 2001, Gray et al., 2002 in: RESCAN, 2003). The levels are generally low, but relatively high concentrations have been reported for unfiltered water samples from rivers and creeks in gold mining areas. In addition, bottom sediments from these waters show elevated mercury levels (Quik, 2001). No data are available for the Brokopondo Lake. 6.1.11 Degradation of surface water by increased turbidity Increased turbidity of surface waters is particularly severe close to gold mining activities, but it will diminish rather quickly as soon as the discharge water meets larger waterways. Its negative

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impact is strong during mining and this impact may continue for some years at a much-reduced level after termination of activities. Suspended solids in water will affect aquatic life and surface water resources. Most of the gold is produced from alluvial deposits by hydraulic and small-scale artisan mining. Another source of gold is the sediments at river bottoms that are mined by dredging. Excess process wastewater from these operations, containing a considerable amount of fine particles, is spilled into creeks and subsequently reaches the larger creeks and rivers, or is returned directly into the rivers in case of dredging. Part of the coarser particles will settle in lower terrain positions, or at the creek or river bottom. Some miners use ponds in which the fine particles are allowed to settle before being released into a creek or river. The water may be re-used (drai-watra) which is commonly done in the dry season. The contamination of water with soil particles is nearly continuous during operations in the rainy season. In the dry season, when water is not available in sufficient quantities, many land operations are postponed. After termination of the activities in one area, the contamination o f surface water with suspended solids will persist in the rainy seasons due to erosion from the still bare mining surfaces. The erosion is the result of overflow from the numerous mud-laden ponds (left behind after mining), and bottom sediments of creeks and rivers. The degree of contamination varies in time, and its magnitude and geographical extent depends on many factors. In general, the sediment concentration of the water from land operations will be highest near the source and diminishes as soon as the creek enters into a larger creek, a river or the Brokopondo Lake. Dredging operations result in considerable turbidity of rivers over a long distance. Quik (2001) reports low water transparancy for some creeks in mining areas and (slightly) higher ones for rivers like the Commewijne, Marowijne, Tapanahoni and Lawa. Except for these data only visual observations are available. These indicate that currently the Mindrineti River and the Gran Creek systems are the most severely contaminated with fine particle s (Paansa, personal communication 2003). Over the past decade, numerous other waters have been reported in newspapers or by observers as being contaminated.

6.1.12 Pollution of groundwater Mercury from tailings or from polluted forest soil may form soluble compounds together with dissolved organic carbons, from which it can be leached into the groundwater (see 6.3.4). Concentrations will generally be low to very low and the impact is negligible.

6.1.13 Contamination of land and water by solid and liquid waste The different types of solid and liquid waste that are produced by small-scale gold mining and related activities have a localized, minor negative impact. Small-scale gold mining activities produce several types of solid- and liquid waste. The handling of household solid- and liquid waste varies between camps, but is poor. Pollution of soil, water and air occurs, but the impacts are considered minor, as they are limited to a relatively small area. Besides environmental impacts there are certain health risks associated with poor handling of solid and liquid household waste. In addition to household wastes, there will be discarded equipment and materials, which are left behind in the forest. Some pollution of soil and water may occur, but the impa ct is very localized and therefore considered minor.

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6.2 6.2.1

BIOLOGICAL IMPACTS Loss of natural habitats & biodiversity

The negative impacts on the local aquatic and terrestrial habitats are major and virtually irreversible. The impacts cover relatively small areas. The clearing of mining areas involves removing the vegetation cover from the actual mine pits, the entrance roads, and from processing areas and living quarters. Besides that, areas have occasionally been cleared for shifting cultivatio n near gold camps, in particular near Brazilian gold mining camps. These clearings will decrease wildlife habitat. After mining, hardly any rehabilitation of mine sites is performed and re-growth of vegetation is slow. Large parts of the former mining areas remain bare, standing water, or are covered with grass vegetation for a considerable time (Peterson and Heemskerk, 2001). In fact, some new ecosystems, which are considered inferior to the original ones, will form. Increase in suspended solids and fine sediments in streams can lead to loss of habitat, and it may affect photosynthesis and the feeding efficiency of visual predators, inhibit fish growth and reproduction. In addition, in some species it can hamper respiration resulting in fish mortality and leading to changes in the species composition of aquatic ecosystems and to decreasing biodiversity on the ecosystem- and species level. Concrete data on this impact are not available, but Ouboter and Mol (n.d.) are of the opinion that the impact of turbidity on aquatic life is underestimated, and that it may be larger than the impact of increased mercury levels.

6.2.1.1 Loss of rare and endangered species Clearing of forest and mining operations Because of the common occurrence and wide distribution of the creek valley ecosystems involved clearing is not expected to result in the loss of endemic, rare and endangered plant and animal species. Mining however causes whole creeks to disappear and in this process some fish species may disappear as well including rare and endangered ones. In the absence of field data this cannot be confirmed. Mercury contamination As noted above, high methyl mercury concentrations in water can result in various types of symptoms in animals, in particular predator fish species and piscivorous (fish-eating) mammals (such as otters), birds (such as herons, anhingas, ospreys, and king fishers) and reptiles (such as caimans). Adverse effects of mercury on fish, reptiles, birds and mammals include reduction of reproductive success, behavioral abnormalities, impaired growth and development and death. Reproductive effects can occur at dietary concentrations below those, which cause overt toxicity. However, for Suriname insufficient field data are available to conclude to what extent wildlife has suffered adverse effects due to mercury exposure. Increased turbidity Presently, more than 57 endemic fish species are known for Suriname. Some are exclusively found within one river system, or within part of a river system. It is therefore lik ely that some endemic, rare and/or endangered aquatic species may disappear or already have disappeared. Smothering by fine particles has been reported to occur with Kumarunyanyan, members of the Podostemaceae family growing on the rocks in the middle of rapids and falls. Some species are presumably restricted to one river and findings support that specific species of this family appear to be quite rare in Suriname (Werkhoven and Peeters,

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1993). It is an annual herb that dies off every year. Therefore, the impact is short-lived and most likely negligible.

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6.2.1.2 Effects on aquatic ecology and fisheries Small-scale gold mining has a major and irreversible negative impact on the aquatic ecology of small creeks in which mining activities occur. Downstream the impact diminishes and in the rivers it is minor to negligible. Mining activities will eventually destroy the watercourses at mining locations completely. In addition, major negative impacts occur downstream due to the discharge of water with a high sediment load into streams, leading to turbidity and siltation. This has a major and irreversible negative impact on the ecology of these small creeks. The impacts in downstream watercourses on the aquatic ecology will depend largely on the number and size of mining areas draining to them and their discharge, and other hydraulic characteristics. Hence, the negative impacts may range from moderate to negligible. Generally the impact of increased turbidity will be minor to negligible in the larger rivers with rapids and falls.

6.2.2 Effects of induced development on ecology Access to certain parts of the GSB has been improved as a result of growing gold mining activities and the number of people has locally increased. This can lead to an increase in hunting and fishing pressure in some areas. The majority of mining areas, being in remote areas, are still not easily accessible, and most miners have no time for hunting and fishing, so the overall impact is considered minor.

6.2.3 Impacts on wildlife due to effluents or emissions No direct impacts from effluents or emissions on ecosystems or wildlife will occur. Most emissions are limited and very localized. The impacts from mercury become manifest only once mercury has been transformed into methyl mercury that is more readily absorbed by body tissues.

6.2.4 Effects on protected areas The negative impacts of small-scale gold mining within the boundaries of the Brownsberg Nature Park, are major and virtually irreversible. In the Coesewijne Nature Reserve a considerable negative impact on the aquatic blackwater ecosystem is indicated. Negative impacts of mercury on the Galibi Nature Reserve and some Multiple -use Management areas (MUMAs) along the coast appear to be minor to negligible, and a relation with small-scale mining cannot be proven. Small-scale gold mining impacts the existing protected areas within the GSB, the Brownsberg Nature Park and the Brinckheuvel Nature Reserve. Over the past years, illegal small-scale gold miners have frequently invaded the Brownsberg Nature Park. On several occasions, these gold miners have been removed from the park, but enforcement proved to be inadequate to effectively protect the area, and gold mining is still proceeding. Although the impacts on the physical and biological environment are basically the same as those described above, the cumulative impact is considered major because it exists within the boundaries of an area that has been especially dedicated to protect mountain forest and mountain related plants and animals. The impact of small-scale mining will be irreversible with respect to certain ecosystems and

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species. In the absence of baseline data of the affected areas no other concrete conclusion can be provided. Minor negative impacts are expected in the B rinckheuvel Nature Reserve at locations where the contaminated Mindrineti Rivers flows. However, this Nature Reserve has not been established to protect aquatic ecosystems and species. Outside the boundaries of the GSB, some other protected areas are impacted through contamination of upstream waters. The most severe impact with respect to this is expected for the Coesewijne Nature Reserve, which receives part of its water from the Goliath mining area. One of the reasons for creating this reserve was the protection of the aquatic blackwater ecosystem, with its manatees, giant otters, water birds, caimans and rich fish fauna. Ouboter and Sahdew (2000) indicate that suspended solids will have a considerable impact on the local blackwater ecosystem. A similar impact is expected for mercury on theoretical grounds, but the effect is not yet clear. Finally, there is a remote chance that the Galibi Nature Reserve and the Commewijne -, Marowijne- and Saramacca Multiple Use Management Areas (MUMAs) will be affected by mercury pollution. It has been suggested that the naturally silt-laden estuarine environment could be a kind of entrapment for nutrients (Panday-Verheuvel, 1976), which may also be true for mercury. Occasionally, predator fishes from the estuarine zone show mercury levels above the generally accepted safety norm of 0.5 ppm, but these are considered marginal cases (Ramlal et al., 2000). Quik and Ouboter (2000) report slightly elevated mercury levels in the estuarine part of the Commewijne River compared to upstream levels, but the differences are not significant. They indicate that the mercury levels should not necessarily be connected to the gold mining activities in the Upper Commewijne area, because other pathways may also give the same result. The impacts of mercury on protected areas along the coast are still questionable.

6.2.5 Resource issues 6.2.5.1 Loss of forest resources The loss of forest resources is negligible, except for induced shifting cultivation development that may have a moderate to major negative impact, depending upon the scale of activities. Trees from sites cleared for mining and construction of camps and villages are partly used for building houses in mining camps and villages. The remaining part is lost upon clearing and burning since miners are not interested in timber. In larger villages and camps, timber from the surrounding forest is also used to build houses, depleting a certain area of its valuable trees. In the creek valleys of small-scale mining areas the direct loss of forestry resources is limited. Compared to the surrounding high dryland forest, the number of valuable species in creek forest is low. Besides, creek valleys are often poorly accessible for large-scale logging. The impact is stronger on the terraces where primary- or old secondary forest is found. Large-scale loggers can potentially harvest such forest resources. But only a few of such terrace locations are being worked for gold, so the overall impact on these forest resources is low. However, no concrete data are available. Mining activities may indirectly result in loss of forest resources by the clearing of non-logged forest areas for the construction of access- and mining roads, eventually providing access to illegal timber loggers. However, most of these roads will pass through areas which have already been logged by selective extraction, or which are currently forest concessions under control of the Foundation for Forest

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Management and Control (SBB). The overall impact is considered minor as most small-scale gold miners use ATV's to make trails between standing trees. Only a few small-scale mining areas can be accessed by road. Finally, it has been reported that in some mining areas relatively large shifting cultivation fields are opened up near mining camps in the primary forest. The extent and impact of such activities cannot be assessed due to lack of data, but when applied at a relatively large scale in primary- or old secondary forest, the loss of forest resources may be considerable.

6.2.5.2 Disruption to infrastructure Small-scale gold mining activities pose no relevant risk to any infrastructure.

6.2.5.3 Effects on fishery resources The negative impact of increased mercury levels will be major locally, but overall moderate to minor. From Ouboter & Mol (n.d.) it can be concluded that there will be a moderate negative impact on the food fish populations in streams with a high turbidity. The impact is geographically limited, but may last for many years after termination of gold mining. However, the impact of increased turbidity on the total food fish capacity of river systems is probably minor. There are no concrete data to support these observations. The increased levels of mercury in predator fish in certain areas diminish the fishing potential of such areas. Ramlal et al. (2000) mention the following problem areas: the Brokopondo Lake, the Suriname River downstream of the Brokopondo Lake, the Saramacca, the Coesewijne, the Mindrineti and Commewijne rivers. In piscivorous fishes in these areas mercury levels above 0.5 ppm up to over 1 ppm, cause a risk to human health. High mercury concentrations in fish especially pose a health risk to pregnant women, fetus and young children. It is advised that frequent consumption of such fish by local people and sport fishermen should be discouraged and that monitoring should be conducted to provide recommendations on the proper use of (slightly) contaminated fish. All the above -mentioned waters have parts of their watersheds in gold mining areas. However, it should be noted that piscivorous fishes have been found with high mercury levels in rivers without gold-mining activity, indicating that the study is not conclusive with respect to the impact of gold mining per se. Ouboter and Mol (2003) have studied the effects of increased turbidity in creeks in the Gross Rosebel area. They conclude that changes in the fish population occur. Local communities can be affected by a diminishing catch from such waters, forcing them to change their diet to species that are relatively favored by the changed ecological conditions.

6.2.6 Effects on ecotourism, recreation, nature awareness and scientific research In the Brownsberg Nature Park small-scale gold mining has a major negative impact on the different functions of this park. Visual pollution of the surface water may locally have a low to moderate negative impact on tourism and recreation. In the Brownsberg Nature Park major negative impacts on ecology and biodiversity occur (see 6.2.4). Besides these, a major negative impact is expected on the functions of the park: nature tourism, nature

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awareness, recreation and scientific research. The visual signs of water pollution will have a low to moderate impact, depending on the degree and extent of pollution, on ecotourism and water recreation (swimming, boating, sport fishing) in areas with a high turbidity of the surface water, because tourists tend to stay away from such areas.

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Figure 18: Overview of (potential) negative physical and biological impacts of small-scale mining and gold processing activities
Direct and indirect environmental impact ATMOSPHERE Increase in atmospheric mercury Mine site and river (dredges) - no retorts Mine site and river (dredges) - retorts Gold shops - no filters, no ventilation Gold shops - filters, ventilation Noise Surrounding forest Brownsberg Nature Park: surrounding forest Gaseous and particulate emissions from Mine site and surrounding forest equipment Impacts on wildlife due to emissions Surrounding forest major negligible major negligible minor moderate-minor negligible negligible moderate high high (potential) Location/circumstances Magnitude Likelihood of (severity x area) occurrence*

SOIL RESOURCES
Degradation of landscapes and soils Agricultural land losses Mine site Mine site outside protected areas (terraces) Mine site outside protected areas (creek valleys) Soil pollution with mercury Mine site (hotspots -average) Surrounding forest Around gold shops Around gold shops - filters, ventilation WATER RESOURCES Altered hydrological regimes Modification of surface drainage Mine site outside protected areas Mine site Water direct downstream of mining activity Downstream receiving waters Effects on drinking water resources WATER QUALITY Contamination mercury of surface water by Water direct downstream of mining activity Downstream receiving black waters Brokopondo Lake Downstream receiving clear waters Brownsberg Nature Park: downstream creek moderate andmajor minor minor moderate-low high high Downstream receiving waters negligible major minor negligible major low high major Minor negligible Major-minor negligible major negligible high high high

Downstream receiving waters Coesewijne Nature major-moderate Reserve (depending on degree of methyl mercury formation) Coastal MUMA's minor Degradation of increased turbidity surface water by Water direct downstream of mining activity Downstream receiving waters Coastal MUMA's Groundwater pollution WASTE Contamination of land and water by solid Mine site, surrounding forest and water directminor and liquid waste downstream * for moderate and major impacts only Mine site outside protected areas (terraces only) major-minor minor negligible negligible

high

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Figure 18: continued


Direct and indirect environmental impact BIOTA Loss of natural habitats & biodiversity Mine site including river (dredges) Surrounding forest major major-minor high unknown unknown (potential) Location/circumstances Magnitude (severity area) Likelihood x occurrence* of

Water direct downstream, downstream receiving major-minor waters Coastal MUMA's negligible Loss of endangered or rare species Water direct downstream of mining activity: major Brownsberg Nature Park Coesewijne Nature Reserve major major minor negligible negligible major

unknown unknown unknown

Loss of rare and endangered fish species Mine site Loss of rare and endangered plant Mine site outside protected areas species Loss of rare and endangered species Downstream receiving waters Coastal MUMA's Effects on aquatic ecology and fisheries Mine site and river (dredges)

unknown low

Water direct downstream of mining activity: outside moderate protected areas Downstream receiving waters minor Water direct downstream of mining activity: major Brownsberg Nature Park Downstream receiving waters Coesewijne Nature moderate Reserve Coastal MUMA's negligible RESOURCES Effects on ecotourism, recreation, nature Downstream receiving waters awareness and scientific research Brownsberg Nature Park Coesewijne Nature Reserve Coastal MUMA's Loss of fishery resources Water direct downstream of mining activity moderate major moderate negligible moderate

unknown unknown

moderate high low low

Downstream receiving black waters and major-moderate high Brokopondo Lake (depending on the degree of methyl mercury formation) Downstream receiving clear waters minor Coesewijne Nature Reserve Coastal MUMA's Loss of forest resources Mine site outside protected areas on terraces Mine site outside protected areas in creek valleys Surrounding forest (induced shifting cultivation) Surrounding forest Access roads - induced effect * for moderate and major impacts only minor minor moderate minor moderate-major unknown minor moderate unknown low

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6.3 SOCIAL IMPACTS The social, economic, and health impacts of gold mining cannot be isolated from the consequences of the 1986-1992 civil war and subsequent Structural Adjustment Policies (Figure 19). Few direct relations between gold mining and impacts can be proven as multiple causes including the supposition that gold mining contributed to negative socioeconomic and health developments in the interior over the past two decades.
Figure 19:. Links between macro-economic, political, social, and cultural developments affecting the interior in Suriname since the 1980s.
Interior war & aftermath Structural Adjustment Policy

Increased rural poverty Inflation; Loss of savings Disintegration of public education Inadequate health care provision Increased discrimination of Maroons Increased hosselen (Semi) commercial sex* mn***work* Increased labor migration Gold mining

Changing economic options & behavior of women Changing economic options & behavior of men

Poor public health; i.e. malaria, HIV/AIDS Dietary impoverishment & increased malnutrition Loss of traditional (communal) & parental authority Increased violence & substance abuse Environmental health damage, incl. mercury contamination

*(Semi)-commercial sex work is defined as occasional participation in casual sexual relationships in exchange for food, goods, and/or cash money in times of economic need

6.3.1 Community cohesion The modern small-scale mining industry fits in to a general trend towards globalization and industrialization of local economies. This transformation changes social relations between those who benefit from the new economy young men- and those who tend to be excluded the elderly and women. Its effects are not homogeneous throughout the GSB.

6.3.1.1 Loss of traditional authority The social and economic changes that were sparked by the civil war have challenged the traditional authority of community leaders and parents. The elderly complain that their children and other youth have lost respect for traditional family and community values (Terborg, 2001). It is unclear how much mining has influenced this trend. One mining-related change is that todays economically powerful men are generally younger, independent entrepreneurs rather than older village authorities. However, wealth does not automatically lead to a loss of respect for traditional authorities and village rules. Where traditional authorities have lost grip on community affairs, forces other than mining (e.g. proximity to the city) may be to blame. For example, in the village of Mooitaki, where almost all men are mining, parents and community elders continue to have a firm grip on social affairs. Yet in the Brokopondo village of Gaanse

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(Brownsweg), where few men mine, there appears to be less communal respect for traditional authorities and regulations.

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6.3.1.2 Gender inequity Recent studies suggest that women are not only the poorest among Maroons, but also the least educated and those with least access to outside goods and information (Heemskerk, 2000; National Womens Movement, 1998; Terborg, 2001). While agriculture provides a large share of their daily diets, very few women are able to sustain themselves economically. Women gain some from mining when their partners mining incomes are used for household expenditures. However, without independent access to cash income, women remain economically, and hence socially, dependent upon men. This dependency leaves married women with a poor bargaining position within the household; while single women need to solicit male support to secure food for themselves and their children. There is little evidence that the mining boom has changed power relations between women and men. Women in the past also depended upon men for cash, non-agricultural foods, and assets. Globalization and the spreading cash economy may have done more to lock women into a dependent position than mining per se . Some women now sell goods and services in mining areas (Heemskerk, 2003) and in fact, informal trade (hosselen) has traditionally been part of the economic life of Cottica Maroon women, and is not a result of mining activity. A new trend is that Maroon women sell sexual favors for food, goods, and money (Heemskerk, 2003; Terborg, 2001). Sex work is foremost a reaction to increased female poverty rather than the gold rush (though the presence of a large male mining population has created a market demand).

6.3.2

Migration and settlement

Brazilians have migrated into the GSB and are living and working in mining camps. However, few Brazilians live permanently in villages in the interior. In villages closer to the city of Paramaribo, like Brownsweg and Koffiekamp, there appear a small number of mixed Brazilian-Maroon children. Their mothers usually raise these children since the fathers are no longer present. Only in rare instances -notably in the district of Brokopondo and along the Lawa River does a Brazilian man will live with a local woman in a Maroon village. One reason for the limited Brazilian settlement in the interior is the low perception most Brazilians have of Maroons. Maroons, in turn, find most Brazilian men rude, violent, and untrustworthy and the women promiscuous. Negative stereotypes hinder integration and promote tension between these groups, tensions that at times may escalate into violent conflicts. This is especially the case closer to the city Paramaribo, where the Brazilian miners outnumber indigenous miners.

6.3.3

Health

Their working methods and environment expose miners to chemical contaminants, heat stress, ergonomic problems, unsafe equipment and mine structures, unsanitary conditions, malaria, and unsafe sex. Unbalanced diets, long work hours, high rates of disease, poor hygiene, and alcohol consumption decrease the bodys natural resistance mechanisms to disease and increase the incidence of accidents. (Walle and Jennings, 2001). Because unhealthy conditions in the mining area reinforce one another, it is difficult to single out the effects of any one ailment. Headaches, nausea, feverish trembling, diarrhea, pain in the joints, dizziness, and faintness can indicate malaria. These symptoms, however, can also be signs of other tropical diseases, overexposure to sun, mercury contamination, alcoholism, or a combination of the above. People whose live r has been affected by excessive alcohol consumption have less resistance to malaria, and people who frequently contract malaria are more susceptible to the effects of mercury contamination.

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6.3.3.1 Malaria In the late 1970s, malaria was virtually exterminated in the Suriname interior. Nowadays, the disease has returned in epidemic proportions along the Marowijne, Tapanahony- and Lawa Rivers. These are the areas, which harbor the most intense mining regions in the GSB. The figure on malaria has been sta ble over time (Annex 18) (Medical mission, 2002), but small-scale gold mining has stimulated the uncontrolled spread of this disease (Paho, 2000). The transmission of malaria is stimulated by the increasing number of open pits with standing water that cons titute to a fertile habitat for disease-carrying mosquitoes. In addition, the international and regional movement of miners facilitates malaria transmission. Officials report that the disease travels with or beyond the miners, indicating a correlative relationship between the malaria incidence and the intensity of gold mining activities (Medical mission, personal communication). Local miners rely on self-medication, forest medicines and traditional healers to prevent and cure malaria. Several types of drugs are taken haphazardly when miners suspect malaria. They are selected on the bases of availability and affordability. Their unregulated consumption has stimulated the development of drug resistant malaria strains. An additional problem is that few gold miners visit the health clinics in the GSB, because the mining sites are usually distant. The limited fund for health services to the Medical Mission also constrains adequate treatment.

6.3.3.2 HIV/AIDS Gold mining activity facilitates the spread of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS in interior populations in the GSB. Male migrant labor, commercial sex work, and sparse use of condoms in mining camps combine to create a high-risk environment for STD transmission. Research has shown that the spread of sexually transmitted diseases is related to the presence of sex-workers in the mining camps (Antonius -Smits, 1999). However, gold mining is not the only, or even the primary, cause behind the rising numbers of HIV infections in Maroon communities. Poverty, polygamy, gender inequity, cultural disdain for contraceptive and condom use, low education, and cultural ideas about sexuality all interact to shape conditions in which HIV/AIDS flourishes (Terborg, 2001). In addition, economic dependency upon men prevents most women from protesting extra-marital affairs or negotiating condom use. The available data does not give a clear picture about the impact of gold mining on HIV/AIDS transmission. The absolute number of positively tested persons in East Suriname has increased from 3 (2001) to 5 (2002), but the percentage of HIV positive persons has decreased annually between 2001 and 2002, indicating increased testing rather than lower infection rates. Furthermore, HIV-positive individuals and AIDS deaths are more common among the Saramaka Maroons than among the more actively mining Ndjuka Maroons. This difference may be partially explained by greater numbers of Ndjuka Maroons visiting doctors in French Guiana (Terborg, 2001).

6.3.3.3 Mercury intoxication When people handle or inhale inorganic mercury, it is usually discharged from the body through the urine. Inorganic mercury transforms into a highly toxic state, called methyl-mercury, when it leaches into rivers, is absorbed by ground-feeding organisms, and moves up the food chain through carnivorous fish. Consequently, fish consumers near mining areas are at greater risk of chronic mercury intoxication than the gold miners that mostly eat imported meat products. Chronic mercury pollution damages the central nervous system of pregnant women and infants (Veiga, 1997).

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Studies comparing mercury-exposed Maroons with non-exposed Maroons in the GSB report different outcomes of mercury levels in blood, hair, and urine samples (De Kom et al. 1997; Mol et al. 2001; Pollack et al. 1998). Due to the relatively recent onset of the Suriname gold rush, chronic mercury contamination in people is not yet apparent. Pollack et al. (1998) report that although mercury levels in exposed women and children near mining areas are higher than those in the control group, average mercury levels are comparable to the mean mercury values in industrialized countries. Mercury spillage can be reduced through the use of closed systems that recycle mercury for future use, better known as retorts. Even though these systems are relatively cheap and easy to use, they are not the general practice in small-scale mining. Although most Maroon miners in the GSB understand the long-term consequences of mercury pollution, the decision not to us e mercury jeopardizes immediate household economic well-being. The only precaution taken is to stay upwind when burning the mercury-gold amalgam. Other miners do not use retorts because the process takes too long and is too noisy. Other miners are disconte nt with the recovery rate of mercury. Yet other miners have little confidence in the good intentions of outsiders (bakaa); they may not trust a device brought by bakaa will recover the same amount of gold from the amalgam as does open-air burning. A long history of broken treaties and treason by the Dutch colonial rulers and later the national government is at the roots of this distrust.

6.3.3.4 Accidents Due to the demanding and unregulated nature of their work, miners suffer from muscular strains, wounds, other injuries, and occasionally death. Because many fatal and disabling accidents in small-scale gold mines are not reported, there are no national statistics on their frequency. The death of a Maroon person is typically reported and taken care by the immediate family. The death of Brazilian workers, however, often remains unrecorded. The remains of the dead are either left at the location of the accident (e.g. in the case of a collapsing mine shaft) or buried at the mine site. The family at home is n ot informed and these Brazilians go missing.

6.3.4 Access to natural resources 6.3.4.1 Access to forest land Maroons and Amerindian land rights are a subject of ongoing dispute and debate with the government. In practice, they have little legal protection against infringement on the lands that they depend upon for subsistence agriculture, hunting and gathering, medicine, building materials, and other daily life needs. This situation enables the Suriname government to extend mining concessions that overlap with local villages and user areas. Legal and illegal mining activities of large -scale mining firms, garimpeiros, and Suriname nationals threaten current and future subsistence and quality of life of forest peoples.

6.3.4.2 Access to safe drinking water Due to mining waste disposal, most creeks and rivers near important Suriname gold mining areas are extremely turbid (Quick et al. 2001). According to researchers, miners spill two cubic meters of sediments into watercourses for each gram of gold extracted (Douroujeanni and Padua, 1992, in MacMillan, 1996). If one takes into account the recent introduction of powerful mining equipment, these estimates probably understate sediment spillage today. Mining also decreases the total amount of water available to villages

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as it diverts water away from the streambed to keep the mining machines running. As a result, villagers near mine sites lack safe drinking water. In such places, women walk for hours to find clean water.

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6.3.4.3 Access to sources of protein: fish and wildlife The discharge of tailings, gasoline, and toxic metals of mining operations into rivers and creeks threatens the health of aquatic communities. Possible effects on fish, amphibians, and aquatic mammals include the destruction of breeding grounds and habitat, the reduction of oxygen levels, and the inhibition of foraging strategies. Maroon villagers living down-stream of mining activity in the Tapanahony River complain that the meat of freshly caught fish is turning mushy and falling apart within one hour. When cooking the fish, it leaves yellow-brown foam residue on the bottom of the pot. A reduced fish stock will affect the protein intake of Maroons and Amerindians. Survey research has indicated that fish is the main protein source for almost half of the meals consumed by households in four selected villages along the Tapanahony River (Heemskerk et al. unpubl. 2003). The role of fish is especially apparent considering that a third of meals contained no proteins (fig. 20) at all. There is no evidence that miners consume more wildlife than people in nearby forest communities. Generally, miners eat cured pork and other canned meat products. They have limited time left to hunt and usually shoot wildlife occasionally as it crosses their path. In the vicinity of the mining areas there are few wild animals seen in the forest probably because they are scared away by the noise of mining machines. In addition, sand areas that have formed in abandoned mining pits occasionally trap wildlife.

Figure 20: Percentage of meals over the past two days containing fish or meat in 4 Maroon villages along the Tapanahony River
Eggs City meat Bush meat 6.9% No fish or meat 34.0%

48.6% Canned Fresh fish Dried/Salted

6.3.5 Crime, violence, and conflict 6.3.5.1 Criminal activity In more isolated mining areas military and police forces lack the authority to act on illegal migration, drug use, weapon possession, tax evasion, robberies and assaults, theft, environmental pollution, non-compliance with the mining law, and other illegal activities. When a severe crime happens, it can take several days before police or military arrive on the spot. In addition, these parties are said to solicit informal fees for protection of certain miners against others. Furthermore, Brazilians do not like to report to the Suriname police, as they are known for brutal treatment of Brazilians (Martins, 2000). As long as the police and military fail to solve crime in a timely and satisfactory matter, gold miners take preventing, solving, and judging crime into their own hands. In the presence of firearms this creates a tense situation and in certain areas, heavily armed guards are common practice. Firearms used range from shotguns (hunting), to heavier equipment derived from the Suriname military, to more advanced imported arms. In some of the larger villages in the district of Brokopondo and in the upper Suriname River area,

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the use of drugs mainly marihuana and crack cocaine - is alarming. From all mining areas reports are received of armed robberies, shootings, and so forth, though nowadays less so than five years ago.

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6.3.5.2 Conflict Tight kin-relations and strong social control allow most land disputes among Maroons to be solved informally. Similar patterns are seen for disputes over money that occur: as miners and a mining right holder disagree on terms of payment; a mine operator accuses his laborers from stealing; an absent machine owner does not receive payment from those working his machine; as miners fail to pay outstanding debts to a shop owner etc.

In case such low-level conflict escalates, it is brought before a council of Maroon elders, which allocates responsibility and punishment. The efficacy of the judgment depends on the power of the particular granman, on the skills and respect of his captains, and the attitude of his constituency. While the tribal legal system successfully mitigates local disagreements, it has little power to settle conflicts between Maroon gold miners, the government, and large-scale companies. Such a conflict escalated in the mid -1990s, when the mining agglomerate Golden Star Resources began exploration activities in an area where local small-scale gold miners were working near the Maroon village of Nieuw Koffiekamp (Healy, 1996). Current large-scale mine development at Gross Rosebel (Cambior) and exploration activities at the Nassau Mountains (Suralco) are likely to result in similar tension.

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Figure 21 : overview of positive and neutral social impacts of gold mining in the Greenstone Belt
Impact POSITIVE OUTCOMES Income Direct income Indirect income Affected group/ beneficiaries Immediate causes Root causes Severity * Likelihoo d

Gold miners (mainly men) and their families Maroon households and communities

Work as pit laborer or mine operator Work in the mining service economy or dependency on mining kin

Other available jobs pay insufficient to sustain a family; low education Other available jobs pay insufficient to sustain a family; low education

major major

high high

Investment in development of local communities NEUTRAL OUTCOMES

Forest communities, primarily Maroons

Investment in infrastructure, alternative money-generating schemes, and real estate in Paramaribo

Backward position of rural areas; advancement means investment in the city

negligible

Migration and settlement Mixed families and children in forest villages Formation of Brazilian neighborhoods in Paramaribo Maroon communities Urban residents, garimpeiros Brazilians start relations with Maroon women Brazilians settle in the city but do not integrate into Suriname culture International labor migration; Brazilian macroeconomics International labor migration; Brazilian macroeconomics negligible minor high high

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Figure 22: Overview of negative social impacts of gold mining in the Greenstone Belt
Impact Community cohesion Loss of power of traditional authorities Gender inequity Health Malaria takes epidemic forms Villages along the Tapanahony, Lawa, and Marowijne Rivers; Brokopondo Gold miners and their families, Commercial sex-workers. Open pits with standing water; highly mobile human populations; widespread self-medication Male labor migration, Commercial sexwork, low condom use, traditions of unsafe sex and multiple sex-partners Spillage of Hg in the aquatic ecosystem; open air burning of the mercury-gold amalgam Disabling and fatal accidents; No reporting; No incentive to transport deceased garimpeiros Concession allocation policies/procedures; lack of coordination and enforcement Concession allocation policies/procedures Lack of law enforcement Miners use water from, and dump tailings in, local clean water supply Miners divert tailings in rivers; human presence in previously uninhabited areas No clean up after mining; no regulation; Inadequate resources to sustain quality health care in the interior. Rural poverty; low HIV/AIDS awareness; cultural norms of sexuality; Inadequate resources to sustain quality health care Common use of Hg in gold extraction by small-scale gold mining; low use of retorts Unsafe mining equipment and methods; low safety standards major high Affected group Immediate causes Root causes Severity* Likelyhood low low

Traditional rulers; elderly; parents Maroon women & their children

Young men earn wealth and power based on entrepreneurial skills Women hossel in mining areas and participate in sex work

Globalization; tighter integration into the market economy; consumerism Increased female poverty

moderate moderate

HIV/AIDS

major

high

Mercury-poisoning

High frequency and severity of accidents in small mines Access to natural resources Loss of access to and conflict over land, for agriculture, housing, etc. Loss of access to forest for hunting, gathering Reduced access to clean water (pollution; increased turbidity) Reduced access to sources of protein, i.e. fish and wildlife

Fish-consumers down streams of mining areas; miners; gold buying agents Gold miners and their families in Suriname and Brazil

moderate

low

moderate

unknown

Forest peoples

Tensions between forest groups, urban-forest tensions Urban-forest tensions Unregulated, unsafe, and unsustainable mining methods Unregulated, unsafe, and unsustainable mining methods

moderate

unknown

Forest peoples; Foreign companies Forest peoples Forest peoples, primarily Maroon women

major major

unknown high

moderate negligible

Crime, violence, and conflict Criminality and illegality Absence of monitoring, law enforcement, History of government neglect of and police, and military. tension with interior societies; corruption Conflict All of society Laws that are deemed unfair and corrupt, Traditional government neglect of and unresolved land claims. tension with forest societies; corruption Severity (=magnitude * area) refers to the effect of small-scale gold mining only, for as far as that effect can be isolated from other intervening factors. All of society major Moderate

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CHAPTER 7 OVERVIEW OF KEY IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES

Based on information described in the previous chapters, and especially based on the analysis of environmental impacts in chapter 6, an overview of the impacts and proposed mitigation measures is presented here. The physical-biological impacts include both existing and potential impacts. The latter cannot be precisely assessed at the moment because little or no information is available. For the social impacts mitigation measures to enhance positive and neutral, and to prevent negative impacts are presented. In both sections, the legal, institutional and policy recommendations are included.

The findings of the GSB impact analysis are generally in line with the typical problems identified for small-scale gold mining in the Global report on Artisanal & Small Scale Mining, shown below:
Figure 23 : Typical problems related to small-scale gold mining Source: Global Report on Artisanal & Small Scale Mining, International Institute for Environment and Development, 2002.
Geological Lack of appropriate ores Lack of information about ores Legal Not encouraging investment climate Illegacy of sector Lack of political and legal stability Difficulties to legalize mines Technical Use of labor intensive technology

Organizational Limited umbrella organizations Limited services offered by Government Seasonal activity of mining Coordination and cooperation difficult because of spread out mine locations

Financial Uneconomical investment decisions Lack of bookkeeping and costcalculation Lack of capital Limited access to investors and equity capital

Human resources Unskilled labor force Lack of written contracts Social dependencies Lack of cultural understanding Bad social image of mining Subsistence economy Lack of knowledge on economy, credits and financing aspects Gambler mentality

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7.1 RECOMMENDED MEASURES TO ADDRESS PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL IMPACTS

Many of the negative environmental impacts and related health hazards from small-scale gold mining and processing are the direct or indirect consequence of poor mining and processing methods . These result in the destruction of river and creek valleys, uncontrolled use of mercury, the open burning of the gold amalgam and the direct release of mining wastewater into the surrounding open waters. Hardly any rehabilitation of mined land is done. Technology to prevent, or at least largely minimize, such impacts is available and plans have been designed to introduce applicable methods to gold miners through awareness campaigns and training, unfortunately without much success. The absence of any preventive or mitigating measures has resulted in considerable negative impacts to the environment, many of which also affect the local population. Part of the negative impacts is virtually irreversible. For instance it will be impossible to restore the original terrestrial and aquatic ecosys tems that have been destroyed by mining activities. Also it is impossible to remediate the existing mercury pollution of surface waters, so other measures will be required to prevent or minimize health hazards as a result of consumption of fish from these waters. Such measures will comprise systematic monitoring, some basic research and awareness campaigns. Direct health hazards for the local population from atmospheric mercury are only present during the burning/heating processes of gold amalgam. This release of mercury vapor should be prevented. It is also important in order to diminish the release of mercury into the global mercury pool. Existing soil pollution from prolonged deposition of mercury near gold shops may in certain situations require soil remediation. A negative impact that can be remediated is the damage done in the past to land and soil at mining sites . Given the large area affected and the high rehabilitation costs per unit area, priorities need to be set. Focus should be on abandoned mining areas within the boundaries of the Brownsberg Nature Park where several functions of the park are threatened, and on areas elsewhere in the GSB that pose some environmental or health risk. In future, rehabilitation of areas should be required upon termination of mining operations. The actual impacts of small-scale gold mining on fauna are largely unknown. Baseline studies are needed to confirm and quantify expected impacts on the various affected species. Direct measures to stop illegal mining activities that directly or indirectly affect protected areas are urgently needed. In Figure 24 an overview is given of the existing and potential impacts, and proposed measures to address them.

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7.2 RECOMMENDED MEASURES TO ADDRESS SOCIAL IMPACTS

Transformation of Surinames current small-scale mining sector into a more sustainable enterprise will require a combination of poverty alleviation, revival of public health care and education in the interior, better city-interior relations, and promotion of sounder mining methods. Such a multidisciplinary, integrated approach demands that small-scale miners, concessionaries, the Suriname government, transnational mining companies, and international agencies enter dialogue and collaboration. For any type of training or workshop we recommend that miners be paid for their time and expert opinions because they are usually the main family breadwinners. These efforts also should emphasize the participation of disadvantaged groups. For the above to succeed, it is not only necessary that small-scale gold miners take their place at the table, but also that policy makers better understand their working conditions and demands. Yet reliable data about the forest and its inhabitants is currently sparse. We do not know how many local people and foreigners are mining; how many families rely on mining income; where miners work; how much they find; what their money is spent on; or how these issues are changing over time. The development of a database with demographic and socioeconomic data on gold miners and their families is a first step towards the design of new mining policy. Furthermore, we encourage the establishment of miners Cooperatives. Examples from Brazil, Venezuela, Peru, and Bolivia show that by providing basic health care and education services and regulating alcohol consumption and prostitution in mining sites, such Cooperatives can improve the wellbeing of miners and their families. Cooperatives in these countries have helped small-scale gold miners negotiate agreements with the government and large-scale operations; acquire concession rights and information; and invest in newer, more efficient, and cleaner technology. We see a special role for miners collectives in establishing a partnership with large-scale mining companies. An example comes from Venezuela, where Las Cristinas (a joint venture between the Corporacin Venezolana de Guyana and Placer Dome Venezuela) allowed small-scale miners to mine alluvial gold on its concession with the technical advice and assistance of company engineers. Similar experiences teach that working with local miners decreases sabotage by local people, lost work days due to conflict, the need to hire armed guards, negative public opinion, and international court cases. In addition, partnerships can benefit local miners by supporting technical and financial inputs that transform small-scale mining operations into more efficient and stable enterprises. Last, it is striking how little people from the city know about people in the Interior and their subsistence activities. There is need for accessible, picture-rich, Dutch/English educational books about smallscale gold mining in Suriname . This text book should be written in a popular scientific style that allows it to be used for teaching (geography/national history) in the last year of high school, to be material for BA education in social sciences at the ADEK University, to be read by any educated adult in Suriname, and to be a resource for tourists. In Figure 25 an overview is given of the social impacts, their outcomes and proposed measures to address them.

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Figure 24: Overview of mitigation measures to address physical and biological impacts of gold mining in the Greenstone belt
Policy EXISTING IMPACTS Atmosphere Increase in atmospheric mercury at mine sites Increase in atmospheric mercury at gold shops Hydrology Modification of surface drainage Legal Institutional Technical Research Training and education Monitoring

Require sustainable methods as part of EMP for future operations Regulate and legalize gold shops; closure of illegal shops

Implement Mining law and Environmental laws Prepare guidelines and standards; use Hindrance act for time-being Implement Mining law

GMD/Mineral Institute/UVSmining section NIMOS/Labor Inspection/Environ mental Inspection (BOG)

Use retorts or gravitation methods for gold concentration Use filters and apply ventilation in goldshops

Study efficiency of various equipment for Surinamese conditions Make an inventory and screen goldshops

Require training as part of sale of equipment Raise awareness of the general public about dangers

Frequent field inspections

Frequent measurement of stack emissions and indoor mercury levels Check on compliance

Require rehabilitation as part of EMP for future operations

GMD/ Mineral Institute/UVSmining and civil engineering section

Drain ponds and swamps (minimum) or restore original hydrological conditions (maximum) Use settlement basins

Develop minimum impact mining manual

Water Quality Degradation of surface water by increased turbidity

Require sustainable methods as part of EMP for future operations

Contamination of surface water by mercury

Stop antropogenic mercury pollutions

Implement Mining law/ Environmental law; develop standards for effluent Implement Environmental law; develop standards and guidelines

GMD/Mineral Institute/NIMOS/ UVS- mining and civil engineering section NIMOS/UVSenvironmental section/Environmen tal Inspection (BOG)

Study possible basins for Suriname conditions; develop minimum impacts mining manual

Check on compliance

Inventory surface waters to identify reference values and develop standards; conduct in-depth research to sources, sinks and pathways of mercury

Routine monitoring of critical waters

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Figure 24: continued Policy Soil Degradation of landscapes and soils Legal Institutional Technical Research Training and education Monitoring

Require rehabilitation as part of EMP for future operations

Implement Mining law/ Environmental law

Soil pollution with mercury

Stop antropogenic mercury pollution; existing hazardous levels will be eliminated

Implement Environmental law; develop standards and guidelines

GMD/Mineral Institute/NIMOS/ UVS-mining and civil engineering section/ STINASU NIMOS/UVSenvironmental section/ Environmental Inspection (BOG)

Filling of ponds and pits, leveling, landscaping; creation of initial creek course Soil remediation in cases where international standards are exceeded

Inventory of existing mines; study possible rehabilitation methods; develop rehabilitation manual Inventory and map mercury polluted areas; develop standards

Check on compliance; follow -up studies on natural development Monitoring on compliance

Biota and Resources Loss of natural habitats and biodiversity at mining site Loss of endangered or rare species

Stop mining activities in or near protected areas; require EIA for small-scale gold mining Stop mining activities in or near protected areas; require EIA for small-scale gold mining

Implement Environmental law

GMD/Mineral Institute/NIMOS

Implement Environmental law

Loss of fishery resources

Require EIA for smallscale gold mining

Implement Environmental law

GMD/Mineral Institute/NIMOS/UV S-biological section/STINASU/N ature Conservation Division NIMOS/ UVSenvironmental and biological section/Fisheries department

Conduct baseline studies focusing on fish and endangered and rare species in support of f uture EAs Inventory on mercury levels in fish, especially in black waters and Brokopondo lake downstream mining site Awareness campaigns on fish consumption Continued monitoring of mercury in fish

POTENTIAL IMPACTS Biota and Resources Effects on aquatic ecology and fisheries

Stop mining activities in or near protected areas; require EIA for small-scale gold mining

Implement Environmental law

GMD/Mineral Institute/NIMOS

Loss of natural

Inventory of natural

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habitats and biodiversity Loss of rare and endangered fish species at mining site Loss of forest resources

habitats (ecosystems) Survey of fish populations to determine existence of rare or endangered species Assessment of total area destroyed forest surrounding mine site

Figure 25 : Overview of mitigation measures to address socioeconomic impacts of gold mining in the Greenstone belt Legal POSITIVE OUTCOMES Income Technical Policy/Planning Training/Education/ Awareness Research Institutional

Taxation?

Encourage large-scale mining companies to hire local labor and buy local produce.

Designing acceptable tax policy with gold miners.

Improved mining techniques and prospecting that will give higher profit margin.

Simple, cheap improvements in current techniques.

Assistance of largescale mining companies to obtain higher productivity

NEUTRAL OUTCOMES Migration

Clear migration policy; fine mine operators that hire illegal labor

Border control

Integration policy

Cultural appreciation events (festival, book)

NEGATIVE IMPACTS Health

Establish (mobile?) clinics in or near mining areas.

More funding for Medical Mission and reliable payment of existing allocations Provision of (almost) free mosquito netting Idem Support for existing malaria campaign, training in sewing mosquito nettings Support for existing HIV/AIDS campaign; Motivate testing Incentives for condom use and HIV -testing (experimental design) Free HIV/AIDS testing

Malaria takes epidemic forms

HIV/AIDS

Design and distribution of documentaries, posters, pamphlets, and free condoms through clinics and shops in

idem

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Mercury

Prohibition sale. Price increase may encourage recycling

villages and mines Work with miners to design a home-made retort that meets their standards

Seek assistance of foreign engineers working with green gold Monitor accidents

Workshop retort design and making Spread of informative brochures (Cartoon style) about mercury

What does it take to convince miners to use a retort?

High frequency and severity of accidents in small mines

How many accidents do really happen? How many Brazilians have died and where are they?

Mining multinationals should assist smallscale miners adopt safe gold mining techniques.

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Figure 25: continued Legal Access to land and natural resources Recognition of community rights to ancestral lands and resources Secure land rights. Do not allow concessions within a 10-km radius of villages. Technical Policy/Planning Steering collaboration and conflict resolution between stake holders Secure land rights; Steering collaboration between large and small scale miners Training/Education/ Awareness Research Institutional

Loss of access to forest for hunting, gathering and agriculture; Conflict over land Water pollution; increased turbidity

Mapping/land demarcation

Assistance to people from interior with applications for concessions

Territorial boundaries

Partnerships large and small-scale miners (Las Cristinas model)

Build water purification installations and locate groundwater sources Test growing protein alternatives Establish police posts in interior Establish legal gold buying agents in mining areas Dialogue with large and small-scale miners; partnerships Provide basic public services in the interior, incl. social welfare, running water, electricity; educational books Law enforcement

Reduced access to fish Crime, violence, and conflict Criminality and illegality

Motivate miners to divert tailing into abandoned mine pits rather than into rivers and creeks. Train people in growing and preparation of protein substitutes; i.e. soybean

What is the real impact of turbidity on aquatic communities?

Conflict

Long-term development Investment in development of local communities; prevention of social disintegration Preventing environmental damage

Micro-loans bank; Infrastructure improvements

Micro-finance/ micro enterprise. Assistance with application for CDFS and other funding

Develop durable company-community relations Encourage large-scale mining companies to invest in local infrastructure development including schools. Mining multinationals should assist smallscale miners adopt environmentally responsible gold mining techniques.

Hold concession holders liable for pollution on their concessions

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CHAPTER 8 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

8.1

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES

NIMOS initiative of promoting the elaboration of the Greenstone Belt REA essentially concerns the protection of natural resources and biodiversity in harmony with social development in a specific region of Suriname. This will be achieved through the implementation of a series of corrective measures designed to remediate past damage of gold mining, control current environmental impacts, prevent and minimize the incidence of new damage, and by establishing a permanent environmental management process in the region. To this end, the environmental management plan has been devised according to a set of principles that have been derived from best practice experiences in similar circumstances in other countries. These principles include:

Strategic environmental planning. This is a continuous and permanent process, developed with broad participation of stakeholders, interested government institutions and social groups, in order to identify priority issues and find the best suitable management instruments for environmental management and pollution control, and taking into consideration the available resources of involved government and non-government institutions, and the interests of concerned parties. Strategic planning also implies a proactive attitude to the solution of environmental problems, as well as the definition of concrete objectives and environmental quality goals and the selection of appropriate indicators for monitoring and follow-up of environmental management activities. Integrated environmental management. This involves tackling environmental policy implementation, not as a sectoral undertaking, but as a trans-sectoral activity that implies active coordination with other government institutions, partnership with stakeholders (including the private sector) and broad participation of concerned social groups, academic and research institutions and environmental NGOs. It also means the incorporation of environmental protection objectives in other sectoral policies and governance areas, such as economic devel opment, granting of mining rights, public finance etc. Modern government public administration (Good Governance). This includes: (i) establishment of collaborative organizations for joint policy coordination and decisionmaking; (ii) strengthening of technical and operational capabilities for the implementation of new management models; (iii) client-oriented and demand-driven actions and provision of environmental services to the population; (iv) decentralized environmental management; (v) transparency of decision-making processes; and (vi) permanent information on environmental quality (air, water, biodiversity) and consequences of natural resource use and exploitation. A landscapes approach to environmental management. This means that activities will be focused on environmental units, such as watersheds, ecosystems, biophysical niches and coherent regions, with precise definition a of spatial scope for action planning and implementation. Such focus will facilitate the understanding of environmental system dynamics, environmental problem identification and solution; it will also help to manage economic activities and natural resources of importance for social development and environmental protection in the planning unit -- such as water, forest, or, as is the case in the GSB, gold reserves.
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8.2

OBJECTIVES

The plans overall objective is to organize management and control of gold mining activities in the GSB region, with emphasis on small and medium-scale mining, in such a way that environmental conditions and quality of life in the region are substantially improved. The specific objective of the environmental management plan is to integrate all major mitigation measures outlined in the previous chapter into one coherent, easily implementable plan.

8.3

PROPOSED ACTIVITIES

The Environmental Management Plan GSB gold mining is composed of a program and a series of projects; the projects can be administered under the program. For now five projects, all considered to be priorities in terms of achieving the general objective of the plan, have been presented as discreet projects under the Gold Mining Administration Program. This organization has been adopted in order to address the needs for a more coherent regulatory presence in the region, hence, a more efficient mining development and environmental control. The five projects involve an integrated set of activities in goldfield rehabilitation measures, pollution control, development of appropriate technology, research and improvement of health conditions in the region. The projects may be funded as a unit, by a single donor, or individually, by a consortium of donors. The Programs management unit will exercise overall administrative coordination of all five projects regardless of the funding mechanism (see figure 27). There are a number of planned, proposed, and ongoing projects and activities related to gold mining in the GSB of which an overview is presented in figure 2. The proposed program and projects described in this report do not duplicate those activities, but is designed to complement such activities.

8.3.1

Capacity building program for Environmental Management of Gold Mining

Description of the Problem The Greenstone Belt region is experiencing an increase in small-scale gold mining, mostly informal and uncontrolled. Most of the environmental and social impacts that have been described in the previous chapters may be considered of priority importance, affecting large areas and almost all community groups in the region, but particularly Maroons. Conflicts between local inhabitants and Brazilian miners have been identified, as well as a number of health problems caused by inappropriate mining techniques and immigration. The Government has not yet been able to effectively manage medium and smal l-scale gold mining, although this activity has been a reality for at least twenty years. Attempts to solve this situation have included: issuance of mining rights for small-scale miners, financial support to the medical mission which coordinates the mala ria campaign and provides health care, and the installation of a police station in Stoelmanseiland. The need to improve both regulations and administrative framework to manage gold mining in the region has already been identified. The 2000-2005 Multiyear Development Plan, approved by the National Assembly, includes among other policy directives, a number of dispositions concerning the development and management of gold mining, social protection of involved communities, and environmental policy implementation. Previous work on the same issue, resulting in proposals for government action and coordination had been developed by the Commission for Regulating Gold Mining, created in 1998 but now inactive.
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Objectives

To build institutional capability for mining development and environmental regulation, and promote coordinated action among other government sectors and non-government organizations; To improve the social (health, labor conditions, housing etc.) situation of populations directly and indirectly involved in small-scale gold mining in the region;

Tasks Program implementation will involve, at a minimum, the following tasks: 1. Review of policies and other documents regarding the development and regulation of gold mining, with a focus on small-scale mining and environmental protection; review of forest policies to avoid conflicts between the gold mining and the forestry sectors; Elaboration and execution of environmental awareness campaigns directed to sensitize:

2.

High-level government officials, policy and opinion makers on the importance of organizing gold mining sector; Miners, workers and their families involved in a broad spectrum of mining operations on the environmental and social implications and risks posed by uncontrolled mining;

3.

Survey of miners, mineral right holders and workers, including information on: numbers of people involved, mining processes that are used, legal status of miners and mining areas, income and health conditions, access to public services etc13.; Establishment and implementation of an information system which would integrate all data concerning: mining exploitation, social conditions of miners and workers, geographic information on the region, and environmental quality control; Review, modification and completion of existing legislation of importance for the management of gold mining, in order to deal with land and property rights, different types and labor relationships of miners and mineral rights holders, import and trade of potentially hazardous substances, such as mercury and development of inspection procedures, standards and environmental criteria and regulations; Identification of significant areas that would be appropriate for spatial planning regarding the best mining sites, intensity of exploitation, use of appropriate mitigation technology and common solution for environmental control; Institutional development, including: in depth analysis of current government institutions (Geological and Mining Services, Labor Inspection, NIMOS); assessment of needs, in terms of training, man-power, equipment; development and implementation of a capacity building program; review of the proposal to create and develop a Mineral Institute and the outcomes of the Commission for Regulating Gold Mining of 1998; and review of current activities in the region, developed by both government and non-government organizations;
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5.

6.

7.

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8.

Development of an adequate institutional model to coordinate mining policy implementation, including the definition of the requirements for executing it, ie.: an appropriate institutional framework (including administrative units in, and mechanisms to control the access to, the mining areas), legislation, human and financial resources, economic and fiscal resources to be applied.

Program Implementation Involved institutions A number of environmental and academic institutions have developed and implemented various projects and discreet activities concerning mining development and social and environmental objectives in the GSB. These include the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the United Nations Global Environmental Fund (GEF); Forum NGOs, Community Development Fund Suriname and Stinasu. These initiatives and their achievements should be considered and, where appropriate, incorporated into the present program. Whenever applicable, these institutions should also be involved in its implementation. Stakeholders like the holders of mineral rights titles, representatives of maroon communities and Cooperation for Garimpeiros in Suriname (CoGaSur) present in the GSB would necessarily participate in the program planning, execution and evaluation. A high-level Program Advisory Committee will be established, formed by representatives of the Ministries of Natural Resources, Labor Technological Development and Environment, Finance, Health, Agriculture Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, to be responsible for the overall decisionmaking concerning the Environmental Management Plan, as well as program and project implementation, performance evaluation and periodic review. Coordination of the Gold Mining Environmental Management Program and its related projects in the Environmental Management Plan, will be assigned to an Environmental Management Unit for Gold Mining made up of representatives of NIMOS, Geological and Mining Services and Labor Inspection, its main executing agencies:

Geological and Mining Services responsible for formulating and implementing mining development policies and regulations; NIMOS responsible for advising the mining sector on environmental matters and cooperating in environmental management activities; Labor Inspection responsible for the enforcement of occupational health protection measures;

Resources Program coordination will involve the part time participation of professionals from the three executing agencies (for each, an average of five days a month). Professionals from the Geological and Mining Service (GMD), NIMOS and Labor Inspection will dedicate five days a month to the technical follow -up of program planning and implementation. NIMOS and GMD entered into a Memorandum of Understanding in which the joint responsibility for the execution of the Environmental Management Plan is stated.
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The Capacity Building Program for Environmental Management of Gold Mining will be headed by a full-time Director and assisted by a small support staff and any short-term consultants needed to assure the accomplishment of program objectives. Eventually, other government departments would be involved in the program in order to cooperate in the formulation and implementation of measures related to finance, regional development trade, in particular fiscal arrangements (the Tax Office). Human resources, equipment and other work necessities for implementing gold mining management activities will be identified and quantified during the development of task 8, as described above. Projects to be administered under this program include the following:

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8.3.2 Project 1: Mining-site Rehabilitation in Brownsberg Nature Park Description of the Problem Thousands of hectares of land of predominantly creek valleys and neighboring foothills in the GSB have been completely degraded as a result of past medium and small-scale gold mining. The following have been the major impacts:

Loss of local terrestrial and aquatic habitats; Creation of numerous mud-laden ponds and depressed areas with stagnant water, posing health risks to the surrounding population; Disruption and/or disappearance of creeks and waterways or creek sections; Possible loss of species, including endangered ones (in particular fish).
Figure 26: Impacted areas by Gold Mining at the Brownsberg Nature Park

Proposed site

In addition to these conditions, there usually is a variable degree of mercury contamination from tailing materials and other types of pollution from the abandoned mines tha t may continue. Mercury and other fine particulates will continue to enter the downstream environment through erosion. The total area and scale of these impacts are not known. However, the Merian Creek area may be used as an example of the significance of these impacts: it has been estimated from satellite imagery taken in 1997, that at least 40 km of land in the Merian Creek catchment area had been denuded, an area equal to about 600 to 800 hectares.

This magnitude of environmental degradation makes it difficult to find a solution for the totality of affected areas. However, it is possible to develop a number of pilot activities that can improve awareness concerning this situation, find appropriate mitigation methods that could be replicated in similar cases, and estimate rehabilitation costs. An area of around 50 hectares has been selected for this purpose along the Witie Creek at the border with the Brokopondo Lake, within the boundaries of Brownsberg Nature Park (Figure 26). The Park is a protected area of great significance in terms of its use for education, recreation, nature tourism and scientific research. Moreover, it is the only readily accessible mountain rainforest area in the country and an important environmental and tourism asset. As can be observed in the impacts table (Figure 18), the Park is affected by most major impacts of gold mining. Objective

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The objective of this project is to demonstrate the possibility of restoring a mined plot of land to a condition which: (i) no longer impacts the environment with contaminants; (ii) can fulfill its original hydrological functions and (iii) has the potential to develop into an ecosystem comparable to the original one; and make the experience replicable to other similar areas. Tasks Project implementation will involve, at least, the following tasks: 1. Detailed mapping of selected area and survey of present situation in the Witie Creek watershed area in terms of drainage patterns, soil topography, original vegetation cover; erosion and sedimentation processes, water and soil contamination; Identification of mining techniques that have been used in the area and assessment of their actual impacts; Survey of existing rehabilitation techniques (landscaping, pool and pit filling, re-vegetation, restocking of surface waters etc.) and selection of the appropriate ones; Identification of remediation needs for chemically-contaminated soil and tailing materials; and selection of best technology for clean-up; Development of a methodology for detailed follow-up inventories and identification of further research, including guidelines to be included in the mining concession documents; Establishment of social communication mechanisms for broad dissemination of information (for national and international publics) on the rehabilitation project and its results; Preparation and implementation of the executive pilot rehabilitation project, including in-situ training on the application of rehabilitation, mitigation and clean-up techniques.

2.

3. . 4.

5.

6.

7.

Project Implementation Involved institutions and resources General supervision of this project will be part of the responsibilities of the technical working group of the Plan. The executing agency will be Stinasu, which is responsible for Park management and conservation, estimation of budget and identification of financial sources for project implementation. Consultants may be hired to assist Stinasu in the development of the project tasks. Other institutions, such as the University (CMO/ADEK), CELOS, WWF and CREP may be involved in the measure of their interest and activities in the field of environmental rehabilitation.

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8.3.3 Project 2: Mining Pollution Control Description of the Problem Major impacts from gold mining in GSB and its poor processing and refining practices include:

Release of enormous amounts of fine soil particles to the aquatic environment, which accelerates erosion and sedimentation, increases water turbidity and affects food fish stocks; During the ore processing phase, leakage of considerable amounts of mercury to the environment occurs, leading to air pollution, affecting miners health, as well as dispersion of mercury particles in the air on soils and waters, polluting them and eventually leading to mercury accumulation in the food chain; Emission of mercury into the atmosphere from a number of gold-shops, affecting health of workers and people in surrounding areas.

With proper mining and processing techniques, these negative impacts could be reduced to a minimum. For most of them, techniques for reducing or mitigating environmental damage are at hand and little development of new technology is needed. However, workers have thus far not been motivated to employ them. Objective To define appropriate methods for small and medium scale gold mining and processing and strategies for mitigation of the impact on the environment and reduction of the risk to human health. Tasks Project implementation will involve, at least, the following tasks: Control of mercury emissions from mining and tailings (sediments) 1. Inventory of available technology for reducing contamination by fine soil particles (water turbidity and siltation of riverbeds) and identification of those appropriate to the GSB conditions (including cost-effectiveness); Survey and evaluation of projects and experiences on mercury pollution control developed or being developed in the country and abroad, their cost-effectiveness and identification of those appropriate to the GSB conditions; Survey of economic incentives (tax rebates, credit, subsidies etc.) that could be used to motivate the adoption of appropriate mitigation technology; Design and implementation of: awareness campaigns directed to the education of miners (mineral rights holders and workers) on the effects of siltation and inappropriate mercury use; organization of training events for community trainers; and production of training material on appropriate environmental control techniques.

2.

3.

4.

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Control of gold-shops 5. Inventory and identification of pollution and occupationa l hazard potential of gold-shops emissions (legal and illegal); Study on the cost-effectiveness of existing pollution abatement measures and equipment; Elaboration of specific regulations for pollution control in gold-shops to be proposed to the Government; Identification and proposal of financing mechanisms, including economic incentives for the adoption of pollution abatement equipment.

6. 7.

8.

Project Implementation Involved institutions General supervision of this project will be part of the responsibilities of the Environmental Management Unit for Gold Mining. NIMOS will be responsible for the execution of this project, in close collaboration with the Geological and Mining Services and Labor Inspection. Mineral rights holders, maroon community representatives and Cooperation for Garimpeiros in Suriname (CoGaSur) will also be engaged in the normative, awareness and training activities, as well as in the implementation of environmental control strategies that will be devised. Other academic and research institutions, such as IMWO, CMO and CELOS, may also be involved in the research components of the project, in the measure of their specific interest. Resources Financial resources will be needed to hire consultants to elaborate surveys and studies, and to cover costs of awareness campaigns, public participation and training events. The Center for Environmental Research (CMO) of ADEK is the institution suggested to perform all these activities.

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8.3.4 Project 3: Large Scale Gold Mining Environmental Management Description of the Problem Two large gold mining concessions have been recently granted by the Government to multinational mining companies in GSB: Cambior and Suralco. Information is available on the preparation of environmental impact studies by the interested companies. One of them is available on the Internet. There is no formal procedure for environmental impact assessment and licencing in Suriname, and, as yet, neither NIMOS nor any other department in the Ministry of Labor, Technology and Environment has had the opportunity to review these studies. There is no mandatory requirement and very little government experience in the environmental monitoring of large-scale gold mining and other development projects. A series of activities has been developed by NIMOS, with the support of IDB, to strengthen institutional capability for the use of this and other environmental management instruments. While the present project concerns the prevention of environmental degradation and pollution control in GSB, it will have important implications for dealing with in any environmental management plan. Objective To assess and monitor the environmental management activities developed by large gold mining companies, in order to gain knowledge from the transfer of environmental technology and procedures, which can eventually be used to assist government agencies in mining development and the application of environmental protection instruments. Tasks Project implementation will involve, at least, the following tasks: 1. Proposal and formalization of a technical cooperation and information exchange agreements between NIMOS and each one of the companies; Joint review of feasibility and environmental studies, and environmental management plans; Follow-up of mining exploitation and impact monitoring activities; Joint formulation of guidelines and pollution control standards for environmental impact assessment and environmental audit of gold mining and processing activities; Design and implementation of training events for public officials (NIMOS and GMD) on environmental control and management. Approval of the environmental framework law and regular monitoring of large mining companies.

2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

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Project Implementation Involved institutions NIMOS and GMD will be government institutions directly involved in this activity. The negotiation and formalization of a cooperation and information exchange agreement with Rosebel Gold Mines NV and Suralco corporations is a pre-condition for the development of this project. The Center for Environmental Research (CMO) of ADEK is the institution recommended for carrying out the training activities. Resources The implementation of this activity will require the allocation of professionals from NIMOS and GMS (at least one of each institution) or consultants on a part-time basis (5 days a month). Financial resources will be needed to cover costs of training events, transportation and travels to the mining concessions and processing facilities.

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8.3.5 Project 4: Improvement of Access to Health Care for Inhabitants of the GSB Description of the Problem Malaria has a high economic and physical cost to individuals, households, and communities. It is a primary cause of illness, lost days of work, poor child development and complications in pregnancy, also being a cause of death. It is one of the reasons why schools do not function properly (teachers do not want to work in the interior and when they do they are often ill), and children absenteeism form classes because of illness. HIV/AIDS is spreading rapidly, though the full extent of the problem is not known due to the lack of testing in mining areas and limited testing in communities. French Guiana and Guyana have the highest recorded AIDS rates in the Caribbean, and it is likely that Suriname will match these rates once better data become available. Objective To improve access to health care currently provided to interior communities and miners in the GSB, in particular for the prevention of transmission of malaria and sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/AIDS). Tasks Malaria 1. 2. Strengthening existing malaria programs and extending their reach to include mining areas; Design and implementation of educational campaigns for stimulating miners to connect mining pits with running water or to introduce fish in mining pits and use of impregnated mosquito nettings.

HIV/AIDS 3. Strengthening existing HIV/ADS programs and extending their reach to include mining areas; Free condom supplies in clinics and stores in communities and mining areas; Design and implementation of educational campaigns to promote safe sex practices.

4. 5.

Project Implementation Involved institutions Under the supervision of the Environmental Management Unit for Gold Mining, the Medical Mission will manage all tasks, as this institution has the required expertise, and has run malaria control programs and HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in GBS. The Bureau for Public Health will also participate.

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Consultants (social scientists and experts on environmental education) will be hired to develop the proposed campaigns, which will be implemented by the Medical Mission.

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Resources In addition to resources for the design of the education campaigns, this project implementation depends to a large extent on the provision of funds (both the transfer of resources from the Government of Suriname and from other possible sources) to finance on a continuous basis the extension and maintenance of the current Medical Mission programs in the GSB. Malaria 6. 7. Strengthening existing malaria programs and extending their reach to include mining areas; Design and implementation of educational campaigns for stimulating miners to connect mining pits with running water or to introduce fish in mining pits;

HIV/AIDS 8. Strengthening existing HIV/ADS programs and extending their reach to include mining areas; Free condom supplies in clinics and stores in communities and mining areas; Design and implementation of educational campaigns to promote safe sex practices and use of impregnated mosquito nettings. Project Implementation Involved institutions Under the supervision of the Technical Working Group, the Medical Mission will manage all tasks, as this institution has the required expertise, and has run malaria control programs and HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in GBS. The Bureau for Public Health will also participate. Consultants (social scientists and experts on environmental education) will be hired to develop the proposed campaigns, which will be implemented by the Medical Mission. Resources In addition to resources for the design of the education campaigns, this project implementation depends to a large extent on the provision of funds (both the transfer of resources from the Government of Suriname and from other possible sources) to finance on a continuous basis the extension and maintenance of the current Medical Mission programs in the GSB.

9. 10.

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8.3.6

Project 5: Mercury Contamination Research

Description of the Problem. The introduction of gold mining and processing methods has resulted in an increase of mercury levels in soil, surface water and sediments in riverbeds, as well as in the food chain. Until now, there is no consistent data on these contamination levels in the GSB even though this is considered one of the most significant impacts of small-scale mining. According to some estimations around 18 tons of mercury has been released every year since 1995. In site-specific surveys mercury contamination has been identified in Brokopondo Lake and in most GSB rivers. Even if remediation and reduction of mercury pollution can be achieved in the future, this will not reduce the risk of contamination on account of the consumption of fish, the persistence of elemental mercury and because the release of this contaminant can still continue from various sources. Objective To enable an understanding of the cause and effect relationships of mercury contamination in the region, with focus on food chain, surface water and sediments, and to propose criteria for mercury content in consumption fish. Tasks Research implementation will involve, at least, the following tasks: 1. Systematic monitoring of Hg in food fish (and if necessary also in a good non-food indicator species) in the GSB, and in some additional non-contaminated reference sites in Suriname; 2. Supporting research in order to determine potential sources, sinks and pathways of mercury in the different aquatic ecosystems in the interior of Suriname. This research will provide a basis for long-term monitoring of aquatic ecosystems with respe ct to mercury in fish; 3. An inventory of fish consumption from the different ecosystems and of fish consumption by involved population groups; 4. Devise new fish consumption quality standards related to the levels of mercury in fish that are based on international standards (WHO); 5. Identification of risk groups and organization of an awareness and information campaign specifically targeted to them. Project Implementation Involved institutions and resources The research will be developed by CELOS, at ADEK, with the cooperation of the Fisheries Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Food Control Department of the Ministry of Heath, under the supervision of the Technical Working Group. CELOS and the Fisheries

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Department have been involved in a previous research, the continuation of which will be ensured by this project14. . International aid may be required for financing this research.

8.4 FURTHER PLANNING PHASES The Environmental Management Program presented here has been designed using the in formation on the GSB and current gold mining activities collected in the course of the elaboration of the REA. These data have been the basis for the level of detail outlined in the proposed program and projects (tasks, performance indicators, involved institutions). Once the Government of Suriname adopts the Plan, another planning phase should be carried out. The main program and the five complementary projects will have to be separately detailed through planning exercises with the participation of involved institutions and interested groups, in order to: (i) Refine the objectives of the main program and five projects, establishing specific performance and environmental quality goals and indicators; (ii) Detail proposed tasks and prepare executive work plans, including benchmarks for baseline data gathering and periodic monitoring during the implementation phase, follow -up and timetables; (iii) Prepare detailed budgets and terms of reference for surveys, studies, awareness campaigns, training events, consultancies etc.; (iv) Decide on the best way to implement public involvement and participation. Taking into account the distances; public involvement meetings and other events should be held in the GBS, in number and at places to be determined so as to ensure the effectiveness of participation. (v) A preliminary projection of an indicative budget is included with this assessment as Annex . During the plan implementation phases, it will be important to submit the Environmental Management Plan to periodic evaluation and review (for instance, once every two years), in order to account for the inevitable uncertainties which may influence the achievement of program and projects goals, but also concerning the environmental conditions in the GSB: eg. the level of economic deve lopment of Suriname, gold prices in the international market, etc. Results of plan evaluation and review will be essential to the re-dimensioning of tasks, goals, and performance and environmental quality indicators.

14.

Mol et al. Mercury contamination in freshwater, estuarine and marine fishes in relation to small-scale gold mining in Suriname, South America. In: Environmental Research Section A 86, 183-197 (2001)

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Figure 27: Logical Framework Greenstone Belt Gold Mining

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAM


General Objective To organize proper management and control of gold mining activities in the GSB region, with emphasis on small and medium-scale mining, aiming at the improvement of environmental conditions and quality of life in the region

ACTIVITIES Capacity building for Environmental management Unit for Gold Mining to be created

OBJECTIVES To build institutional capability for environmental management in mining To build institutional capability for social improvement of population involved in small-scale gold mining in GSB

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES GMD , NIMOS & Labor Inspection (program execution) Tax office (collaboration) Other government departments Involved social groups: (CoGaSur), mining rights holders, maroon community

FOLLOW-UP Half-yearly performance reports by NIMOS and GMD Yearly reports by the Tax Office

% of tax payers increase Number of surveyed miners % of registered miners Number of identified and controlled priority mining areas Data banks integrated in information system Progress in reviewing policies and legislation

Project 1 Mining-site Rehabilitation in Brownsberg Nature Park

To demonstrate the possibility of restoring Hectares of rehabilitated land a mined plot of land into a condition Number of people trained in comparable to the original one rehabilitation techniques To make the experience replicable to Approved guidelines other similar areas

NIMOS & GMD (project supervision) STINASU (Brownsberg Park management and conservation project execution). Other institutions: ADEK, CELOS, WWF and CREP (activities in the field of environmental rehabilitation)

Reports by STINASU on the stage of project implementation; Records on, and evaluation reports of training events

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Figure 27: Logical Framework Greenstone Belt Gold Mining (continued)


ACTIVITIES Project 2 Mining Pollution Control Project OBJECTIVES & GOALS To define appropriate methods for small and medium scale gold mining and processing, and strategies for environmental control, in order to achieve a minimal impact on the environment, and reduce risk to human health To assess and follow -up the environmental management activities developed by large gold mining companies, in order to gain knowledge from the transfer of environmental technology and procedures, which can assist the government agencies in mining development and the application of environmental protection instruments PERFORMANCE INDICATORS INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES GMD & NIMOS (project execution) Involved social groups: (CoGaSur), mining rights holders, maroon community Other institutions: ADEK, IMWO, CMO and CELOS FOLLOW-UP Use local trainers to report on the percentage of trained miners that adopted the appropriate technology

% of miners that use the


appropriate mining and processing technologies Number of goldshops with air pollution control equipment Number of local trainers in GSB

Number of technical documents


jointly reviewed Number of guidelines prepared and approved Number of joint field inspections and monitoring Number of companies external audit reports reviewed by NIMOS

Project 3 Large Gold Mining Environmental Management

GMD &NIMOS (project execution) Mining corporations (implementation of environmental control)

NIMOS and GMD records on the supervision of mining companies

Project 4 Improvement of Access to Health Care for Inhabitants of the GSB Project 5 Mercury Contamination Research

To improve access to health care to % of medical staff increase in the interior communities and miners, for the GSB prevention of transmission of malaria and Number of cases of malaria and sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/AIDS). HIV/AIDS Number of educational campaigns executed To enable an understanding on the cause Number of monitoring sites in and effect relationships of Hg place contamination levels in the region, with Number of surveyed community focus on the food chain in surface water groups for food consumption and sediments and propose criteria for patterns fish consumption in the country

NIMOS & GMD (project supervision) Medical Mission (executing agency) Bureau for Public Health (official authority) PAHO

Yearly reports by the Medical Mission on the indicators

GMD & NIMOS (research supervision) CELOS (research development) Other institutions: Fisheries Department and Food Inspection

Reports on the monitoring results Publication of food consumption guidelines

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CHAPTER 9 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN The objective of the GSB Environmental Management Plan is to provide the Government of Suriname with a road map for improved environmental management of small-scale gold mining activities in the GSB region in a context of sustainable economic and social development. Suriname has a small population and enormous land and natural resources. The program and projects proposed in this study are designed to contribute to improvement of the Governments ability to provide guidance to the gold mining sector, in particular the spontaneous development of small-scale gold mining activities, and to assist in developing policies for environmentally and economically sound exploitation of gold. This is a process that implies significant challenges and opportunities. The program and projects proposed will contribute to building a capacity to attract and manage investment in environmental protection and restoration, and development. The viability of the projects proposed here rests on the ability to provide the government with the means to adjust mining and mining rights policy to accommodate market forces, and using a sectoral approach.
9.1 FEASIBILITY OF THE PLAN

Environment is one of six sectors targeted by the Surinamese government for investment using the Sector Wide Approach (SWAP). The objective of the SWAP process is to move from a project approach to a sustainable policy/activity approach for natural resource management. Four priority areas have been identified within the sector: Forestry/Fresh Waters, Protected Areas, Coastal and Marine, Mineral Resources. The activities outlined in the Environmental Management Plan are in line with three of the four priority areas cited above. For the purposes of this Regional Environmental Assessment, the feasibility of the plan is thus based on two criteria: technical and financial sustainability of the activities and the capacity of the government and executing agencies to manage the financial and physical resources put at their disposition for the execution of program objectives (absorptive capacity).

Sustainability The Surinamese government and its partners have agreed on a sector wide approach as a road map for sustainability. Addressing the countrys development problems by sector in no way negates the validity of projects as a primary means of organizing activities. The Plan presented here incorporates a sector-wide Program, under which a series of projects are to be administered. It includes all priority areas of the non-urban environment: forest resources, freshwater resources, protected areas, and mineral resources. The Plan is meant to address the needs for a more coherent regulatory presence in the Greenstone Belt, hence a more efficient mining deve lopment and environmental control. While it is outside the scope of the present Regional Environmental Assessment to do an exhaustive analysis of the social and environmental costs and benefits of the proposed program, it is clear that the Government sees the gold sector as the driving force for development in the interior. The need to control and mitigate the damage that small-scale mining does to the environment is obvious. As has been shown in chapter 5, gold production has contributed an average of a bout $100,000,000 to GDP annually over the last decade. Since a significant proportion of gold mining activities occur in the informal sector, much of
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this contribution goes untaxed. An implicit objective of regulating small-scale mining is to establish a fiscal presence. The program also contributes to decentralization and good governance through activities, which tend to favor formalization of the sub-sector (mining pollution control and mercury monitoring). A regional development dynamic is also implicit in the recognition of the importance of sustaining activities relating to the maintenance of public health. The government is in the process of considering reforms that will improve its ability to muster fiscal resources. However, in the near term, the availability of budgetary resources remains tightly constrained. This basic constraint will have to be kept to the forefront in the preparation and implementation of the projects proposed under the plan. Indeed, many of the activities foreseen in these projects can, and should, involve measures designed to enhance cost recovery ie. fines, fees and licensing. The private sector should also play a role here. Large companies like Cambior have been granted concessions to operate in the gold sector. These are the best placed to provide technical assistance and training in abatement techniques to small-scale miners.

Absorptive capacity Suriname is possessed of excellent human capital assets. However, most of these assets are deployed in Paramaribo and in the coastal belt where 90% of the population lives. Educational, social service, police and other government and private sector infrastructures are notably lacking in the interior. Indeed, the nature of small-scale gold mining itinerant and isolated from settlements exacerbates the problem for the sector. Locating and affecting appropriate human resources to these areas will be a difficult job in itself. A few NGOs operate in the GSB. They represent major stakeholders in the successful implementation of projects in the area. To the extent possible these local actors must be incorporated into project design and implementation. A number of the factors already enumerated also militate against the governments ability to mobilize financial resources on a large scale. Foremost is the factor of mustering the political will to insert a program for environmental management of gold mining into the SWAP process. Small projects will be easier to manage in the GSB area. This fits well with the strategies of some of the executing agencies most interested in activities in the interior. WWF, GEF, PAHO and Suriname Conservation Foundation all operate through grants often implemented by NGO partners. It is also worth reiterating at this stage that, while the concept of cost recovery needs to be considered from the outset, implementation of the appropriate decentralized fiscal policies remains a question of political will.

Socio-Economic issues Gold mining typically occurs in areas where there are no fixed settlements. It is an itinerant activity. As mentioned before, this has strong regional development implications. It also has an important effect on the scope of the damage that is done to the environment. In the final analysis, success of any activity aimed at regulating the gold mining sector will depend upon the will of the government to affect the necessary policy reforms. At the regional and local level it will depend upon how well communities will be able to administer land and natural resource issues in a decentralized way. Communities must therefore be implicated in the process from the design phase all the way to project implementation and evaluation.

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9.2

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN

Organization NIMOS will be the Executing Agency for the GSB Environmental Management Plan. In order to do this NIMOS will create an Environmental Management Unit for Gold Mining. The Environmental Management Unit for Gold Mining will have primary responsibility for 1) implementing an environmental capacity building program related to gold mining, and 2) for nominating and convening specific Technical Working Groups to guide the execution of the five priority projects identified in the GSB Environmental Management Plan. The structure of this organization is shown schematically in Figure 28. In the Environmental Management Plan (chapter 8.3.1) a proposal for institutions and human resources needed for implementation is included. In accordance with the Strategic Environmental Planning process, one of the principles of the Plan, the projects in the plan will be managed by implementing agents in a transparent Partnership approach. Some partners will be evident eg. STINASU to execute Brownsberg Park project, probably in collaboration with Forum NGO, MZ (Medical Mission) for the public health project. Otherwise, consultants or firms may be hired using a transparent preparation and tendering process.

Sustainability of the organization Creation of the Environmental Management Unit for Gold Mining will have the effect of reinforcing NIMOS role as a public/mixed project identification and evaluation entity. The initial package of five priority projects is not intended to imply that these will be the only projects managed by the Program. The long-term survival of the program will depend upon the quality of its management of the initial projects and on its ability to resolve cost recovery issues.

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Figure 28: Implementation of GSB Environmental Management Plan

NIMOS

Environmental MNGT UNIT

Director

Mining Regulatory Environmental Policy

Capacity building for Environmental Protection

Capacity building for social and Occupational Health

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CHAPTER 10 COST AND FUNDING OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

10.1

COSTS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

Indicative budgets for the main environmental management program for gold mining and the five initial projects are presented in Figures 27 to 34. The overall budget is presented in Figure 36, while the expenditures by activity are presented in Figure 35 and the disbursements in Figure 37. The projects envisioned will undertake tasks, which under normal circumstances would be performed on a fee-forservices basis. Cost recovery measures should be systematically applied to activities such as the following: Site rehabilitation/mitigation; Inspection; Enforcement; Effluent/pollution monitoring/sampling; Allocation of use rights (property/mineral); etc.

10. 2

Funding options

A number of Surinames funding partners share interests in investing in the protection and management of the countrys environmental and natural resources. Inter-American Development Bank The IDB has expressed strong interest in the GSB Environmental Management Plan. The IDBs environmental program objectives coincide with the goals of the plan in a number of areas: Support for a strong NIMOS which can continue to contribute to the management of Natural Resources; The IDBs SLMP does not really address the question of sub-soil resources, so the activities of the environmental management program for gold mining are largely complementary; Policy reforms in the Forestry sector and eco-tourism; Support for Decentralization and good governance. IDB investments are managed through the Ministry of Finance.

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Bilateral (Dutch Government, EU) Suriname enjoys strong support for initiatives in the environmental sector from certain bilateral financing partners. The EU, for instance, is also assisting in the support of NIMOS. The Dutch Embassy is Surinames largest financial partner. Two mechanisms offered by the Dutch Embassy are particularly interesting in terms of funding activities under the GSB Environmental Management Plan: Project preparation funds: this is a pre-financing mechanism available for the preparation of more detailed projects Startup funds: These funds are earmarked for the financing of urgent projects, which have a clear national interest. The advantage of these funds is that they are applicable before full analysis of a project is available.

The Dutch Embassy is currently supporting the SWAP process. Funds are managed through the Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation (PLOS).

UNDP (GEF) Discretionary funding from the UNDP is limited to GEF grants for small community-based projects submitted or supported by NGOs. Around $200,000 is available for this purpose. The UNDP encourages the preparation of smaller projects that can evolve into medium-sized projects

International NGOs and others A number of international environmental lobby groups are active in Suriname. WWF, CI, etc. act as either executing agencies (funding) or implementing agencies (project implementation), depending on the circumstances. They all share an interest in environmental protection and mitigation of damage to the environment from activities such as gold mining. The objectives of the GSB Environmental Plan can be expected to receive a sympathetic hearing from these organizations. The large, international environmental NGOs also have considerable experience in Suriname as well as elsewhere in forming joint ventures with local NGOs to implement smaller projects. Other international NGOs such as PAHO operate in a similar fashion in the public health sector. The gold mining sector is potentially one of the most productive for Suriname in the short-term. It is also a sector that is almost completely managed by the private sector whether small-scale miners or largescale corporations like Cambior. The government should profit from this situation by making the necessary policy decisions to enhance the sectors performance. Large-scale operators are far easier to regulate than the small ones. The government and its donor partners should begin immedia tely to set the conditions for the development of a mixed sectoral approach. Large-scale companies should be encouraged to work in partnership with the small-scale sub-sector by providing certain technical assistance services and training, especially in the areas of mining site rehabilitation and environmental damage abatement.

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Figure 29: Costs of Program on Environmental Management in Gold Mining in the Greenstone Belt
Environmentel Management Gold Mining Program Personnel Services Technical Assistance International Personnel: Sr. Technical Advisor Study Manager Local Personnel: Director Mining Regulatory Policy Specialist Environmental Protection Specialist Occupational Health Specialist Support Personnel: Administrator Logistics/Travel Specialist Secretary-Receptionist Media Specialist Drivers/others Transportation and Per diem Internatioal transportation Local Transportation Services Fuel and Maintenance - Vehicle Shipping and Air Freight International Per Diem Local Per Diem Management costs and Overhead Other Direct Costs Communications Courier Document Reproduction Office Rent Utilities Supplies & Materials Secretarial Services Unit Unit $ $ 15,000 6,000 Unit Unit Unit $ $ $ 25,000 10,000 50,000 R/T Ticket Unit Unit Unit Days Unit Unit $ 150 $ 1,000 7 $ $ $ $ 150 $ $ $ 7,000 3,600 50,000 20,000 22,500 7,500 100,000 LT LT LT ST LT Mo. Mo. Mo. 1 Days 3 Mo. $ $ $ $ $ 1,500 1,000 500 150 300 60 $ 60 $ 60 $ 50 $ 60 $ 90,000 60,000 30,000 7,500 54,000 LT ST ST ST Yr. Days Days Days $ $ $ $ 24,000 200 200 200 5 $ 300 $ 300 $ 300 $ 120,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 ST ST Days Days $ $ 550 525 120 $ 30 $ 66,000 15,750 Status # Unit Unit Cost No. Units Total Cost

Vehicles and Equipment 4X4 Light vehicles Desktop Computers Lap top Computers Printer Photocopier Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit $ $ $ $ $ $ 35,000 20,000 2,000 2,500 2,000 3,000 1 $ 1 $ 5 $ 2 $ 2 $ 1 $ 35,000 20,000 10,000 5,000 4,000 3,000

Training & Seminars Gold mining policies Unit $ 3,500 1 $ 3,500

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Figure 30: Costs of project on Mining Site Rehabilitation in Brownsberg Nature Park
Project 1: Mining Site Rehabilitation in Brownsberg Nature Park

PersonnelServices

Project Management Local Personnel Project Coordinator Supervising Engineer Support Personnel Temporary Workforce Transportation and Per Diem Local Transportation services Per Diem ODCs Communications Courier Secretarial Services Office Supplies & Materials Document Reproduction Office Rent Utilities

Status

Number

Unit

Unit Cost

No. Units

Total Cost

LT ST

Yr. Days

$20,000 $250

3 24

$60,000 $6,000

Temp.

2 Days

$50

75

$7,500

Unit Day $50 50

$2,500 $2,500

Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Government Counterpart Contribution Government Counterpart Contribution

$3,000 $1,200 $3,500 $3,000 $3,000

Vehicles and Equipment ATVs Computers Printer High speed Scanner Supplies Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit $10,000 $2,000 $1,000 $5,000 $1,000 2 1 1 1 1 $20,000 $2,000 $1,000 $5,000 $1,000

Training and Seminars Training local miners in remediation methods Unit $3,500

Subcontracts and Fees Production of video (Social communication) Training manuals and materials Pilot Rehabilitation Project: Heavy Equipment Labor Management Costs and Overhead

Unit Unit

$4,000 $2,000

Day 10 Day Unit

$400 $30

45 60

$18,000 $18,000 $10,000

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Figure 31: Costs of Project on Mining pollution Control


Project 2: Mining Pollution Control

Personnel Services Technical Assistance International Personnel: Pollution & occupational Health hazard Specialist Transportation and Per Diem International travel (consultant) Local Transportation services Per Diem ODC Communications Courier Secretarial Services Office Supplies & Materials Unit Unit Unit Unit $3,000 $1,200 $3,500 $3,000 R/T Ticket Unit Days $3,600 $150 1 14 $1,000 $3,600 $2,100 ST Day $550 14 $7,700 Status Unit Unit Cost No. Units Total Cost

Subcontracts and Fees Awareness campaign Unit $5,000

Studies and Assessments Mercury Emissions and sediments Inventory of current technologies Survey of experiences elsewhere Economic incentives Gold shop regulation Unit Unit Unit $3,500 $3,500 $5,000

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Figure 32 : Costs of large Scale Gold Mining Environmental Management

Project 3: Large Scale Gold Mining Environmental Management Personnel Services Technical Assistance International Personnel Environmental assessment Specialist Transportation and Per Diem International Travel Local Transportation services Per Diem ODC Communications Courier Office Supplies & Materials Unit Unit Unit $3,000 $1,200 $3,000 R/T Ticket Unit Unit $1,000 1 $ $ $ 1,000 2,000 2,000 Status Unit Unit Cost No. Units Total Cost

ST

Days

550

14

7700

Training and Seminars Environmental Control and Management NIMOS and partner agencies Public and Private sector Unit Unit 3500 3500

Project 3 Total

26,900

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Figure 33: Costs of project on support for Gold Mining related to Public Health services
Project 4: Support for Gold Mining Related Public Health Services Personnel Services Project Management Local Personnel Public Health Specialist - HIV/AIDS LT Public Health Specialist - Malaria Support Personnel Public Health Workers Transportation and Per Diem Local Transportation services Per Diem Management and Overhead Charges ODCs Communications Courier Secretarial Services Office Supplies & Materials Unit Unit Unit Unit $10,000 $1,000 $5,000 $20,000 Unit Days Unit 20 50 330 300 $6,600 $15,000 $250,000 LT 2 Month $500 60 $60,000 LT Yr. Yr $20,000 $20,000 5 5 $100,000 $100,000 Status Number Unit Unit Cost No. Units Total Cost

Vehicles and Equipment 4X4 ATV Laboratory Equipment Pharmaceuticals and accessories Laptop Computers Printer Supplies Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit 2500 2000 5000 2 1 1 30000 10000 1 3 $30,000 $30,000 $20,000 $15,000 $5,000 $2,000 $5,000

Training and Seminars Educational Campaign - Malaria Educational Campaign - HIV/AIDS Unit Unit 5000 5000 2 2 $10,000 $10,000

Project 4 Total

$694,600

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Figure 34: Costs of project on Mercury Contamination Research


Project 5: Mercury Contamination Research Direct Costs Unit Unit Cost No. Units Total Cost

Communications Courier Office Supplies & Materials Others

Unit Unit Unit Unit

$2,600 $1,200 $3,000 $1,000

Training & Seminars Awareness Campaign Unit 5000

Subcontracts and Fees

Monitoring Hg in Food Fish Mercury Pathways Research Harmonization Consumption Standards

WWF Executed WWF Executed WWF Executed

* * *

Studies and Assessments Fish Consumption Inventory Groups at Risk Unit Unit 3600 3600

Project 5 Total

$20,000

* Activity included in WWF annual plan

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Figure 35 : Expenditure by activity for Environmental Management Plan Greenstone Belt


Expenditures by Activity Component Capacity building for Environmental management of Gold Mining Review of policies regarding development and regulation of gold mining Environmental awareness campaigns Survey of miners, mineral rights holders and workers Management information system for mining Review and completion of existing mining legislation Identification of areas for spatial planning Institutional Development Development of model Mining Site Rehabilitation in Brownsberg Park Detailed mapping of selected area Identification a nd assessment of mining techniques used Survey of existing remediation techniques Remediation needs for chemically contaminated soils and tailings Development of methodology and further research Social communication mechanisms Preparation and implementation of rehabilitation project Mining Pollution Control Mercury Emissions Control - Inventory of available technology - Survey of experiences -Economic incentives survey -Awareness campaign Gold Shops Control - Identory of pollution & occupational heal th risks - Study of cost effectiveness of current technology - Elaboration of specific regulations - Identification and proposal of fiscal & financial measures Large Scale Gold Mining Environmental Management Technical cooperation agreements Joint review of studies and management plans Follow-up and impact monitoring Joint formulation of pollutio n control guidelines Training events Regular control activities Public Health Malaria - Strengthening and extension of program - Educational Campaigns HIV/AIDS - Strengthening and extension of program - Free condom supplies - Educational Campaigns Mercury Contamination Research Monitoring of Mercury in food fish Mercury pathways research Fish consumption inventory Harmonization of consumption standards Awareness and information campaign $8,430 $8,430 $18,000 $8,430 $18,00 0 $325,500 $30,000 $25,000 $325,500 $25,000 $10,000 $9,000 $10,000 $11,000 $12,000 $18,000 $12,500 $12,000 $15,000 $10,000 $12,240 $10,000 $12,500 $12,000 $45,000 $17,000 $15,000 $48,000 $35,000 $25,000 $75,000 $110,000 $95,000 $105,000 $99,600 $105,000 $104,500 $99,000 $105,020

Total Project

$2,041,650

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Figure 36: Budget summary of the Greenstone Belt Environmental management Plan

Green Stone Belt Gold Mining Environmental Management Plan


Budget Summary For 5 years Project: Personnel Services Technical Assistance Transportation and Per Diem Other Direct Costs Cap. Build. Program Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Project 4 Project 5

$623,250 $210,600 $106,000

$73,500 $5,000 $13,700

$7,700 $6,700 $10,700

$7,700 $5,000 $7,200

$260,000 $271,600 $36,000

$7,800

Vehicles and Equipment

$77,000

$29,000

$107,000

T r a i n i n g & Seminars

$14,000

$3,500

$7,000

$20,000

$5,000

Subcontracts and Fees

$15,000

$53,500

$5,000

Studies and Assessments

$8,500

$17,000

$20,500

$7 , 2 0 0

Total

$1,054,350

$195,200

$50,600

$26,900

$694,600

$20,000

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Figure 37: Disbursements of Greenstone Belt Environmental Management Plan


Disbursements by Program Year

Expenditures by Year and by Component

PY1

PY2

PY3

PY4

PY5

LOP

Cap. Build. for Env. Managemant of Gold Mining Brownsberg Park Rehabilitation Mining Pollution Control Large Scale Mining Env. Mgmt. Occupational & Public Health Mercury Contamination Research

$277,000 $76,000 $50,600

$201,000 $83,700

$201,000 $35,500

$201,000

$174,350

$1,054,350 $195,200 $50,600

$10,000 $214,200 $20,000 $120,100 $120,100 $120,100

$16,900 $120,100

$26,900 $694,600 $20,000

Totals

$637,800

$404,800

$356,600

$331,100

$311,350

$2,041,650

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ANNEXES

Below is the list of annexes to the Greenstone Belt Regional Environmental Assessment

ANNEX 1. ANNEX 2. ANNEX 3. ANNEX 4. ANNEX 5. ANNEX 6. ANNEX 7. ANNEX 8. ANNEX 9. ANNEX 10. ANNEX 11. ANNEX 12. ANNEX 13 ANNEX 14.

TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE GREENSTONE BELT REA AUTHORS OF THE GREENSTONE BELT REA ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS BIBLIOGRAPHY PUBLIC CONSULTED PERSONS SUMMARY OF CONSULTATIONS WITH STAKEHOLDERS THEMATIC MAPS OF THE GREENSTONE BELT REA CLIMATIC PARAMETERS FOR THE GSB TOPOGRAPHY MAP OF THE GSB SOIL MAP OF THE GSB HYDROLOGY MAP OF THE GSB VEGETATION MAP OF THE GSB RARE AND ENDEMIC PLANTS OF THE GSB TOTAL NUMBER OF RARE AND ENDEMIC PLANTS FOR COLLECTION IN THE GSB LIST OF ENDANGERED ANIMAL SPECIES POSSIBLY OCCURRING IN THE GSB SETTLEMENT MAP OF THE GSB SATELLITE IMAGERY OF MERIAN CREEK, SARA CREEK AND SELA CREEK AREAS MALARIA SITUATION IN THE INTERIOR 1965-2002 GOLD MINING RIGHTS GRANTED IN THE GSB
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ANNEX 16. ANNEX 17.

ANNEX 18. ANNEX 19.

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ANNEX 1. TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE SURINAME GREENSTONE BELT REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

Background NIMOS, the Nationaal Instituut voor Milieu en Ontwikkeling in Suriname (National Institute for Environment and Development in Suriname), was established by Presidential Decree in 1998. Since then, NIMOS has carried out many activities in the framework of the IDB/EU-funded Environmental Management Program (ATN/SF-5941-SU). The objective of the Environmental Management Program is to support the Government of Suriname to implement sustainable development by advancing the design of a national, legal and institutional framework for environmental policy and management. The program is executed in three components: Institutional strengthening and support of the initial operations of NIMOS; Formulation of environmental legislation; Development of specific environmental studies and activities. The Greenstone Belt Regional Environmental Assessment (REA) is one of the specific studies to be carried out as part of the NIMOS Environmental Management Program. The REA covers the Green Stone Belt, the area in eastern Suriname where gold is mined both industrially and on a small-scale basis. The delimitation of the region is shown on the map attached. Artisanal gold mining in the region started in the mid 1980's and is producing an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 kg of gold per year. Mercury is used to recover gold from ore - about one kilogram of mercury is needed to recover one kilogram of gold. Almost 80 percent of the gold miners are immigrants from Brazil, known as garimpeiro's. As a result of these mining activities the region experiences significant environmental impacts, including environment-related social impacts and impacts on cultural heritage. Some initiatives are taken to improve social and environmental conditions in the region. Often, such projects and project proposals focus on sitespecific interventions and on pilot efforts, but there are no area-wide comprehensive environmental efforts. The Government wishes to understand and address the environmental and related social problems of the Greenstone Belt in a comprehensive manner. The Greenstone Belt REA is an appropriate vehicle to assist the Government in such a comprehensive treatment. The Greenstone Belt REA will assess environmental issues and impacts in a discreet spatial setting: the Green Stone Belt. Ongoing activities, plans, and potential projects are assessed by how they cumulatively affect the ecology and human living conditions in the area and beyond. The Greenstone Belt REA will provide recommendations for specific action and identify the cost and possible funding source of such actions. The REA can be used as a development-planning tool for the region. However, the emphasis in the REA is on assessing cumulative impacts and on influencing evolving activities and projects in the region to ensure sustained resource use rather than on designing a full-fledged development plan. The Greenstone Belt REA is more comprehensive than project-specific environmental assessments (EAs), in terms of the area to be assessed, the time frame to be considered, and the analytical content. The REA does not substitute for project-specific EAs, but the REA can limit the need and scope, and thus the cost, of future project-specific EAs in the Greenstone Belt.
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Objective The overall objective of the Greenstone Belt REA is to contribute to environmentally acceptable gold mining procedures, including but not limited to the minimization of land, water and ecosystem degradation, and the alleviation of related social problems. The specific objective of the Greenstone Belt Regional Environmental Assessment (REA) is to assess the environmental and social impacts of current and future mining operations in the region and to propose measures to mitigate, avoid, or compensate for the negative environmental impacts, including technical and social measures, institutional and legal measures, research, and awareness building. The REA will also identify the requirements for monitoring and enforcement of recommended procedures. The Greenstone Belt REA will follow the standards set by the World Bank and IDB for regional environmental assessments. The Greenstone Belt REA will be carried out in close collaboration with the Ministry of Natural Resources /GMD. Consulting Assignment A Consultant team will conduct the Greenstone Belt REA. Specifically, the Consultant team will carry out the following tasks: Define the Greenstone Belt, in terms of covering the area(s) in Suriname characterized by geological strata that have a potential for the mining of gold. Assess the importance of gold mining and gold production in the national and local economy, both current and potential Briefly describe the current policy, institutional, and legal framework that governs gold mining in the Greenstone Belt, as follows: (1) Summarize current policies; (2) Identify the role of Government, NGO, and the private sector in gold mining and processing; (3) Review applicable national legislation, mining concessions and regulations, environmental legislation, if any, and occupational safety and health laws and regulations, as well as applicable international agreements; (4) Identify the gaps in the legal and institutional framework. Identify the physical and biological baseline conditions of the Greenstone Belt, and their use in mining, water management, agriculture and forestry, tourism, and biodiversity conservation Identify and estimate the kind and numbers of resident and immigrant populations that reside in the Greenstone Belt, including garampeiros and indigenous peoples. Describe the scale (size of concessions) and the extent (where in the Greenstone Belt) of past, current, and potential gold mining activities in the Greenstone Belt. Identify the owners (concession holders, associations of miners, business groups, etc.) responsible for mining operations. Distinguish, if feasible, between legal and illegal operations. Identify the significant potential (unmitigated) positive and negative, direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental and social impacts of the mining activities in the Greenstone Belt. Provide estimates of the magnitude, duration, and likelihood of each of the major environmental impacts associated with the Greenstone Belt mining activities. Analysis of these environmental impacts will rest primarily on linking Sector activities to important potentially vulnerable components of the environment. These valued (or vulnerable) environmental components (VECs) will be identified in impact analysis. Develop an environmental action plan (EAP) for the Greenstone Belt designed to prevent and mitigate the major, negative environmental and social impacts of gold mining in the region. The
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EAP should identify sustainable mining practices, waste minimization measures, land rehabilitation measures, waste treatment and disposal measures, and mitigation of social impacts: compensation, training, etc. The EAP should cover at least the following type of measures: (1) policy measures, including monetary and fiscal incentives, (2) legal measures (concession system), (3) institutional measures, (4) investments, including provision of facilities, (5) research, (6) training and education, (7) community participation, (8) a monitoring plan, and (9) other measures, as warranted. Determine the cost of implementation of the EAP and recommend possible funding sources. Propose appropriate mechanisms for monitoring of the implementation of the EAP, including the strengthening of monitoring and enforcement capabilities. Provide in an Annex to the REA report the following information: o Full author information, names, affiliations and qualifications of project team o Record of key meetings held as part of the REA, including public hearings and consultations with government and non-governmental organizations o Reference bibliography

Public Participation The Consultant will conduct the Greenstone Belt REA in consultation with key stakeholders and will attempt to develop a consensus among stakeholders with regard to criteria used in the REA. A minimum of two seminars with stakeholders will be organized, as follows: A REA Scoping Session with key stakeholders at the beginning of the Greenstone Belt REA process to solicit their views and concerns and to allow for their participation in the design of the environmental assessment process. A Greenstone Belt REA seminar with stakeholders to present and discuss the draft findings of the REA and to seek consensus on the proposed action plan.

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ANNEX 2. AUTHORS OF THE GREENSTONE BELT REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

PLANTPROP experts, both national and international, conducted the Regional Environmental Assessment. All authors of the Assessment and NIMOS counterpart team members are listed below. The list includes responsibilities for study coordination, technical aspects, and editing and report production. PLANTPROP experts:

Subject 1. Team leader 2. Deputy team leader 3. Legal aspects 4. Institutional aspects 5. Geological aspects 6. Social aspects 7. Soil and land degradation aspects 8. Environmental planning aspects 9. Financial aspects 10. Economic aspects

Name of specialist Shanti Adhin Gwendolyn Emanuels-Smith Inge Jaspers Ewald Poetisi Henk Morroy Marieke Heemskerk Dirk Noordam Iara Verocai H Schar Harry Dorinie

NIMOS staff: Subject Technical editing / report production Name of specialist S. Verkuijl

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ANNEX 3. ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS

ABBREVIATION ABS ADEKUS (see UvS) ATM BIZA BOG CMO COGASUR DDD DS EIA FAO GB GDP GIS GMD GOS GSB IADB MOU NGO NH

DUTCH NAME Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek Anton de Kom Universiteit van Suriname Ministerie van Arbeid, Technologische Ontwikkeling en Milieu Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken Bureau voor Openbare Gezondheidszorg Centrum voor Milieuonderzoek Cooperatie voor Garimpeiros in Suriname Dienst der Domeinen Distrikt Secretaris Milieueffect Rapportage Voedsel en Landbouw Organisatie Gouvernementsblad Bruto Nationaal Product Geografische Informatie Systemen Geologisch Mijnbouwkundige Dienst Surinaamse Overheid Greenstone Belt Inter-Amerikaanse Ontwikkelingsbank Niet-Gouvernementele Organisatie Ministerie van Natuurlijke Hulpbronnen, v/h Ministerie van Natuurlijke Hulpbronnen en Energie (NHE), v/h Ministerie van Opbouw Nationaal Instituut voor Milieu en Ontwikkeling van Suriname Nationale Milieu Raad Pan-Amerikaanse Gezondheidsorganisatie Ministerie van Planning en Ontwikkelingssamenwerking Ministerie van Regionale Ontwikkeling, v/h Ministerie van Districtbestuur en Decentralisatie (D&D) Staats blad Stichting Bosbeheer en Bostoezicht Stichting Planbureau Suriname of PLOS, v/h Bureau Landelijk Opbouw (BLO) Stichting Natuurbehoud Suriname van NH Verenigde Naties Ontwikkelingsprogramma van de VN (Anton de Kom) Universiteit van Suriname Verenigde Naties Wereld gezondheidsorganisatie

ENGLISH NAME General Bureau for Statistics Anton de Kom University of Suriname Ministry of Labor, Technological Development and Environment Ministry of Internal Affairs Bureau of Public Health Environmental Research Center Cooperation for Garimpeiros in Suriname Office of State Land Records District Secretary Environmental Impact Assessment Food and Agriculture Organization Government Gazette Gross Domestic Product Geographical Information System Department of Geology and Mining Government of Suriname Inter-American Development Bank Memorandum of Understanding Non-Governmental Organization Ministry of Natural Resources; formerly Ministry of natural resources and Energy, formerly Ministry of Development National Institute for Environment and Development of Suriname National Council for Environment Pan American Health Organization Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation Ministry of Regional Development, formerly Ministry of District Administration and Decentralization State Gazette Foundation for Forest Management and Production Control Foundation National Planning Office of PLOS, formerly Bureau for National Development Foundation for Nature Conservation in Suriname of NH United Nations UN Development Program (Anton de Kom) University of Suriname United Nations World Health Organization

NIMOS NMR PAHO PLOS RO

SB SBB SPS

STINASU UN UNDP UVS VN WHO

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ANNEX 4. BIBLIOGRAFIE Below are references to written materials, both published and unpublished, used in preparation of the Greenstone Belt Regional Environmental Assessment.
Author Algemeen Bureau Statistiek Algemeen Bureau Paramaribo, Statistiek Year 2002 2003 Title Statistical Yearbook. Preliminary census data unpublished. Suriname Gold & Commercial Sex, Exploring the link between smallscale gold mining and commercial sex in the rainforest of Suriname. Het gebruik van voorwaarden in de hinderwetvergunning ter bescherming van het milieu. Doctoraalscriptie. 65 pp. Anton de Kom Universiteit van Suriname Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch Wesr-Indi, unchanged reprint of the original edition The Hague Lieden 1914 - `17 S. Emmering, Amsterdam The genus Hypostomus Lacepede, 1803, and its Surinam representatives (Siluriformes, Loricaiidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie 99, 112 Boeseman, M. Netherlands (Suluriformes, Siluroidei). Zoologische Verhandelingen Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie 116. 64 pp. Brosset A. & P. CharlesDominique BUURSINK 2002 International Consultants 1990 The bats from French Guiana: a taxonomic, faunistic and ecological approach. Mammalia 54 (4). Paramaribo, Suriname Amsterdam, The Netherlands 1971 The "comb toothed " Loricaiidae of Surinam, with reflections on the phyllogenetic assessment within the family Loricaiidae The Netherlands Leiden, Netherlands Leiden, The Paramaribo, Suriname Town, Country Paramaribo, Suriname

Antonius Smits, C.C.F., 1999 et al. Badal, G. 2001

Benjamins, H.D. & 1981 Amsterdam, Snelleman, Joh. F. Boeseman, M. The 1968

Proposal for Suriname land management project. Main report. Diagnosis of land management issues. Annexes. Ministry of Natural Resources Research into the Precambrian of Suriname. In: Th. E. Wong, D.R. de Vletter, J.I.S. Zonneveld & A.J. van Loon (eds): The history of earth sciences in Suriname Kon. Ned. Akad. Wet & Ned. Inst. Toegep. Geowet. TNO, p 15 -64 The search for gold in Suriname. In: Th. E. wong, D.R. de Vletter, J. I.S. Zonneveld & A.J. van Loon (eds): The history of earth sciences in Suriname Kon. Ned. Akad. Wet & Ned. Inst. Toegep. Geowet. TNO, p 311- 350. Een volk op weg naar Zelfstandigheid De Mobilisatie van het Eigen, een ruimtelijke fysieke bijdrage aan de Integrale Planning Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press Inc. & The Association of Systematics

De Vletter, D. R. , Aleva, 1998 G.J.J. & Kroonenberg,

De Vletter, D.R., & Hakstege, A.L.

1998

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Essed, F.E. F.E. essed et. al. Frost, D.R.

1973 1975 1985

Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Lawrence, Kansas

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Collections. Geijskes, D.C. Gemerts, G., G. Noter & Ch. Healy Genoways, H.H. & S.L. Williams 1954 1998 1984 Het dierlijk voedsel van de bosnegers aan de Marowijne. Vox Guyanae 1 (2): 61 83. Small scale mining in Suriname: problems and opportunities. Interaktie 4: 88 95 Results of the Alcoa Foundation Suriname expeditions ?X: Bats of the genus Tonatia (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Suriname. Annals of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History 53 (11): 327- 346. Paramaribo, Suriname Pittsburg, USA

Author Goede, H.

Year 1999

Title Environmental and health impact assessment report project water supply Moitaki. Community Development Fund Suriname. Synopsis of the tree frogs in Suriname. Animals of the Carnegie Museum 43, 23 pp. 1985 s.d. Flora of the Guianas. Koeltz Scientific Books. Koenigstein, West Germany. Since 1997: Royal Botanic Garden Kew, United Kingdom. 3,679 pp. Ontwerp Mijnwet (Draft Mining Code) Mijnwet (Mining Decree) SB 1986 and amendments Regeringsverklaring 2000 2005 Government Declaration 2000 2005 Multi annual Development Plan 2001 to 2005

Town, Country Paramaribo, Suriname Pittsburg, USA Koenigstein, West Grmany Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo,

Goin, C.J.

1971

Grts-van Rijn, A.R.A. & M.J. Jansen-Jacobs Government of Suriname

Government of Suriname 1986 Government of Suriname Government of Suriname 2000 2000

Government of Suriname 2001 Suriname Government of Suriname 2002 NIMOS Suriname Gray, J.E., V.F. Labson, J.N. Weaver & D.P. Krabbenhoft Haverschmidt, F. & G.F. Mees Healy, Ch. Healy, Ch. 2002

Ontwerp Milieuwet

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Mercury and Methyl Mercury Contamination Related to Artisinal Gold Mining, Suriname. Unpublished manuscript Birds of Suriname. VACO. 584 pp Goudwinning door kleinmijnbouwers. Kompas 1 (27): 20 22 The impact of mining on the local communities and the environment. Social impact assessment in gold mining: problems and opportunities. Paper presented at the Suriname Mining Conference, organized by the Society of Economists in Suriname, 25-26 January 1997. 11 pp Social, economic and political dimensions of small-scale gold minig in Suriname. In Press. In: The Socio-economic Impacts of Small-Scale Mining in Developing Countries: An Update. Gavin M. Hilson ed. Projected publication date: August 2003 Self-employment and poverty alleviation. Women`s work in Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname

1994 1996 1997

Heemskerk, M. and Van Der Kooye, R.

2003

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artisanal gold mines. Human Organization. 26 (1): 26-73 Heemskerk, M., G. Amelo, M.Oliviera and C.White. (unpublished data) Heemskerk, M. 2003 Survey research in the villages of Mooitaki, Jawsa, Manlobi, and Vandaagi

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Livelihood decision-making and environmental degradation Small-scale gold mining in the Suriname Amazon. Society and Natural Resources. 15 (4): 327-344. Do international commodity prices drive natural resource booms ? An empirical analysis of small-scale gold mining in Suriname. Ecological Economics. 39(2): 295-308 Maroon gold miners and mining risks in the Suriname Amazon. Cultural Survival Quarterly 25(1). Special Issue: "Mining Indigenous Lands: Can Impacts and Benefits be Reconciled?", Saleem H. Ali & Larissa Behrendt eds., pp. 25-29 Title Driving Forces of Small-Scale Gold Mining Among the Ndjuka Maroons: A Cross-Scale Socioeconomic Analysis of Participation in Gold Mining in Suriname. Dissertation. Department of Anthropology. University of Florida, Gainesville. Gender and gold mining. The case of the Maroons of Suriname. Working Papers on Women in International Development 269. ed. A. Ferguson. Ann Arbor: Michigan State University. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Suriname ??. A new species of Dendrobates (Amphibia, Salientia, dendrobatidae) from Suriname. Zool., Meded. 44 (9): 133-141. (Dendrobates azureus). Notes on the Herpetofauna of Suriname ?V. The lizards and Amphisbaenians of Surinam. Junk. 419 pp. Small-scale gold mining in Suriname: operational aspects and Environmental impacts. Interactie 5: 15-28. Mammals of Suriname. Zoologische Monographien. Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. 569 pp + Appendices. The rights of indigenous peoples and Maroons in Suriname. IWGIA Document No 96. 265 pp. De rechten van inheemse volken en marrons in Suriname, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Carribean Series 24. 197 pp. Internationaal publiekrecht in vogelvlucht Mercury in the Amazon: A chemical time bomb? 46 p. Overzicht van dier- en plantensoorten die in Suriname voorkomen en die genoemd zijn in de Bijlagen van CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild flora and fauna, 1973)volgens de wijzigingen van 1997. Dienst `s-Landsbosbeheer (LBB), Afd Natuurbeheer (NB). 6 pp. Preliminary survey of the vegetation types of Northern Suriname. Van Eeden Foundation, Amsterdam. 45 pp. Also as: Washington DC/ Paramaribo, Suriname Amsterdam, the Netherlands Copenhagen Denmark Leiden Netherland Deventer, Nederland Town, University of Florida, USA

Heemskerk, M.

2001

Heemskerk, M.

2001

Author Country Heemskerk, Marieke

Year 2000

Heemskerk, M.

2000

University of Florida, USA Leiden, The Netherlands

Hoogmoed, M.S.

1969

Hoogmoed, M.S. Horsten, J.C.A. Husson, A.M. Kambel, E.R. & F. MacKay Kambel, E.R. & F. MacKay P.H. Kooijmans Lacerda, L.D. & W. Salomons LBB-NB

1973 2001 1978 1999 1999

Den Haag, The Netherlands Paramaribo, Suriname

2000 1991 1997

Lindeman, J.C. & S.P. Moolenaar

1959

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The Vegetation of Suriname Vol. ? (2). Also as: Communications of the Botanical Museum and Herbarium, State University Utrecht, no 159. Lyuba zarsky et al. MacMillan, Gordon 2002 1995 Human Rights & the Environment, Conflicts and Norms in a Globalizing World At the End of the Rainbow? Gold. Land and People in the Brazilian Amazon. London, Engeland New York, NY Columbia University Press. Brazil

Martins, Cynthia Carvaldo

2000

Os Deslocamentos Como Categoria de Analise. Agricultura e Garimpo na Lgica Camponesa Master thesis. Centro de Cincias, Sociais, Dept. Polticas Pblicas. Universidade Federal do Maranho. So Lus. The Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae of Suriname (Pisces, Nemagtognathi). Zoologische Verhandelingen Rijksmuseum Van Natuurlijke Historie 132. 271 pp. The weather in 1961 1978. [annual booklets with meteorological data of the respective years]. Respectively Mededeling 1 to 18 Weather records 1981 1990. Serie 1, mededeling no. 19. Title Number of schools, teachers and students in the interior of Suriname. Afdeling Onderzoek en Planning. Conservation Action Plan for Suriname. Conservation International, suriname Forest Service, World Wildlife Fund, Foundation for Nature Preservation in Suriname, University of Suriname. 45 pp. Addendum (typoscript) 1991 by F.L.J. Baal. 3 pp. Mercury Contamination in freshwater, Estuarine and Marine Fishes in Relation to Small-scale Gold Mining in Suriname, South America. In: Environmental Research Section A 86, 183197 (2001). Survey for the development of the Women`s Economic and Empowerment Project (WEEP) in the upper Suriname River Area. Vegetation Map of Suriname. Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Assessment (NARENA) Suriname transportation study. Report on hydraulic Investigations. 293 p. Revision of the Surinam catfishes of the genus Corydoras Lacepede 1803 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Calliichthydae). Beaufortia, Series Miscellaneous Publications Zoological Museum of the University of Amsterdam 18 (203): 75 pp. National report on the implementation of the United Nations convention to combat desertification. 15 p. The geographical outline. In: P.E. Ouboter (ed.). The Freshwater ecosystems of Suriname. Kluwer Academic Publisher: p 13-28. Verslag kwiksurvey Cusewijne 18-19 november 2000. IBER &

Mees, G.F.

1974

Leiden, The Netherlands Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Town, Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname/ Washington D.C., USA Paramaribo, Suriname

Meteorological Service 1962of Suriname 1985 Meteorological Service 1997 of Suriname Author Country Minov (Ministry of Education) Year 2002

Mittermeier, R.A., S.A. 1990 Malone, M.J. Plotkin, F.L.J. Baal, K. Mohadin, J. MacKnight, M.C. M. Werkhoven & T. Werner Mol, J.; Ramlal, J.; Lietar, C.; Verloo, M. 2001

National Vrouwen Beweging NARENA Nedeco Nijssen, H.

1998

Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname The Hague, the Netherlands Amsterdam, the Netherlands

1996 1968 1970

NIMOS Noordam, D. Ouboter, P.E. & S.A.

2002 1993 2000

Paramaribo, Suriname Dordrecht, the Netherlands Paramaribo,

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Sahdew Ouboter, P.E. & J.Mol 2003

CMO, University of Suriname. Downstream effect of erosion from small-scale gold mining on instream habitat and fish community of a small neotropical rainforest stream. Conservation Biology. Ecological studies on crocodilians in Suriname. Niche segregation and competition in three predators. Thesis University of Leiden, The Netherlands. SPB Academic Publishing. 147 pp. The fish fauna of Suriname. In: P.E. Ouboter (ed.). The Kluwer Academic Publisher: p 133-154 Report of the LogFrame Meeting Structural Approach to the Effects of Artisanal Gold mining on the health, the Environment and Socio-Economic Development in Suriname organized by the PAHO. Het funktioneren van het estuarien ecosystem: produktiviteit buffercapaciteit en kwetsbaarheid. Werkgroep Bijzonder Beheersgebied Estuarine Kuststrook. Rapport LBB. Deforestation and forest regeneration following small-scale gold mining in the Amazon: the case of Suriname. Environmental Conservation 28 (2): 117-126

Suriname

Ouboter, P.E.

1996

Amsterdam. The Netherlands

Ouboter, P.E. & J.H.A. 1993 Freshwatre ecosystems of Suriname PAHO 2000

Dordrecht, the Mol Netherlands Paramaribo, Suriname

PandayVerheuvel, M.P. 1976

Paramaribo, Suriname

Peterson, G.D. & M. Heemskerk

2001

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Author

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Title Introduction retorts for abatement of mercury pollution in Suriname. Report prepared for the OAS by HWO Consultants NV. 65 pp + appendices Small-scale gold mining and the environment in Suriname. Discussion paper. 7 pp Review of initiatives in mercury abatement in Suriname. Revised final version, April 4, 200. 30 p., 10p. Appendices Flora of Suriname. E.J. Brill. 4,4000 pp.

Town, Country Washington DC, USA/ Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Leiden, The Netherlands Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname

Pollack, H., J. De Kom, J.Quick & L. Zuilen

Pollack, H.R. Pollack, H.R. & L. De Rooy Pulle,A., J. Lanjouw, A.L. Stoffers & J.C. Lindeman (eds.) Quick, J.A.M. Quick, J.A.M. & P.E. Ouboter

2002 2000 19281998 2001 2000

Mercury in the Surinamese environment. Interactie 5: 29-37. Water quality monitoring in the Commewijne watershed, Suriname. WWF-GFECP, Project FG-06. Centrum voor Milieu Onderzoek, Anton de Kom Universiteit van Suriname, 18 pp De effecten van het gebruik van keik in de kleinschalige goudmijnbouw op de vispopulatie in Suriname. 9 p. Celos. National Report on the Implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification Environmental Impact assessment Rosebel gold project Suriname. Klimaat. In: C.F.A. Bruijning en J. Voorhoeve, eds. Encyclopedie van Suriname, p 338-347. Reconnaissance soil map of Northern Suriname, scale 1:500 000. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted diseases among Saramaka and Ndjuka Maroons in the hinterland of Suriname Bovenrivieren en sula-complexen. Diktaat Instituut voor de Opleiding van Leraren. 6 pp. Biogeografie van Suriname (2e editie). Diktaat IOL. 17 pp Overview of environmental studies in Suriname. Report Royal Dutch Embassy at Paramaribo. 136 Mercury in artisanal gold mining in Latin America. Facts, fantasies and solutions. UNIDO expert meeting, Vienna. 23 p. Safety & health in small-scale surface mines. A handbook. Sectoral Activities Programme, Working paper (WP.168) International Labour Office Rare or Endemic plant species in Suriname. In: Mittermeier et al 1990. Appendix B. pp 31-44. Results of the Alcoa Foundation-Suriname expeditions ?V: A new species of bat of the genus Molossops (Mammalia: Molossidae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History 49 (25): 487-498. Environmental Assessment of Mining Projects

Ramlal, J.S.; Lietar,C.; Stalmans,L. Republic of Suriname RESCAN Scherpenzeel, C.W. Soil Survey Department Suriname Terborg, J. Teunissen, P.A. Teunissen, P.A. Teunissen, P.A. & D. Noordam Veiga, M.M. Walle & Jennings

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Paramaribo Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Calgary, Canada Amstedam, the Netherlands Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname Paramaribo, Suriname

Geneva, Switzerland Paramaribo, Suriname

Werkhoven, M.C.M. Williams, S.L. & H.H. Genoways

1990 1980

World Bank

1998

USA

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Environment Department The World Bank, Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update, number 22

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ANNEX 5. PERSONS CONSULTED

ORGANIZATION Academisch Ziekenhuis Association of Geologists and Mining Engineers Bureau of Public Health Bureau of Public Health Center for Agricultural Research in Suriname (CELOS) Centrale Bank van Suriname Centrale Bank van Suriname Cooperation for Garimpeiros in Suriname Office of State Land Records (DDD) District Office Paramaribo North East District Office Brokopondo District Office Sipaliwini Dutch Embassy Foundation Claudia A Geological Mining Service Geological Mining Service Geological Mining Service Inter American Development Bank Institute for Social Science Research (IMWO) Medical Mission Medical Mission

FUNCTION Toxicologist / Pharmacist Associate Director Coordinator Environment Dpt. Senior Researcher Head Gold Division Head Balance of Payments Chairman Staff Member District Secretary District Secretary District Secretary Section Environment Manager Director Deputy Director Project Coordinator Operations Specialist Director

NAME Mr. J. De Kom Mr. L.De Rooy Mr. L. Resida Mr. P. Stuart Mr. J. Mol Mr. M. Wolfram Mr. H. Troenoredjo Mr. C. Neto Mr. Ch. Sieuw Mr. E. Ford Ms. I Vrede Mr. A. Koboleng Mr. G. Noordam Ms. T. Burleson Mr. G. Gemerts Mr. C. Wirokromo Mr. B. Paanse Mr. W. Grisley Mr. E. Akrum

Deputy Director Director

Mr. E. Akrum Mr. E. van Eer

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ORGANIZATION

FUNCTION

NAME Mr. L. Ammersingh Mr. J. MackNack Mr. J. Belfort

Ministry ATM, Section Labour Inspection Coordinator Legal Bureau Ministry ATM, Section Safety Inspection Ministry ATM, Section Legal and International Affairs Ministry ATM, Section Environment Ministry ATM, Section Environment Ministry of Natural Resources Ministry of Planning, National Planning Office Ministry of Planning Ministry of Trade and Industry NGO Forum NGO Forum NIMOS, Office of Environmental Legal Services NIMOS, Office of Environmental Legal Services Coordinator Safety Inspection Section Director

Staff Member Staff Member Director Staff Member

Mr. M. Kerkhoffs Zerp Ms. Uiterloo Mr. J. Abdul Mr. M. Mungroo

Staff Member Dpt. Business Permits Coordinator interior Program assistent interior Director

Mr. S. chandoe Mr. A. Kanhai Mr. F. Verneuil Mr. A. Misiekaba Ms. N. Del Prado

Legal Officer

Ms. F. Hausil

NIMOS Office of Environmental Monitoring Office Director a.i. and Enforcement NIMOS Office of Environmental Monitoring Office Director and Assessment Pan American Health Organization SBB STINASU STINASU Tooka Foundation Advisor Milieuhygiene Manager Policy and Development Manager Research and Monitoring Senior Staffmember Secretary

Mr. C. Nelom

Mr. S. Verkuijl

Mt. T. Vlugman Mr. R. Somopawiro Mr. B. De Dijn Mr. H. Hunfeld Mrs. C. Werners

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Samson United Nations Development Fund (UNDP) Project Coordinator University of Suriname Senior Lecturer/ Researcher Ms. C. De Rooij Mr. J. Quick

ORGANIZATION University of Suriname VIDS VIDS World Wide Fund

FUNCTION Senior Lecturer Free Lance Adviser to Bureau VIDS Director Bureau VIDS Regional Forest Officer

NAME Mr. J. Horsten Ms. E. Kambel Ms. L. Jubitana Mr. G. Zondervan

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ANNEX 6. SUMMARY OF CONSULTATIONS WITH STAKEHOLDERS Public consultation has been an essential part of the Greenstone Regional Environmental Assessment. The purpose was explain the nature and findings of the GREA study to a broader audience of stakeholders, both Government and private sector. The approach is to solicit ideas and comments from the public and to give them the opportunity to express their views and possible concerns, so that all these can be taken into consideration during the study. The public consultation has taken place in the initial phase of the study by a scoping meeting, half way through the study by a presentation on the findings, and at the end of the study by the presentation of the draft GREA report. Scoping Meeting The first contact with the public was established with the scoping meeting, held at March 27th 2003 at NIMOS, with the purpose to explain the scope of the GREA and to present the methodology of the team of consultants to the around 50 stakeholders from Government, NGOs, International organizations, private sector and academia. The scoping meeting was the first acquaintance of the public with the GREA and therefore officially opened by officials of the Ministry of Labour, Technology and Environment, NIMOS and the Geology and Mining Department. The team of consultants presented the objective and context of the GREA, the process of the GREA study according to World Bank guidelines and the different study phases and activities that would be undertaken for the study. During the meeting, individuals stressed that the Greenstone Belt couldnt be made arbitrary, because of the huge migration of people between borders. Others attended the team on the existing land-use conflicts between forestry and mining. There was special concern on the public health issue, and it was stated that this should not be underestimated. Individuals from international organizations (WWF, PAHO) provided information about their activities regarding gold mining pollution abatement and health control. Other questions were raised on behalf of NIMOS activities in environmental management. The team of consultants took notice of the remarks and suggestions for incorporating them into the study, after which the meeting was closed. Consultations with NIMOS and GMD During the study there have been several consultations with the NIMOS and GMD concerning critical stages in the process. One of these was the consultation on the Environmental Management Plan that was proposed by the study group, on which no serious comments were made. Presentation on Social assessment and Environmental management Two months after the scoping meeting, the team of consultants arranged a presentation of the findings. The presentation was held on May 27th 2003 at NIMOS. The purpose was to present the findings of the social assessment to the stakeholders and to elaborate on the principles of environmental management that would be guided, taken into account the experiences from Brazil. The meeting was of informative nature, but solicited comments on the availability of social data. Concerns were raised on the issues of commercial sex within tribal communities as a potential source of income, the pollution of drinking water with mercury and the nature of the Brazilians working in the gold mining sector. A discussion was held on the experiences in Brazil; specifically to what extend the Brazilians regulated small-scale gold mining sector. The meeting of 30 participants closed with ensuring a thorough study on the environmental and social issues. Presentation on the GREA draft report The presentation of the draft report was held on July 2nd 2003 at NIMOS. The team of consultants felt that it was extremely important to focus on the proposed actions (projects) for adequate environmental
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management of the Greenstone Belt. Presentations were given on the environmental management plan and the costs that are associated with this. Discussions were held on the funding sources that might be available for the management plan and the complexity of the gold mining sector related to the regulatory provisions that need to be made. There were no serious comments made on the draft report and the was meeting ended by providing the final report within two weeks.

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