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UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION

Introduction: Corporate success today largely depends on quality. For example the ascent of Japan, a country without any natural resource, as one of the most industrialized and admired country is mainly due to its commitment to quality. The word quality has multiple meanings. In this two meanings dominate the word Quality consists of those product features, which meet the needs of customers, thereby providing product satisfaction. Quality consists of freedom deficiencies Quality is a relative term, generally used with reference to the end-use of a product. Quality should be aimed at the needs of the consumer, present and future.
Broadly quality is:

Fitness for use Grade Degree of preference Degree of excellence Conformity to requirements Quality is of two types, (1) Customer-driven quality (2) Conformance or internal specification quality Customer driven relates to appropriate product specifications and service standards There is an inverse relationship between Conformance or internal specification quality As Quality improves, it results in improved market share. This in turn provides investment in Quality improvement such as research and development As per demings Quality = result of work effort / total cost Need for Quality: It increases the profit earning capacity of the business It enables the industry to compete successfully. It reduces the cost of production It reduces operation losses by keeping scrap and wastes to a minimum It improves the product design It reduces product line bottlenecks. It improves employees morale It enhances customers satisfaction It increases the reputation of the industry

Evolution of Quality: During the early days of manufacturing, an operative's work was inspected and a decision made whether to accept or reject it. The focus was just to accept or reject the products based on the specification. No effort was made on defect prevention. In the 1920's statistical theory began to be applied effectively to quality control In 1924 Shewhart made the first attempt of a modern control chart. His work was later developed by Deming and the early work of Shewhart, Deming, Dodge and Romig It constitutes much of what today comprises the theory of statistical process control (SPC). There was little use of these techniques in manufacturing companies until the late 1940's. In the early 1950's, quality management practices developed rapidly in Japanese plants, and become a major theme in Japanese management philosophy In 1960, quality control and management had become a national preoccupation. In 1969, Feigenbaum presented a paper in a conference and the term total quality was used for the first time It referred to wider issues such as planning, organization and management responsibility. Ishikawa presented a paper explaining how total quality control in Japan was different, it means company wide quality control, and describing how all employees, from top management to the workers, must study and participate in quality control. Company wide quality management was common in Japanese companies by the late 1970's. Total quality management (TQM) came into existence in 1980 by the western world. TQM is now part of a much wider concept that addresses overall organizational performance and recognizes the importance of processes. As we move into the 21st century, TQM has developed in many countries into holistic frameworks, aimed at helping organizations achieve excellent performance, particularly in customer and business results.

Quality Control: Steps of Quality control or assurance: 1. Inspection-oriented Quality assurance 2. Production process control-oriented quality assurance 3. Quality assurance during new product development 1. Inspection-oriented Quality assurance: It started to ensure closest inspection Closest inspection is necessary when there is more defects In this context QC is executed by inspection department After inspection ,product is evolved into Quality assurance department to understand the consumer requirements Then quality is checked from the standpoint of management Segregation of non-conforming products provide no assurance on Quality 2. Production process control-oriented quality assurance: Limitations in inspection led to logical process control Process capability eliminates defective products Reliable products produced at minimum cost For practicing process oriented, inspection is not enough Participation of all employees is must Process control cannot fully serve the purpose, when Misuse of the products by consumers Design deficiencies Improper selection of material Therefore QC needs to practice product development as well. 3. Quality assurance during new product development: Along with inspection oriented and process oriented ,Quality assurance born during new product development This means building quality and reliability in product development stages Product planning Design Trial production Test Mass production Mass trial production Initial production Sales and special control

Organization of Quality assurance:

Functions of Quality assurance: List the function in terms of staff and line functions Staff functions Line functions 1. Product evaluation during design 2. Standardization 3. Calibration and maintenance 4. Inward goods inspection 5. Qualification approval 6. Environmental tests 7. Physical and chemical tests 8. Customer interaction on field failures 9. Reliability studies Definitions of Quality: There are several definitions of Quality, The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy the stated and implied needs (ISO 8402 - 1994). Ability of a set of inherent characteristic of a product, system or process to fulfill requirements of customers and other interested parties 1. Control of production processes 2. Inspection and testing 3. Installation and training 4. Spare parts support 5. Technical literature 6. Analysis of routine problems on line and corrective measures

Fitness for purpose or use Quality is conformance to requirements

(Juran) (Crosby)

Total composite of product and services characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacturing and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectation by the customer. (Feigenbaum) Quality should be aimed at the needs of customer, present and future (Deming) Quality is the degree of excellence at an acceptance price and control of variability at an acceptable cost (Broh) Quality meets the requirements of the customers, both internal and external, the organization for defect-free product, services and business processes (IBM) Dimensions of Quality: There are eight dimensions of quality Performance Features Reliability Conformance Durability Serviceability Aesthetics Perceived quality
Quality in Manufacturing Well-developed quality systems have existed in manufacturing for some time. However, these systems focused primarily on technical issues such as equipment reliability, inspections, defect measurement, and process control. Manufactured products have several quality dimensions including the following: 1. Performance: a products primary operating characteristics. 2. Feature: the bells and whistles of a product. 3. Reliability: the probability of a products surviving over a specified period of time under stated conditions of use. 4. Conformance: the degree to which physical and performance characteristics of a product match pre-established standards. 5. Durability: the amount of use one gets from a product before it physically deteriorates or until replacement is preferable. 6. Serviceability: the ability to repair a product quickly and easily. 7. Aesthetics: how a product looks, feels, sounds, tastes, or smells. 8. Perceived quality: subjective assessment resulting from image, advertising, or brand names.

Quality in Services: A service might be as simple as handling a complaint or as complex as approving a home mortgage. Service organizations include hotels; health, legal, engineering, and other professional services; educational institutions; financial services; retailers; transportation; and public utilities The production of services differs from manufacturing in many ways, and these differences have important implications for managing quality. The most critical differences are: 1. Customer needs and performance standards are often difficult to identify and measure, primarily because the customers define what they are, and each customer is different. 2. The production of services typically requires a higher degree of customization than does manufacturing. Doctors, lawyers, insurance salespeople, and foodservice employees must tailor their services to individual customers. In manufacturing, the goal is uniformity. 3. The output of many service systems is intangible, whereas manufacturing produces tangible, visible products. Manufacturing quality can be assessed against firm design specifications, but service quality can only be assessed against customers subjective, nebulous expectations and past experiences. Manufactured goods can be recalled or replaced by the manufacturer, but poor service can only be followed up by apologies and reparations. 4. Services are produced and consumed simultaneously, whereas manufactured goods are produced prior to consumption. In addition, many services must be performed at the convenience of the customer. Therefore, services cannot be stored, inventoried, or inspected prior to delivery as manufactured goods are. Much more attention must therefore be paid to training and building quality into the service as a means of quality assurance. 5. Customers often are involved in the service process and present while it is being performed, whereas manufacturing is performed away from the customer. For example, customers of a quick-service restaurant pace their own orders, carry their food to the table, and are expected to clear the table when they have finished eating. 6. Services are generally labor intensive, whereas manufacturing is more capital intensive. The quality of human interaction is a vital factor for services that involve human contact. 7. Many service organizations must handle very large numbers of customer transactions. Such large volumes increase the opportunity for error These differences have made it difficult for many service organizations to apply total quality principles. The most important dimensions of service quality include the following; you may remember the most important ones by RATER: Reliability: How much reliable is the service provider?

Accessibility and convenience: Is the service easy to obtain? Timeliness: Will a service be performed when promised? Completeness: Are all items in the order included? Consistency: Are services delivered in the same fashion for every customer, and every time for the same customer? Tangibility: after the service is over, is there any thing to take home to remind the service experience? Empathy or Courtesy: Do frontline employees greet each customer cheerfully? Responsiveness: Can service personnel react quickly and resolve unexpected problems? Basic concepts of TQM: TQM requires six basic concepts: 1. A committed and involved management to provide long-term top-tobottom organizational support. 2. An unwavering focus on the customer, both internally and externally. 3. Effective involvement and utilization of entire work force 4. Continuous improvement of the business and production process 5. Treating the suppliers as partners. 6. Establish performance measures for the processes. These concepts outline an excellent way to run an organization Definitions of TQM: TQM is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is a proven technique to guarantee in world class competition. Analyzing the three words, we have Total Made up of the whole Quality Degree of excellence a product or service provides Management Act, art, or manner of handling, controlling, directing etc. TQM is defined as both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization.It is the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve all the processes within an organization and exceed customer needs now and in the future.

TQM frame work: Bench marking Information technology Quality management system Environmental management system Quality function deployment Quality by design Failure mode and effect analysis Product and service liability Total productive maintenance Management Tools Statistical process control Experimental design Taguchis quality engineering

Shewhart Deming Juran Figenbaum Ishikawa Crosby Taguchi

Gurus

Tools and techniques

Principles and practices

Product or service realization

Customer

People and relationships: Leadership Customer satisfaction Employee involvement Supplier partnership

Approach: Continuous process improvement Measure: Performance measures

Contributions of Deming, Juran and Crosby: Shewhart: Walter A.Shewhart, PhD contributes: Control chart theory with control limits Assignable and chance causes of variation Rational subgroups PDSA cycle He authored, Economic control of Quality of manufactured product, it is a thorough work of the basic principles of Quality control. Deming: W.Edwards Deming, PhD contributes: Statistical process control Importance of Quality Demings philosophy He authored, Crisis and Quality Productivity Competitive position 161 Scholarly studies Juran: Joseph M.Juran, PhD Contributes: The Juran trilogy for managing Quality He authored, Jurans Quality control Handbook Feiganbaum: Armand V. Feigenbaum PhD Contributes: Feigenbaums quality principles He authored, Total Quality control Ishikawa Kaoru Ishikawa, PhD Contributes: Quality circle concept Cause and effect diagram He authored, SPC Texts in Japanese and in English

Crosby Philip B. Crosby started his career in quality later than Deming and Juran. His corporate background includes 14 years as director of quality at ITT (1965-1979). He left ITT in 1979 to form Philip Crosby Associates, an international consulting firm on quality improvement, which he ran until 1992, when he retired as CEO to devote his time to lecturing on quality related issues. Philip B.Crosby authored, Quality is free, in1979 Quality without Tears, 1984 He defines Quality simply as conformance to customer requirements, is best known for his advocacy of zero defects management Costs of Quality, Crosbys Fourteen Steps to Quality Improvement Taguchi Genichi Taguchi, PhD Contributes: Loss function concept Taguchis philosophy (Design of parameters and tolerances) Demings philosophy: Dr.W.Edward Demings, considered as father of Japanese quality revolution proposed 14 points on Quality through the use of statistical techniques 1. Create and publish the aims and purposes of the organization. 2. Learn the new philosophy. 3. Understand the purpose of inspection. 4. Stop awarding business based on price alone. 5. Improve constantly and forever the system. 6. Institute training. 7. Teach and institute leadership. 8. Drive out fear, Create trust and create a climate for innovation. 9. Optimize the efforts of teams, groups and staff areas. 10. Eliminate exhortations for the work force. 11. Eliminate numerical quotes for the work force.

12. Eliminate management by objective. 13. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. Encourage education and self-improvement for everyone. 14. Take action for accomplish the transformation. Crosbys Philosophy and Contributions Crosbys Absolutes of Quality Management are as follows: Quality means conformance to requirements not elegance. There is no such thing as a quality problem There is no such thing as the economics of quality The only performance measurement is the cost of quality The only performance standard is Zero Defects

Barriers to TQM: The common barriers of TQM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Lack of management Commitment Inability to Change Organizational culture Improper planning Lack of continuous training and education Incompatible organizational structure and isolated individuals and departments Ineffective measurement techniques and lack of Access to Data and results Paying Inadequate Attention to Internal and External Customers Inadequate use of Empowerment and teamwork Failure to continually improve.