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Structural Behavior and Design Approaches

Lecture 8

Structural Behavior and Scale


General Concepts and Definitions
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Strength The ability to sustain load. Stiffness Push per move; the ratio of deformation to associated load level. Stability The ability of a structure to maintain position and geometry. Instability involves collapse that is not initiated by material failure. External stability concerns the ability of a structure's supports to keep the structure in place; internal stability concerns a structure's ability to maintain its shape. Ductility The amount of inelastic deformation before failure, often expressed relative to the amount of elastic deformation.

Meanings at various levels of scale


Material
Strength aterial strength is measured by a stress level at !hich there is a permanent and significant change in the material's load carrying ability. "or example, the yield stress, or the ultimate stress. Stiffness aterial stiffness is most commonly expressed in terms of the modulus of elasticity# the ratio of stress to strain in the linear elastic range of material behavior. Stability $s it is most commonly defined, the concept of stability applies to structural elements and systems, but does not apply to materials, since instability is defined as a loss of load carrying ability that is not initiated by material failure. Ductility aterial ductility can be measured by the amount of inelastic strain before failure compared to the amount of elastic strain. It is commonly expressed as a ratio of the maximum strain at failure divided by the yield strain. Strength Stiffness Stabili ty Ductility

M a t e r i a l

Element
Strength Element strength is measured by the amount of load that an element can sustain before reaching some damage level, such as permanent deformation or complete collapse. "or example, the strength of a beam could be measured in terms of the maximum distributed load that it could carry !ithout becoming inelastic. Stiffness Element stiffness is measured by the ratio of a displacement some!here on an element %typically the maximum displacement& and an applied load. 'ince stiffness is primarily a concern for service loads, stiffness is commonly measured by the maximum displacement at service loads. Stability Element stability concerns the ability of the element to maintain it's shape and position. $n example of an externally unstable element !ould be a (oist that lacks end blocking to keep it from rolling over under load. $n example of internal instability !ould be a cable loaded in compression, since it is unable to maintain it's shape under that load. Ductility Element ductility concerns the amount of inelastic deformation that an element experiences before collapse. $s !ith materials, element ductility is commonly measured by comparing the displacement at failure to the yield displacement. Strength E l e m e n t Stiffness Stability Ductility

Internal

External

System
Strength 'ystem strength is measured by the amount of load that a system can sustain before reaching some damage level, such as permanent deformation or complete collapse. The collapse of a system typically involves a se)uence of element failures; a !ell designed system may experience severe damage in many elements before !hile continuing to sustain higher loads. Stiffness 'ystem stiffness is measured by some characteristic deflection relative to an applied load. "or example, the deflection at the top of a high*rise building under !ind loads. +r the vertical deflection of a long span bridge under gravity loads. Stability 'ystem stability concerns the ability of the system to maintain it's shape and position. $n example of an externally unstable system !ould be a house that slides off it's foundations in an earth)uake. $n example of an internally unstable system !ould be an open frame that lacked cross bracing folded over under !ind loads. "olding la!n furniture is an example of a structure that is designed to be unstable under certain loading conditions. Ductility 'ystem ductility concerns the amount of inelastic deformation that a system experiences before collapse. $s !ith materials, system ductility is commonly measured by comparing the displacement at failure to the maximum elastic displacement. In earth)uake design, it is common to create ductile systems by using specially detailed regions of the structure as ,crumple -ones, to absorb damage and allo! large inelastic deformations of the system !ithout collapse. Strength S y s t e m Stiffness Stability Ductility

Internal

External

Summary Table
Strength M a t e r i a l Stiffness Stability Ductility

E l e m e n t

Internal

External

S y s t e m

Internal

External

Design Approaches
Mathematical design vs. practical design
Should structural design be based on sound physical theory and mathematical reasoning, or on incremental improvement of configurations that have worked in the past, even if they are not completely understood? Petroski Introduction .ordon /hapter 0

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The role of building codes


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The rights of o ners! an ancient vie Excerpts from The Code of Hammurabi %circa 1234 5./.& http#66ea!c.evansville.edu6anthology6hammurabi.htm

773. If a builder build a house for some one and complete it, he shall give him a fee of t!o shekels in money for each sar of surface. 778 If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house !hich he built fall in and kill its o!ner, then that builder shall be put to death. 794. If it kill the son of the o!ner the son of that builder shall be put to death.

797. If it ruin goods, he shall make compensation for all that has been ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house !hich he built and it fell, he shall re*erect the house from his o!n means. 799. If a builder build a house for some one, even though he has not yet completed it; if then the !alls seem toppling, the builder must make the !alls solid from his o!n means.

The purpose of modern building codes


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To protect public health and safety. "ot to protect the rights of o!ners, nor designers, nor builders. Performance*based building codes. .iving o!ners options beyond health and safety. The code is like a driver's manual :ou can follo! it to the letter, and be very unsafe.

Mechanics of Materials
Review points from lecture 7
$rch 9706;70, Introduction to 'tructural <esign, =niversity of >irginia /opyright ? 188;*7448 @irk artini. Aast odified Bed, 11* "eb*7448 14#C7
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Table of /ontents

Mechanics of Materials
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Molecular bonds act li#e springs. Stress measures the force intensity in a material. Strain measures deformation intensity. $oo#e%s &la &! forces are proportional to deformations.

This is more of an observation than a la!, since it is not al!ays true. E'modulus defines material stiffness# E*modulus %a.k.a. odulus of elasticity, :oung's modulus& is the ratio of stress divided by strain, and extends Fooke's la! in terms of stresses and strains rather than forces and deformations. (inear elastic does not apply to all materials or at all times to all materials or at all times! The direct proportionaly of stress and strain is called linear elastic behavior and is true only for some materials in limited stress*strain ranges. Three #ey material properties %among others&# Strength measures ho hard it is to yield or brea# the material. 'trength is measured by the stress level at !hich there is a significant

change in the state of the material, such as yield stress or ultimate stress. Stiffness measures ho hard it is to stretch or s)uee*e the material! 'tiffness is measured by E*modulus, the ratio of stress to strain in the linear elastic range, and the slope of the stress*strain curve in that range. Ductility measures ho much inelastic strain there is before material failure. <uctiliy is measured by comparing the inelastic strain range to the elastic strain range, typically by calculating the ratio of the maximum strain at failure to the strain at yield.