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Chapter 1

1.1 General Introduction


Energy expenditures pose an annual problem for the school’s budget. In
recent years, schools have been increasingly hit with budget cuts that leaves
school boards with the tough decision of how and where to decrease expenditures.
At the same time, rising energy costs soak up budget that can be use in the
classroom. The result is often the cutting of special programs, supplies, and
staffing. No matter where the cuts are made, the students are affected. Rapid
increases in energy prices make it difficult for school administrator to anticipate
how much they will spend on energy when determining the following year’s
budget. No matter what the energy bill, funds spent of energy are funds that
cannot go to teachers, supplies, building repairs, or other programs that enhance
education.
Unfortunately, many schools have been decreasing, not enhancing, school
maintenance efforts. O&M budgets have been a major victim of state and local
budget cuts. O&M spending per student is at its lowest level; inevitably resulting
in more poorly maintained and operated facilities. Clearly, deferred repairs can
have an impact on the condition of school buildings and the learning environment.
However, one of the less visible products of this trend is deterioration in the
energy performance of school buildings with a resulting increase in energy
operating costs.
The Energy management programme is intended to provide a simple
approach for the College of Engineering Building of MSU-IIT to achieve energy
efficient that uses significantly less energy when compared to similar institution.
This EMP represents a way, but not the only way, to conserve energy while
maintaining quality and functionality of the building. This programme is
developed by a diverse group of professionals (Course ES 218 class 2008-2009)
under the supervision of Dr. FB Alagao of the graduate study program of MSU-
IIT, Iligan City.

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To quantify the expected energy savings, these group selected potential
envelope, lighting, Air Condition Units, Laboratory equipments, Computers and
other office equipment and appliances. It estimates that about 49% of the energy
cost is related to air conditioning and about 37% is related to Computers and its
accessories. The rapidly accelerating use of the Internet affects electricity use by
computers in schools and offices, as does the infrastructure supporting the Internet
(servers, routers, switches, hubs, access devices, etc.).
There are two ways to manage energy costs: 1) “cost-based” or “budget-
based” management, where you obtain lower rates, reduce budgets, etc.; and 2)
“usage-based” management, where you manage actual consumption by improving
efficiency or improving control (Princeton Energy Resources Int’l). This report is
focus on usage-based management.
Offices evolved from simple to more sophisticated type. This evolution has
been based on human’s comfort grabbing greedily energy in any form to satiate
consumers demand. Statistics show that energy consumption tremendously
increased through the years showing trends side by side with the increase in
population. Appliances also evolve into ones, which consume less energy, yet
degradation and depletion of its resources come to a grim conclusion, a concern
every part of the world is apprehended about.
Energy audit teams, committees, or panels are formed by government and
companies to look deeper into details of how energy savings can be achieved by
way of revising lay-outs, plans, and installations of electrical wirings and outlets;
upgrading equipments and appliances which are outdated and consumes more
electrical energy; obliterating habits and attitudes toward usage of electrically-
driven machines; monitoring progress and actual electrical consumption and
reporting of the same to the management; and educating users of the how’s to
operate in a manner that saves energy.
Energy audit, however, is done to improve not only the usage of electricity
but also to guarantee enhancement of an office in providing comforts as output of

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electrical energy. Finance is indispensable in realization of conceptualized
methods in attaining optimum usage of electrical energy. Indeed, rectification
and reformation of incorrect plan and installation, and reestablishment accurate
principles to flawed concepts of appliance and equipment usage would really
incur inevitable monetary expense.
Among office appliances, computers have been helping huge works of
employees into fast, orderly and easier way. This huge work entails huge amount
of energy because computers depend on electrical energy to operate. Computer
evolution however produces latest computers to have features on energy savings,
which many users are uneducated about. Consequently, the unawareness and
ignorance of users tantamount to energy wastage could be remedied by education
and periodic proper monitoring of actual usage by the management.
1.2 The Need for Energy Management Programs
Research studies estimate that nearly one third of the energy consumed in the
U.S. school is wasted (Alliance to Save Energy). The most energy-inefficient
schools use almost four times as much energy per square meter as the most
energy-efficient schools. If schools can reduce the amount of wasted energy, they
can redirect that money toward their primary mission: education.
The next few chapters outline an approach to developing and implementing
an energy management programme for the College of Engineering Building of
MSU-IIT.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Since the Electrical energy cost today are alarming and continuously
increasing, conservation and using it wisely is necessary. Bill for the electric
energy is significantly affecting the over-all budget. Use of electric energy is
controllable so, it is only a matter of commitment.
1.4 Objective of the Study
 Formulate an Energy Management Programme to achieve and sustain
efficient and effective use of energy.

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 Define responsibilities and budget allocations for energy management;
(Minimal cost for implementing the program by integrating the function of
EMP committee to the existing staff)
1.4 Scope and limitations
 This program is limited to management of electricity as an energy source.
 Area is limited to COE bldg of MSU-IIT.
 Policies
 Practices
 Planning activities
 Responsibilities
 Implementation is not included in this study.
This report contains the methodology, load audit, results, findings, and
recommendations of the study.
1.5 Definition of Terms
Energy Management Programme - All activities of the organization’s
overall management functions that contribute to the achievement of objectives
and targets of the Energy Policy (Energy Audit Manual New Zealand).
Energy Audit - A programme to achieve and sustain efficient and effective
use of energy including policies, practices, planning activities, responsibilities and
resources which affect the organization’s performance in achieving the objectives
and targets of the Energy Policy (Energy Audit Manual, New Zealand
(June2007))
Air Conditioning Unit – is a device that removes heat from the room,
consuming electricity in the process.
O&M – Operation & Maintenance
BTU – British thermal unit
EER – Energy Efficiency Rating
CRT –Cathode Ray Tube
LCD –Liquid Crystal Display

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Light – is an electromagnetic phenomenon dealing with the radiation,
refraction, transmission, and absorption of electromagnetic waves
Luminous Intensity – is the basic standard quantity of the light. The unit of
luminous intensity is the candela (cd).
Luminous flux – defined as one lumen (Lm) when a point source of one
candle illuminates one squarefoot, or footcandles.
CU – Coefficient of Utilization deals with the fraction of the available light
reaching the surface.
LDD – Luminaire Dirt Depreciation Factor depends on the environment and
frequency of cleaning.
LLD – Lamp Lumen Depreciation Factor indicates deprecation from aging.
MMI – Minimum Maintained Illumination Level will depend on the
cleanness of a lumenaire’s environment and on how often the luminaire is
cleaned.
LLD – Lamp Lumen Depreciation Factor is a multiplier used with initial
lamp lumens to determine the lamp output depreciation due to aging.
Glare – The greater the brightness of the light source, the greater the
discomfort, interference with vision, and eye fatigue.
Brightness Ratios – Adjacent surfaces with great contrasts in reflectance can
produce glare.
Diffusion – occurs where light is coming from many directions. It is the
function of the size and number of sources contributing to the illumination of a
point.
Reflectance/Reflectivity – The ratio of the energy of a wave reflected from a
surface to the energy of the incident wave.

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CHAPTER 2.0

Review of Related Literature

Electricity has been the most widely used form of energy. Renewable
resources around the world are tapped and eventually converted mostly to
electricity. The use of electricity is at increasing trend proportionally to the
increase in population. In the Philippines, population is exploding and the greater
need for electricity does expeditious proliferation of electrical energy suppliers
even in the province level. Blackout occurrences step up raising discomfort of
electric-dependent consumers giving opportunity to improve.
Expectedly, cost of electricity increases as demand gets higher giving
consumers no choice but to limit consumption, the first step to realization of
conservation of energy. Humanity’s innate tendency to find solution in order to
survive and sustain its life prompts the limitation of electrical power supply to
optimization of electrical current supply. In the business sectors where use of
electricity is the main source of energy to run machines, equipments, appliances
and the like, saving electrical energy is a way to combat demand crisis and high-
priced supply. A small amount of savings incurred in a daily basis would sum up
to a significant figure per calendar year, a huge help in the business.
Studies in New Zealand show tremendous savings in electrical energy by
adopting certain energy saving measures in a company which mainly operates by
electricity. In the course of diagnosing activities and consumer attitude towards
utilization of electrical energy, a detailed outline of activities were recorded and
possible shift to revised standard procedures were laid down. Detailed list of
equipments, lightings, and dimension of equipment rooms, areas, laboratory and
the like were also noted to correlate with the objective to reach optimal usage of
electrical energy. Moreover, in the studies that were mentioned, an energy audit
team was appointed and tasked to do thorough investigation and inspection of the

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particular facility under the administrative and financial provisions of each
particular company/firm’s management.
Stimulated by the results of the studies read, a parallel study was
conceptualized to cover the College of Engineering (COE) building, Mindanao
State University – Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Lanao del Norte.
The ES 218 (Energy Conservation) Master of Engineering students under
Feliciano Alagao, Ph.D., shall initiate enlisting and gathering of data relating to
electrical energy usage and conservation, and to come up with recommendations
to uphold energy savings in the COE.
The main entities to probe on to are the air conditioning units, equipments
and appliances, and lightings. Some studies show significant savings in these
areas of electricity consumption which in turn is applicable in the COE electrical
consumption and users’ attitude towards using it. The whole point of Energy
audits made in the different establishments that would be applied in the study are
the assessment of the best practice to come up to a significant savings which
maximizes electrical consumption, categorize activities which are helpful in the
saving endeavors, assertion of practices that should be thwarted, and equipment or
materials that needs to be progressed to enhance prospective effect and
application in offices, rooms, library, laboratories, corridors and hallways.

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CHAPTER 3.0

3.1 ENERGY AUDIT OF COE


The Total Power consumption for air conditioning units and the computers
with its accessories of the COE building come up to 21,262 Kw-hrs/month, which
is about 85% of the total energy consumption of the entire building. In fact the
highest energy consuming sector as shown in figure 3.1 and it is the spotlight of
Energy Management Program.

Distribution of Energy Use

Computers. Lighting
36% 8%

ACU
49%

Lab eqpt
Appliance 1%
7%

Figure 3.1 Load Distribution


The present energy cost in Iligan City is about 7Php per Kw-hr. So if we express
the energy consumed in Php this will amount to about 150,000 Php, if this could
be reduce by 20%, the amount in savings would amount to 30,000 Php/month or
360,000Php/year.

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3.2 Computers, Monitors and Printers
Computers, monitors and printers’ electricity consumption are determined by
their energy requirement and how they are manipulated. In a set comprises of
computer, monitor and printer, it was found out that on average, the current drawn
by computers reaches to 42%, monitors at 48% and printers at 10% when they are
turned on or in active mode as found out from the evaluation of 20 computers
randomly sampled from the offices of College of Engineering .
On the other hand, evaluation shows that at standby mode, monitors draw
electric current at 6% while computers at 94%. Printers were either turned on or
off so they are not included in this mode as they do not have such features.

Table 3.1 Appliance at Active Mode


Current in Amperes
Sample Computer Monitor Printer Total
1 0.30 0.38 0.0050 0.68
2 0.25 0.34 - 0.59
3 0.13 0.35 0.1000 0.37
4 0.11 0.37 0.0500 0.28
5 0.40 0.31 - 0.71
6 0.28 0.33 - 0.61
7 0.30 0.34 - 0.64
8 0.30 0.35 0.1000 0.75
9 0.25 0.35 - 0.60
10 0.25 0.35 - 0.60
11 0.33 0.33 - 0.66
12 0.25 0.34 0.1000 0.69
13 0.25 0.34 - 0.59
14 0.30 0.34 - 0.64
15 0.33 0.34 0.1000 0.77
16 0.35 0.34 - 0.69
17 0.35 0.33 - 0.68
18 0.40 0.36 0.0500 0.81
19 0.28 0.34 - 0.61
20 0.30 0.33 - 0.63
Total 5.69 6.37 0.51 12.56
Average 0.28 0.32 0.07 0.67
Percentage 42.15 47.16 10.69 100.00

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Table 3.2 Appliance at Standby/Sleep Mode
Current in Amperes
Sample Computer Monitor Printer Total
1 0.14 0.0113 - 0.15
2 0.08 0.0084 - 0.08
3 0.17 0.0069 - 0.17
4 0.21 0.0007 - 0.21
5 0.18 0.0093 - 0.19
6 0.16 0.0116 - 0.17
7 0.14 0.0112 - 0.16
8 0.13 0.0121 - 0.14
9 0.14 0.0091 - 0.14
10 0.07 0.0097 - 0.08
11 0.15 0.0083 - 0.16
12 0.12 0.0092 - 0.13
13 0.13 0.0099 - 0.13
14 0.16 0.0111 - 0.17
15 0.16 0.0130 - 0.17
16 0.16 0.0117 - 0.18
17 0.14 0.0104 - 0.15
18 0.16 0.0138 - 0.18
19 0.15 0.0081 - 0.16
20 0.15 0.0073 - 0.16
Total 2.88 0.1929 - 3.07
Average 0.14 0.0096 - 0.15
Percentage 93.71 6.29 0.00 100.00

The type of monitor greatly affects electric current consumption. Studies


have been showing tremendous reduction in electricity consumption when one
uses LCD type of monitor. In COE, mostly of the monitors used is CRT. In fact,
only 2 of the 20 samples are LCD.
The following table shows Electric current drawn by type of monitor and the
average usage in hours per day. The data show that CRT type of monitors draws
much larger electric current by 2.5 times in Active and twice in Standby mode.

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Current Distribution

0.800
0.072
0.600
0.341
Electric
0.400
Current (Amp)
0.200 0.305 -
0.010
0.144
-
Active Low
Printer 0.072 -
Monitor 0.341 0.010
Computer 0.305 0.144
Appliance Mode

Figure 3.2 Current Distribution by Mode

LCD monitors taken for sample are the newly acquired ones located at the

computer services ground floor of COE building. Comparison on wattage per

hour is presented to see the significant difference of electricity consumption based

on the kind of monitor being used.

Moreover, it was found out that the use of screen saver does not actually save
electricity because monitor continuously draws current while in this mode.
A net saving of PhP 0.37 per kw-hr of electricity usage can be achieved if
one switches to LCD from CRT monitor and employs standby or sleep mode
instead of screen saver only. The cost of purchasing LCD monitor versus the
savings that can be achieved was not determined however replacement
opportunities in the future may pave way for the purpose.

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Table 3.3 Current Drawn by Monitor Type
Current in Amperes
Mode
Low Low Difference
Active Active
Power Power
Sample CRT LCD CRT LCD
1 0.38 0.01 - - 0.38 -
2 0.34 0.01 - - 0.34 -
3 - - 0.14 0.01 - 0.13
4 - - 0.12 0.00 - 0.12
5 0.31 0.01 - - 0.31 -
6 0.33 0.01 - - 0.33 -
7 0.34 0.01 - - 0.34 -
8 0.35 0.01 - - 0.35 -
9 0.35 0.01 - - 0.35 -
10 0.35 0.01 - - 0.35 -
11 0.33 0.01 - - 0.33 -
12 0.34 0.01 - - 0.34 -
13 0.34 0.01 - - 0.34 -
14 0.34 0.01 - - 0.34 -
15 0.34 0.01 - - 0.34 -
16 0.34 0.01 - - 0.34 -
17 0.33 0.01 - - 0.33 -
18 0.36 0.01 - - 0.36 -
19 0.34 0.01 - - 0.34 -
20 0.33 0.01 - - 0.33 -
Total 6.105 0.18537 0.26 0.00757 6.105 0.25
Average 0.33917 0.0103 0.13 0.00378 0.33917 0.13

Interestingly, CRT monitor users could save PhP 0.36 per kw-hr of electricity
use if he switches off (or turn to standby or sleep mode) instead of putting it to

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Electric Current Drawn by Monitor

0.6000
0.0927
Electric 0.4000
Current (Amp) 0.3400
0.2000 0.0038
0.1300
-
CRT LCD
Low 0.0927 0.0038
Active 0.3400 0.1300
Monitor Type

FIGURE 3.3 Electric Current Drawn by Monitor

screen saver mode. However, LCD monitors could save PhP 0.14 per kw-hr of
electricity use if he does the same usage behavior.
It should be noted that switching to LCD monitor from CRT almost does the
same amount of savings compare to using CRT monitor and turning it off when
not in use. However, it is clear from the data that when CRT monitors are in
active mode it would incur PhP 0.37 per kw-hr of use while LCD monitor costs
only Php 0.14 per kw-hr of use. Still, a saving of Php 0.23 per kw-hr of use.
Nevertheless, since the probation is on energy savings, turning to LCD monitor is
still the best way to save energy looking over the long term effect.
An approximated savings is projected in the graph that follows where a
saving of 1 hour per day per unit of each monitor and computer for the whole year
of 5-day work a week.
Printer utilization may do significant share in the energy saving endeavors of
offices in the COE. Printers which are left turned on when not in use draws
current which when will be accumulated can impart savings. In the study,

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Savings Comparison Per Year (Approximated)

11640.2
12000
11325.6

10000

8000 7235.8

Amount in
6000
Philippine Peso
4404.4

4000

2000

0
Savings Per Year
CRT Active to LCD Low 11640.2
CRT Active to CRT Low 11325.6
CRT Active to LCD Active 7235.8
LCD Active to LCD Low 4404.4

Reformation

Figure 3,4 Approximated Savings Per Year


printers which are on active mode were evaluated and it was found out that they
draw electric current even when they do not work but are turned on.
Combination of savings for an attainable prospective could be achieved
foremost by the reformation in the behavior of user attitude towards appliances.
Appropriating wisely the available materials and equipments shall be the most.
practical way of saving energy. Below is the graph of an achievable
projection which could be applied immediately in the College of Engineering.
Php 17,000 can be saved in a year of turning off computers, monitors and
printers 1 hour each day which could be during break time or at times when
computers are just left turned on even when it is not in used. This assumption is
very minimal. Price per kilowatt – hour is assumed to be at PhP 5.00.

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Table 3.4 Cost and Savings Comparison by the Kind of Monitor and Mode Use

Mode Cost Comparison By Mode


Savings Savings
CRT LCD
Comparison Comparison
Sample Active Low Active Low Active Low Active Low Using Low Power Using Low Power
Power Power Power Power Per Monitor LCD VS. CRT
(PhP / Kw-hr) (PhP / Kw-hr)
CRT LCD (PhP / Kw-hr)
1 0.38 0.011 - - 0.41 0.0124 - - 0.400 - -
2 0.34 0.008 - - 0.37 0.0092 - - 0.359 - -
3 - - 0.14 0.007 - - 0.1540 0.0076 - 0.146 -
4 - - 0.12 0.001 - - 0.1320 0.0007 - 0.131 -
5 0.31 0.009 - - 0.34 0.0102 - - 0.331 - -
6 0.33 0.012 - - 0.37 0.0128 - - .353 - -
7 0.34 0.011 - - 0.37 0.0123 - - 0.362 - -
8 0.35 0.012 - - 0.38 0.0133 - - .366 - -
9 0.35 0.009 - - 0.39 0.0100 - - 0.375 - -
10 0.35 0.010 - - 0.38 0.0106 - - 0.369 - -
11 0.33 0.008 - - 0.37 0.0091 - - 0.357 - -
12 0.34 0.009 - - 0.37 0.0101 - - 0.364 - -
13 0.34 0.010 - - 0.37 0.0108 - - 0.363 - -
14 0.34 0.011 - - 0.37 0.0122 - - 0.356 - -
15 0.34 0.013 - - 0.38 0.0143 - - 0.362 - -
16 0.34 0.012 - - 0.37 0.0129 - - 0.356 - -
17 0.33 0.010 - - 0.36 0.0114 - - 0.346 - -
18 0.36 0.014 - - 0.39 0.0152 - - 0.375 - -
19 0.34 0.008 - - 0.37 0.0089 - - 0.362 - -
20 0.33 0.007 - - 0.36 0.0080 - - 0.355 - -
Total 6.11 0.19 0.26 0.01 6.72 0.20 0.29 0.01 6.51 0.28
Ave 0.31 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.37 0.01 0.14 0.005 0.36 0.14 0.37

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Table 3.5 Savings from Printer
Savings per Hour
Turned On when Off
Sample Printer (PhP)
1 0.01 0.00550
2 - -
3 0.10 0.11000
4 0.05 0.05500
5 - -
6 - -
7 - -
8 0.10 0.11000
9 - -
10 - -
11 - -
12 0.10 0.11000
13 - -
14 - -
15 0.10 0.11000
16 - -
17 - -
18 0.05 0.05500
19 - -
20 - -
Total 0.51 0.5555
Average 0.07 0.0794

Savings Share By Component

340.34
18000

16000

14000
11325.6
12000

10000
Am ount in
Philippine Pe s o
8000

6000

4000 5883.02

2000

0
Savings Per Year

Printer 340.34
CRT Active to CRT Low 11325.6
Monitor
Computer 5883.02

Figure 3.5 Savings Accumulation

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The data shows that each user has the opportunity to be a part of the energy saving
effort of the college. However, many do not know the saving features of their computers.
Many still use screen saver for idle times which as previously mentioned still uses
electricity.
Overall, awareness and education of appliance users is still the primary matter to
start the realization of energy savings. The College of Engineering might not have the
most efficient appliance available at this time but energy saving is not far from putting
into reality the greater savings in terms of monetary value which can be achieved if
everyone is doing their share of energy saving.
Survey Results
Part 1
On average, how many hours do you use the computer assigned to you?
2 6 6 12
4 0 8 2
I use password
Yes 12
No 8

Do you know some energy saving feature of your computer?


No 4
Yes ( Please list some)
16 Turn off during lunch time
screen
4 saver
0 standby mode

How many times do you turn on printer in one day?


1 7 3 0
2 8 4 0
more than 5 5

How many printers do you have in your office?


1 0 3 0
2 9 4 5
5 6

How do you rate your printing activity?


seldom 11
medium 9
heavy 0

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Part II

Rate your energy saving


awareness
satisfactory 8
good 12
very good 0

Please check all applicable


activity.

A. For computers assigned to one person only:

12 turn on my computer only when I use it


15 I turn off computer during break time
9 I use screen saver
16 I plug off the socket before going home
20 I turn off AVR (auto voltage regulator) before going home

B. For computers assigned to two or more persons:

14 we assign particular person to turn on and off our computer


6 turn on the computer and leave it open for others who will use it later
0 we have common password

3.3 AIR CONDITIONING


3.3.1 Air-conditioning basics
Air conditioning products cool the indoor environment to a comfortable temperature
in hot weather, providing an enjoyable and temperate climate in which to function.
Appliance efficiency is one of the biggest factors to consider today, and the total
efficiency of an air conditioning unit is indicated by the EER rating, which indicates the
Energy Efficiency Ratio. This rating is mandated by the government, can range between
10 and 17, and the higher the number, the more efficient the air conditioner. Many well
known and respected heating and cooling companies offer high-efficiency air
conditioning models for the public consumer. Choose a manufacturer that you trust and
check out the range of EER ratings on their available air conditioning units. While a

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highly efficient air conditioner may mean more cost up front, a consumer will save even
more in the long term with reduced monthly energy costs.
Most people think that air conditioners lower the temperature in their homes simply
by pumping cool air in. What's really happening is the warm air from your house is being
removed and cycled back in as cooler air. This cycle continues until your thermostat
reaches the desired temperature.
An air conditioner is basically a refrigerator without the insulated box. It uses the
evaporation of a refrigerant, like Freon, to provide cooling. The mechanics of the Freon
evaporation cycle are the same in a refrigerator as in an air conditioner. According to the
Merriam-Webster dictionary, the term Freon is generically "used for any of various
nonflammable fluorocarbons used as refrigerants and as propellants for aerosols."
This is how the evaporation cycle in an air conditioner works.
1. The compressor compresses cool Freon gas, causing it to become hot, high-
pressure Freon gas (red in the diagram above).
2. This hot gas runs through a set of coils so it can dissipate its heat, and it
condenses into a liquid.
3. The Freon liquid runs through an expansion valve, and in the process it evaporates
to become cold, low-pressure Freon gas (light blue in the diagram above).
4. This cold gas runs through a set of coils that allow the gas to absorb heat and cool
down the air inside the building.

Figure 3.6 Diagram of a typical air conditioner.

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Mixed in with the Freon is a small amount of lightweight oil. This oil lubricates the
compressor. Air conditioners help clean your home's air as well. Most indoor units have
filters that catch dust, pollen, mold spores and other allergens as well as smoke and
everyday dirt found in the air. Most air conditioners also function as dehumidifiers. They
take excess water from the air and use it to help cool the unit before getting rid of the
water through a hose to the outside. Other units use the condensed moisture to improve
efficiency by routing the cooled water back into the system to be reused. So this is the
general concept involved in air conditioning. In the next section, we'll take a look at
window and split-system units.
3.3.2 Window and Split-system AC Units
A window air conditioner unit implements a complete air conditioner in a small
space. The units are made small enough to fit into a standard window frame. You close
the window down on the unit, plug it in and turn it on to get cool air. If you take the cover
off of an unplugged window unit, you'll find that it contains:

Figure 3.7

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 A compressor
 An expansion valve
 A hot coil (on the outside)
 A chilled coil (on the inside)
 Two fans
 A control unit

The fans blow air over the coils to improve their ability to dissipate heat (to the
outside air) and cold (to the room being cooled).
When you get into larger air-conditioning applications, its time to start looking at
split-system units. A split-system air conditioner splits the hot side from the cold side of
the system, like this:

Figure 3.8

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The cold side, consisting of the expansion valve and the cold coil, is generally placed
into a furnace or some other air handler. The air handler blows air through the coil and
routes the air throughout the building using a series of ducts. The hot side, known as the
condensing unit, lives outside the building.
The unit consists of a long, spiral coil shaped like a cylinder. Inside the coil is a fan,
to blow air through the coil, along with a weather-resistant compressor and some control
logic. This approach has evolved over the years because it's low-cost, and also because it
normally results in reduced noise inside the house (at the expense of increased noise
outside the house). Other than the fact that the hot and cold sides are split apart and the
capacity is higher (making the coils and compressor larger), there's no difference between
a split-system and a window air conditioner.
In warehouses, large business offices, malls, big department stores and other sizeable
buildings, the condensing unit normally lives on the roof and can be quite massive.
Alternatively, there may be many smaller units on the roof, each attached inside to a
small air handler that cools a specific zone in the building.
In larger buildings and particularly in multi-story buildings, the split-system
approach begins to run into problems. Either running the pipe between the condenser and
the air handler exceeds distance limitations (runs that are too long start to cause
lubrication difficulties in the compressor), or the amount of duct work and the length of
ducts becomes unmanageable. At this point, it's time to think about a chilled-water
system.
3.3.3 BTU and EER
Most air conditioners have their capacity rated in British thermal units (BTU).
Generally speaking, a BTU is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one
pound (0.45 kg) of water 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degrees Celsius). Specifically, 1 BTU
equals 1,055 joules. In heating and cooling terms, 1 "ton" equals 12,000 BTU.
A typical window air conditioner might be rated at 10,000 BTU. For comparison, a
typical 2,000-square-foot (185.8 m2) house might have a 5-ton (60,000-BTU) air
conditioning system, implying that you might need perhaps 30 BTU per square foot.
(Keep in mind that these are rough estimates. To size an air conditioner for your specific
needs, contact an HVAC contractor.)

22
The energy efficiency rating (EER) of an air conditioner is its BTU rating over its
wattage. For example, if a 10,000-BTU air conditioner consumes 1,200 watts, its EER is
8.3 (10,000 BTU/1,200 watts). Obviously, you would like the EER to be as high as
possible, but normally a higher EER is accompanied by a higher price.
Let's say that you have a choice between two 10,000-BTU units. One has an EER of
8.3 and consumes 1,200 watts, and the other has an EER of 10 and consumes 1,000 watts.
Let's also say that the price difference is Php 2,000. To understand what the payback
period is on the more expensive unit, you need to know approximately how many hours
per year you will be operating the unit and How much a kilowatt-hour (kWh) costs in
your area. Let's say that you plan to use the air conditioner in the summer (four months a
year) and it will be operating about six hours a day. Let's also imagine that the cost in
your area is Php 7.50/kWh. The difference in energy consumption between the two units
is 200 watts, which means that every five hours the less expensive unit will consume 1
additional kWh (and Php 7.50 therefore more) than the more expensive unit.
Assuming that there are 30 days in a month, you find that during the summer you're
operating the air conditioner:
4 mo. x 30 days/mo. x 6 hr/day = 720 hours
[(720 hrs x 200 watts) / (1000 watts/kW)] x Php 7.50/kWh = 1,080.00 Php
The more expensive unit costs Php 2,000 more, which means that it will take about
eight months for the more expensive unit to break even.
3.3.4 COOLING LOAD
The major components of load in buildings are due to the direct solar radiation
through the glass, transmission through the building fabric or structure and fresh air for
ventilation. In the case of application such as theaters and auditoriums, the occupancy
load is predominant.
3.3.4.1 SOLAR RADIATION
Solar radiation forms the greatest single factor of cooling load in buildings. It is,
therefore, necessary to study the subject not only for the purpose of load calculation, but
also from the point of view of load reduction

23
3.3.4.2 INTERNAL HEAT GAINS
The sensible and latent heat gains due to occupants, lights, appliances, machines,
etc., within the conditional space, form the components of the internal heat gains.
3.3.4.3 OCCUPANCY LOAD
The occupants in a conditioned space give out heat at a metabolic rate that more or
less depends on their rate of working. The relative proportions of the sensible and latent
heats given out, however, depend on the ambient dry bulb temperature. The lower the dry
bulb temperature, the greater the heat given out as sensible heat.
3.3.4.4 LIGHTING LOAD
Electric lights generate sensible head equal to the amount of the electric power
consumed. Most of the energy is liberated as heat, and the rest as light which also
eventually becomes heat after multiple reflections.
Lighting manufacturers give some guidance as to the requirement of power for
different fittings to produce varying standards of illumination. In connection with
fluorescent tubes, it may be stated that the electric power absorbed at the fitting is about
25 percent more than necessary to produce the required lighting. Thus a 40 W tube will
need 50 W at the fitting. The excess of 10W is liberated at the control gear of the fitting.
3.3.4.5 APPLIANCE LOAD
Most appliances contribute both sensible and latent heats. The latent heat produced
depends on the function the appliances perform, such as drying, cooking, etc. Gas
appliances produce additional moisture as product of combustion. Such loads can be
considerably reduced by providing properly designed hoods with a positive exhaust
system or suction over the appliances.
3.3.4.6 Observations during actual energy audit
 Broken windows not repaired (infiltration of outside air is unnecessary additional
load)
 No proper maintenance (some ACU are very old and no periodic check-up)
 No energy meters causing difficulty in monitoring. (necessary to measure the
outcome Energy Management Program)

24
3.3.5 How to achieve Energy Savings
 High-energy costs are not "fixed" and can be reduced by 5% to 20% by
effectively managing, maintaining, and operating school physical plants,
regardless of school age.
 Substantial energy savings can be achieved from improved O&M practices
without significant capital investments
 The biggest challenges to obtaining school cost savings are not technical. Active
and continuing support by senior administrators, as well as staff training and
motivation, is critical to the success of energy-efficient management efforts.
 A number of external sources of support are often available to assist schools to
enhanced O&M efforts (invite speakers from equipment suppliers in energy
conservation).
 Post turn-off signs in all air conditioned rooms.
 Proper Energy behavior of the occupants
 Periodic check-up, cleaning of filters, evaporator & condenser coils.
 Minimize infiltration by repairing the broken windows.
 Schedule of classes at the computer rooms should be sequence and eliminate free
time, free time still consume energy.
 Educate by seminars (Energy behavior, cost, benefits etc.)
 School organizations can readily utilize techniques to systematically assess O&M
practices in their physical plant as well as the magnitude of potential energy-
saving opportunities resulting from changed O&M practices.
 Energy-efficient O&M programs must be carefully planned and must be
appropriate to the size, resources, and "culture" of each school district in order to
be successful.
 A significant number of American school districts, large and small, have had
success in achieving energy cost savings by means of improved O&M.

25
Table 3.6 Air Conditioning at the ground floor
Location Specs Qty Load Hrs/wk W/month Remarks
1 R101 2HP CARRIER 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
2 R 102 2HP Carrier 1 2,760 26 281,520 Working
3 R103 2HP Nat’l 1 2,760 3 8,280 Working
4 R 105 2HP condura 1 2,760 5 55,200 Working
5 R 106 2.06KW Nat’l 1 2,060 24 197,760 Working
6 R 108 2HP Carrier 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
7 R 110 2HP Carrier 1 2,760 3 33,120 Working
8 R 112 2HP Carrier 1 2,760 3 33,120 Working
9 R114 2HP Carrier 1 2,760 26 287,040 Defective
10 R 120 2HP Carrier 1 2,760 39 430,560 Working
11 XRD 2HP Carrier 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
12 NASS 1318W Con 1 1,328 40 212,480 Working
13 NASS 2HP Nat’l 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
14 NASS 3.146KW Carr 1 3,146 168 2,114,112 Working
15 NASS 3.146KW Carr 1 3,146 40 503,360 Working
16 CFSS 3TON Koppel 1 10,540 40 1,686,400 Working
17 CFSS 1318W Con 2 1,318 40 421,760 Working
18 CC Off 0.75HP Sharp 1 1,587 40 253,920 Working
8,285,032

26
Table 3.7 Air conditioning unit at the 2nd floor.
Location Specs Qty Load Hrs/wk W/month Remarks
1 R202 2HP 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
2 R204 2HP 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
3 R205 2HP 1 2,760 45 496,800 Working
4 R206 2HP 1 2,760 54 596,160 Working
5 ECE 2HP 1 2,760 54 596,160 Working
6 EE 2HP 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
7 DSP 2HP 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
8 IRC 2HP 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
9 AR 2HP 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
10 LIB 2HP 3 2,760 49.5 1,639,440 Working
11 CL 1.5 HP 1 2,300 40 368,000 Working
12 CL 2 HP 4 2,760 40 1,766,400 Working
13 DEAN 966W 1 966 40 154,560 Working
14 DEAN 3Ton 1 10,500 40 1,680,000 Working
Koppel
9,947,120

27
Table 3.8 Air Conditioning at the 3rd floor.
Location Specs Qty Load Hrs/wk W/month Remarks
1 R313 2HP 1 2,760 15 165,600 Working
2 R318 2HP 1 2,760 46 126,960 Working
3 MET 2HP 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
4 ME 2HP 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
5 CE 2HP 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
6 CS 2HP 1 2,760 40 441,600 Working
7 AVR 2HP 2 2,760 20 441,600 Working
8 CA LAB 2HP 1 2,760 12 132,480 Working
9 IR 2HP 1 2,760 12 132,480 Working
10 MRD 2HP 2 2,760 12 264,960 Working
3,030,480

Table 3.9 Sizing of the library


Location Power Qty Total Area (m2) Required Total btu/h
Library 2 HP 3 6 HP 84 18,000Btu/hr
(occupants) 30 500 84 15,000Btu/hr 33,000
(occupants) 50 500 84 25,000Btu/hr 43,000
(occupants) 70 500 84 35,000Btu/hr 53,000
(occupants) 100 500 84 50,000Btu/hr 68,000

Computation:
Case 1, 30 occupants;
btu
33,000
hr  9.67kw
btu / hr
3,413
kw
Assuming that the ACU’s EER = 9.1 (Standard)
Assuming that the COP is 3, then

28
Table 3.10 Library cooling load
Occupant Cooling Cap. Required (hp) ACU cooling capacity Remarks
30 13 18 Sufficient
50 16.88 18 Sufficient
70 20.82 Slightly
18
undersize
100 26.71 18 Undersize

6hp3  18Hp Cooling capacity of 6hp ACU.

 1Hp 
9.67kw   12.96 Hp = Cooling capacity required. Using the same equation,
 0.746kw 
cooling capacity requirement for different number of occupant are tabulated in table 4.4.2
Therefore, The ACU at the library is sufficient up to about 70 occupants.
Make any adjustments for the following circumstances:
 If the room is heavily shaded, reduce capacity by 10 percent.
 If the room is very sunny, increase capacity by 10 percent.
 If more than two people regularly occupy the room, add 400 BTUs for each
additional person.
 If the unit is used in a kitchen, increase capacity by 4,000 BTUs.
 Consider where you install the unit. If you are mounting an air conditioner near the
corner of a room, look for a unit that can send the airflow in the right direction.
Table 3.11 Sizing of Air Conditioner.
Room Size V (m3)(H=2.4) 3
60W/m KW BTU
2 2
150 ft 13.94 m 33.46 2,007.73 2.01 6,852
250 23.24 55.77 3,346.22 3.35 11,421
300 27.89 66.92 4,015.47 4.02 13,705
350 32.53 78.08 4,684.71 4.68 15,989
400 37.18 89.23 5,353.96 5.35 18,273
450 41.83 100.39 6,023.20 6.02 20,557
550 51.12 122.69 7,361.69 7.36 25,125
700 65.07 156.16 9,369.42 9.37 31,978
1000 92.95 223.08 13,384.89 13.38 45,683

29
In order to save energy, Annual Air Conditioner Maintenance is highly
recommended.
Indoor Maintenance
Check air filters at least once a month.
Replacing or cleaning your air filters is the most important maintenance task to help
ensure the efficiency of your air conditioner. Most Air conditioning units have disposable
filters, which should be checked every month and replaced when necessary with the same
size filter. Filters may need more frequent changing if the air conditioner is in constant
use, is subjected to dusty conditions or if you have pets in the house.
Clogged, dirty filters block normal airflow and can significantly reduce a system's
efficiency and capacity. With normal airflow obstructed, air that bypasses the filter may
carry dirt directly into the evaporator coil and impair the coil's heat-absorbing capacity.
Permanent filters should be cleaned according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Outdoor Maintenance
Keep outdoor condensing unit free of debris.
If you keep grass clippings, leaves, shrubbery and debris away from your outdoor
unit, it should only require minimal care to operate properly. Trimming foliage back to at
least two feet from the unit will allow for adequate airflow around the condenser.
Check the base pan under the unit occasionally, and remove debris to help the unit
drain correctly. If the outdoor coil becomes dirty, wash it with a water hose. Spray down
the fins of the condensing unit to wash off any dust or debris.
Before performing maintenance, turn off the 240-volt power at the appliance shutoff
box. It's usually outside within sight of the outdoor unit. Some shutoffs simply pull out,
while others have a handle to pull down or a fuse to remove. If there isn't one, turn off the
power at the circuit breaker at the main panel that controls the outdoor unit.
Straighten any bent coil fins.
The aluminum fins on evaporator and condenser coils are easily bent and can block
airflow through the coil. Air conditioning wholesalers sell a tool called a fin comb that
will comb these fins back into nearly original condition.
Maintenance Task #1: Replace or wash air filter

30
How to replace an air conditioner air filter?
This task involves removing the old air filter and replacing it with a new one (or
washing the old filter, depending on the manufacturer's directions). The filter is typically
rectangular in shape, about 20 inches by 16 inches, and about 1 inch thick. It slides into
the main ductwork (near the inside fan unit) to help take dust, pollen, etc. out of the air
that circulates in home or building. Ensure that the filters are placed in the correct
direction of air flow.
Why is it important to replace air conditioner's air filter?
There are two reasons for replacing this air filter:
 As a filter gets dirty over time, it begins to clog with dust, pollen, etc. A dirty
filter means the fan motor of the air conditioner has to work harder to move air through it,
which means it has to consume more energy, and is therefore more expensive to operate.
 The filter helps to clean the circulating air, which makes room cleaning easier and
less frequent, helps improve home health air quality, and helps to provide relief to allergy
sufferers.
Maintenance Task #2: Clean water drain
How to clean air conditioner's water drain?
 When an air conditioner cools the temperature of the air, water condenses out of
the air (similar to the way water condenses on the outside of a cold drinking glass
on a hot day). Most central air conditioning units have a condensate drain to
collect this water. This is typically located on the side of the inside fan unit.
 This condensation system and drain should be inspected to make sure there are no
obstructions, and that the hoses all fit properly.
Why is it important to clean air conditioner's water drain?
 If the lines or drain becomes blocked or develops leaks, the result could be water
spilling out around the air conditioning unit, which can cause safety hazards and/or water
damage.
Maintenance Task #3: Clean outside condenser unit
How to clean air conditioner's outside condenser unit?
The "outside condenser unit" is the big box with the large fan in it located on the side
of your house or building. This unit is where heat from the inside of your house is

31
pushed to the outside (which is why the fan blowing air above the unit feels warm).
Inside of the box are coils of pipe that are surrounded by thousands of thin metal "fins".
These fins give the coils more surface area for exchanging heat.
Cleaning the outside condenser unit involves four activities. Before doing any of
these activities, be absolutely sure to shut off power to the unit and consult the manual
regarding discharging the capacitor and proper maintenance procedures for air
conditioning unit. Above all, seek professional maintenance help.
1. Remove leaves, debris, spider webs, etc. from the outside of the unit. Be careful
to push debris away from the fins, not pushing debris into the fins.
2. Remove leaves, debris, etc. from the inside of the unit (after ensuring that power
is shut off to the unit). After removing the cover grille, a garden hose can be used
to spray the coils from the inside of the unit.
3. If any of the fins are bent, use a special tool called a "fin comb" to straighten and
clean them.
4. The motor which drives the fan typically has ports which allow lubricating oil to
be added (check manual).
Why it is important to clean air conditioner's outside condenser unit?
The purpose of this maintenance task is to help maintain the energy efficiency of the
condenser unit. A dirty unit is less efficient at doing its job, which means that air
conditioning unit has to work harder, which causes it to consume more energy, and
shortens its service life.
Maintenance Task #4: Cover (and uncover) outside condenser unit
How to cover (and uncover) air conditioner's outside condenser unit?
Covering the outside condenser unit involves placing a plastic or cloth cover over the
unit. This cover can be purchased pre-made, or can "do-it-yourself" by taping together
plastic trash bags, or a plastic drop cloth, etc.
Why is it important to cover (and uncover) air conditioner's outside condenser unit?
The purpose of covering the unit when it is not in use is to keep leaves, dirt, freezing
water, etc. away from the condenser. Keeping the unit clean helps to maintain its energy
efficiency and extend its service life.
Maintenance Task #5: Close (and open) air distribution registers

32
How to close (and open) system's air distribution registers?
Air distribution registers are the duct openings on walls, floors or ceiling where the
cold air conditioning air comes out. These registers typically have a lever or wheel that
allows the register to be opened and closed.
Make sure the registers are not blocked by furniture, carpeting, or drapes.
Why is it important to close (and open) system's air distribution registers?
Closing these registers keeps warm air from being lost by back-flowing through
these vents in the winter. It also keeps dust, pests, etc. from accumulating in the ducts
when they are not in use.
Maintenance Task #6: Air duct cleaning
How to clean air conditioning system's air ducts?
A professional service company typically uses specialized tools to dislodge dirt and
debris in the ducts and then removes it with a high-powered vacuum cleaner. In addition,
the service provider may also have treatments for killing microbiological contaminants.
Why is it important to clean your air conditioning system's air ducts?
Leaving moisture, dust, pollen, etc. in your ductwork can create a breeding ground
for molds and spores which affects health. Cleaning the ductwork removes these
contaminants and also increases the air flow efficiency of ductwork which can save
energy.
3.4 Lights
Light is the prime factor of human life because activities of human being in modern
times have to be continued even when day is insufficient and also when natural light is
not available. It has been an experience that good illumination ensures increase
production, reduces worker’s fatigue, protects eyes, health, nervous system and reduces
accidents
Illumination level required for different places is different. Suggested Illumination
Level for stairways, corridor, and hallways is 10fc. For areas involving casual machining,
occasional reading, and rough assembly is 30fc. For general office or for areas involving
sorting, ordinary inspection, reading over longer period of time is 50fc
Design and lighting schemes
1. It should provide adequate illumination.

33
2. Light distribution all over the working plane should be uniform as possible.
3. Should avoid glare or hard shadows as far as possible.
4. It should provide light of suitable color.
In designing a lighting scheme the following factors should be considered:
1. Illumination level
2. Uniformity of illumination
3. color of light
4. shadows
5. glare
6. mounting height
7. spacing of luminaires
8. Color of surrounding
Color Reflectances
Each part of the room has a corresponding range of reflectance depending shades of
paint used
Light colors 69%-81%
Medium colors 56%-63%
Dark colors 13%-48%
Lumen Method of Calculation:
To calculate the required number of lamps in a particular room area following the
Philippine Electrical Code (PEC) for Standard Illumination
no. of Lamps required = illumination level x area
lumens per lamp x c.u. x MF
where:
c.u – coefficient of utilization
MF – Maintenance Factor
We Took a random sample of rooms to calculate the illumination level whether it
follows the PEC Standard of Illumination. We chose the 2nd floor hallway and the
computation is as follows:

34
Figure 3.9

Refer to Figure 3.9:


HALLWAY LENGTH: 63m
WIDTH: 2.5m
room cavity height(hrc) = 4.86m
ceiling cavity height(hcc) = 0.14m
floor cavity height(hfc) = 0m
5hrcxL
Room Cavity Ratio (RCR)   W  10.11
LxW
5hccxL
Ceiling Cavity Ratio (CCR)   W  0.29
LxW
5hfcxL
Floor Cavity Ratio (FCR)  W  0
LxW
Cavity ratios are used to determine the effective reflectances of the ceiling and the
floor cavitites. These reflectances and the room cavity ratios then determine the
coefficient of utilization for the source luminaires. In most cases, the effective floor
reflectance is taken as 20 percent, so that the only effectice ceiling cavity reflectance
must be calculated.
Effective Ceiling Reflectances
Tables 3.12 to 3.14 are the data of color reflectances of walls, ceiling and floors
taken from first floor to third floor. The 2nd floor hallway was chosen to compute the
standard illumination and number of required lamps, refer to table 3.13 to determine the
percent reflectances of wall and ceiling

35
Table 3.12 First floor color reflectances
CEILIN %
CODE WALL PAINT %R FLOOR %R
G R
101 A,B Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
102 Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
103 Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
104 Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
105 Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
106 Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
108 A,B Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
110 A,B Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
111 A,B Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
111 C,D Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
112 A,B Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
114 A,B,C Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
120 Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
XRD Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
CR FEMALE Light Pink 63 L-pink 80 White 80
CR MALE Light Blue 63 L-blue 80 White 80
HALLWAY Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
CC OFFICE Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
LOBBY Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
NASS Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
CFSS Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
101 A,B CR White 80 White 80 White 80
111 C,D CR White 80 White 80 White 80
OUTSIDE CC Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
HALLWAY Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
CC OFFICE Light Green 63 White 80 Dark 20

Table 3.13 Second floor color reflectances


Color reflectances %Reflect
Ceiling %Reflect Floor %Reflect
Code Wall
202 L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
204 L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
205 L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
206A, B, C L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
ECE Dept L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
EE Dept L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
DSP L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
IRC L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
AR L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
LIB L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20

36
CL L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
Dean L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
Hallway L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
CR F L- Pink 63 L-Pink 63 White 80
CR M L-Blue 63 L-Blue 63 White 80
SA L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
Hallway L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
AR L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
EECE CR White 80 White 80 White 80
Dean’s CR White 80 White 80 White 80
Outside L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20
stairs
SA L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 20

Table 3.14 Third floor color reflectances


Color Reflectances
%R Ceiling %R Floor %R
Code Wall
303 L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
308 A,B L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
310 A,B L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
312 A,B L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
314 A,B L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
316 A,B L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
318 L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
MET/CER/CHE L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
ME L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
CE L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
AVR L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
CS L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
CA L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
IR L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
MPR L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
MDR L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
AVR CR L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
CR female L-Pink 63 L-Pink 63 White 80
CR Male L-Blue 63 L-Blue 63 White 80
Amphi L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
Hallway L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
Parapet L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
Parapet L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80
MRD CR L-Green 63 White 80 Dark 80

Table 3.15. Manufacturer’s Table of Coefficient of Utilization

37
Two Reflectances
T-12
Ceiling
80% 50% 10% 0%
cavity
Walls 50% 30% 10% 50% 30% 10% 50% 30% 10% 0%
RCR Coefficients of utilization
1 0.88 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.74 0.69 0.68 0.66 0.64
2 0.77 0.71 0.66 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.61 0.59 0.56 0.54
3 0.68 0.61 0.56 0.61 0.56 0.52 0.54 0.51 0.48 0.46
4 0.60 0.52 0.47 0.54 0.49 0.44 0.48 0.44 0.41 0.39
5 0.52 0.45 0.39 0.48 0.42 0.37 0.43 0.38 0.35 0.33
6 0.47 0.39 0.34 0.43 0.37 0.32 0.38 0.34 0.30 0.28
7 0.42 0.34 0.29 0.38 0.32 0.28 0.34 0.30 0.26 0.24
8 0.37 0.30 0.25 0.34 0.28 0.24 0.31 0.26 0.22 0.21
9 0.33 0.26 0.21 0.31 0.25 0.21 0.31 0.23 0.19 0.18
10 0.30 0.23 0.19 0.28 0.22 0.18 0.25 0.20 0.17 0.15

2nd Floor Hallway:


Wall reflectance (Light Green) = 63%
Ceiling reflectance(White) = 80%
Use the manufacture’s table for the coefficient of Utilization shown in Table 3.15.
Coefficients of Utilization for two T-12 lamps in a fluorescent luminaire (maximum ratio
of spacing to mounting height not to exceed 1.3)
Given with calculated RCR, CCR, FCR, the effective ceiling reflectances can be
determine using Table 3.16

38
Table 3.16. Effective Ceiling Reflectances
The entries surrounding the given values are:
Base Reflectance 80%
Wall Reflectance 70% 50%
Cavity Ratio=0.2 78 77
Cavity Ratio=0.4 76 74

The first interpolation is taken to obtain values for a base reflectance of 63%
63  50 x  77
 , x  77.65
70  50 78  77
63  50 y  74
 , y  75.3
70  50 76  74
The final interpolation gives the effective reflectance for CR = 0.29
0.4  0.2 75.3  77.65
 , x  76.592
0.29  0.2 x  77.65
Determine the Coefficient of Utilization (CU)

39
When the effective ceiling reflectance is known, it is possible to determine the
coefficient of utilization from a specific manufacturer’s table such as shown in Table
3.16.

Base Reflectance 80%


Wall Reflectance 70% 50%
Cavity Ratio=0.2 78 77
Cavity Ratio=0.4 76 74

Base reflectance 80%


Wall Reflectance 63%
CR = 0.2 77.65
CR = 0.4 75.3
Refer to Table 3.16 Coefficient of Utilization

Ceiling Cavity 80% 50%


wall 50% 30% 50% 30%
RCR Coefficient of Utilization
9 0.33 0.26 0.31 0.25
10 0.30 0.23 0.28 0.22
10.11

The first interpolation is taken to obtain values for ceiling cavity of 76.5925%
For RCR = 9
80  50 0.33  0.31
 , x  0.3277
76.5925  50 x  0.25
80  50 0.26  0.25
 , x  0.2588
76.59  50 x  0.25
For RCR = 10
80  50 0.30  0.28
 , x  0.2977
76.59  50 x  0.28
80  50 0.23  0.22
 , x  0.2288
76.59  50 x  0.22
The extrapolation is taken to obtain the wall reflectance of 63%
63  30 x  0.2588
 , x  0.3725
50  30 0.3277  0.2588

40
63  30 y  0.2288
 , y  0.3425
50  30 0.2978  0.2289

Ceiling Cavity 76.5925


wall 63% 50% 30%
RCR = 9 x 0.3277 0.2588
RCR = 10 y 0.2977 0.2288
RCR = 10.11

Ceiling Cavity 76.65%


RCR Coefficient of Utilization
9 0.3725
10 0.3425
10.11 x

The extrapolation is taken to obtain the coefficient of utilization


10.11  9 x  0.3725

10  9 0.3425  0.3725
RCR = 10.11, CU = 0.3392
Determining the Number of Luminaires
The coefficient of utilization is applied to a system of luminaires to determine the
illumination level at the work plane. The net flux from each luminaire is multiplied by the
coefficient of utilization and by the number of luminaires to find the total luminous flux
at the work plane. The total flux is then divided by the base area to yield the average
illumination at the work plane.
The floor area of the hallway is 206.69ft x 8.20 ft = 1,695.29 sq.ft. and the required
illumination level for hallway is 10fc (See Table 3.17)
The total flux at the work surface is
10fc x 1,695.29 sq.ft = 16, 952.92 lumens
Total luminous flux required is
Flux required = 16, 952.92 = 49, 979.13 lumens
0.3392

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Table 3.17. Suggested Illumination Levels
Illumination (k) application
3 For all emergency lighting
For stairways, corridors, and hallways with casual luse, and
10
for storage areas of bulk items
For service area stairways and corridors, elevators, and
20 areas involving non-precision work for short periods of
time.
For stock areas and areas involving casual machining,
30
occasional reaing and rough assembly.
For general office background and for areas involving
50 sortin, ordinary inspection, sustained non-precision
machining, and reading over longer periods of time.
For areas involving medium difficulty assembly,
100
inspection, and machining
For areas involving precision assembly, inspection, and
200
machining
For areas such as an operating room where extremely fine
500
detail work is required

The net of the luminaire is determined only after taking into account a number of
light loss factors such as the lamp lumen depreciation factor and luminaire dirt
depreciation factors. Fluorescent and other discharge lamps, the initial lumen output is
determined after 100 hours of operation, and the lamp lumen depreciation factor is
determined after 70 percent of the life expectancy has elapsed. In addition to these losses,
several other factors must considered.
- Ballast performance contributes a loss of approximately 5 percent.
- Voltage fluctuations cause a serious effect in incandescent lamps, with a 3 percent change
in lamp lumens for each 1 percent change in line voltage. Fluorescent and other discharge
lamps are less affectd, having only 0.004 percent change in lumen output for each 1
percent change in line voltage.
- Lamp outage is a function of the maintenance program. Loss can be minimized by
massive replacement at 70 percent of expected life.
- Ambient temperature is factor in fluorescent lamps. Flux measurements are made at 70
degree Fahrenheit. Some luminaires are designed to serve as cool air return in ventilating
systems, which can increase the lumnens/watt up to 20 percent.
Light Loss Factor (LLF) = 0.99272 x 0.84 x 0.87 x 0.95
0.99272 = (%voltage drop x 0.004) – 1
42
Table 3.18 fluorescent (cool white, two lamps per luminaries)
Wattage per lamp Light lumen
Rated life Initial
type lamp ballast depreciation
(hrs) lumens
(LLD)
48” lamps
F40T12
Rapid start 40.0 6.0 20,000 3,150 0.54
F48T12
Slimline 38.5 4.0 9,000 3,000 0.80
High output 60.0 12.5 12,000 4,200 0.80
Super high ouput 110.0 15.0 12,000 6,900 0.79
96” lamps
F96T12
Slimline 75.0 12.5 12,000 6,300 0.90
High output 100.0 22.5 12,000 9,000 0.86
Super high ouput 215.0 15.0 12,000 15,500 0.80
Professional Publication. Belmont, CA

Measured Voltage Output during audit:


V1 = 220V, V2 = 216V
216 x100
% Voltage Drop 1   1.8181%  1.82%
220
0.84 – Lamp Lumen depreciation Factor (LLD) (refer to Table 3.18)
0.87 – Luminaire Dirt Depreciation Factor LDD(refer to Table 3.19)
0.95 – Ballast performance contributes a loss of 5 percent
Therefore, LLF = 0.6892
Typical Characteristics of standard lamps showing Lamp Lumen Depreciation
To compute for the number of luminaire, use the formula
𝑀𝑀𝐼𝑥(𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑞. 𝑓𝑡. )
# 𝐿𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑠 =
𝑙𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑛 𝑥𝐿𝐿𝐹𝑥𝐶𝑈

43
Table 3.19 Luminaire Dirt Depreciation Factors (LDD)
environment enclosed open
fluorescent clean medium dirty Clean medium dirty
Cleaned every year 0.88 0.83 0.77 0.94 0.90 0.84
Cleaned every 2 0.83 0.77 0.71 0.89 0.85 0.78
years
Cleaned every 3 0.80 0.74 0.66 0.87 0.80 0.74
years
HID
Cleaned every year 0.88 0.83 0.77 0.90 0.87 0.86
Cleaned every 2 0.83 0.77 0.71 0.84 0.80 0.75
years
Cleaned every 3 0.80 0.74 0.66 0.79 0.74 0.68
years

Where: MMI – minmum maintained illumination


LLF – Light Loss Factor
CU – Coefficient of Utilization
Initial flux in lumen for 40W –T12 Fluorescent lamp (refer to Table 3.18)
# of Lumenaire = 10fc x 1,695.29 sq.ft.
( 2 lamps/lumenaire) x (3,150) x 0.6892 x 0.3392
= 11.51 luminaires = 11.51 lumenaires x 2lamps/lumenaire = 23 lamps
The standard number of lamps in 2nd hallway should be 23 40W-T12 rapid start
fluorescent lamps. During the load audit, the installed number of lamps in 2nd floor
hallway were only 8 lamps which we therefore conclude that it does not follow the PEC
standard of Illumination.

44
CHAPTER 4.0

DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION

4.1 Computers & office equipment.


The results of the evaluation of practices and actual investigation of electrical
consumption for appliances used in the College of engineering instigate the following
propositions which focus on computers, monitors and printers, as these are the ones with
significant effect in the consumption of electricity in the College:
1. Computers should be set to Low Power mode when not in use.
2. Monitors should have provisions on fixed time to turn into standby or sleep mode
when not actively used.
3. Avoid use of screen saver on monitors, they still activate current flow.
4. LCD monitors should be preferred over the currently used CRT’s when life span of
the former calls for replacement.
5. Offices with quite a number of printers should opt for centralization into one printer
to avoid losses of electricity at times when all printers are turned on and nobody uses
them.
6. Use of AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) is better than constant plugging on and
off the socket.
7. Institute guidelines for energy auditing.
8. Do periodic energy audit.
Conclusion
Evaluation of computers, monitors and printers at the College of Engineering shows
results which contribute considerably to its total electricity consumption.
Turning off monitors and setting computers to low power guarantees energy saving.
CRT monitors uses electricity at a sizeable amount compare to LCDs which draw electric
current by as low as 38 percent of the CRT.
Results of survey questionnaire reveal that energy saving awareness in the College of
Engineering is low, however, all respondents turn off their AVR after use. Computer
users also do not know saving energy features of their units.

45
Lastly, an attainable projection of Php 17,000.00 savings in Electric consumption
can be achieved in saving 1 hour per day of each unit of computer, monitor and printer
available and at working condition.
4.2 Air Conditioning Units
In order to save energy, Annual Air Conditioner Maintenance is highly
recommended as well as building maintenance to prevent air infiltration and solar
radiation from penetrating inside the air conditioned room. Old air conditioning unit with
low EER should be replace, because low EER means more energy consumption.
4.2.1 Indoor Maintenance
Check air filters at least once a month.
Replacing or cleaning your air filters is the most important maintenance task to help
ensure the efficiency of your air conditioner. Most Air conditioning units have disposable
filters, which should be checked every month and replaced when necessary with the same
size filter. Filters may need more frequent changing if the air conditioner is in constant
use, is subjected to dusty conditions or if you have pets in the house.
Clogged, dirty filters block normal airflow and can significantly reduce a system’s
efficiency and capacity. With normal airflow obstructed, air that bypasses the filter may
carry dirt directly into the evaporator coil and impair the coil’s heat-absorbing capacity.
Permanent filters should be cleaned according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
4.2.2 Outdoor Maintenance
Keep outdoor condensing unit free of debris.
If you keep grass clippings, leaves, shrubbery and debris away from your outdoor
unit, it should only require minimal care to operate properly. Trimming foliage back to at
least two feet from the unit will allow for adequate airflow around the condenser.
Check the base pan under the unit occasionally, and remove debris to help the unit
drain correctly. If the outdoor coil becomes dirty, wash it with a water hose. Spray down
the fins of the condensing unit to wash off any dust or debris.
Before performing maintenance, turn off the 240-volt power at the appliance shutoff
box. It’s usually outside within sight of the outdoor unit. Some shutoffs simply pull out,
while others have a handle to pull down or a fuse to remove. If there isn’t one, turn off
the power at the circuit breaker at the main panel that controls the outdoor unit.

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Maintenance Task #1: Replace or wash air filter
Why is it important to replace air conditioner’s air filter?
There are two reasons for replacing this air filter:
 As a filter gets dirty over time, it begins to clog with dust, pollen, etc. A dirty
filter means the fan motor of the air conditioner has to work harder to move air through it,
which means it has to consume more energy, and is therefore more expensive to operate.
 The filter helps to clean the circulating air, which makes room cleaning easier and
less frequent, helps improve home health air quality, and helps to provide relief to allergy
sufferers.
Maintenance Task #2: Clean water drain
Why is it important to clean air conditioner’s water drain?
 If the lines or drain becomes blocked or develops leaks, the result could be water
spilling out around the air conditioning unit, which can cause safety hazards and/or water
damage.
Maintenance Task #3: Clean outside condenser unit
Why it is important to clean air conditioner’s outside condenser unit?
The purpose of this maintenance task is to help maintain the energy efficiency of the
condenser unit. A dirty unit is less efficient at doing its job, which means that air
conditioning unit has to work harder, which causes it to consume more energy, and
shortens its service life.
Maintenance Task #4: Cover (and uncover) outside condenser unit
How to cover (and uncover) air conditioner’s outside condenser unit?
Covering the outside condenser unit involves placing a plastic or cloth cover over the
unit. This cover can be purchased pre-made, or can “do-it-yourself” by taping together
plastic trash bags, or a plastic drop cloth, etc.
Why is it important to cover (and uncover) air conditioner’s outside condenser unit?
The purpose of covering the unit when it is not in use is to keep leaves, dirt, freezing
water, etc. away from the condenser. Keeping the unit clean helps to maintain its energy
efficiency and extend its service life.

47
4.2.3 Air infiltration should be minimized.
It was observed during the actual energy audit that some windows has broken glass.
This should be replace to minimize or eliminate infiltration of outside air, outside air
coming in adds to the load of the air conditioning unit.

4.3 Lighting
The computation of the illumination and numbers of luminaires in 2nd floor
hallway implies that the lighting system doesn’t follow the Philippine Electrical Code
(PEC) of Standard Illumination, moreover, some of the offices, laboratories and
classrooms.
It is also been observed that some of the fluorescents are not working well that
leads to a result of poor illumination which causes several factors in health, working
efficiency and as well as power losses as one of the major problem of the College of
Engineering is facing.
To satisfy user’s comfort, improve working efficiency, and reduce power loss, we
recommend:
- To remove all defective fluorescent and replaced it with the required wattage
- Comply the standard illumination as prescribe by the Philippine Electrical
Code
- Regular cleaning of fluorescent every 3 years (See Table 3.19) maintains the
illumination level of the rooms.

48
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Bercero, MN., Tedor JS., “Electrical System Design and Evaluation” 2008, MSU-IIT
Iligan City.
Arora, CP, “Refrigeration and Air Conditioning” 2nd edition, Int’l 2002 McGraw-Hill
Philippine Electrical Code, “ 2008”
School Operations and Maintenance: Best Practices for Controlling Energy Costs
Prepared by: Princeton Energy Resources International, 1700 Rockville Pike Suite
550 Rockville, MD 20852
Internet sources;
1) Alliance to Save Energy: http://www.ase.org
2) Energy Star Program: http://www.energystar.gov
3) U.S. Department of Energy, EnergySmart Schools Website and Preventive
Maintenance Checklist: http://www.rebuild.org/sectors/ess/index.asp
Energy Audit Manual, New Zealand June 2007

49
APPENDICES:

APPENDIX A
Questionnaire

Part I

On average, how many hours do you use the computer assigned to you?
2 6
4 8

I use password
Yes
No

Do you know some energy saving feature of your computer?


No
Yes ( Please list
some)
Turn off during lunch
time
screen
saver
standby
mode

How many times do you turn on printer in one day?


1 3
2 4
more than
5

How many printers do you have in your office?


1 3
2 4
5

How do you rate your printing activity?


seldom
medium
heavy

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Part II

Rate your energy saving awareness


satisfactory
good
very good

Please check all applicable activity.

A. For computers assigned to one person only:

turn on my computer only when I use it


I turn off computer during break time
I use screen saver
I plug off the socket before going home
I turn off AVR (auto voltage regulator) before going
home

B. For computers assigned to two or more persons:

we assign particular person to turn on and off our


computer
turn on the computer and leave it open for others who will use
it later
we have common
password

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APPENDIX B:
ROOM ASSIGNMENTS
1st FLOOR ROOM ASSIGNMENTS
Room No. Description
101 A,B ME INSTRUMENTATION LAB
102 HYDRAULICS AND FLUID MECHANICS LAB
103 COE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION OFFICE
104 ME TOOL ROOM
105 ME WORKSHOP
106 FLUID MACHINERIES LAB
108A SURVEYING LAB
108B CE WALK-IN COMPUTING LAB
110 A,B MATERIAL TESTING LAB
107 COMPUTER CENTER
111A STOCK ROOM
111B CHE LAB
111C EXTRACTIVE/MINERAL PROCESSING LAB
112 A,B SOIL MECHANICS LAB
114 A,B CERAMICS ENGINEERING LAB 1
116 CERAMICS ENGINEERING LAB 2
118 XRD
120 ENERGY CONVERSION LAB
109 ICT LEARNING CENTER

2nd FLOOR ROOM ASSIGNMENTS


Room No. Description
201 EE/ECE/EC FACULTY ROOM
203B EE COMPUTING LAB
204 EE/ECE/EC LAB EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE ROOM
205 COMMUNICATION LAB
206 A,B,C EE/ECE/EC CIRCUIT LAB
208 C LIBRARY
209 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
210 C COMPUTER LABORATORY
211 A INSTRUMENTATION AND ROBOTICS CONTROL LAB
213 ACCREDITATION ROOM
207 DEAN’S OFFICE

3rd FLOOR ROOM ASSIGMENTS


Room No. Description
301 A,B,C AUDIO VISUAL ROOM
302 A,B MET/CER/ChE FACULTY ROOM
303 GRADUATE OFFICE
304 ME FAULTY ROOM
305 B COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT
306 B CE FACULTY ROOM
308 A,B CLASSROOM
310 A CLASSROOM
307 A,B AMPHITHEATER
309 A,B CHEMICAL ANALYSIS LAB
311 INSTRUMENT ROOM
312 A,B CLASSROOM
313 METALS PREPARATION ROOM
314A,B CLASSROOM
315 METALOGRAPH DARK ROOM
316 A,B CLASSROOM
318 CLASSROOM

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53
54
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