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REEK READER

Vol.

Adapted with English Notes from voti WUajnowitz-MoellendorfFs Griechisches Lesebuch

ByEC

MARCHANT

OXFORD:

NDON PRESS

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GREEK READER
VOL.
I Selected and adapted with English Notes

from Professor von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff's Griechisches Lesebuch

BY

E. G. FELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE, OXFORD

MARCHANT

OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS


1905

'Hi-

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2-04-

2.72
M.A.

HENRY FROWDE,

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

LONDON, EDINBURGH

NEW YORK AND TORONTO

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PREFACE
The
text of this Greek Reader
is

selected

by

per-

mission from the admirable

Griechisches Lesebuch,

which was prepared by Professor von WilamowitzMoellendorff, acting for a committee appointed in j 900 by the Prussian Minister of Education. The
choice of the passages for the original
solely

work was guided


hope that the many from

by

consideration of the interest and importance


;

of their subject-matter

and

it

is

my

publication of these few pieces

may

save

being set down at a too early stage in their learning of Greek to Euripides and Xenophon. By a lucky
accident I escaped the Hecuba and Alcestis

when

was

beginning Greek
in

but a course of parasangs inspired

me a hatred of Xenophon so intense that it took me twenty years to forgive him. Whatever estimate be formed of Xenophon's merits as a writer, it is, I think,
he cannot stand the ordeal of being spelt He is line and sentence by sentence. tolerable only when he is read quickly, as he wrote. As for Euripides, even if the words are intelligible to a young learner, what is he to make of the feeling ? What's Hecuba to him ? And whom should we pity the most the heroine or the poet, or the beginner who wonders what on earth they are at and heartily
certain that

out line

by

hates
I

them both ? Of the pieces chosen


its

for this

volume,

need not say anything here, as the remarks prefixed


nature and conintroductions

to each passage sufficiently indicate


tents.

These delightfully written

little

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iv

PREFACE
German
our

to the separate pieces I have translated as faithfully


as I could, merely substituting English for
allusions.
I

wish that

could

convey into
;

language the charm of the original


English gives but a feeble echo of

but
it.

my halting Among the

Wilamowitz has given, world of his consummate continually gives to the and ability, not the least is to be found in the alchemy by
proofs that Professor

many

which he has transmuted into gold even the German


of classical scholarship.

The

notes in the original are

mainly the work of Dr. Ewald Bruhn, who is well known as an excellent scholar and a judicious commentator for schools. He enters but sparingly into grammatical points; but in allusions to Greek life and manners his notes are rich. I have freely availed myself of them and of all words that are not to be
;

found

in the

small

'

Liddell and Scott,' or are intherein,


I

sufficiently

dealt with

have supplied

translation or a sufficient clue to the meaning.


for the text, some purists may perhaps object on the ground that it is not throughout pure But it is very good Greek for all that and in Attic. the case of anything strange, the notes supply a warning that will preserve our budding Atticists from harm.

As
it

to

We

teachers are too

much

in the habit of supposing

that the

power of writing Greek prose mysteriously


is

vanished from the world at the death of Theophrastus.


I fear

the reason

that most of us in our early

explorations of Greek history and literature learned


to regard the death of
Pillars of Heracles,

Alexander the Great as the beyond which none need adventure

himself.

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CONTENTS
TEXT
Part I:
I.

Maxims and Anecdotes

.
b.
C.

II.

'

The Hunter

'
'

.....
Battle

_ .... ...
3
.

PAGE

4
8

III.

IV.

Alexander the Porus Great Britain

Great:

with
25 41

Part II:
I.

Hiero's Galleon

46
.
.

II.

Pausanias and Themistocles

.51

NOTES
Part
I.

Maxims and Anecdotes

.61
63

II.

III.

The Hunter The Battle with Porus


Great Britain

.68
72

IV.

Part II:
I.

Hiero's Galleon

75
. .

II.
G. R.

Pausanias and Themistocles


,.

.78

b
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The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions
text.

in

the United States on the use of the

http://archive.org/details/cu31924021601640
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PART
I

Maxims and Anecdotes


'

This great nation

is

a wise people!

Deut.

iv. 6.

quick-witted peoples the reign of the spoken word precedes the era of books. The Greeks, for example, early formed the habit of condensing their wisdom and experience These easily impressed themselves into short, pithy sayings. on the memory, and passed readily from mouth to mouth. There are still current many old proverbs of which the origin is long since forgotten, and the authors were already unknown to Aristotle, three centuries before Christ. Such are

Among

.
'

iriXu

2.

There's many a slip 'twixt the cup and the MrjSe ' There are two sides to every question.'

~7],

3.
'

Though

the mills of God grind slowly, yet they grind exceeding small.'

^. .
.
'

lip.'

The Greeks at first regularly attached to such sayings a story which related the circumstances under which they had been originally uttered. Thus the first of the above lines is referred to an old King Ancaeus of Samos, who had just raised the cup to his lips, when he was told that a wild boar was harrying his vineyard. He put the cup down, attacked the boar, and was killed. Or at least an author was thought enhanced the worth of, and the name of some wise man is some one's In the of the word the sixth century b. c. the metrical form that had prevailed The Delphic Apollo hitherto began to give way to prose.
'
:

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GREEK READER

himself, though his oracles

.
:

were given in verse, greeted the On his doors was inquirer with an admonition in prose. but inscribed, not the ordinary greeting The 'Seven Wise Men, honoured vessels who held the secrets of worldly wisdom and practical knowledge, coninto densed their teaching into maxims their

This adoption of prose was by no means a loss And so we it was only a different form of art. of art find sayings of the great philosopher Heracleitus (about 500 B.C.), as also of the equally great Democritus a century after him, of which the setting is no less precious than
the jewel.

It is true that Knowledge has then to withdraw into the But its possessors are personally so study and the book. important that even their chance remarks cannot be Socrates, indeed, is not a philosopher of the neglected. study at all, but is occupied wholly with daily life ; and this method of instruction he bequeathed to his devoted disciples the Cynics, whose teaching took the form of witty sally and action in accordance with sense. Round the personality of Socrates, thanks to Plato's genius, a new form of literature grew up in the or dialogues. In the case of Diogenes the Cynic we have no dialogues. But we have instead the anecdote or, to give the true Greek word, and several other philosophers of genius who lived in the fifth, fourth, and third centuries B.C. shone with scarcely less lustre than Diogenes as the heroes of anecdotes. It was natural that similar sallies should then be ascribed also to the famous names of earlier ages. Amid the desolation of life in the Roman period individuality and wit faded away, and with them went the anecdote. Along with Cynicism it was destined to a new though limited career in the imperial epoch. Of this revival the example in our selection is Demonax (about 100 a.d.). Not only the wise are witty. When men met in the market and over their wine, they would exercise their wit in sally and retort, especially in drawing comparisons, so that ' to compare,' came to imply mockery. Many tried also to give their own experience in a general form, which in the earliest times was of" course metrical. About 600 B.C. Phocylides of Miletus composed in this fashion. For

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example, under the influence of the


said

(Thus too spake Phocylides


wherein discretion abideth
folly'):

or again, he scoffed at the inhabitants of the Leros, thus


6

n-avres

(Thus too spake Phocylides


'

Lerians are very All excepting Procles

The

From Leros echoed back

"? . " , '^ ,


fall

MAXIMS AND ANECDOTES

of Nineveh, he

iv

is

small city upon a rock greater than Nineveh in her


'

little

island of

, ?. ,
os

and Procles
the retort

villains,

every mother's son of them, is one of them.')

'

,.

(Thus too spake Demodocus


'

Milesians, truly,

Of Wisdom ;
these

the rules yet they act like Fools.')


to perpetuate their
in verse also

know

These poets took pains and

names; and produced a rich

crop of similar effusions.

Here too

verse yields to prose.

But wit penetrates further and further, and sometimes gets into low company, since useless parasites especially shine in witticisms. This department will be represented for us by Stratonicus, whose witticisms Callisthenes, nephew of Aristotle and historian of Alexander, thought worthy to be
recorded.

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II

'THE HUNTER'
By Dion of Prusa.

The author of this story is Dion of Prusa, then an important town in Bithynia, now the considerable Ottoman town Brussa. The son of rich parents, he devoted himself to oratory, which was in his age merely a frivolous trifling with words, and yet was held in the highest esteem, and was, in fact, the only literary profession that could lead to honour and renown. Dion too was raised to greatness by it, and found his way into the court of the Emperor Titus (7981 a.d.). To it also he owed the name by
which he is generally called, to distinguish him from several namesakes. From him the great preacher St. John Chrysostom (patriarch of Constantinople 398-404 a. d.) received the name. But it was disgrace that caused Dion to win
Involved in the fall of a Roman noble by Domitian (81-96 a.d.), who was an enemy to freedom of speech, he was banished in 82. Instead of adopting the residence that was appointed for him, he preferred to join the ranks of the common people. For years he lived the life of an obscure wanderer, supporting himself by the work of his hands. With the fall of Domitian he reappeared. Nerva (96-98 a. d.) and Trajan (98-1 1 7 a. d.) paid honour to him, and bestowed on him their confidence.
recognition as a writer.

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'THE HUNTER'
But he had now found the object of his
life
:

9
to

move about

among

the people as a moralist, dressed in the Cynic's shabby mantle his eyes open to detect the sores of society and the decay concealed beneath its brilliant exterior. This object is served by the discourse which opens with the narrative which follows. Into it Dion weaves some noteworthy political reflections. It was the duty of the state to care for the economic and moral interests of the governed of the humble country-folk as well as the people of the towns but that duty was grievously neglected by the government of the day, in most things so beneficent. But chiefly he has in mind the people of the towns, when, for instance, he brings before their notice the healthier and happier life of his huntsman. cannot fail to remark in him the element of romance which had entered into the work of Tacitus a few years before, when he depicted for the Romans the simple manners of the Germans. Dion represents the whole story as a personal experience of the time of his exile. need not inquire how far it is true to fact. He has, however, prudently left the town (which can be none other than Eretria) unnamed, so that he may describe it and its popular assembly as suits his purpose. If it is a moralizing fiction, yet it is the invention of one who has eye and heart for truth and simplicity.

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III

ALEXANDER THE GREAT: THE BATTLE WITH PORUS.


From Arrian's
Anabasis.

When Alexander crossed to Asia, intending to get possession at least of the peninsula of Asia Minor, he had taken care to have Greek literary men on his staff, in order that they might promptly note down his achievements and For the first campaign influence public opinion at home. But when his purpose this intention of his was realized. grew, and his army marched further and ever further into the remote East, the official register could not keep pace with him. Then he died too.soon, and the conditions were so complicated that no general record of his history was produced. Nevertheless very many who took part in his expeditions wrote their memoirs, and there were not wanting accounts of separate episodes, such as the narrative of the journey from the mouth of the Indus to the Persian

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z6
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by Nearchus. In the regular court journal in the tables of distances kept by /Wt'Aeioi valuable records the royal 'measurers,' called existed, portions of which were published sooner or later though the Macedonians themselves were as incapable of Thus a writing books as our good King William III. history of Alexander was soon formed, which was indeed endowed with all the graces that historians in that age could bestow, but contained a large element of romance and, especially from the military point of view, was unsatisfactory. comparatively sober account was given by Aristobulus who accompanied the expedition. Only a few fragments of his work now survive. It was reserved for the aged Ptolemy I of Egypt to publish a reliable military history based on the documents of the head quarters. In this history, which differed entirely from the account hitherto

current

and was indeed epoch-making, he made

it

his

purpose

to tell the truth and to render the honour due to the king, or better still, to the general. Only where consideration for

the divine founder of Alexandria forced him to it, did Ptolemy make any concession to legend. owe it to him that we possess information to a high degree authentic, though not exhaustive. In the second degree we owe it to the high regard for truth shown by Flavius Arrian, of Nicomedia in Bithynia. In his youth he received the moral impulse from the training of the great stoic Epictetus, who made him susceptible to greatness and to truth. In imperial service under Hadrian

We

(117-138 a.d.) he gained insight into military affairs and the realities of life. On the death of Hadrian he took leave of official life, retreated to Athens, and in authorship gave himself up to affected imitation of alien styles, so that he is
entirely without literary individuality.

In the history of

Alexander
tus

just that

special pride, his theless

which cost him most pains and was his imitation of the naive manner of Herodo-

and Xenophon *, leaves us altogether untouched. Neverit is in consequence of his efforts that we possess so much of Ptolemy's history and if the true, plain portrait of
;

the great king stands beside the imaginary oriental prince,


1

Arrian became

known

at

Athens as the

New

Xenophon.

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BATTLE WITH PORUS

27

and produces an incomparably deeper effect on us moderns, that assuredly teaches us first and foremost that true greatness endures no light so well as the light of truth it teaches
:

us further that all literary artifices pale before the moral power of truthfulness.

In the winter of 327-326

B.C.

Alexander had descended

by the

into northern India, in order to take possession of the province which, since Darius I, had belonged nominally to the Persian empire. The subjugation of the mountain tribes as far as Kashmir had cost
valley of

Kabul

much time and

trouble.

None

the

less,

isolated tribes,

and

the Greeks called Taxiles after his capital Taxila, had joined of their own accord, had been rewarded for so doing, and added their forces to the army. The host now moved down to the
in particular the powerful prince

whom

Indus; only its left bank had still to be annexed. The passage of the river occasioned no difficulty, as a division had early been detached to procure ships and whatever else was needed. The reduction of the country as far as the Hydaspes (Djelam) followed immediately; but the further (south) side of the river was occupied by the prince of the Purava tribe, whom the Greeks call Porus, with a considerable army. Alexander chose to conquer him completely, although the Indian rainy season, the beginning of which was bound to overtake him, rendered the operations exceedingly difficult.

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BATTLE WITH PORUS

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41

es

IV

GREAT BRITAIN
From the Description of Strabo.
In the time of Alexander, Pytheas of Massilia (Marseilles) Gades (Cadiz) as far as Brittany, thence to the Scilly Islands and Britain, and through St. George's Channel to the northern extremity of Scotland, which he named the name is preserved in the Orkneys. These islands, and at least the Shetlands as well, were visited by him and he obtained accounts of an island called Thule, situated in the arctic circle, and of the congealed sea wherein the elements earth, water, and air were combined in a wonderful blubber-like jelly. From here it seems that he crossed to the German coast of the North Sea he supposed the whole of the North Sea to be (Britain) was studded with islands, among which This name seems to have been known even the largest. It was earlier as that of an island in the north-west.
sailed along the Atlantic coast-line from

"

natural that he should over-rate the distances, often going When he was off the west so far astray as to double them. coast of England he supposed that he was going eastwards, and so he imagined *Ipis (Ireland) to lie north of Albion. The great discoveries of Pytheas were inserted by EraPolybius thought himself entitled to tosthenes in his map. declare Pytheas a swindler Posidonius was too scientific to suppose that, and he followed him in his description of
:

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42

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Caesar and oral information gathered from Romans in some respects however for example, in the position he assigns to Ireland he follows the old map. The occupation of England under Claudius, and the fighting with the inhabitants of Scotland, did indeed teach the Romans to understand these regions yet, in consequence of the lack of the scientific spirit, the imperial period never succeeded in giving substantially better accounts of Ireland than the Massiliot traveller had furnished. Thule remained a mysterious Wonderland, with which geographical romances might

play just as they did with the Hyperboreans ; later it the sport of geographical hypotheses, and is so still.

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PART

II

HIERO'S

GALLEON
v.

(Moschion in Atheneaeus,

206

e.)

This extract gives an example of the scientific ingenuity of Archimedes ; it shows what the art of practical mechanics could achieve under the direction of such a man. To be sure that art needed also the material prosperity which Hiero II, ruler of Syracuse, through his moderate government and his connexion with Rome, knew how to bestow on his Sicilian realm, and the discerning encouragement that he afforded Similar praise to the efforts of his relative Archimedes. may be bestowed on almost all the Hellenistic monarchies of the third century B.C., and so this became the great era Especially the art of ship-building, through of mechanics. the emulation of princes and engineers alike, reached unexampled perfection. The ship whose description we read below, was actually built as a show and gala vessel, and sent to Alexandria, doubtless to Ptolemy III, surnamed Euergetes (248-222 B.C.), because Alexandria was the head Shortly afterwards quarters of science and technical skill. the Hannibalic war destroyed the prosperity of Sicily for ever, and the strength of Egypt was sapped through the contemptible rule of Ptolemy IV, called Philopator. Philopator himself, it is true, had a much more magnificent Nile boat built; and we possess the description of this vessel too. The art of ship-building then declined, and never again reached such perfection before the nineteenth century. The following description, which is by a certain Moschion, otherwise unknown, is vivid and clear, but it is intended wholly for unskilled readers, and so does not allow even of a rough reconstruction. Archimedes, a relative of Hiero, had studied at Alex-

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HIERO'S GALLEON
andria,

47

and formed lasting connexions with the men of learning there, especially with Eratosthenes, the librarian of the celebrated royal library, who was also a writer on mathematics and astronomy. Archimedes lived afterwards for many years at Syracuse, his native city, and devoted himself to the study of mathematics and theoretical mechanics. He also solved practical problems. In particular, he protected Syracuse with ordnance and provided those machines which in 212 b.c. frustrated all the assaults of Marcellus on the In the final storming of the town he sea side of the city.
lost his
life.

The

victorious

Roman commander

gave him

an honourable burial ; but the Syracusans allowed the grave of their great citizen to go to ruin, and it was reserved for
Cicero,
it

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(Tusc. Disp. v.

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II
i.

PAUSANIAS AND THEMISTOCLES


(Thucydides,
128-138.)

Thucydides has described the end of the two most celebrated generals of the Persian wars in a passage which

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only loosely connected with his work, evidently because in a position to correct the common opinions by the results of new inquiry. In the case of Pausanias he had obtained knowledge of the decisive letters ; part of the story he declares to be a report, which is evidently from a Spartan source the events at the Hellespont and the catastrophe were notorious. Herodotus (v. 32) had mentioned the treason; and he refers to a daughter of Megabates, who is mentioned also by Thucydides, as the Persian bride of Pausanias. But he speaks of this last matter as only a

he was

and it follows from Thucydides that it was false. About Themistocles, too, a different story was often told. Between his flight from Athens and his appearance as governor of Magnesia some years intervened, in which the less they knew the more people talked of the most famous
report
;

man

in Greece.

Here, however, in one chief point of the

reports Thucydides found there was nothing credible.

The

next generation unanimously declared that Themistocles had gone to Xerxes. In this they were right, since Thucydides makes him escape across the sea just when the Athenians were blockading the island of Naxos. According to his account this siege occurred at the latest in 470 B.C., the year which later tradition also gives for the flight of Themistocles. Artaxerxes, however, succeeded Xerxes as king only in 465 B.C. (see c. 10). If a mistake can be detected in a point so important, the credibility of the whole account is, of course, seriously impaired, so far as it is concerned with distant regions or secret matters. The letter of Themistocles, in contrast with the documents in the story of Pausanias, we should in any case take for a free invention. We must then be content with this that Thucydides believed what he says, for which he refers to relatives of Themistocles. In one respect he is completely right, namely, in his estimate of the gifted statesman, whose portrait, as Herodotus had given it, was marred by the painter's blind hatred of his subject.

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NOTES
MAXIMS AND ANECDOTES
Page 3, 1, the ending in -?7 instead of : because Heracleitus (and Democritus also) used the Ionic dialect, of
1.

which
3.

spirit

The opposite of this saying is ' to be excited.' the nil admirari of the wise. PAGE 4, 1. 6. is often used of the good luck which possessions give, i.e. of wealth. Democritus contrasts this misuse with the true meaning through the etymology of the word (tv + Only when the the divine element in our souls, cv can we truly be said
' '

,
this

was a
'

make
form

characteristic. wise.'

'

Much

learning.'

'

9.

12. 13

1$. ot

(0=?(3. {.-=(!. =7 who have


Ionic
'

irpoTtXetv,

' i. e. I am ever learnintended to illustrate this saying. Pittacus belonged -as, ' who became sovereign.' 29. to the popular party at Mytilene, and on that account was scoffed at by the aristocratic poet Alcaeus as a plebeian like Solon, he was chosen to occupy a position similar to that of a dictator at the head of the state. (i.e. he sang Page 5, 1. 24. Stratonicus was a while accompanying himself on the lyre), and lived to the middle of the fourth century B. c. : this was the time when this The skilled performers travelled among art was at its height.
'

' alci the line ing ; and the anecdote

16. bring themselves.' The poor gradually learn to understand and respect the spirit in which the kindness is done and hence the good results. The emphasis is on Si, ' he.' so that the sense is 27. ' In a poem by Solon occurs that I may learn it before I die.'
'

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:

in

specially

of a horse

'

without

but here

it

means

'

foolish.'

).
'

to

be

ill

spoken

of.'

'those
for.'

means.'

pay

is

,
and

the Greek cities to give concerts, to beach.'

also

gave lessons.

'

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62

NOTES,

pp.

s8

28. Stratonicus uses the line which Homer appends to the prayer of Achilles for the safety of his friend Patroclus. In Homer {Iliad xvi. 251) the next lines are

Patroclus was killed. 33 Figures of the patron deities regularly stood in schoolrooms. of being in a certain state. Page 6, 1. 7. Bia/reeets, like
to offer duly.' ' as a substitute.' a ritual word, properly to offer the firstlings 13. But here she begins by of a sacrifice to the god. who taking the perquisites for the temple staff the sprinkles the victim with holy water, the keeper of the key, and so on. These persons received certain portions of the sacrifice, but seldom on such a considerable scale as here suggested. Of course the rule did not apply to cakes and buns offered. ' one by one.'
9.

oi

'

avevevae

, ()
' -,
irapao
:

. !,
away.'

re

'

16.
1 8.

Spov Ik

21.

27. not follow, 29.


I.

. ,, ,
=
'

&

take

it

is enjoyed by.' used idiomatically when something expected does ' not, as you would expect.' wild ones that he had found. Horace, Efiist. is
:

'what advantage

14 spoils this story by making Aristippus reply si sciret regibus uti, fastidiret olus qui me notat. they were elected annually by vote Page 7, 1. 5. in the assembly. Cynic. It appears that Diogenes was really cap9. tured at sea by pirates, carried to Corinth, and sold as a slave lasting friendship sprang up between master to Xeniades. and man, and the philosopher was soon set free.
xvii.
\

14.
is

the opening of a beautiful chorus in Euripides, Medea 410. front seat in the theatre, hence 'precedence.' 17. Those who were initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries were promised the enjoyments of Paradise whereas the others iv Murovrai, will stick fast in the mire of the lower world. implies also 'tedious.' 21. 22. disclosing unintentionally.' 27. Demonax lived in the first half of the second century a.d. At that time the practice called at Athens. striving to go back to the classical Attic in every detail, had become prevalent. Page 8, I. 6. blundering (guilty of solecisms) in : conversation.

; , '

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UpSiv

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NOTES,

pp.

9 ii

63

II

THE HUNTER.
Page 9, 1. 4. so called by sailors, who following the great route from the N.E. to the coast of Euboea sailed past the south of the island to the Saronic Gulf: they regarded the opening of the Euboeic strait on their right as a ' hollow.' The steep coast there, owing to the islets and rocks off it, is particularly dangerous. 6. : as the sailors with the boat (called now a caique) were driven into the breakers, and on account of the southerly gale could not get off, they let her run aground as soon as they had found a point where they could land in safety at the cost of the boat. the purple fish imurex) was eagerly sought 7. among the rocks of the Greek coasts. ' lie at anchor.' a mole built on a projecting rock.
: :

12.

i. e. he did not shave. To the philosopher 9. the habit of shaving, which prevailed from the time of Alexander to Hadrian (i.e. from about 335 B.C. to 100 A.D.), seemed an unnatural disfigurement. 10. In the Catalogue of Ships {Iliad'ii. 542) the inhabitants of Euboea are described as SmSev So they cut their of Homer let all hair in front, whereas the In later centuries long hair was a sign of their hair grow. liberty. But now for a long time the hair had been worn quite short and this too seemed to philosophers quite unnatural. 'as I think'; the infin. is used, often with as, 11. in many adverbial expressions. The is often used to introduce a lively question. 13. ivos for old-fashioned mountain peasant uses the old form IS. IkcIvos, ' yonder.' partitive gen. 20. in fwre shows that he does not talk 23. The repetition of continuously, but throws in a remark here and there during his

PAGE 10, 1.

-,
:

'far.'

.' .
afraid.'

,
:

work.
five

days

fully puts in first,

11, 1. 3. vessel carries.


5.

Page
10.

: -,
was going
; '
'

He

to say, ' I only wish the storm would end in but, as the stranger might be alarmed, he thought-

you must not be

without the ballast which a large

'

will recover.'

the

huntsman supposes

that because

he

is

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64
thin he
is

NOTES,
iU andUhinks.tot

pp.

ii 14
inhaled

seeW an

n^would
he

SrnaTa^a^e^hTwaiweU known
wrote this story.
14
25.

at the time that

38. 29.

i.e. Domitian. This refers Page 12, 1. 1. frn-o to the infamous practice by which informers trumped up charges against rich persons in his reign, that they might be put to death and their property confiscated. : he uses the diminutive in speaking affection3. ately of his own little property. to prevent them straying, 7. is etc., 'just as one does for the summer, you know.' i>s is the later idiom for &>s ' as.' For politely added to also is merely a piece of information, we say 'you know': a piece of politeness.

, ), ,
Lip
oiv
'

=,

supply yeynvas.

4|,

'but

now indeed more than

ever.'

'

cultivating besides.'

homestead.'

'for wages,' i.e. 'paid.' ' wealthy,' a colloquial use.

the ground falls away on both sides, the valley, which the stream that rises there has cut through, stands the farm-yard sheltered by the trees. north wind which prevails in summer in Greece 16. and makes a pleasant breeze. 20. apaiots planted thinly, so that shrub and herb can grow between them ; this is the character of the Greek upland.
12.
lies

on a ridge
:

:
in
:

21. 25. 26.


29. 31.

overtook them.

where we back when the herd was driven make very good sporting dogs.
Page13,1.8.
14 17.
19.
Sti

, , ,'

, ,
:

'stretching.'

'plot of ground.'

they had

tilled

it

before the disaster

to look for them.'

21. 24. 33.

Page

, , ,
. .

,
,
' '

' sometimes alone.' trans, by pluperf. ; Gk. only marks the fact, give the relative time. Two of the dogs had turned

off.

Naturally they did not

supply

turned out': here he points to the dogs. : 'that in the winter.'

?,
'

'

there

is

no need

to trouble

&'
14,

'

considerably more.' from that time onwards.'

counting.' otherwise.'
:

1.

8.

he knows only the rough


a lake.

sea,

the haven seems to

and so

him

like

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NOTES,
9. iornv, 11. ev

pp. 14-17

65

the

official hall stands.


in.

the regular place for popular assemblies to meet 'naturally formed.' 29. ypiieiv, utter a word.'
17.
19.
'

Page

,
15,
1.

: ,
'
'

is possible.'

(5

),

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in the

same

place,' the

market, where

'

became
what

quiet.'
:

2.

here,

'

to plant

in,'

but generally

'to graft.'
4. vitkp Tivos, 7 10. dvi'vevcra,

once as a
13. quickly.' 15. 24.

child.

,
: '
:

'

for

service.'

the profits. shook my head.'


'

He had

however been there


in,'
'

cannot be too quick

cannot too

of course.' properly, what is for purification : When human sacrifice existed, it became the practice to take for the purpose criminals who in any case were to be put to death. Hence , came to mean 'a rascal.' i.e. to be executed, 25. oV<, ' I am almost,'
'

.<,

().

'

have a great mind


29.

cast up ' : serves as passive of in this sense. Caphereus is the eastern cape of Euboea, and so not on the
;

, -,
16,
1.

to.'

but because the Greek fleet returning from Troy was there, the general idea of being the most dangerous shore is attached to the name.

wrecked
33.

in trans,

make

this subject of

(e'oTiV).

in, ' evidently.' 4. Nauplius decoyed the Greeks on their homeward voyage into the dangerous breakers by means of deceptive beacon lights, to avenge his son Palamedes. and Ivcpyos (26): passive in sense, of un14. . For the construction of cultivated and cultivated land.
15. 19.

Page

The harvest in Attica 17, 1. 2. the second half of May. later they became accustomed to the sight. 6. 'for the future.' 11. 'took possession of.' 16.
18.

3. Page

, ,
compare
:

2.

p. 13,
'

1.

14.

improve.'

26. gen. absolute.

, ,
'

work

, :
:

,
,

supplying
hard.' 'crop.'

.
is

in

gen. of price.

supply

which

is

often omitted with the

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66
28.
.
.

NOTES,
.

pp. 17-21

;.6
2.

unfulfilled result.

Page
in

shows that he gives the reason for his answer to an angry question. Bearland.' (ipKeios, from cf.
18,
1.

3.

and

6. u-ypoiicos for a long time past had meant only rusticus, bumpkin; the hunter understands 'a man of aypas,' but he speaks in the language of the good old times. again he mistakes, because to him 8. means only weight,' its proper sense the meaning talent of

,
fjilci,
'

',

i.e.

.
' ; .

offer

silver ' is only secondary.


12.

20. 22. 27.

,
' : . .

'

of theft
solitary
y>.

of corn.'

, ,
.

'hamS.'

in question
'

let

= not also.' him take care to come.' them stay there


'

let

by persons passing is a false touch they lived in a place. (Do not connect the verb with below, small stock a little calf.' So
:

Page
9.

19,

1.

6.

= Wpos 12. Occasionally sums of money were distributed among the citizens, either through bequests, of which there were many, or
from public funds.
17. 24.
-its, we two,' only increasing the want of room. The Greek Says ashes where we should say sawdust
'

, .
'

().' The danger 4.)


'

'

as I thought.'

that the word is riot at once intelligible is shown by the explanation that follows. an exaggeration, meaning only 'there is 25. none that is so . .' ' baskets.' 26.

28.

: ,
.6
. . . .

'

'

'

'

Page 20,
of ev he really
7.

(,

,
'

'

may
2.

it

never come to
:

this, that.'

14.
1 7.

,
'

he says this modestly, instead which, as the accus. governed by it shows, is what means.
1.

perhaps.'
tos

nom.,
19.

a shelter such as shepherds make for themselves in the hills. Such a stone hut stands on the top of Ocha, the highest point above the and was long mistaken for a primitive temple. : rubbing the body with grease was part of the daily 24. toilet which could scarcely be dispensed with by men. Page 21, 1. 3. pinos : not another kind of garment, but only
:

-,

(-)

is

the original phrase, so the case

is

two years

ago.' ' purses.'

a torn

'

Digitized

by Microsoft

NOTES,

pp. 21-23

67

e. of p. 19, 1. 33. just at this time the kiss as a greeting between acquaintances was more in fashion than ever before : so the hunter mistakes the cause of their laughter, which was that he in his leather coat treated the prosperous city man as an equal. In what follows there is a point also in the double sense of 12. In this speech we get glimpses of the forms used in the resolution of the assembly, which was in fact framed on this speaker's proposal. Hence eVi ge'via . . whether still . at that time is uncertain, but at any rate formerly a number of benefactors of the state and distinguished persons were entertained in a public hall, mostly called the after that at Athens ; individuals were invited under special circumstances by the assembly to receive this entertainment 'for it is (surely) not the case that, if . . . ': 13. a form of sentence commoner in earlier Greek for this would be beivov av 117, el de }
i.

,,

8.

\.

'.

4
20.

commodi. For an individual to take on himself charges or cash payments for the state was in these later, poverty-stricken times quite common.
21. oirots, dat.
24. 28.
"Sii/irvetv,

. , ,
, .,
'

().

'to cover with the shield.' inducement.'

stand,
33.
12. 19.

without a meal.

PAGE
nobles
since

Women

cf. nabob.' ; repeating with pride what 23, 1. 1. irpos he has said : for els we should say ' in.' that it was 17. Full moon for a wedding was an old notion not indispensably necessary is shown here, as the wedding is put off to the days of the waning moon. 18. and the other diminutives coming characterized the speech of the common people. In fact the language adopted a great number of diminutives,.and went further and further in The word for 'moon' is now <peyyapiov, dim. this direction. from 0eyyor.

Page

, -, , ,
and
it

supply
to

t'v

was

him

the hunter doesn't under; neither unusual nor a hardship to go

deliberative.
1.

22,

3.

'he

had nearly

finished when.'

never reclined at table.

meaning the emperor; he calls the Roman an archaic word in this there is some sarcasm,
; '

are necessarily

24.

33.

, ,

'

net.'
'

vuKTis,
*

last night.'

fine one.'

Digitized

by Microsoft

68

Page
6.

24,

1.

5.

offered.
7.
9.

our word is derived from the Thestown Kastana. The chestnut grows still in Euboea and must be considered indigenous.
'
'

, ,
For
'

sacrifice

a tame pig was necessary:

NOTES,

pp. 24-28

his leather coat.

wild were not

that

is why.' chestnuts

salian
14.

the pear-shaped fruit of the service tree, sorb-apple, seen, but once common in English gardens ; Pyrus sorbus domestical it is related to the mountain-ash. ' cut up : are ' medlars.' The grapes are not dried and made into raisins The table was dusted with leaves and the fruit was neatly laid on fern. 21. Pure wheaten bread replaces the sweetmeats that town people eat at the end of a meal. Pease pudding was eaten only by the poor. 26. and are wheat flour and barley meal. The women had to see to the grinding. Page 25, 1. 2. XeirrOTepos than usual.' The reflexive is often used in such expressions.

now seldom

'

().
'

,
Ill
if

Page
PAGE
4.
'

10. as,

also.'

, ,
27,
1.

THE BATTLE WITH PORUS


7.

-,
.

as

with
1.

infin.,

a purpose. in his mind.


.
.

:
up
'

had preceded.

28,

2.

with

The

various enterprises.
5.

troops were divided

?. among
partly
.

partly.'

before the generals for the

'on

this side';
T^j

side.'
8.

but not
10. 11.
14.

someone

ships could not be built fast enough, skins filled with chaff were used for crossing.
'

As

literally

until

wait on the bank gives the sense, means properly to wait for something or you get what you want.'
' ' :

en inuva 'on that (the other)

it

the ordinary gen. of material ; to this 16. assimilated, for which otherwise instrumental dat. used.
17.

, ,

ethic dat.

by every means.'
is

would be

'about,' to

be taken with

frous in trans.

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NOTES,

pp.

28-30

69

20. Caucasus is used for Parapamisus (Hindu Kush), as the Macedonians had identified the two. Arrian of course knew this, and he ought to have known too that the Hydaspes (Djelam) rises in the Himalayas ("l/uaoj). 22. we should say the opposite happens in later Greek is common for The explanation is given in the form of an apposition, by the verbs that follow. 24. 26. es

, ,
PAGE
'

intending.

,, ,,
e

.
'

'

'perhaps.' ' openly,' as distinct from what he was really


is still
'

27. 8 Be, the subject

an imitation of old Ionic

style

Alexander,' and the use of b Se is Attic could only use it when the

subject changes. 28. ojius denotes the speedy use of force, both.

again for
g.

into action.
1 6.

im

18.

so nobody ever went there. 'by a distance that just allowed them to.' Page 30, 1. 4. Macedonian cavalry was divided into regiments, which originally were named after the districts in which they were raised, then usually after their commanders the heavy infantry, into for which the same custom holds good. In both branches of the service there was a body of guards, and in these again the royal bodyguard, In addition there was light infantry, and among these also a company of ruler of a this was the name of the native 7 princes whom Alexander left in their places, but placed under a royal satrap. The first of them was Taxiles, who commanded the 5,000. Arrian has mentioned them previously ; hence the

, ,, , . ,, .
23. The island 30. 80-ov

21.

. , () , ,
The
.
' ;

in Arrian merely a strengthened 29, 1. 5. . but on the contrary.' It is taken by him from Herodotus, gives the reason for and this
.

,
.

passive. This was the cry raised construction of what follows is


im.
.

<,

(().
;

,-cunning,

when going

'stayed in

camp without

pevetv is

a military phrase.

mere periphrasis for considerably.'


cs,

stirring.'

. The

was uninhabited

article.

to attack them,' Alexander's division. so.' is imperative in sense. 22. Ionic form of 3rd plur. pluperf. pass. : these and plup. were unearthed in Arrian's forms of perf. time, after they had been buried for 500 years. These troops are not mentioned as taking part in the fighting till p. 38, 1. 8.
10.
14.

,
is
eirl

&s,

, ^
'

'even

-,

-,

Digitized

by Microsoft

yo
31.

NOTES,
The Agrianes
by Alexander

pp.

30-34

are a Thracian tribe


in

jection
32.

themselves.

.
1.

,
:

first reduced to sub335 B.C.; they always distinguished

33.

purpose. supply

transports built for the passage of the Indus had been cut in pieces to carry them to the Hydaspes, and there again put together ; this plan was repeated for this expedition.
9.

PAGE 31,

The

15.

= {.

the gen. denoting membership of a corps. In the case of Seleucus his elevation to the throne is mentioned, because this is the first reference to him. Ptolemy and Lysimachus also became kings, and Perdiccas the first regent. These three had already the highest rank of lieutenantsgeneral.
&>s, 'at their utmost speed.' a place that was also an island. ' Page 32, 1. 2. having continued.' 16. There must have been a definite rotation in the order of

2.

25. 31.

depends on
:

the battalions,
24. iirayetv, archers.' 29.

them.

-, ,

we should say

,
'

'

precedence.' 'to follow the cavalry with the


it

because

had been inconceivable

to

31. 'So that the increase of their losses during the retreat might lighten the task that was still before him,' of course through the moral effect it would have on the enemy.
33. Instead of continuing the narrative

and

stating the dis-

agreement in the accounts afterwards, Arrian at once goes into the matter. Probably up to this point Aristobulus was his authority, and he agreed with Ptolemy.

PAGE
6. 9.

ciircp oiv,

getting a drubbing. Here we get an example of fiction in history: other writers actually told of a -single combat between Alexander and Porus himself. 18. late Greek uses Sans in the sense of 8s. Here we have Alexander's own account. He had sent the dispatches announcing his victories home in the form of private letters, invaluable documents, though of course to be judged according to the circumstances out of which they sprang or which they were designed to meet.

,,
33,
1.

4.

= Kainep.

'

if only.'

drove past.'

PAGE
19.

8. tirl

23.

,.' , , ,
34,
1.

4.

'

clearly.'

in line

in

column.

adverb.

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NOTES,
28.
little

pp.

34-36

71

As to the numbers of the enemy's forces there is, of course, certainty they vary in the different accounts. ' S irep the best part.' distance of 100 feet between every two of 200 elephants, 33. with some infantry and then 2,000 cavalry on each wing, gives a front of some four miles and this would make the cavalry action that follows unintelligible. But (1) there is probably an exaggeration in the number of the elephants (2) it is quite likely that the wings were drawn off from the main body. PAGE 35, 1. 2. to extend.' 'force their way.' 5. in front.' 7. 12. 'and in fact so that ... were interposed.' 15. The chariots take no part in the battle; so they again prove of as little use as in the previous cavalry skirmish. 'from continuing the advance,' short for 19. of course means his pwn infantry. 22. poetical for to be out of breath. 23. He had observed the enemy's line of battle while he ' rode round in circles ' with the cavalry in front of the halted infantry, so this manoeuvre was designed alsp to enab.le him to find the point to attack.
:

,
'

--,

-6,

(-,

'

28. airep

when.

-, ( . , . -, -,

the qonclusion he had formed

Cqenus had ,no .cavalry, 33. There must be a mistake here. but commanded an infantry regiment (p. 30, . 30). In this battle he had the honour of commanding the entire wing in rank he was eraipos. He died not long after this. That the left Macedonian wing is to co-operate with the right, as afterwards actually happens, shows that the enemy's front cannot have extended over a distance of four miles.
;

Tauron 3. Seleucus commanded the so Antigenes must have commanded the phalanx. 15. Alexander follows his usual strategy; he outflanks the enemy, and falls on their left flank before it can form into line to face him. (eirl <pa\ayyos 19. The enemy's cavalry on the left wing, deficient in numbers, needs the support of the cavalry of the right wing, which crosses in the rear as Cpenus then followed them, they were forced to wheel about and make a second front to oppose him and hence arose a cavalry engagement, which was fought chiefly in the rear of the enemy's motionless line of battle. 31. The elephants on the outside made a partial turn outwards, about to wheel round to attack the Macedonian cavalry. Just at this moment the Macedonian phalanx attacked.

PAGE

36,
;

1.

the

)
;

-,

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by Microsoft

72

NOTES,

pp.

37-42

Page 37, 1. 10. The two wings could unite in one column only behind the enemy's front. This is then a battle in which the object was to surround and so annihilate the enemy. This was
achieved.
22.

; and the other accounts existing are untrustworthy. 26. The slight losses of the troops that attacked later, e.g. the division of Craterus, are not given. belonging to the guards.' ' not merely,' in classical prose 29. Page 40, 1. 4. Of course Alexander was not influenced by a neat reply. It was his rule to take the most capable barbarians into his service. Porus had only imposed on him so far, that he requested the honour of him. He had thoroughly proved

in a separate body. were pointed at both ends, so move backwards as soon as the rowers backed. backed step by step.' Page 38, 1. 8. We know from a fragment account that the battle lasted eight hours. 20. The number of the killed has fallen out
32. Battle-ships
'

,
,
'

that they could

The

elephants

of Alexander's

,
.

his capacity.
15.

Munychion

in the

archonship of

Hegemon

(326 B.C.)

is

May.
later,

24. 25. 26.

But the battle must have been fought about a month owing to the statement about the rainy season, p. 28, 1. 17. the subject repeated in the Ionic manner.
:

31.

Of course this is mere report. The Uxii lived in the mountains between Susa and

Ionic form.

Persepolis, and were subjugated by Alexander in 331 B.C. This story of the strayed Bucephalus is, however, told of other tribes also.

List of

Rhine

Wissant.

,, ,, ,,
IV

GREAT BRITAIN
Britain;
;

names:

Gaul;
Loire
;

'Pijvos,

Pyrenees

Seine

",

Page 42, 1. 2. In spite of Pytheas the projecting peninsula of Brittany was almost forgotten : the S. side of Britain, by a compromise between Caesar's account and the old map, where a point of the triangle formed by Kent approached within about 12 miles of the Gallic coast, made parallel to it ; the two other sides Strabo leaves doubtful, as he did not accept the measurements given by Pytheas and Posidonius (7,500 stadia for the

Digitized

by Microsoft

NOTES,

pp.

42-44

73

S. side in place of 4,300 here ; 10,500 from Kantion to Orkan, 20,000 from Orkan to Belerion, the S.W. point). But Ierne, in spite of Caesar, he places at the north, following the old

map.
13.

and he assumes that the Pyrenees and Rhine converge where


they approach the sea.
16. 18.
' '

fleos, divus. Strabo here follows Caesar iv. 23. 43, 1. 3. That Caesar gives the hour, and also at v. 13 tells of calculations that he had made in Britain with the water-clock, proves that he understood more about the importance and method of scientific inquiry than his countrymen, and felt himself to be a discoverer. He wanted also to act like a Greek he wrote his own history himself. But Pompey in Asia had Greek literary men on his staff. Caesar v. 2 gives the distance as only 30 Roman miles Strabo did not look up the passage. covered with : 7. 11. The Celtic greyhounds, vertragi and Petronii, are praised by the poet Grattius (Cyneget. 199), a contemporary of Strabo.
:

PAGE

, , , '.
'route,'

This 'greatest distance' he has given

in

a previous passage,

convergence.'

change of direction.'

17

14.

1.
20.

' bandy-legged.' 17. built, ill-proportioned,

So they knew only They were governed by Pytheas, says of them


21. 22.

a form of government appears to because in some respects, e.g. in not using milk, they stood below the Cyclopes, the type of wild savages. 23. These war chariots are described by Caesar vi. 24. 24. Compare Caesar v. 21, oppidum Britanni vacant, cum silvas impeditas vallo atque fossa munierunt. Evidently Strabo
follows
25.
2(5.

, ,. . . (! .
65, having
'youth.'

Their whole frame was clumsily


frame, contour.

= rvpovs iroieiv.

and aypia

Posidonius, following

?"

pas

That they had the historian worthy of note,

a hut of brushwood. ' to fold.' fold,' hence Page 44, 1. 4. Nothing is known about mutiny among Caesar's as the text is based in other respects only on Caesar's troops account, the remark is due to an oversight. 6. From Caesar iv. 29. 12. Augustus at first had the intention of subjugating Britain, but after 26 B.C. he definitely abandoned it. The reasons are
is

27.

,
;

some more

(.

detailed account.

'

Digitized

by Microsoft

74
given here.

NOTES,

pp. 44, 45

cyranum 6, 3) he declares that two British kings, Dumnobelthe end of the name is lanus and Tim ... (or Tine him. Both struck coins with Latin lost), had fled to
. .
.

inscriptions. 18.
19.

would be as great as the sum


followed by rots

, ,
'

In his account of his deeds


;

(Monumentum An-

grass,' but Sypia are meant. Strabo 31. has not observed what Caesar v. 12 distinctly says, that the inhabitants of England were immigrant Celts, whereas those of Wales, Scotland and Ireland were Caledonian aborigines, who were not Indo-German, and continued for centuries utterly uncivilized. Many of their customs passed .pver more or less to the immigrant pppulation. PAGE 45, 1. 1. The Spaniards did it in the siege of Numantia (133 B.C.) and the Celts during the invasion of the Cimbri (Caesar vii. 77).
'

, ,.
nicknacks.'

'amber,' here an adjective,


'at least.
1

The

collected,

cost of collecting the duty 'equal,' is as

world, and inference is not drawn by Strabo, viz. that Thule, for which there was no evidence but that of Pytheas, should be struck out as imaginary. 12. that are 14the Arctic .circle. 15. This is a general statement of Pytheas, which does not including the apply at all to Thule, but to the N. coast of Gaul. Hence the mention of millet, which does not grow in the far north. It has been supposed that there is a reference to the popularity of porridge in Scotland ; in another hear passage we have the same statement applied to Gaul. of beer also as used among the Celts. That they have no threshing-floors, but carry " t;he corn into barns which to a southerner seemed extraordinary is related of the Britons by Posidonius from Pytheas. All this Strabo has no scruple in repeating, since it agrees with the postulates of physical
6.
:

of places lying outside the

only called by a

name

().
(.

known

The

60., . ,

We

geography
21.

(
:

the regular form of the plural in hellenistic Greek.

).

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by Microsoft

PART

II

PAGE
6.

It was in Corinth in the seventh century B.C. that the addition of a second bank of rowers was first thought of; it was placed beneath the first on the footstools used as stretchers by the upper rowers .(hence the name from Spams remained the Doric ; always in the word) and then a third was added, the sitting in the hold. This is the vavs the normal ship of the fifth century B.C. In the second half of the fourth century the appeared, a larger type ; but it is not certain that it really had four banks of rowers. This is the normal type of the hellenistic period, and so is used as the example here, where we are not dealing with a war- ship at all. Already in the time of Alexander's successors, the Diadochi, much larger vessels existed, extending to the which of course had not twenty banks, but was named from its relative size.

, ^,
47,
1.

HIERO'S GALLEON
'raw
material.'
;

5.

here 'ordinary'

,
;

see next note,

'furnish, provide.'

,
'ribs.'

,,

, , ,, . , , . -,
7.

'in proportion.' are wooden pegs, the ship's belly where the bilge, sentina, collects ; hence of a wood specially suited to resist wet.

planks to

make

, -

(),

8.

a Spanish plant, a sort of hemp that afforded the was cp. best material for rope, and from this It is still called esparto in Spanish. called 17. The word for 'lead' was spoken and written Moschion writes but for the
10. Xevicca
:

(,

!,,

adj.

) ,

'the plates' (required in ship-building). Of i8. Tats and used for an course so called from being shaped like analogous purpose. 'as there were 300 workmen in late Greek 19. is gives the explanation of the speed, and what comes between serves to emphasize the achievement.
:

PAGE 48,
6.
:

1.

3.

behind.
coveries,

means a screw for pushing great weights from It is the machine that was, among Archimedes' disspecially famous, and led to stories such as the
this

,,
Digitized

'

launching.'

by Microsoft

76

NOTES,

pp. 48, 49
it, Sag of the implement

anecdote that he said, with reference to

'

on spirals.' Of a book by Archimedes course a similar implement is still used for raising and pushing a jack.' These bolts were 8. Round the ship ran a row of bolts. driven through the planks, the holes being bored for them. They also passed through the lead plates and under the heads of the bolts there was tarred sail-cloth, to grip them

There

The

later

name

is

\
'

was

'

.
_ ' :

tight.
9.

must say of the largest type see note on 1. 6. properly a gangway extending from end to end of the ship, on which the crew, the moved. Here the corridor on each deck and the deck itself. i.e. wooden, to distinguish it from stone 16. steps and rope ladders, which were also called 'saloon.' The size is denoted by the number of 17. couches for which there was room in it.
'
' ;

, , ,
:

not
'

'

worth,' but

weighing ten minae

the

mina weighs nearly a pound.


1 1.

to

make

fast.'

14.

'

fittings.'

13. ship.

in the sense of

We

(,

, ,
:
:

' the watch.' 19. oi tiri rots SirXois (' rigging ') the captain's 21. state-cabin. small rooms, ' cabins.' 22. 23. oirravetov, 'kitchen.' is a calculating table and a playing table comparable 24. to a chess-board so the dimin. is used of a single square. Into such squares the mosaic is divided, and each contains a scene we possess many such mosaics of the Roman period. ' decoration' especially the ornamentation of 27. the walls, which at that time consisted of real or imitation marble incrustation with coloured panels, architectural designs and projecting sculptured ornaments of various materials. The older Pompeian wall painting is an imitation of the style. 32. The water was not carried through pipes, but the channel consists of lead plates joined together. Many similarly constructed channels of actual tiles are known from Greek lands. 33. The ' pale ivy, which was then preferred, has only light berries, but in dense clusters. Theophrastus, who describes it, mentions that it needs water. It is still grown as a pot plant.

()

,.

denoting the type of

,
:

'

In names to the rooms.


1.

white-leaved ivy). Roman palaces also it was usual to give Thus Lucullus named a salon ' Apollo.' agate,' the name is taken from the Achates, "a 5. stream near Selinus in Sicily where it is found.
(It

does not

Page 49,

mean a
4.

'

Digitized

by Microsoft

NOTES,

pp. 49, 50

77

7. (R5ov, a scented and costly wood, imported, it is said, from Cyrene. The thuja or arbor vitae, though named from this tree, has really nothing to do with it, table with silver drinking-cups, a 8. is part of the decoration of the dining-room. reading-room.' 12. It had a vaulted roof with a picture of the signs of the zodiac, copied from the sun-dial in the principal quarter of Syracuse. This also had a figure of the heavens depicted on the inner side of a hemisphere. hot-air chamber, in which a vapour bath could be 14.

taken.
15.

coast. 20. The own slave. 21.


24.

50, 1. 14) then any part outsidethe vessel proper; such additions were originally held byropes, but not always, and not in this case. The original meaning is so entirely forgotten that can be used of them beams.' ' 28. wood-house.'
;

' fish-tank.' 27. TpoiroC, properly 'ropes ' (see p.

, , , , , , , , ,
A
'

,
'lad'

'

(,

'bath.'

about nine gallons.

Tauromenium, now Taormena, on the


rider

east
his

(=

ra-eui),

had a

who was

'cistern.'

lead casing.'

' offices,' as we say of the back premises of a supporting figures, over which ran a cornice, gave an architectural finish to the vessel. ' supporter.' These figures, supporting ornamental 30. wood-work, gave an architectural finish to the ship. moveable beams that could be jerked Page 50, 1. 4. are the cups with a spring, and so slung the stones, 'stall'), in which lay the or pockets cut in the beams (from

29.

house.

, ,
'

'

oven.'

, ,
The
vessel.

stones.
9.

This 'fort' runs across the ship

modern
10.

trestle or ' horse,' supporting the stone weighs 171 lb.; the spear is 18 ft. 4 in. long; is a machine for hurling stones. the range a furlong, in this case are nets intended to catch the 14. they were susenemy's missiles and to break their force pended when necessary in front of the vulnerable parts of the ship i6. Kepatai, not the ' yard-arms,' but machines like those on the towers.

11.

The

like the

bridge of a

().

Digitized

by Microsoft

stakes with hooks on them; they had cords 17. attached to them, and so, when flung at the enemy's ship, could be drawn back with whatever they clutched. They are below are somewhat similar. the manus ferreae. The They were for catching small boats, which Were hit by the body
of the ship and shattered. ' mast-head.' 25. ' eva one less in each 26.

,
'
51,
1.

NOTES,

pp.

50-52

27. nest.'

32. BpeTTia,

Page
5.

Archimedes.
fish
7.
:

,
'

, , , ,, ,
'

of the tiers.
;

'

basket '

'

pulley

'

'

crow's

Bruttium

3.

its forests are still famous. a wheel for raising water invented by

,
8.
;

the seas independently. 9. It is not possible to calculate the number of board. The loss of at least a line ill the text makes
13. irpcupe^s is the

,
the

named from a boats towed behind a narrow boat with one bank of Oars. This was completely furnished with oars.' a boat of such considerable size that it could cross
;

14.

unknown.
23.

. ,
also unintelligible.

second

officer,

who gave
;

the first officer the ' How Supply The fish was of course salt. see p. 61 end.
is
:

men

on

row

orders from the the captain. held is much

PAUSANIAS AND THEMISTOCLES


Thucydides has previously related the following events in ' a different connexion In 478 B. C. Pausanias in command of the Greek fleet first undertook an expedition to Cyprus, and then took Byzantium. But through his haughty behaviour he
:

sympathy of the allies. He was recalled to Sparta, where he was put on his trial for certain isolated acts, and was acquitted. But the allies in the meantime had entered into a new league with Athens, and refused to follow the successor to Pausanias whom Sparta sent out' (c. 94, 95). He now continues but he first goes back to 478 B.C., and proves that already then he was in correspondence with Persia and it is only at c. 131 that he reaches the point to which he had got in c. 95. Page 52, 1. 3. epexegetic infin., which the early language used very freely it gives the substance of the Kp'uris. an independent town on the east coast of Argolis. 4
forfeited the

, ,
;

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NOTES,
PAGE
3.

pp. 53, 54
gives the

79

53,

1.

in positive

and neg. form.

same point

purpose.

corresponds to eV! and expresses fut. partic. would be more usual. 5. See note on p. 54, 1. 2. 8. MijSoi, often in Thucydides for the Persians at the time of the Persian wars this name (or Mijfieioi) was invariably used by the Greeks. The character of the garrison captured and enslaved is of such importance that Thucydides has explained it in an independent parenthetical sentence, to which he has to refer in A specially large portion of the spoil of course fell to the
irpao-o-eiv

The

^,

commander. 14. At the time Thucydides wrote this, the descendants of this Gongylus ruled some places in the Troad, which their ancestor had received from Xerxes in reward for his treason, just as Themistocles received Magnesia when Pausanias made Gongylus commander at Byzantium, he must have been still an Eretrian citizen and unsuspected.
:

Pausanias begins with the 3rd person, as this is in a in which the 3rd person was always kept. The correspondence is Ionic, in the written language of the time. Thucydides has removed the Ionic forms and in the vocabulary nothing unusual appears, because Thucydides iXtlv himself uses so many Ionic and poetical words. But
15.

measure the superscription

is poetical, cf.

\.
mine,'
18. 22.

west boundary.

,
which
is

-. =

in the sense 'intend,' 'deter-

-,

common

in the aor. eyvav. 'a daughter of yours.'

in Persian official

language the sea on their

or with 25. The satrapy the chief town Dascylium on the sea east of Cyzicus remained almost without a break in the family of Artabazus until Alexander. instead of saying avreniartWe he transfers 28. the idea of ' reply ' to the delivery of the letter to the messenger. The general notion of a charge is taken from the special phrase for the following clause. 29. The royal seal. Page 54, 1. 2. Pausanias is entered as a benefactor in the register kept in the royal archives, and thereby he has established a lasting claim to consideration for himself and his descendants. The same custom existed in Greek states. This is expressed, ' your well-doing lies recorded in my house,' and p. 53, I. 5in this sense we have elepyeaiav a poetical expression, which has the 4. mark of being genuine.

666 ,

',

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8o

NOTES,

pp. 54, 55

because the all-powerful King knows 6. The perf. that Pausanias can never be in the condition of being hampered, so ' be so far as concerns external means (money and men) assured that you are not.' evidently represents some Persian title of 8. dvSpos honour. Similarly the Roman senate styled representatives of
:

allied states
13.

were used of the rise of selfaspirations ' that it awakens. 1 6. This body-guard consists of slaves or hired barbarians. to the 17. Persian in cost and style ; both seemed have but few tables ' ; the (i. e. ' who courses were served on the tables, and there were only two). 20. 'humour,' 'manner.' He received no visitors but only issued orders. The Greeks of Thucydides' day, sensitive in points of honour, felt hurt when they had to ' wait before the doors of barbarians' an experience which they met with in dealing with Tissaphernes and Cyrus. When 25. The first recall occurred in the winter of 478/7. he again went out, when he was turned out of Byzantium by the Athenians, and how long he remained in the Troad, cannot be exactly fixed. 29. Colonae, in the Troad ; its exact situation still unknown. 32. ' Stick,' says Thucydides, for the written order,' in accordance with the Spartan practice. In case he refuses to come ('remained behind the herald') they declare war on him; i.e. the herald will make the declaration : this is expressed by the present. The future would imply a subsequent message to be sent to him.
inaipeiv,
'

confidence and the

" ,
55,
is
1.

'

PAGE

contained the passive of 8uvirpad|i.evos implies that he did it by wrong methods (bribery). has no grammatical reference ; but the sense is 7. clear (the matters that had led to his summons). ' of such a kind that.' is imperf. because 9. 8tcj>, is transferred to the same time as the 12. Wos in Attic and later Greek 'not grown up,' 'minor';
veaviat, 'youth,' in reference to his vigour.
14

i.e.

tion

from the customary manner of life is a direct illegality, since the custom resting on unwritten law, extended to
15.
1.

this.
cf.

was placed be more than a 17. The tripod supported by the column of serpents ; the shaft still stands at Constantinople and still shows the second
II.

, ,

the circumstances in which he


to

He wanted

, . . .

':

in

In Sparta a devia-

inscription.

Digitized

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NOTES,
20.
is

pp.

55-57

81

The
Ionic.

title title

the proper
26. iv

from

32. vc<&Tcpv

kcotov

employment of euphemism.

Page 56,
birthplace.
5.

town Argilus, and, as

everything, the flight, the plan of the hut, shrine of Poseidon on Taenarus was sanctuary (asylum) for Laconian slaves who reached it as here also emancipations took place ; there are records of these, probably by slaves who had sought the asylum. In Athens the Theseum was such a sanctuary. 17. ivTOs, in the inner, i. e. the back, room. 22. is said risked,' endangered.' with bitterness his only reward was.' The slave thinks that he should not have been treated like the rest, but should have been recommended to the Great King for- promotion and reward.
14.
:

to

. , ,
examine the
seal.

'reliable' in the opinion of Pausanias; hence although has already-been used of the same person. Without a pronoun the sense would be ' faithful.' 6. a new formation from which implies anxiety ; he noticed it with some uneasiness. After Scleras participles ought strictly to follow but the sentence extends so far that it takes an independent form. 8. That he would have taken the letter to the address if his suspicion proved mistaken, is so self-evident that it is not expressed, though, in that case, it would of course be the person to whom he took the letter, and not the sender, who was to
eWVft),

. , ,
, extreme
1.

,
2)

-yos as well as the name was offensive. It of Spartan kings, /WtXeur being borrowed

'

was

in this position.'

measures of whatever

sort

but

(p. 56,
4.

means

the death penalty, with the usual

1.

He was

usual, has

a slave from the Thracian no other name but that of his

&,

11. KTiCveiv,

where we expect passive.

The

'

'

'

25. 32.

remove him,
out 57, 1.
'

of cause,

called only by the epithet, 1. Athena Page was the goddess of the Spartan acropolis, and was named after an old bronze figure which stood in a shrine covered with reliefs in bronze. The holy rtpevos was much larger, and contained many

, .,
sc. ex

lipov,

He

from which Pausanias wishes promises him safety.

unnoticed,
of.'

i.e.

so that nobody saw.

?,

dat.

other buildings, like the Athenian acropolis. Pausanias lived like the Argilian in his hut on Taenarus, but of course could without any risk. So the ephors had walk about the to wait for an opportunity when he was in the building, so as
to
'

cut

him

off'

()

inside.

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by Microsoft

82
7.

in this case,
8.

^,
much

Any holy place was profaned by death: the dying therefore must be taken outside. By this means they hypocritically intended to excuse the violation of the right of asylum. II. Traitors could find no grave, at least in the land they had betrayed. Hence the body was flung down a hole at Athens At Sparta it was called in what was called 8as are crevices produced by earthquake, and they were so common in Laconia that Sparta is called in Homer As the traitor was not formally condemned to death, this inten'expire.'
:

NOTES,
a
city.

pp. 57, 58

a bold metaphor; there was no surrender

less

.
; ;

.
-

tion

was not

carried out.

is to be found in the hitherto unconsecrated the boundary is marked by stones, space before the r/pcvor showing that the space enclosed belongs now to those below. 16. They make two figures not portraits of Pausanias, though so explained already in antiquity. These avhpiavres are such as served for consecrated gifts to the gods of the upper and lower world (in the latter case they appear to be sepulchral figures). The addition of some attribute or of an explanatory note gave them their special meaning. 22. ' In the proofs (documents) in the case of Pausanias.' Thucydides allows the guilt of Themistocles to rest entirely on the assertion of the accusers, but expresses no doubt. 23. The man banished by ostracism for ten years kept his goods and rights ; there was not the least degradation in it the people had judged the citizen so important that they decided to dispense with his presence for a time in the interests of peace. It is a case of a trusted servant of the people losing their conBut the inquiry fidence for a time, a defeated prime minister. The exile must fly from into treason threatens honour and life. all territory of the Greek allies (since 480 . a), for the crime was committed against all Greeks. The30. Corcyra was not in the Greek alliance of 480 B. c. mistocles had been honoured by Corcyra on an earlier occasion with the title eiiepyerw, as Pausanias by Xerxes. We have hundreds of such decrees of honour. In all is granted, i.e. protection of the person of the evepye^s within the community so honouring him. On this Themistocles relies, and he is helped by it to this extent, that he is not surrendered, but politely asked to withdraw. 'and so '; in sense = i<\> are. 31. Page 58, 1. 2. finding himself in a difficulty what exactly caused him to seek Admetus is not explained. : the shows this is one idea, ' no friend,' as we 3. say ; this is stronger than would be or even

15.

The grave

'

'

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NOTES,

p.

58

83

8. What request of Admetus had been rejected in the Athenian assembly on the motion of Themistocles we do not know there are only guesses by ancient commentators. Thuc. cannot have known what Themistocles said, and yet, like a poet, gives his speech. This shows that his wide divergence from the manner of Homeric and Ionic narrative is sometimes more a matter of theory than of practice. Even the limited admission that the speeches were freely composed, as i&OKovv
:

For 22), could not apply here. generalities, which could scarcely impose
(i.
: ' :

Thuc. gives merely on a choleric bara gentleman takes barian I am now weaker than you vengeance on his equals (so Themistocles claims to be this,
in spite of his

nepi

aei

'

elneiv

condition) only

when

the weapons are equal.

This was so with us, when I opposed you. Wait till it is so again, and then it will be time to take your revenge.' 12. xpcias: the gen. as with verbs of hindering, privation. grammatically the article is required : 13. i% twice ; but it is an idiom of the older language to put it only once in such cases.

{
'in

13-15. It

is

clear that

although the distinction

was already
17.

current.

necessary to insist on the solemnity of the supplication by the life of the child. In one of the most famous tragedies of Euripides the Mysian Telephus conjured the hostile Achaeans by seizing the little Orestes at Clytaemnestra's advice, taking his station with him at Agamemnon's hearth and threatening to kill the child if any one laid hands on him. 21. Pydna was a Greek town, but still under Macedonian rule. But Macedon did not as yet extend so far south hence because he was the 'belonged to Alexander,' called first to lay claim to a Greek origin. the adverse wind at 28. irXoCs, ' the possibility of sailing present caused grateful thoughts would not vanish from : 29.

Thuc. thinks

,
it

(cf.

and here are interchangeable, the Pythagorean


condition,' viz.

which

:)

tut'os.

,
'

his

mind.

The wind would carry him into the harbour where the lay ; so he tacked. The wind was N., the prevalent wind The ship had been driven S. out of its in the Archipelago. course,and should have found shelter in the Sound between Paros and Naxos. The Athenian fleet lay before the town of Naxos. 33. The goods of the traitor were confiscated so far as the state had been able to secure them : friends had secreted some
30.
fleet

at

Argos no doubt the property had been deposited


in

(as a

a temple.

Digitized

by Microsoft

84

2. In the time of Thucydides the question was much discussed whether pre-eminent ability came or or Early intuition decided for Pindar says 6 The Sophists professed to teach it. Themistocles appears to Thucydides to prove the old view correct. He denies that learning had anything to do with it, or selfteaching by experience, and takes all his achievements for

..', , , ' , ,\ . .
\
rare oi
iy.

: from the coast into the upper country of Page 59, 1. 2. Asia. The residence of the king is not specified we need not think of Persia, because the kings habitually did not live there. who had not been long on the throne. No 4. Artaxerxes reigned 465definite mark of time is here meant 425 B.C. ; the event occurs ' early ' in his reign. 6. oikos, ' family ' in its Attic sense. : he speaks as if he were ruler of Athens. He defends 7. himself because he was forced to : the other matter depended on his deliberate choice. supply a general phrase like : 8. in the next clause this is ousted by the particular has no grammatical construction : but a reader The has the writer of the letter in his mind as subject. parenthesis gives briefly the two messages of Themistocles to Xerxes. In full sense ' I sent the message from Salamis that the Greeks wanted to withdraw by this I caused the defeat of the King. I sent the warning from.Andros, that the line of Thucydides retreat was threatened, and so rescued the King.' could be brief because the reader knew about it from Herod, viii. 78 and no. ras 12. The simple construction would be
: :

,
.

NOTES,

p.

59

here not &

revealed, but contrast with the King.


22.

which Themistocles has not


as Plato uses

in

The
. .

ability of Themistocles
-eiv,

imposed on

bined, (i)

Trjs

two constructions com(2)

.
=

improvisations off-hand). know that some declared Mnesiphilus, said to be a pupil of Solon, to be the teacher of Themistocles, others connected him with Anaxagoras, the master of Pericles. Thucydides rejects all this. is 26. es which is easily supplied, because it stands emphatically at the head of the description. 29. Again (cf. 1. 12), nouns in place of the simple verbs not elsewhere in this sense, and occurs nowhere else. The antithetic clauses, similar in sound and length, are artificial : this is an example of

!,

,,
.
Digitized

We

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the TopyUia

circle ; only one point in the circle is now actually about to come to pass. Just that one thing among Themistocles could accurately foresee. 32. His eloquence is described in modest terms at that time oratory had not been perfected, (in later Greek would be necessary with the infin.), he was not far from,' is a meiosis. : in respect of utility. 33. Page 60, 1. 2. irSv is an old saying ; but this impromptu statesmanship runs counter to it. This is not in itself praise : Thucydides knows how to value the preparation of a Pericles but it was in this that the peculiar greatness of
:

which soon after came to be thought that which lies in the vague future, is a wide

,,
NOTES,
the
'

pp. 59,
*

figures

of the then admired rhetor,


silly.

,
60
'

85

<

(!

Themistocles
5.

lay.
bull's blood,

Thucydides knew what the

already

makes Themistocles drink

was, for Aristophanes but he thinks

the fable not worth mentioning. to distinguish it from 9. Magnesia on the Maeander, the district in Thessaly the one by Sipylus was then so unimportant that it is left out of account. This is the tribute to the King, taken over by the governor. Lampsacus on the Propontis, and Myus, a little town near Magnesia, he did not get possession of. They belonged to the Athenian alliance. But in hellenistic times a festival was celebrated in his honour at Lampsacus, and descendants of his received honours. 12. Thucydides then had obtained information from relatives of Themistocles. son, Cleophantus, lived at Athens. The grave was then unknown : later fables located it at the entry into the Piraeus, and it is still pointed out there.
:

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