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UNIDATA MAXBridge BS 33 User Guide

Rev 3.0: Applies to Software Rel. 3.3

2011 UNIDATA

MAXBridge BS 33 User Guide


2011 UNIDATA This document contains information that is proprietary to UNIDATA Ltd. No part of this document may be reproduced, published without prior written permission of UNIDATA. The MAXBridge name is a registered trademark of UNIDATA Ltd. Information in this document is believed to be accurate. However, UNIDATA has not responsibility for any flaws, omissions or other errors. Any representation concerning performance of MAXBridge BS 33 product is for informational purpose only and is not warranty. UNIDATA may make changes in equipment hardware, software, specifications without prior notice.

Contents

Table of Contents

1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 5 overview 2. System ............................................................................................................................................... 9 contents 3. Package ............................................................................................................................................... 11 installation 4. Hardware ............................................................................................................................................... 13
4.1 Mounting device and external antenna ...................................................................................................................................... 13 4.2 Lightning protection and grounding ...................................................................................................................................... 13 4.3 Environmental conditions ...................................................................................................................................... 13 started 5. Getting ............................................................................................................................................... 15 managing interface 6. Web ............................................................................................................................................... 20 6.1 Accessing the Web Interface ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.1.1 Main View................................................................................................................... 22 6.1.2 User Menu ................................................................................................................... 22 6.1.3 System Descripton ................................................................................................................... 22 Refresh Timeout Bar 6.1.4 ................................................................................................................... 23 6.2 Status & Alarms ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.3 System Tools ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.4 Admin Setup ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.5 Management Setup ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.5.1 Interface Setup ................................................................................................................... 30 6.5.2 SNMP Setup ................................................................................................................... 32 6.6 Configuration Files ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.7 System Log ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.8 Device Features ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.9 Radio Parameters ...................................................................................................................................... 20 list 6.9.1 Parameter ................................................................................................................... 39 6.10 Cell ...................................................................................................................................... Setup 20 6.11 BW ...................................................................................................................................... & Scheduler Setup 20 6.12 User Stats ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Stats 6.12.1 Basic View ................................................................................................................... 50 Detailed View Stats 6.12.2 ................................................................................................................... 52 Data Services 6.12.3 ................................................................................................................... 53 6.12.4 User Capabilities ................................................................................................................... 54 6.13 BW ...................................................................................................................................... Stats 20 6.13.1 Basic Cell Stats ................................................................................................................... 55 Stats 6.13.2 Basic Service ................................................................................................................... 56 Stats 6.13.3 Detailed Cell ................................................................................................................... 57 Stats 6.13.4 Detailed Service ................................................................................................................... 58 6.14 User Net Status ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.15 Spectrum ...................................................................................................................................... 20
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MAXBridge BS 33 User Guide

6.16 User Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.16.1 Summary tab ................................................................................................................... 62 Summary 6.16.2 Detail User ................................................................................................................... 62 6.17 Provisioning System ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.17.1 Theory of Operation ................................................................................................................... 63 User and Group Provisioning 6.17.2 ................................................................................................................... 70 6.17.2.1 Adding new user ................................................................................................................ 72 6.17.2.2 Adding a new group of users ................................................................................................................ 73 6.17.2.3 Editing user / group ................................................................................................................ 75 provisioning 6.17.3 Service Flow ................................................................................................................... 76 6.17.3.1 Service ................................................................................................................ Setup 76 6.17.3.2 Classifier desctiption ................................................................................................................ 80 6.17.4 Network provisioning ................................................................................................................... 85 6.18 Certification Authority ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.19 Network Setup ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.19.1 Interfaces setup ................................................................................................................... 96 6.19.2 Routes setup ................................................................................................................... 97 6.19.3 Name Resolution ................................................................................................................... 97 6.20 Bridging Setup ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.21 VLAN Setup ...................................................................................................................................... 20 6.22 Network Tools ...................................................................................................................................... 20

Line Interface 7. Command ............................................................................................................................................... 103


7.1 Accessing the CLI Interface ...................................................................................................................................... 103 7.2 Menu description ...................................................................................................................................... 103 A 8. Appendix ............................................................................................................................................... 114 8.1 VLAN models ...................................................................................................................................... 114 8.2 VLAN configurations ...................................................................................................................................... 114 VLAN with Native Management 8.2.1 Transparent ................................................................................................................... 119 VLAN with Management VLAN 8.2.2 Transparent ................................................................................................................... 120 BS PVID with Management VLAN 8.2.3 ................................................................................................................... 122 ACCESS with Management VLAN 8.2.4 BS VLAN ................................................................................................................... 129 B 9. Appendix ............................................................................................................................................... 137 C 10. Appendix ............................................................................................................................................... 143

MAXBridge BS 33 User Guide

Introduction

1 Introduction
Revison history: MAXBridge BS 33 User Guide Rev. 1.4 1.5 1.8 2.1 3.0 Date 09.07.2009 02.10.2009 30.04.2010 10.06.2010 10.02.2011 Author Vasilyev V. Safonenko A. Safonenko A. Safonenko A. Vasilyev V. Lavee P. Description s/w Release 2.0 s/w Rel 3.0 s/w Rel 3.1 s/w Rel 3.3.7771 s/w Rel 3.3M2 (3.3.8245)

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MAXBridge BS 33 User Guide

Introduction

Glossary
AFS AFS ARQ BE BPSK BS BW BWA CI CINR CLI CP CPE CS DES DHCP DL FTP HTTP HTTPS IEEE IP ISM IP66 LAN LED MAC MAN MSTR MRTR NAT NearLOS NTP OFDM PKM POE QAM QoS QPSK RSSI RTPS RTT SNR SNMP SSH SSL Advanced Encryption Standard Automatic Frequency channel Selection Automatic Repeat reQuest Best Effort Binary Phase Shift Key Base Station Bandwidth Broadband Wireless Access Connection Identifier Carrier to Interference and Noise Ratio Command-Line interface Cyclic prefix Costumer Premise Equipment Convergence Sublayer Data Encryption Standard Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DownLink File Transfer Protocol HyperText Transfer Protocol HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Protocol Industrial, Scientific and Medical band International Protection Rating Local Area Network Light-Emitting Diode Medium Access Control Metropolitan Area Networks Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate Minimum Reserved Traffic Rate Network Address Translation Near Line of Sight Network Time Protocol Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Privacy Key Management Power Over Ethernet Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quality Of Service Quadrature PSK Received Signal Strength Indication Real Time Polling Service Round-Trip Time Signal to Noise Ratio Simple Network Management Protocol Secure Shell
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Introduction

SOHO SME SW TOS TDD TDMA TCP TPC TFTP UDP UGS UL VLAN WiMAX XML XML- RPC

Secure Socket Layer Small and Home Offices Small and Medium Enterprises Software Type of Service Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiple Access Transmission Control Protocol Transmit Power Control Trivial File Transfer Protocol User Datagram Protocol Unsolicited Grant Service UpLink Virtual LAN Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access EXtensible Markup Language XML Remote Procedure Call

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MAXBridge BS 33 User Guide

Introduction

The MAXBridge BS 33 is a carrier class Fixed Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) system that operates in the 3.3 GHz band. It complies with the WiMAX IEEE 802.16-2009 standard. The MAXBridge is a TDMA point-to-multipoint platform: it delivers high throughput, long range and excellent link quality; it utilizes OFDM technology and provides near LOS capabilities; it can provide different Quality of Service (QoS) levels in terms of desired throughput, latency and jitter to various traffic streams - data, voice, video and others; it is made up of a fully featured fixed WiMAX Base station and outdoor low cost CPE - the ideal economical solution for a high performance fixed Broadband Wireless Access network. The MAXBridge is last mile solution, that provides long-range carrier class fixed Broadband Wireless Access to Small and Medium Enterprises (SME), Small and Home Offices (SOHO) and individual Residential users in urban, suburb and rural regions. MAXBridge is also a superior corporate broadband wireless network solution across a large geographic region for business enterprises and campuses, industrial complexes as well as corporate and municipal video surveillance. The key benefits of the MAXBridge WiMAX fixed BWA network are: high throughput as a result of high spectral efficiency of WiMAX equipment; long communication range due to a high radio link budget; stable connection in near Line-Of-Sight due to resistance of OFDM radio signal to multipath propagation; large number of simultaneous servicing by one Base Station CPEs with a high-quality connection as result of utilization of an efficient TDMA multiple access protocol; great performance and resistance to high level radio interference due to use of an adaptive

modulation according to link state information, measured Carrier to Interference + Noise Ratio (CINR) and error-correction ARQ and FEC techniques.

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2 System overview
The MAXBridge BS 33 is outdoor Base Station for fixed Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) in the 3300-3500 MHz frequency bands. It delivers up to 20 Mbps (uplink + downlink) throughput in the 7 MHz channel bandwidth in multipoint topology to over 100 CPE at 15 km LOS distance. Maximum communication range in LOS conditions at a speed of 1 Mbps is 30 km. The MABridge BS 33 has bridging and routing mode. The unit supports Quality of Service (QoS ) capability with required throughput (Minimum Reserved and Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate), maximum latency (network delay) and tolerated jitter (delay variation) for data, voice, video traffic streams, traffic for particular network devices, computers, ports and group of users. The unit has IP66 protection level, can be installed outdoors and operates at -45 to +55 C. The unit is powered via PoE. The unit has N-type connector to connect external sector or omni directional antenna and 10/100 Base T interface for connection to network switch or router.

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MAXBridge BS 33 specifications
Radio Standards Chipset Frequency Range Radio Signal Duplex Technique Multiple Access Method Transmit Tx Output Power , max Channel Size (BW) Transmit Spectral Mask Max Receiver Sensitivity, dBm 64-QAM 64-QAM 2/3 16-QAM 16-QAM QPSK QPSK BPSK Receiver SNR Supported Frame Lengths Supported Cyclic Prefix Lengths ARQ Antenna Networking and Management Limitation of served CPE q-ty, max* Throughput (Raw/Effective) Network Interface Bridge Functionality Routing Supported QoS Convergent Sublayers Pico 30 21/19 Mbps @ BW=7 Hz 10/100 Base-T Yes, MTU up to 1600 Static, NAT functionality BE, rtPS, nrtPS, UGS IEEE Std 802.3/Ethernet, 802.1Q-1998 (VLAN); IP over Std 802.3/Ethernet, 802.1Q-1998, MAC source/destination/mask,VLAN ID, IP TOS address/mask, source/destination, Pico+ unlimited EN 302 326, IEEE 802.16-2009 (Fixed WiMAX) Wavesat DM256 3300-3500 MHz OFDM 256 FFT TDD TDMA 20 dBm @ 64QAM 3/4 3.5, 7 MHz
EN 302 326-2 (EqC-PET=O, EqC-EMO=6) BW=7 MHz BW= 3.5MHz

-74.0 -75.0 -80.0 -83.5 -86.5 -90.0 -92.0 2.5, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12.5 & 20 ms , 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 Yes, per Service Flow, Optional External, N-type connector

-77.0 -79.0 83.0 86.5 -89.5 -93.0 -95.0

21dB @ 64QAM , 3dB @ BPSK

Service differentiation

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TCP, UDP protocol number, source/destin., Port range Management Remote Management, Upgrade Security Regulation EMC Safety Power / Environment Power Consumption Operating Temperature Input Voltage Size, Weight Max 20W Indoor (PoE injector): 0 C to 40 C, Outdoor: -45 C to 55 C 48 V DC PoE / 220 VAC (802.3af+ compliant) 235x 235 x60 mm, 3 Kg EN 301 489 IEC 60950-1 Web, CLI SNMP, XML-RPC by NMS IEEE 802.16-2004-Cor1

* Features upgrade procedure from BS 33 Pico to BS 33 Pico+ can be done remotely

3 Package contents
The MAXBridge BS 33 includes the following items:

metallic outdoor enclosure with PG-18 Ethernet gland, RJ-45 connector, N-type connector for connect external antenna (Figure 3.1); mounting kit with the required screwing elements; AC/DC power supply PoE adapter 48 VDC/ 220 V AC ( Figure 3.1).

Figure 3.1 MAXBridge BS 33

Figure 3.2 Power supply PoE 48V DC / 220V AC

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Figure 3.3 Mount Kit

The PoE 48 VA for BS 33 pinouts is described in Table 3.1 ontact RJ-45 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Table 3.1 PoE pinouts RJ-45 (data + power) Ethernet (TXp) Ethernet (TXn) Ethernet (RXp) Power (V+) Power(V+) Ethernet (RXn) Power (V-) Power(V-)

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4 Hardware installation
The MAXBridge BS 33 unit is designed for an outdoor application (IP66 compliant) and must be mounted outdoors on a mast, pole on a tower or a building. Supplied mounting kit is used to secure the outdoor unit.

4.1 Mounting device and external antenna


During outdoor unit installation on a pole unit should be oriented so, that the cable connectors are at the bottom. If they are on top, water may penetrate into the unit causing damage. Ethernet cable that connects PoE and outdoor enclosure should be suitable for outdoors environments and should not be longer than 91 meters. It is recommended to use the CAT-5e 24AWG shielded/outdoor class cable. A cable gland on the outdoor enclosure side provides hermetic sealing. A PoE unit operates indoor and requires a power source with 100-240 VAC / 50-60 Hz. PoE unit has two RJ45 connectors: OUT: it supplies power and data to the outdoor unit; IN: it is the data input to the unit. It can be connected to users switch, router, etc. The MAXBridge BS 33 must be used with an external sector or omni antenna. The antenna can be mounted on a pole, mast and must be connected to N-type connector of outdoor enclosure (Figure 3.1;3.4) by LMR400/Belden 9913 or similar low lost coax cable. Coax cable length should not be longer than 2 m. Ensure that there are no obstructions on a building roof, tower in region around direction of the antenna beam. NOTE Be sure to apply a weatherproof silicone tape to all remote antenna and outdoor enclosure connections. The antenna should be installed by experienced installation professionals. UNIDATA and its resellers are not liable for injury, damage or violation of regulations associated with installation of the outdoor units or antennas.

4.2 Lightning protection and grounding


The MAXBridge BS must be properly grounded and be protected against lightning. For protection the system from damaging effect of lightning, coaxial cable, that connects the antenna and the BS should be equipped by a Lightning Surge Arrestor (Protector). The lightning protector should be placed next to the antenna N-type connector and properly grounded. It is recommended, that the external antenna also should be grounded in dependence on the antenna type via grounding connector or via a contact between the mount brackets and the grounded pole, must. The MAXBridge BS features internal RJ-45 lightning protection circuits for data pairs (pins 1,2 & 3,6) 48 VA DC PoE. Enclosure grounding connector (Figure 3.1, 3.4) must be connected to the ground point (external protective ground conductor or to the grounded pole, mast) by a 10 AWG short copper wire. For protection a network equipment (router, switch) from lightning induced currents an Ethernet Surge
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Suppressor must be mounted at the building entry point and also must be grounded. This unit must be mounted outside the building, located as near as possible to the entrance of the CAT-5e outdoor unit cable. Grounding wire must be connected to the grounding rod or the building grounding system. In case if the Ethernet Surge Suppressor at the building entry point is not used, outdoor unit cable shield must be grounded. However, this shielding does not provide a good lightning discharge path, since it can not tolerate the high lightning current surges. NOTE A pole can conduct high lightning strike energy into the unit. The poorly grounded unit can cause the hardware failures from lightning induced currents.

4.3 Environmental conditions


The ambient outdoor operating temperature should be: -45 to 50C The unit has the internal temperature indicators, that show the internal hardware temperature in C. A maximum allowed temperature, that is indicated on the system board and the radio module is: MAXBridge BS 33 : + 63 C. Under a normal environmental operating conditions hardware temperature does not exceed allowable maximum limits . Attention! The unit can malfunction and be damaged as a result of overheating in a direct sunlight and an extremely high ambient temperature above +50 C conditions. If the ambient temperature exceeds +50 C,it is recommended direct sunlight. Note. To avoid hardware damage the MAXBridge BS 33 radio module automatically stops working and appropriate message appears in the log file, when the hardware board temperature exceeds 63 C. Note. If the unit is powered off for some period of time in low (below 15-20 C) ambient temperature conditions, it's start is not guaranteed. to use the special cover (supplied optionally) to protect the unit from

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5 Getting started
The MAXBridge BS 35 unit must be configured prior to deployment in a field. The unit has management IP address (default value is 192.168.0.7/24). Detail description of default unit setting is shown in Appendix C. The unit configuration can be made using a Web interface (through a HTTP/HTTP connection) and using a Command Line Interface console (CLI, through a SSH connection). From these interfaces it is possible to control all the aspects of the unit and the links. Both systems are described in Sections 6 and 7. Access for unit configuring before the unit is mounted onto the pole. 1.Connect PoE and unit by patch cord cable. 2.Connect a computer to IN port PoE unit by using cross patch cord cable. 3.Power on the unit. 4.Be ensure that your computer IP address belongs unit management IP subnet. 5. Launch your Web Browser (i.e. Explorer or FireFox) and enter the unit management or IP address in the address bar. 6. Press the Enter key. The login window appears. 7. In the Login window, enter your provided User name and Password. Default User (administrator, operator ) name: wmax ; Password: wmax . User name wmax alows to operate as administrator (default administrator user name can be changed ). 8. The main page of the Web-based management opens, as displayed below ( Figure 5.1)

Figure 5.1 Web management main window

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Prior deployment the following minimum required BS parameters must be assigned. WiMAX/RADIO SETUP CONFIGURATION ( Figure 5.2). Channel Frequency, Frame Duration ( recommended value is 10 ms), Channel Bandwidth ( recommended value is 7 MHz), Cyclic Prefix: ( recommended value is ),

WiMAX RADIO STATUS CONFIGURATION ( Figure 5.2).


Tx Power is defined (recommended value for BS is 20 dBm. Target RSSI - maximum received signal level at the BS from SS, dBm. Recommended value is -62 dBm ( default). It is used for Automatic Transmitter Power Control (ATPC) of the SS units.

Figure 5.2 Setup radio parameters The unit has default Service Flows configuration for default Provisioned Group of users (SS units). Default Provisioned Group of SS units (Figure 5.3. Local AA/Provisioned Groups section) is included the all SS units with any MAC address, that can be connected to BS with default Service Flows. Default Service Flows configuration is shown in Fig. 5.4.

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Figure 5.3 Default Provisioned Group of SS units

Figure 5.4 Default Service Flows


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Default Uplink and Downlink SF configurations (Figure 5.4) defines: CS Ethernet; MSTR- 32000 Kbps; UL QoS BE; no priority; ARQ -Off and other parameters with default value. Before installation it is recommended to test units working configuration in office (laboratory). For this purpose MAXBridge BS must be connected to one or few SS units via coaxial cable with attenuators. Possible connection scheme of devices is shown in Figure 5.5. In these tests CPEs with N-type for an external antenna should be used.

Figure 5.5 Connection scheme in lab testing Attention! A radio signal level RSSI above -35 dBm may damage units. For this reason attenuation between BS and SS, must be not less then 80 dB. The RF splitter channel isolation must be above 20 dB and total attenuation between SS must be not less then 60 dB. Attention! Devices may be powered on only after all coaxial cables are connected and all works with them are completed. It is prohibited to work with cables when devices are powered on. Unit testing can be carried out in office without using an coaxial cable and attenuators. In this case to avoid hardware damage from high power radio signal: the BS Tx power must be set to 0 dBm. After establishing a connection between BS and SS units, BS Tx power may be increased to get proper RSSI level at SS devices. all devices must work without external antennas. all devices should be located at least 1 meters distance from each other. If SS units are equipped with an integrated antenna minimum distance between the devices must be 3 meters.

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NOTE Test results in an office conditions can show wrong RSSI and CINR parameters values and poor system throughput. It is explained, that fixed WiMAX equipment is not designed to work in an office conditions (office multipath effect). To get proper laboratory testing results the equipment should be tested with the coax cable and attenuators. After establish a connection all connected SS and their radio parameters can be viewed on CPE Stats page (menu User Stats) as is shown in Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.6 SS connection radio parameters

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6 Web managing interface


The unit has the Web-based management tool for viewing and configuring a unit parameters and logged traps. The web interface can be accessed remotely using any standard Web browser (e.g. Microsoft Internet Explorer) from anywhere in the network. HTTP (port 80) is the default protocol, HTTPS (port 443) can be turned on for a more secure communication. Thus, no installation of any additional software is required.

6.1 Accessing the Web Interface


To enter the web interface, just open a web browser and make an HTTP/HTTPS connection using the IP address of the unit. The unit has management IP address (default value is 192.168.0.7/24). If everything is correct, a login window will be shown, asking for user name and password. There are two possible modes of authenticating: Installer and User administrator profiles. INSTALLER profile has fewer privileges than the WIMAX USER administrator profile. It is intended to be a reduced version of the complete web interface, including status information about the unit and about the connected SS units, but only for monitoring purposes. The modification of any parameter is not allowed for this profile. The web interface will present just a few subsections, as shown in Figure 6.1, and it has been specially designed for CPE installers that need to know the radio status when pointing the antenna to the unit. The Installer login is performed with the following data: user installer, password wmax. After entering installer profile login name and password the home page of the Web-based management opens, as displayed in Fig 6.1.

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Figure 6.1 Web interface for Installer profile User profile allows the user to operate as Administrator in the web Interface, so all the sections and the configuration options will be enabled. The User login is performed with the following data: user wmax , password wmax . After entering User profile login name and password the home page of the Web-based management opens, as displayed in Fig 6.2.

Figure 6.2 Web interface for User administrator profile The web interface is divided in four different sections: a main section in the centre (Main View), a selection menu in the left side (User Menu ), an upper-right information bar (System Connection ), and a refresh control bar (Refresh bar), as shown in Figure 6.2.

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6.1.1 Main View


The main section is called the Main View and it shows the contents the menu that has been selected from the User Menu section . Some menus include too much information to be displayed in one unique screen, so these sections will include a Tabs section (squared in red inside the Main View section) to select different sections of the current menu.

6.1.2 User Menu


The User Menu is located in the left side of the page (squared in orange in Figure 6.2), and it offers a list of all the available menus, allowing the user to jump into the different parts of the web interface. This section is divided into different blocks: SYSTEM This block refers to the internal information and operation with the BS: status information, log, configuration slots,etc. It contains the following sections: Status & Alarms, System Tools, Administration Setup , Management Setup, Configuration Files and System Log . WIMAX This block refers to all the WiMAX aspects: radio link, cell parameters, traffic statistics, etc. It contains the following sections: Radio Setup , Cell Setup , Bandwidth & Scheduler Setup , User Stats, Bandwidth Stats , User Net Stats, Spectrum Analyzer and User Summary. PROVISIONING This block refers to the BS provisioning system, where the admitted SS units (CPE) units are defined and the service flows and QoS options can be selected. It contains the sections Local AA and CA Certificates. CONNECTIVITY This block refers to the all networking possibilities: routing, bridging, multicast, DHCP, NAT etc. It contains the following sections: Network Setup , Bridging Setup , VLAN Setup and Network Tools. NOTE The title of every these four blocks is followed by a + or symbol (displayed on-mouse-over) which may be used to collapse or expand the contained section labels.

6.1.3 System Descripton


This section, located in the upper-right side of the screen (squared in blue in Figure 6.2), provides some status information about the unit, and is shown every time in the web interface (regardless the active menu). The parameters are the following: Equipment it shows units commercial name (i.e. MAXBridge BS 33). Version: it shows the software release number of the unit. Name: it shows the alias of the unit, which may be defined in the Admin Setup section. Location: it shows the location of the unit, which may be defined in the Admin Setup section.

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Type : it shows the type of the unit (BS, SS). Status : it shows the system status (Running , Stopped , Scanning , etc.). Stop/Start button: it stops the units WiMAX driver when it is running, and starts it when it is stopped. Profile : it shows the current user profile that is logged on.

6.1.4 Refresh Timeout Bar


Displayed web page is constantly automatically refreshed and shows updated information in every precise moment. The default refreshing time is 5 seconds. This time can be configured using the Refresh Timeout Bar, which will be located in the top or in the bottom of the screen. The sections where the Refresh Timeout Bar is available are the following: Status and Alarms, System Log , User Stats and BW Stats. Figure 6.2 shows this bar in a green-colored square. NOTE All along the web pages some help tooltips may be found. They are represented by the [?] symbol, and they will display help information when the mouse pointer is located over them.

6.2 Status & Alarms


This section is the welcoming page of the unit when the web interface is opened, and shows important information such as the system general status and some alarms ( Figure 6.3)

Figure 6.3 System Status & Alarms The information is divided in five different subsections:

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SYSTEM INFO Name: it shows the alias of the unit, which may be defined in the Admin Setup section. Location: it shows the location of the unit, which may be defined in the Admin Setup section. Version: it shows the software release of the unit. Board info: it shows information about the board of the unit and about the current firmware version. Equipment: it shows units commercial name (i.e. MAXBridge BS 33). Serial Number: it shows the unit serial number. SYSTEM STATUS Time/Date : it shows the current time and date. This value may be adjusted in Admin Setup . Uptime: it shows the time of operation since the unit was powered on. Memory Usage : it refers to the percentage of internal memory that is currently being used. Traffic Memory usage : it refers to the percentage of packets that are queued in the internal memory. Main Interface Link: it shows whether there is connectivity in the Ethernet interface or not. Main Interface Mode : it shows the current operation mode of the Ethernet interface: speed (10 or 100 Mbps), negotiation (auto or forced), and transmission mode (full/half duplex). This mode can be set in the Network Setup section. If the Main Interface Link parameter is set to No , the Main Interface Mode shows BAD Value. WIMAX STATUS HW Address: it shows the BS MAC address. WiMAX Mode/Status: it shows the type of the unit (BS, SS) as long as the current status of the WiMAX system (Running, Stopped ). MAC Runtime: it shows the time that the unit has been working until this moment. It is shown in a format hh:mm:ss. Downlink QoS Conflict: it shows if the unit is having any problem on provisioning the configured services, in the downlink. This could happen when the BS is not able to guarantee certain QoS services, for example because there is not enough aggregated throughput for all. When this happens, a counter appears after the Yes or No indication, showing the number of frames with exceeded bandwidth requests. Uplink QoS Conflict: it shows if the unit is having any problem on provisioning the configured services, in the uplink. When this happens, a counter appears after the Yes or No indication, showing the number of frames with exceeded bandwidth requests. Temperature (RF): it shows the radio module ( BS Light/Hight End ) temperature, expressed in C. Temperature (Board): it shows the internal temperature of the unit, expressed in C. CPE SUMMARY Active : it shows the number of SS, that are connected to the BS at this moment.

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Connecting/Disconnecting/Warn: it shows the number of SS units, that are currently connecting or disconnecting to the BS at this moment, as long as those ones in a warning state, such as SS units, that have failed in the negotiation with the BS or SS units with bad link conditions which cannot complete all the connection phases. Total CPE: it shows the total number of SS units in the systems (Active, Connecting, Disconnecting and Warning).

EVENT SUMMARY Ranging Request/Allowed/Denied: it represents the total amount of Ranging Request (RNG-REQ) messages that the BS has received since the last time it was powered on, as well as how many of them have been successfully accepted and how many have been denied. Initial Ranging is the process of acquiring the correct timing offset and power aligned in the WiMAX adjustments such as the SSs transmissions are perfectly synchronized. Reg Request/Allowed/Denied: it represents the total amount of Registering Request (REG-REQ) messages that the BS has received since the last time it was powered on, as well as how many of them have been successfully accepted and how many have been denied. Flow Provisioning : it indicates the total amount of Service Flows that the BS has provisioned to all SS units since the last time it was powered on.

6.3 System Tools


This section performs five important operations for the unit: updating the firmware, changing the system password, rebooting the unit, rebooting the unit after a specified reboot timeout, returning the unit to the factory values. SYSTEM TOOLS page is shown in Figure 6.4

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Figure 6.4 System Tools FIRMWARE UPDATE Current unit software release number is displayed in Version field on System Info page. It is recommended to periodically update the unit by up-to-date software release since new functionalities are added to the system. The updating process consists of uploading the firmware files into the unit and letting it to be installed. The updating process must be performed carefully, because data is overwritten in memory and this process should not be interrupted. his process consists of uploading a .bin file to the unit and letting it to be installed. This upgrading file should be provided by UNIDATA. To update firmware select the .bin file and press the Upload button. Once the file has been uploaded (this operation takes some seconds and shows an animated moving bar), a new page asks for confirmation to continue or not, as shown in Figure 6.5. NOTE If the process is stopped at this point, the file will be discarded and the SW of the unit will remain unalterable.

Figure 6.5 Upgrade confirmation Then if button Continue is pressed, the software will be completely installed in the unit. This process takes about 5-7 minutes, and during it some messages is displayed in this page informing about the different phases of the upgrade. After the process finishes the unit is automatically rebooted, and when it comes up again the web interface will show the new SW version, that means that the updating operation has finished

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successfully. Attention! Updating is a process that must be performed carefully. Make sure the power supply is not interrupted during the upgrade; otherwise the unit could become unusable. NOTE Updating the unit will reboot the device when finishing. As the configuration files are not modified in this process, the unit will be recovered with the configuration specified in the default XML file. See chapter 6.6 for more information about configuration files. PASSWORD MODIFICATION To change the password for accessing the web interface type the current password and the desired new one into the appropriate fields in Change Password section. Then press the Change Password button and the operation will be performed. The new password must be formed by five or more ASCII characters. SYSTEM REBOOT This unit may be remotely rebooted by the operator using the web interface. This reboot operation can be considered as a hard reboot". To perform a reboot, just click on the System Reboot button. A message asking for confirmation will be shown. After rebooting, the unit restarts with the configuration stored in the default configuration file. Note that changes that have not been saved in this file will be lost. SYSTEM DELAYED REBOOT This functionality allows to perform a delayed unit reboot. This could be useful, for example, when accessing to the web interface via wireless. In this case, if any configuration parameter is changed wrongly or if the BS is stopped and the wireless link fails, the BS may become unreachable from its wireless interface. To avoid this, the delayed reboot may be programmed. The operator could configure the unit (without saving the changes in the default configuration file), and if something gets wrong, the BS will be rebooted with the previous configuration. To perform the delayed reboot, first set the time before rebooting the BS, which is selectable from 5 seconds to 10 minutes. Then press the Delayed System Reboot button and a message asking for confirmation will appear, as shown in Figure 6.6. After rebooting, the unit restarts with the configuration stored in the default configuration file. Note that changes that have not been saved in this file will be lost.

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Figure 6.6 Delayed Reboot (confirmation) Once the Delayed Reboot is applied, the countdown of the remaining time to reboot is shown ( Figure 6.7 ), measured in seconds. Note the countdown is also shown in the top of the page while using the web interface. This reboot may be canceled any time pressing the Stop Reboot button.

Figure 6.7 Delayed Reboot (countdown) FACTORY RESTORE To return the unit to its factory configuration press the Restore button included in the Factory Restore section. This operation deletes all the current state, configuration files, network configuration and provisioning database, so a warning message informing about the consequences is displayed before performing the reset, as shown in Figure 6.8. If the operator still wants to reset the unit, the Restore button should be pressed.

Figure 6.8 Factory Restore (confirmation)

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6.4 Admin Setup


This section allows to introduce administrative information of the unit and to configure it's local time ( Figure 6.9).

Figure 6.9 Admin Setup ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION This block allows the operator to specify some administrative information to identify every unit. The fields are the following: Name, Owner, Location , Coordinates, Address and Description . Note Name and Location fields are shown every time in the upper side of the screen, in the System Connection section. LOCAL TIME The unit, when is first powered on, starts counting with it's internal clock from this date: 01 January 1970, 00:00:00 . This date may be modified by filling in the appropriate spaces (day, month, year and time-24h) and pressing the Set Time button. The new date will be updated and all the new information will be displayed in the System Log refer to the new date. The unit include Real Time Clock (RTC) support, so this time configuration is maintained although the unit is powered off, due to an internal battery. In addition, the UTC Diff field allows to insert a time difference respect to the Universal Time Coordinated , that is useful when time is synchronized from a foreign time server. Unit also supports NTP (Network Time Protocol), a time synchronization system through the Internet that provides automatic and accurate timing. If the unit has access the Internet, the operator may activate Status field and introduce an available public NTP server, as long as the refresh time in seconds, and click on the Set NTP button. Then the unit will periodically and automatically refresh the current time querying the specified NTP server. One example of NTP Public server is ntp.time.in.ua.

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Relaxed mode When the NTP client receives the time information from the NTP server, there is a field in the NTP header of the received packet which indicates if the server is correctly synchronized or not. When this field, called Leap Indication, is set to 3, it indicates that the server may not be synchronized, what means that the received time may be wrong. The RFC-4330 recommends that the NTP client should always verify the received time-packet, and if those verifications fail, the time information should be discarded. When the Relaxed Mode tag is activated, the NTP client is not perform any verification, enabling the BS to accept time information form not synchronized server. For more information, please refer to the RFC-4330 document. NOTE. In order to use the NTP system, the BS must be able to reach the server IP address. If the NTP server field is filled in with the server host name instead of its IP address, the unit should also have defined one DNS server in the Network Setup section. Otherwise, the NTP service is not be shown as enabled.

6.5 Management Setup


This section allows to define the management interfaces and to configure the management protocols ( SNMP and XML-RPC). It is structured in two tabs, Interfaces and SNMP, which are explained bellow. REMOTE MANAGEMENT This block only appears when the BS is being controlled by an XML-RPC based system, such as the Network Management System (NMS). Together with this section, an information message appears at the top of the page when the BS is being configured through its XML-RPC interface. This message displays Remote Management Mode. It is also displayed, when BS is managed by HTTP/HTTPS from other place. Changes in the BS can only be made through one management interface at the same time. Before performing a modification in the BS, the XML-RPC system blocks the Web interface ability for making changes. The Force Local Management button allows the user to recover the BS control from the Web interface.

6.5.1 Interface Setup


This section includes next different functionalities ( Figure 6.10): to configure the input management policy, to configure the XML-RPC protocol, to enable or disable HTTPS mode.

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Figure 6.10 Management Setup, Interfaces tab MANAGEMENT INTERFACES This section allows controlling the input management policy, applied to the Input Management traffic (that management traffic whose final destination is the BS). It may be applied to all the existing interfaces in the unit: eth0 , wethx wireless interfaces, lanx bridges or VLANs. All the Input Traffic may be treated with an ACCEPT or DROP policy. When ACCEPT is selected in one interface, Input Traffic coming from this interface is allowed, and when DROP is selected, Input Traffic from that interface is discarded. A DROP policy is only selectable one there is art list one interface with an ACCEPT policy, in order to always keep the unit reachable. Section is divided in two blocks: the first one defines the Default Input Policy that is applied to all interfaces. The units start working with the ACCEPT ALL default filtering policy, but the operator could change it to the DROP ALL mode. On the other hand, the second block is able to create individual input policy rules to the defined interfaces. That means that the BS applies the Default Policy to all interfaces except to that ones with defined specific input policies. An individual policy takes precedence to the default policy. As the https connection to the web interface of the BS is a type of Input Traffic, this functionality may be used, for example, to avoid the SS entering the BS configuration page, or to limit the access to the BS to hosts belonging to a specific VLAN, for example. NOTE Setting DROP mode as the input policy must be performed carefully, as the unit could remain unreachable from the selected interface. HTTP/HTTPS MODE This button allows selecting the protocol used to access the BS through Web interface. HTTPS is securer than HTTP. On the other hand HTTPS uses more resources, so it could be useful to change it to HTTP when having a very slow remote connectivity to the BS, for example. By default the unit uses HTTPS protocol in order to assure a secure communication, but this section allows the operator to change it the

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HTTP protocol. XML-RPC INTERFACE CONTROL This section gives the opportunity to select the interfaces that will be controlled using XML-RPC protocol.

6.5.2 SNMP Setup


As shown in Figure 28, the SNMP Interface control can be enabled. This block allows setting all the parameters related to SNMP.

Figure 6.11 Management Setup, SNMP tab The 3rd version of SNMP protocol introduced a whole slew of new security related features that have been missing from the previous versions. In SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c, a simple community string was put in clear text into the packet to authenticate the request, which is highly insecure. SNMPv3 introduces advanced security which splits the authentication and the authorization into two pieces: The USM is the default Security Module. The U stands for User-based , as it contains a list of users and their attributes. The USM is described by RFC 2574 . The VACM is the View-based Access Control Module and controls which users (and SNMPv1/v2c communities as well) are allowed to access and how they can access sections of the MIB tree. The VACM is described in RFC 2575 .

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Default configuration includes a community called public for SNMP v.1 and v2. The user and password defined for SNMP v3 are wmax and wmaxsnmp respectively. SNMP settings are stored into an XML configuration file which is be explained below. After configuring SNMP parameters it is important to save the whole configuration in order to avoid losing changes. It is also required to disable and enable SNMP by click on the Disable/Enable SNMP button in order to apply the modifications.

6.6 Configuration Files


The current configuration of the unit can be saved in XML format files. When selecting the Configuration Files menu in the left-side of the screen, ten XML files are listed as shown in Figure 6.12.

Figure 6.12 Configuration Files The user may save up to 10 different configurations into these slots, which are stored in the internal memory of the unit. If the slot is used, it is dark colored, and if it is empty the name of the file is shown in bright grey. The first file in the list, called default (wimax.xml), is the default configuration file of the unit. This means that when the unit is powered on the configuration saved in this file is automatically loaded. Due to this, it is highly recommended to keep saved in this file the desired configuration of the unit, so the unit could recover properly from a punctual power fail, for example. Remember that when any parameter of the unit is changed, this change takes effect immediately but it is not saved into any configuration file. The user should take care of saving the configuration manually when a configuration change has been made. XML is a very versatile format which can keep the configuration options perfectly structured. The operator may view and understand these files, and even create his ones. The system offers the possibility to download these files, modify them or upload user-made ones. Operating with these configuration files: Saving : to save the current configuration into the configuration slot, just select the destination file and press on the Save button. Loading : to load the stored configuration, just select the desired source file and press on the Load button. Clearing a slot: to delete the configuration of the XML file, simply select it and press on the Delete

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button or the Delete icon. Downloading : when pushing the Download button, or the Download icon, the selected file will be downloaded into the computer.This allows storing many different configurations into other storage units. The stored files can also be modified with a simple text editor, for example, and can be uploaded again to the unit with the new modified configuration. The Downloading process can be viewed in Figure 6.13. Uploading: to upload the configuration XML file into the unit just click on the Browse button, select the desired file, and press the Upload button. The system will check first if the XML file is grammatically correct, and if so the new configuration may be applied or saved. Configuration XML file is shown in the Figures 6.14.

Figure 6.13 Download configuration file

Figure 6.14 Sample XML configuration file

6.7 System Log


The System Log is a powerful tool to visualize every action the BS is performing in order to keep stored the BS operation sequence, which could be helpful if the unit suffers from some problems or simply to have a detailed historic file about what happens inside the BS. The unit always saves this log into a .log file, so in case of malfunction the operator may examine this file and try to detect the problem.

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Every relevant operation in the BS is represented as a line of this log, describing the type of the event and the time when it happens (referred to the Local Time Setup explained in section 6.4). In case the event is related to a SS, the MAC address of the SS is also showed. There are many different operations that are shown in the log, such as: MAC stop/start, Initial Ranging operation , Negotiating , Authenticating , Registering , Flows added, etc. Some relevant messages are explained in the following. The log is automatically filled and refreshed periodically, as specified in it's Refresh Timeout control bar. However, if the log gets too long only the most recent entries are shown, as long as the original and complete .log file keeps stored in the unit even if it is powered off. The most recent entries are added in the first lines of the log, as shown in Figure 6.15. The Clear Log icon cleans the page screen in the web interface, although the complete log remains unalterable in the unit. The Download Log icon allows downloading the complete log in the wimax.log file, which can be opened with a standard text editor.

Figure 6.15 System Log REMOTE SYSLOG Syslog is a client-server protocol that is used for forwarding log messages in an IP network. The BS includes the Syslog Client which sends the generated log messages to some Syslog server (for example, syslogd in Linux or Kiwi Syslog Server in Microsoft Windows). The Client is simply configured setting the IP address of the destination Syslog server in the Remote

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Syslog block. The BS send automatically and periodically the new log messages to the specified destination Syslog server. LOG MESSAGES There are three types of log events: wimax, system, and network messages. The type of every message is included in the message, just after the timestamp, as it is shown in Figure 6.15. Wimax messages show information about WiMAX transactions and will be usually related to a certain SS (the MAC is shown in the message). System messages show general and status information about the BS, and network messages show information about the networking in the BS. In the following some of the most common log-messages, that may appear in the log of the BS, are listed. 1) WiMAX MESSAGES SS initialization and Network entry: When a new SS is detected by the BS, the network entry and initialization process that is defined in WiMAX starts: Authentication , Registration, etc., and after all the phases are successful, the SS becomes Active, the provisioned flows are added and the networking is configured. The sequence of that appears in the following log: Initial Ranging, starting cell entry process ACTIVE, RSSI: -62dBm, CINR: 25 dB, Managed: No, Auth: MAC Addr 2 provisioned flows, Net config: Bridged dev weth1 in bridge lan0 Flow Added. CID: 6, SFID: 65536 Flow Added. CID: 8, SFID: 65537 If this sequence is not finished completely, the log shows in the message which phase has failed. For example, when the registering timeout has been exceeded the message will be: Disconnecting. Reason "Registration time out" When the authenticating process has failed the messages is: Initial Ranging, starting cell entry process Initial ranging MAC unauthorized When the SS is active, the BS tries to create the provisioned flows, using DSA (Dynamic Service Addition ) WiMAX messages. If certain number of DSA retries (configurable in Cell Setup menu) is exceeded without getting any response from the SS, there are two possibilities, according to the LocalAA configuration. If the Disc on DSA Fail field is not active, the SS remains active but some of the provisioned Service Flows are not added. If the Disc on DSA Fail field is active, the is dropped from the BS instead of being added without Service Flows. After being dropped, the following log messages is shown. After dropping the SS, the BS starts again the registering process. Flow Added. CID: 15, SFID: 65536 Flow Failed. CID: 16, SFID: 65537 Disconnecting. Reason "DSA Transactions failed and required disconnect" Disconnecting causes : An active SS may be dropped from the BS for different reasons. One possible cause of dropping a SS may be when the maximum allowed signal correction retries, that are sent by the BS to the SS are exceeded. The BS sets a desired Uplink RSSI value with the Target RSSI parameter, and continuously corrects the transmitted power of the SS to achieve this value. The BS has a maximum/minimum allowed RSSI error, selectable in the Cell Setup menu, to maintain SS, that are connected to the cell. If this dB margin is exceeded after certain number of corrections, the SS is dropped from the cell. The log message is the following: Initial Ranging, starting cell entry process InitRng Correction retries exhausted (Max: 16 -Time err: 0 smpl - RSSI Err: 11dB) Disconnecting. Reason "Init ranging failed" After completion of ranging, the SS informs the BS of its basic capabilities. Another possible cause of dropping a SS may be that time slot reserved for that negotiation is over: Disconnecting. Reason "Capabilities negotiation timeout"

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Another possible cause of dropping a SS may be that the BS is not receiving any response from it, commonly due to bad radio signal levels. If the BS offers a time slot to the SS and it does not get any response, the SS will be dropped after a certain number of opportunities. Disconnecting: Invited retries exhausted (Max: 128)" Disconnecting. Reason "Periodic ranging failed" During the Authentication process, if the RSA Auth Required mode is enabled, the SS (CPE) must support this option, otherwise following message appears: Disconnecting. Reason "Authentication required but CPE does not support it" After the Disconnecting alert and the reason explanation, the SS dropping process continues deleting the associated network interfaces. After all the processes are finished, the SS will be shown as Disconnected . The following messages show the elimination of the network interfaces for a SS in Local Network mode: Removing Local Network for device weth82: Public IP:192.168.0.137, Private IP: 192.168.101.100 Bridge: lan99 Removing hook for device weth82 from hidden ip 192.168.101.151 to private ip 192.168.101.100 Local Network : the following log messages represent the typical transactions for a SS using Local Network mode with DHCP and a Net-Hook . DHCPDISCOVER dev "weth0" via "lan0" DHCPOFFER on 192.168.0.84/23 received for weth0 Net config: Local Network dev weth0: Public IP: 192.168.0.84, Private IP: 192.168.101.128 Bridge: lan99 Setting hook for device weth0 from hidden ip 192.168.101.151 to public ip 192.168.101.128 Other messages a) when a certain SS is provisioned with more Service Flows than the maximum-flow number- per-user parameter of the BS, the BS is not create the exceeding flows, and the log shows the following : Error creating Flow. Max Num Flows Rx reached b) there is also a log message when exceeded the maximum allowed number of active SS units (users): Aborting initial ranging, max total users exceeded c) during the SS initialization and Network entry process, when in AUTO mode some SS is assigned to a bridge without IP direction, a warning message appears. It is necessary to configure the lan0 with an IP direction. Attention! Private IP not configured for weth0 in AUTO mode. Please, check bridge ID 1 configuration d) Stopping and starting the radio: Stopped Started e) Spectrum Analyzer operation: Spectrum Analyzer mode enabled Spectrum Analyzer mode disabled 2) SYSTEM These messages show status information about the BS after performing some operations. Software update: Updating system software versions. From 3.3.7605 To 3.3.823 System software updated Rebooting device Reboot: System Reboot Delayed Reboot: Delayed reboot cancelled Delayed reboot scheduled in 300s Syslogd configuration: syslog running (remote logger: 192.168.70.11) Syslogd configuration:

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syslog running (remote logger: 192.168.70.11) System time configuration: setting new time 22/11/2010 16:15 TZ: 0 3) NETWORK These messages give information about the physical interfaces, such as the status, the mode (Auto/Manual ), and the speed : eth0 no link eth0 is down eth0 is auto - 100Mbit/s FD eth0 link up (auto - 100Mbit/s FD)

6.8 Device Features


Device Features page allow remote upgrade of features. Below ( Figure 6.15) is example of typical BS 33 features.

Figure 6.16 Device features

6.9 Radio Parameters


This section allows to view and to modify the units radio configuration ( Figure 6.17). This is a very important section, because in order to establish a WiMAX communication the first thing that should be done is to configure properly the physical part of the link, which can be done in this section. In the tables, every parameter is shown with the active selected value. In the right side the New Value column can be found, which allows modifying the active value of every parameter, just by selecting the new value and clicking on the Modify button. This button is able to modify several parameters at the same time. The Radio

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parameters section can help to optimize the performance of the link, since some parameters have a direct impact into the communications maximum throughput, minimum latency/jitter, or robustness against multipath, for example. This will be explained below and also in Appendix B. System parameters adjustment chapter .

Figure 6.17 Radio Setup

6.9.1 Parameter list


The BS allows controlling the most relevant physical transmission to establish the right balance between capacity and several specific performance parameters like latency, sensitivity, achievable link distance, immunity against multipath and Bit Error Rate (BER). On Radio Setup page is defined following parameters: Channel Frequency It is the operating channel frequency, expressed in MHz. Selection: Every frequency in the valid in dependence of the BS type range, in steps of 1 MHz. Frame Duration It refers to the WiMAX frame duration, expressed in milliseconds. This parameter is strongly related with systems latency, and also with the overall throughput. Short frames help to reduce the round-trip latency of the system, and larger ones optimize the overall throughput of the system, due to the shorter overhead. Selection: 2.5, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12.5 and 20 ms. Recommended value is 5 ms for 10 or less CPEs on BS and 10 ms for more than 10 CPEs. Channel Bandwidth It refers to the channel width, expressed in MHz. This parameter can be used to control the system throughput and receiver sensitivity. Overall net throughput (at Ethernet interface ) is near 30-32 Mbps for 10MHz. Using a large bandwidth maximizes the capacity, whereas a narrower one increases receiver

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sensitivity and the link budget. Selection: The BS 3.5, 7 MHz. Cyclic Prefix The OFDM Cyclic Prefix (CP) is expressed as a fraction of the current frame duration, and represents the guard time slot allocated before the data frame in order to be able to receive delayed symbols, for example, those proceeding from the reflected radio waves (multipath radio wave propagation). Thus, CP is a useful parameter that controls the immunity against multipath fading : a short CP maximizes the link capacity as it reduces the guard time, and a larger CP increases robustness against multipath radio wave propagation. Recommended value: CP=1/16 in LOS/nearLOS conditions, CP=1/4 in nearLOS/NLOS conditions. NOTE. Symbol durations are: 32, and 64 microseconds for respectively. Selection: 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 of the OFDM symbol time. Maximum User Distance This parameter specifies the maximum link range measured in meters.This parameter represents the distance in which the farthest SS may be located. It is highly recommended that this parameter is set to a value slightly higher than the real maximum distance in order to have a certain margin. However, this margin should not be too wide because this distance is directly related to the time spent by the BS while listening to new SSs (Ranging mode). So if Max. User Distance value is too high, the BS may waste much time on waiting for a response from inexistent SS, therefore decreasing spectral efficiency and total net capacity. Selection: Any (consequent with the real scenario). Recommended value: 1000 m more, then expected cell radius. DL/UL Modulation Unit supports different modulations, from the more robust ones to the ones that provide a higher throughput. The DL/UL Modulation fields give possibility to limit the minimum and the maximum codifications that can be used in both UL and DL. The available modulations are the following: BPSK 1/2, QPSK1/2, QPSK3/4, 16QAM 1/2, 16QAM 3/4, 64QAM 2/3 and 64QAM 3/4. First ones offer more robustness and can reach longer distances, while last ones can provide higher throughput. Although modulation may be manually limited between a lowest and a highest scheme, the modulation used at each time is automatically selected by the BS depending on the available CINR at that moment. There are also two Auto labeled check boxes, which may be activated if no modulation limitation is intended. NOTE. Modulation of each provisioned SS may also be restricted, but this condition will be less restrictive than the DL/UL Codification parameter. Selection: minimum and maximum modulation (7 different schemes). 7MHz and 3.5MHz channel bandwidth,

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Tx Power This parameter selects the Transmission Power at the output of the radio stage of the unit (transmitter), measured in dBm. It refers to the transmission power that the unit has at the N connector. The BS works with a fixed Transmission Power for communicating with all SS units. Recommended value: for BS 33 20 dBm, Target RSSI This parameter specifies maximum possible received signal level RSSI at the BS receiver from all SS, that allows to control Tx power of every SS. WiMAX implements Automatic Transmitter Power Control ( ATPC) maximum signal level in the BS receiver by reducing the SS Tx power. Target RSSI value is set by changing Rx Attenuation value. In most cases it is not necessary to modify Target RSSI value. Recommented value: Target RSSI =-62 dBm, Rx Attenuation = 0 dB. [+] Indicator: Target RSSI Range. In the Active Value column, there is a [+] tooltip which shows the current Target RSSI Range. This range is calculated from the currentTarget RSSI value and the RSSI maintenance error value, which is configured in the Cell Setup section. All SS units with received RSSI levels out of this range will be dropped from the cell. [+] Indicator: RSSI Range Error In the Parameter column, there is a [+] tooltip which shows if the current Target RSSI value is not in the optimal RSSI range. Warning State: The symbol is shown in orange ([+]) when the averaged received RSSI differs slightly ( 36 dB) from the selected Target RSSI value. Error State: The symbol is shown in orange ([+]) when the averaged received RSSI differs from the selected Target RSSI value more than 6 dB. Selection: Target RSSI values for a Rx attenuation between -20 dB and 35 dB (in 1 dB steps). NOTE If any physical parameter is modified, it is strongly recommended to save the configuration to avoid losing it. In order to do this, the menu Configuration Files allows saving the current state of the unit (parameters, users, flows, etc.) in the XML configuration file that can be restored in any time. NOTE Some modification may require stopping and starting the system to take effect. When it happens, the system shows the notification page asking for confirmation. By pressing Accept the system continues with the modification. The WiMAX module restarts in a process that takes 2 or 3 seconds approximately. So if some service is being provided to users, the impact of this short unavailability should be taken into account. in Uplink channel, that limits

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6.10 Cell Setup


In this section the WiMAX cell parameters may be observed and modified within the allowed limits. The coverage area of a BS may be considered as a Cell, so these parameters can be applied to all SS units, that are located in this area (Figure 6.21).

Figure 6.21 Cell Setup This section includes very technical and precise parameters which are specified and completely described in the IEEE 802.16-2009 standard. The default values are supposed to be the most suitable ones for many scenarios, so the general recommendation is to keep these default settings if the modification is not strictly necessary. Attention ! A wrong modification could make the cell operation worse. Remember, that there are two Restore Default buttons to return to the original configuration . In some specific cases it might be necessary to make some adjustment to improve system performance. In

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the following these parameters are going to be explained briefly. A more detailed view can be obtained in the IEEE 802.16-2009 standard. OPERATOR BS ID This block allows changing the Base Station Identifier (hardware address). By default, the BS broadcasts it's real MAC address (the one showed in the Default BS ID field) to all SS units (CPEs) in the cell. It is possible to change the MAC address, that the BS broadcasts to it's cell by selecting the Override BS ID option and filling in the field with a new Virtual MAC Address. This may be useful in an scenario where the SS units are forced to connect always to the same BS. If this BS is replaced by a new one (which has a different MAC address), it is possible to configure this one so it broadcasts the MAC address of the previous one, and therefore SS units do not have to be configured individually to connect to the new MAC address. NOTE This section changes the MAC address that the BS broadcasts to the SS units , although the BS keeps it's real MAC address. Only the information messages sent to the SS units are changed, but the real MAC keeps unmodified . NETWORK ENTRY PARAMETERS The network entrance parameters are listed and explained below, with some configuration recommendations.on Max num of Active users It specifies the maximum quantity of active SS units (CPE) that the BS is allowed to accept in the cell. Selection: the minimum and maximum values of this field may vary depending on the particular features of the BS. 0 establishes no limit. Default value: MAXBridge BS 33 Pico max active SS value is 30; MAXBridge BS 33 Pico+ max active SS is 100; Max. number of in-entry users The in-entry phase is situated between the Initial ranging phase and just before activating the SS. A non-authorized SS units are always located in this state, trying to enter the network. With this parameter the overall number of SS in this in-entry phase may be limited. Selection: at operator s choice. 0 value establishes no limit. Check HW address in Init-Rng When this field is activated, the BS only gives access to the network to those SS units whose MAC address is specified in the provisioning database. This condition is checked during the Initial Ranging phase, and those SS units that are not allowed will be dropped. The System Log shows the MAC address of these unauthorized SS units. If this field is not activated, all the SS units in the operating range of the BS are added to the cell: the ones that are provisioned in the provisioning system are registered with the correspondent Service Flows and

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network configuration, and long as the ones that have not been provisioned are added to the network with no Service flows or network configuration, so they are shown in the User Stats section but are not be able to transmit/receive data with the BS. Max. Init-Rng invited opportunities The total amount of slots that the BS assigns to perform Initial Ranging . Max. negative RSSI error When a SS tries to enter the network, the BS makes power corrections to take the SS into a working RSSI range. This parameter sets the minimum value of this range. Max. positive RSSI Analogue to the previous parameter, it sets the maximum RSSI value error into the operating range. Max time error In relation with the previous two parameters, this field sets the maximum number of Physical Slots that are let until the SS is inside the allowed RSSI range. Max Initial-Ranging corrections It sets the maximum number of power and synchronism corrections that are allowed to be made with every SS in the Initial Ranging phase. Min. SS apply corrections time It is related with the SS units and their adjustment speed. When the BS sends a correction to a SS, it lets the SS a minimum time until it considers that the SS has been able to apply the correction. This parameter fixes this waiting time. T9 Registration Timeout. It is allowed time between the BS sending a RNGRSP (success) to an SS, and receiving a SBC-REQ from that same SS. T13 Maximum time allowed for an SS to send a TFTP message to the BS. T17 Auth Maximum time allowed for a SS to complete SS Register, Authorization and Key Exchange in it's network entrance procedure. T17 Auth Disabled SS register timeout when RSA Authentication is not enabled. RSA Authentication required When this field is activated, the SS Authorization and Key Exchange are performed using X.509 digital certificates, which is a public-key certificate that binds the SSs identifying information to it's RSA public key in a verifiable manner. The X.509 certificate is digitally signed by the UNIDATA and that signature can be verified by the BS. The manufacturers public key is placed in an X.509 certification authority (CA) certificate. The manufacturers certificate may be replaced by a higher level CA. NETWORK MAINTENANCE PARAMETERS The network maintenance parameters are listed and explained below, with some configuration recommendations. Max. UL opportunities not used.

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When a BS gives Time Slots to a SS, these opportunities should be used or not. If the SS does not respond and does not use a certain amount of opportunities, the BS drops it from the network. This parameter sets this number of maximum opportunities. Max. Rng failed corrections. It has the same meaning that the analogue parameter for Network Entrance; this one applies to a SS, that is already inside the network. It sets the maximum number of power and synchronism corrections that is allowed to be made with every SS in the Ranging phase. Max. negative/positive RSSI error (dropping). These parameters specify the maximum difference from the Rx RSSI level at the BS. If a SS has RSSI with a range that exceeds these parameters, the BS tries to correct using ranging procedures and if the number of retries defined in Max. Rng failed corrections also expires the SS will be dropped with cause Periodic Ranging Failed . Max. negative RSSI error (not dropping). If this range is exceeded, the SS is not dropped; the BS will try to adjust the RSSI levels. Max. time error. It has the same meaning that the analogue parameter in the Network Entrance. DSA/DSD/DSC Request retries. It defines the number of times that the BS is allowed to try to create a Service Flow if the SS does not respond. If this number of retries is exceeded, the SS remains in the network but Service Flows are not provisioned. It is recommended to use value not lower than 15. RSSI maintenance interval. It defines the periodic time where the BS sends power corrections to a SS that is on a non-dropping RSSI error value. UL report request interval. It defines the time between every UL-stats request. T27 Idle - maximum time between unicast grants to SS when BS believes SS Uplink transmission quality is "good enough". T27 Active - maximum time between unicast grants to SS when BS believes SS UL transmission quality is "not good enough". As long as the SS remains active, the BS does not specifically grant bandwidth to the SS for a ranging opportunity. T7 - maximum DSA/DSC/DSD Response timeout. It sets the timeout between every DSA/DSD/DSC request retry. T10- maximum wait for transaction end time. Once a response is received, the BS waits a guard time. This parameter sets the value of this time. AK Lifetime. When a SS sends an Auth Request message, the Auth Reply message contains several parameters like the AK (Authorization Key) and the keys lifetime. This AK shall remain active until it expires according to its predefined AK Lifetime. This parameter allows the operator to set the time this key is valid.

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TEK Lifetime. This parameter is used for setting the lifetime of the new Traffic Encryption Key at the target BS. Rx CINR Modulation Table Adjustment. This parameter allows the adjustment of the internal CINR Modulation tables. Positive values (>0) artificially increases the measured CINR, thus allowing higher modulations. Negative values (<0) artificially decreases the measured CINR, forcing to lower modulations.

6.11 BW & Scheduler Setup


Unit implements QoS mechanisms and performs differentiated functions: Admission Control, Service Classification , Traffic Shaping & Polling, Scheduling . Scheduling is performed by the MAC Scheduler, which is responsible of transmitting the data packets in base of every packets priority. It is responsible of filling in the Time Slots in the WiMAX frame with the data from all the SS units, fulfilling the requests of the provisioned Service Flows. Thus, the Scheduler is an essential component in any QoS granting architecture, as it performs the resource allocation for all the active SS units. This section allows configuring some parameters around the MAC Scheduler and the frame distribution, as it is explained below. BW & Scheduler Setup menu is shown in Figure 6.22.

Figure 6.22 BW & Scheduler Setup SCHEDULER BW EQUALIZER The BS Scheduler can be equalized in this block, allowing the operator to configure it in Equal Rate, Equal Symbol or any other combination, using a defined weight scheme per modulation, independently in the Uplink and in the Downlink . Note Equalization will only affect the Best Effort traffic. The mode of the BS Scheduler can be set by the operator in the Mode labeled box located on the top, where the three options may be chosen: Equal Rate, Equal Symbols and User Defined . By selecting one of the first two options, the unit configures the weights automatically as explained below, whereas the last option gives the operator total control in the assignment.

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The Mode Equal Rate configuration follows the idea: every modulation is given the same weight (i.e. 1), so the BS tries to offer the same binary rate to every active SS. This means that if one SS with poor link conditions is forced to use BPSK1/2, the BS has to give him much more symbols than to a 64QAM3/4 operating SS (approximately nine BPSK1/2 symbols for every 64QAM3/4 symbol). This guarantees that users are treated equally regardless their link conditions. ATTENTION The disadvantage of Mode Equal Rate configuration is that the overall throughput provided by the BS gets reduced for those SS units with poor modulations that use many symbols at slow binary rates. The Equal Symbols mode gives different weights to the different modulations, so the overall system throughput could be enhanced giving more symbols to the SS units with the highest modulations. Referring to the example mentioned earlier with a BPSK1/2 SS and a 64QAM3/4 SS , if the weight given to the 64QAM3/4 modulation was 9 instead of 1, the Equalizer would operate in Equal Symbols mode. The BS tries to offer the same time slots to both SS units , so if the symbols used by both SS units are the same, the higher modulation one achieves a much higher binary rate than the BPSK1/2 one. Finally, by selecting the User Defined mode, the operator may decide the weight that should be assigned to every modulation. In conclusion, this block gives the operator completely control in the MAC Equalizer. Default configuration is Equal Symbols weight "1" given every modulation. FRAME DIVISION As explained before, IEEE 802.16-2009 is designed to function in a framed format. The frame concept can be defined generally as a structured data sequence of fixed duration. In a TDD system the Uplink and Downlink transmissions share the same frequency but are separated in time. Thus, the WiMAX frame is divided into one Downlink subframe and one Uplink subframe, as shown in Figure 6.23

Figure 6.23 TDD frame format TDD framing is adaptive in that the link capacity allocated to the Downlink versus the Uplink may vary. Allocation Start Time (AST) is the parameter, that allows specifying the percentage of frame that is allocated to Downlink (so it also controls the Uplink time). Many Point-to-Point scenarios ( for example, communication between corporate branches) require symmetric throughput between UL and DL, that means both subframes should have the same length. However, AST gives the chance to personalize the distribution of UL/DL for non-symmetric applications such as video broadcasting.

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The BS lets to customize the frame distribution with the following parameters: Frame Division: as it has been explained before, the duration of DL and UL subframes may vary depending on the operators needs. This parameter defines the percentage of the WiMAX frame, that is assigned to the DL subframe. As this percentage is referred to all frame, including overheads and control information at the beginning and at the end of the frame, the Frame Division value is current Frame Duration in Radio Parameters section. DynAST: in this mode the BS automatically and dynamically divides the frame relying on the UL and DL traffic needs. This allows an efficient usage of the total available over-the-air throughput when the needs are variable between UL and DL. When this option is enabled, two new fields are activated: Min frame Div and Max frame Div, trimming the dynamic range of the frame division. Minimum Frame Division. This parameter is associated to the DynAST functionality. It sets the minimum selectable Frame Division. It is strongly recommended to set it as 25%. Maximum Frame Division. This parameter is associated to the DynAST functionality. It sets the maximum selectable Frame Division . Next Frame. This parameter indicates how the BS schedules consecutive UL data slots, both in the current frame or in the next frame. If Next Frame is selected, the slots allocated by the BS in the current frame is transmitted by the SS units in the next frame. If Next Frame is not selected, the SS transmits allocated slots in the current frame. Next Frame selection allows some third party SS to have better performance in the Uplink channel. In most cases it should be left disabled. DL->UL Extra gap. This parameter selects the number of extra symbols to include as a separation between Downlink and Uplink subframes. Generally it is recommended to leave it as default (0 symbols). UL->DL Extra gap: number of extra symbols to include as a separation between Uplink and Downlink subframes. Generally it is recommended to leave it as default (0 symbols). SCHEDULER CONFIGURATION Max. Contention RNG. Maximum number of broadcast contention ranging opportunities, that the BS schedules in the Uplink per frame. These opportunities are scheduled using the symbols not needed for data traffic. The remaining symbols after ContRNG are used for broadcast contention BW request opportunities. Min. Contention Bandwidth. This parameter refers the minimum number of broadcast contention bandwidth request opportunities to be scheduled in the Uplink in each Contention BW Period frames. Contention Bandwidth Period. It indicates the number of frames the BS waits to schedule at least Min Contention BW UL broadcast BW request opportunities. Setting this parameter to 1 forces the BS to schedule at least Min ContBW every frame. Minimum Poll Rate. This parameter adjusts the minimum number of connected SS units, that the BS limited automatically by the web interface if the allowed limits are exceeded. The limitation varies with the

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polls each frame. Higher values increase the frame overhead, but also reduce the overall latency. DL Preambles. By selecting this mode the BS inserts a preamble for each burst in the Downlink subframe. These preambles may help in the Downlink recommended to leave it as disable. UL Gaps. If this mode is enabled, the BS allocates one extra free symbol between Uplink bursts.It is recommended to leave it as disable. AGGREGATED BW The throughput towards the wireless link can be adjusted using Service Flows with QoS specifications. However, if the cable link (i.e. the backbone) cannot provide as much throughput as the WiMAX link, those QoS mechanisms should not be ensured end-to-end. To avoid this, the BS also allows the operator to limit the total aggregated traffic in the DL and in the UL directions. This is a very powerful tool are the following: Maximum Sector BW: specifies the maximum allowed aggregated throughput, expressed in Kbit/s. 0 value sets this field to No Limit state (default configuration). Maximum UL BW. Specifies the maximum allowed throughput in the Downlink , expressed in Kbit/s. 0 value sets this field to No Limit state (default configuration). Maximum DL BW. Specifies the maximum allowed throughput in the Uplink , expressed in Kbit/s. 0 value sets this field to No Limit state (default configuration). SCHEDULER STATS Scheduler Stats Weight. Scheduler statistics are averaged by low-pass filtering as they are collected. This parameter allows this filtering to be adjusted. Averaged values are calculated by weighting the previous sample with this parameter and adding the current sample with the complimentary weight. It is strongly recommended to set it as 30%. Attention! To get high efficiency of multiple access it is strongly recommended parameters ( marked green and red in Figure 6.22) as: min Frame div =25%, DL->UL Extra Gap =0, UL->DL Extra Gap =0, DL preambles -disabled, UL Gaps -Disable, Shed Stats Weight -30%. to set Scheduler important reception in some radio conditions.It is

6.12 User Stats


There is a set of statistical parameters that can be studied in order to analyze the link state of every SS in the system. It shows the link statistics of users connected to the cell. The User Stats section is split in two tabs, where either a Basic View or a Detailed View can be found in order to get quick and basic information about the link state and also monitoring in more detail all the parameters. This section is very

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useful to determine the optimal values for the radio parameters of the Radio Setup menu.

6.12.1 Basic View Stats


This tab is represented in Figure 6.24. In this tab the link state indicators are shown in a table, while each row represents a unique SS. The page shows only those SS units, that are currently in the system or that are trying to connect or disconnect to the BS, so SS units, that are not authorized to enter the network, does not appear as Active. The Web browsers page is automatically refreshed to get updated values for every indicator.

Figure 6.24 User Stats, Basic View tag The most indicative link state parameters are the following: RSSI, CINR and Modulation , both for Uplink and Downlink . The BS is capable to read these parameters from every SS unit and to show them in this section. These parameters are explained below. Disconnect checkbox. This checkbox allows selecting one or many SS units to force a manual

disconnection from the BS. Remember that when a SS is forced to disconnect from the BS, it will try to reconnect immediately. To definitely disconnect from the BS, it should not be provisioned in the Local AA database. CPE. It indicates the MAC address of the associated SS as long as the SS alias (if specified). It includes a link to the Data Services submenu. Status. It indicates the status of that user (Active, Connecting , Registering, etc); Uptime. It indicates the time that has passed since the last time the SS was connected to the BS. Flows. It indicates the number of Service Flows that have been correctly provisioned for that SS. It includes a link to the Data Services submenu. SS Tx Power. It is the transmission power of the SS , expressed in dB. This parameter value is fixed automatically by the BS using Automatic Transmitter Power Control (ATPC) procedure. UL/DL RSSI. The Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) is a measurement of the power received by the radio-communications equipment. When referring to the UL RSSI, this parameter represents the power received by the BS from this SS. The DL RSSI represents the received power level

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by this SS from the BS. It is measured in dBm. UL/DL CINR. The Carrier to Interference plus Noise Ratio (CINR ) is a measurement of signal effectiveness, expressed in dB. The carrier is the desired signal, and the interference is co-channel radio signal from other wireless systems. The Noise is thermal noise of receiver. In order for the signal receiver to be able to decode the signal, the signal must fall into an acceptable CINR range. A better CINR allows to use a higher modulation and as result to get a higher throughput, so the operator should try to maximize this parameter in both UL and DL. UL/DL Modulation. This value indicates the modulation type that is being used both in UL and DL. Recall that this modulation will be selected by the BS at each moment depending on the current CINR values. The BS selects the modulation that offers the higher throughput for the current CINR. UL/DL BW. This value indicates the throughput that the SS Downlink channels, measured in bps/bps/Mbps. Distance. It is the estimated distance from the BS to that SS , expressed in kilometers. The distance is calculated by the BS using the delay time of the transmitted messages, and it has an overall error margin of 500 meters, approximately. Disconnect selected CPEs button. When clicking on this button, all the SS units, that Disc. checkbox is activated, are forced to disconnect from the BS. Disconnect all CPEs button. When clicking on this button all the SS units are forced to disconnect from the BS. Download CSV button. When clicking on this button a text file in Comma-Separated Values (CSV) format (a simple text file for a database table) will be downloaded, containing the link state parameters that are shown in the page . is currently using, in Uplink and

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6.12.2 Detailed View Stats


This tab shows a wide amount of more detailed statistics related to the link status ( Figure 6.25).

Figure 6.25 User Stats, Detailed View tag SUMMARY This block indicates the statistical information about the CINR and the RSSI measured for all the active SS units , both in the UL and DL. The table includes the Mean Value, Standard Deviation , Minimum Value and Maximum Value for CINR and RSSI. BS CONFIGURATION This informative block indicates the current BS radio configuration, that has been set in the Radio Parameters section: Transmission Power, Frequency, Target RSSI, Frame duration, etc. USER MODULATION This table summarizes the number of active SS units, that are working on each modulation, both in the UL and in the DL. MAXIMUM PHYSICAL RATES This table informs about the maximum theoretical throughput at the Physical Layer for each modulation. The achievable bit rate for each modulation is different depending on the current radio configuration of the BS: Channel Bandwidth , Frame Duration , Cyclic Prefix, etc. SIGNAL STATS Besides the link state parameters already shown in the Basic View tag (modulation, RSSI, CINR, etc.), this block contains new indicators for UL and DL: the Virtual Noise Floor (VNF) and the System Losses (SL): - VNF: it gives an overview of the unwanted signal level such as noise and interference at the receiver. In the Uplink section the receiver is BS, and in the Downlink section the receiver is the SS.

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It is calculated by subtracting the CINR value from to the received signal level RSSI. - SL: it shows the signal losses from transmitter to receiver radio connectors. It is useful for for link adjustment (see Appendix B)by evaluation the total radio wave propagation losses including the antenna gain.

6.12.3 Data Services


This section is shown when clicking on the SS or Flows fields in the Basic View tag page. It displays the provisioned Service Flows and describes specific information about the current SS. The page is shown in Figure 6.26, and it consists of two blocks: CPE Summary and Flow Management.

Figure 6.26 Data Services

CPE SUMMARY It shows general information about the SS, such as: Basic CID: every user will be assigned a CID identifier by the BS, Alias : the user alias specified in the provisioning database (if any), HW address : it indicates the MAC address of the associated SS, Status : it indicates the status of that user (Active, Connecting , Registering, etc.), Disc on DSA Fail. It shows the status of this option. If it is not active, after a certain number of DSA retries without getting any response from the SS is exceeded, and the SS remains active, but some of the provisioned Service Flows are not added. If the Disc on DSA Fail field is active, the SS will be dropped from the BS instead of being added without Service Flows. Flows : the total amount of provisioned Service Flows. Capabilities. It includes a link to the User Capabilities submenu, which is explained in 6.11.4 section. Disconnect User button: it forces to disconnect the current SS . FLOW MANAGEMENT Displayed in the table rows refer to the Service Flows, that show general information about the provisioning. These parameters are explained below:

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Delete checkbox. It is situated next to the Service Flow and Delete flows button allows to delete selected flows.. Alias: The Service Flow alias specified in the Flow Descriptor (if existing). SFID: it indicates the Service Flow Identifier number. This identifier is assigned by the BS randomly to every Service Flow (SF) when it is created. Operator ID. It shows the Operator Identifier of the service. As opposed to the SFID, which is different every time the SF is created, the Operator Identifier has a fixed value as defined in the BS provisioning system. Type : it indicates the type of the Service Flow (Tx or Rx). QoS Type. It shows some QoS properties of the SF, such as minimum/maximum bit rate as long as the type of QoS (BE, nRTPS, RTPS, UGS ). ARQ enabled: it indicates if the SF supports ARQ. CSL Type : it indicates the current CSL type. CSL Options : it shows information related to the SF priority and the specified classifiers, if any. Delete flows button: it forces to delete the selected SFs.

6.12.4 User Capabilities


This section is shown when clicking on the Capabilities field in the Data Services submenu. It shows different information about the SS and the negotiated capabilities with the BS ( Figure 6.27).

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Figure 6.27 User Capabilities and Info As explained before, during the network entrance procedure and immediately after completion of ranging, the SS informs the BS of it's basic capabilities.

6.13 BW Stats
This section shows information about the real-time traffic statistics: Bytes/sec per SF , total Packets/s, aggregated traffic, frame utilization, etc (Figure 6.28). This is a very important section because it offers useful traffic statistics and allows controlling that the traffic is being transported using the correct Service Flows. The section is divided in four tabs in which basic and detailed information about the cell stats and service stats can be found. These subsections are explained below.

6.13.1 Basic Cell Stats


As shown in Figure 6.28, this tab gives information about the overall throughput in the cell, representing the current usage of the frame. The upper block tells about the Aggregated Throughput, and the two blocks in the bottom show information about the Downlink and the Uplink , respectively. These parameters are shown: Used: throughput that is being currently used in Mbps. It will not be higher than the allocated throughput. Allocated: throughput of the reserved symbols by the BS. This value will vary depending on to the current status of the cell (current modulations), the traffic demands of all SS units, and the provisioned QoS mechanisms for the Data Flows. Free : it indicates the current free throughput in the frame, taking into account the not-used symbols. Total: it is the potential maximum throughput that can be obtained both in the Uplink and in the Downlink with the current modulation schemes of the active SS units. When the frame is empty, the total throughput will be approximately the same than the free throughput. Frame Division: the percentage of duration of DL and UL subframes as configured by the operator in the Bandwidth and Scheduler section. QoS Conflict: it shows if the BS has any problem on provisioning the configured services (for example when the BS has not enough free symbols in the frame to meet the established QoS requirements. Besides the numeric information, the results are also shown graphically using bars and different colors. So the operator can easily visualize what is going on in the cell.

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Figure 6.28 BW Stats menu, Basic Cell Stats tag

6.13.2 Basic Service Stats


This page ( Figure 6.29) shows basic information about all the active Service Flows. In the Tx (DL) Data Service Stats and Rx (UL) Data Service Stats blocks, all the active Downlink and Uplink Service Flows, respectively, are shown. This information is represented in a table where each row refers to a unidirectional single SF, so it is possible to know all the information about how the traffic is being currently served in the cell. This is useful for the operator to check how much throughput is used by every SS, as long as to check if the Classifiers are correctly created and working. The parameters are: User: the MAC address of the associated SS, the alias (if any) and the BSs network interface that this SF is using. Service : it shows information about that single SF for it's identification, such as Service Identifiers (CID, SFID and Operator ID) and Service Provisioned QoS (Type, Minimum rate and Maximum rate). CS Queued: number of packets being queued by the BS in the Convergence Sublayer (CS) when transmitting. Dropping : it indicates if packets are being dropped in the BS when transmitting. The BS begins dropping packets when the queue of that Service Flow is full. Tx Rate : the throughput used by that Service Flow, measured in bps/kbps/Mbps. Usage : percentage of the Service flow throughput capacity provisioned maximum bit rate for that Service Flow. Two more blocks in the page give further information: Summary shows the basic statistics: total amount of Service Flows, throughput in Mbps and packets, both for Downlink and Uplink. Ethernet Stats sums up the current traffic at the Ethernet interface of the BS - the received traffic via wireless interface is transmitted via Ethernet interface and vice versa. that is being used according to the

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Figure 6.29 BW Stats, Basic Service Stats tag

6.13.3 Detailed Cell Stats


As shown in Figure 6.30, this tab gives a very complete description of the allocated throughput scheduled by the BS in the cell. It is structured in four sections where several statistics are shown . This information can also be downloaded in text format by pressing on the Download CSV button.

Figure 6.30 BW Stats, Detailed Cell Stats tag Modulation Stats. This table describes the allocated throughput in the cell regarding the modulations currently used. For UL and DL it informs about the number of SS units working in each modulation, the symbols per frame used by each modulation, and the currently allocated throughput. It shows also the aggregated (UL and DL) rates and the total traffic allocated when considering all the modulations, as well as the achievable throughput (in the case all symbols were scheduled using the best modulation in terms of bytes per symbol). Finally the Modulation Efficiency is also calculated, which gives an overview of the modulation efficiency of the cell

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taking into account the allocated throughput versus the achievable throughput. NOTE Despite no SS units are connected to the BS, a small permanent BPSK1/2 traffic may be shown in the Downlink when the MAC is started. This traffic corresponds to broadcast messages sent by the BS to inform about the frame configuration (DL-MAP, UL-MAP, DCD, UCD, and FCH, among others). The standard IEEE 802.16-2009 sets that these broadcast messages must be transmitted in the worst possible modulation. Throughput Stats This table summarizes for the UL and DL the allocated throughput, the used throughput and the efficiency, as well as the aggregated statistics. Frame Stats This block gives an overview of the status of the frame. It shows information like the Frame Division , the BW Request and Initial Ranging opportunities, the DL Burst, Preambles and the UL Gaps. Symbol per Frame Stats In this table some parameters regarding the symbols per frame for DL, UL and Aggregated are showed: percentage of usage, free, allocated and total amount of symbols, and QoS conflict. Allocated symbols are split between Data Symbols and Overhead (percentage of symbols filled with frame signalling information versus symbols filled with data).

6.13.4 Detailed Service Stats


This section gives detailed information and statistics about the Service Flows (Figure 6.31). It follows the same structure that the Basic Stat view but some more parameters are shown. In the Tx (DL) Data Service Stats, Rx (UL) Data Service Stats and Secondary Management Channel Stats, all the active Tx, Rx and SMC Service Flows are shown, where some new statistics appear.

Figure 6.31 BW Stats, Detailed Service Stats tag

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Queued: it indicates the status of the transmission queues in the Convergence Sublayer (CS), expressed in packets and bytes. CS Tx : it indicates the overall and current traffic at the CS , expressed in packets (overall) and packets/ second (current). It informs also about the maximum length of the queue, the length of the queued data, the maximum memory of the queue and the memory used. CS Dropped: it indicates the overall and current dropped traffic in the CS , expressed in packets (overall) and packets/second (current). PHY Tx/Received: it indicates the overall and current traffic at the Physical Layer, expressed in megabits (overall) and megabits/second (current). In the right side of the page additional information related to the SF is shown. In UL Aggregated current statistics are shown in bytes and packets, such as the total amount of received packets or the discarded and dropped packets. In DL Aggregated the transmitted data and transmitted padded in bytes and packets are displayed. Finally CS Memory Status and Mng CS Memory Status blocks show information about the WiMAX Convergence Sublayer and the Management Convergence Sublayer, respectively, with the following information: Maximum Available Memory, Currently Used Memory and Memory Queue Limit.

6.14 User Net Status


This page displays the current network configuration of all the virtual wireless interfaces (wethx), that are currently active in the BS. The information ware displayed in up to four different tables, one for each network operation mode: Routed, Bridged, Bridged VLAN and Local Network . In addition, a summary is shown in the right side of the page (Figure 6.32).

Figure 6.32 User Net Status NOTE When DHCP is being used, useful information is displayed in the DHCP State column. If the state is Bound , a [+] tooltip appears, showing these parameters: DHCP Server IP address, Total Lease Time and Remaining Lease Time.

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6.15 Spectrum
This section includes a very useful feature for field operation: the Spectrum Analyzer (SA). This tool scans the radio spectrum all along available frequency band and measures the RSSI levels of the incoming signals. It allows to detect other equipment working in the same frequency band. The recommended procedure is to always run the Spectrum Analyzer before choosing the operating frequency of the unit, as it gives a good idea about how the spectrum is being used in that location, showing the signal-free channels.

Figure 6.33 Spectrum analyzer First step is to select the measurement steps for the SA: 1MHz, 2.5MHz, 5MHz, and 10MHz. A smaller step involves a more complete and accurate radio analysis, but it will take more time to finish, because it has to perform more measurements. On the other hand, the 10MHz step gives a less precise information, but analysis is faster. Note When selecting the measurement step take into account, that measuring one channel takes about 2.5 seconds. Once the operator selects the step and after pressing on the Add button all the channels appear in the page screen automatically, as shown in Figure 6.33. For selecting a different channel step, just click on the Clear Freqs button to purge the current analysis results, and select the new step. The Spectrum Analysis table includes one row for each frequency to be measured, and shows the measurement Age (seconds since it was performed), the RSSI (in dBm), and a Level bar which is a graphical representation of the measured RSSI for each frequency. Once the frequencies have been added, the analysis starts after pressing on the Start SA button. An animated icon displays the Scanning status,

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and the obtained values are filling in the table. Note After finishing the scan of the last added frequency, the analyzer keeps on scanning starting again from the first frequency. It must be stopped manually by the user, pressing the Stop SA button.
Attention! While the SA is working, the BS stops the WiMAX transmissions, so all active SS units in the cell are dropped until the SA is stopped. Once the SA is stopped by the operator, the WiMAX MAC remains stopped too, so it is necessary to restart it manually , for example using the Start button in the System Connection section.

Attention! Remember that once the SA starts measuring, it will not stop until the Stop SA button is pressed. When the access to the web interface is being performed via a WiMAX link, using this tool may leave the unit unreachable, because when it scans the WiMAX MAC is stopped and the SA must be stopped manually. NOTE The measurements provided by the Spectrum Analyzer remain in memory as long as the unit is powered on. If the unit is rebooted, the data will be lost and a new Analysis may be required.

6.16 User Summary


This section allows to obtain the overall status of every SS, that is connected to the cell, displaying a lot of related information: radio levels, currently served traffic, service flow information, etc. It is intended to be a very useful section for CPE installers, as long as they can have all the related information of a CPE that they are installing. The first screen of this section is shown in Figure 6.34.

Figure 6.34 User Summary First step is to select the SS, that is going to be looked up. It is possible to select one from the Active users list, or to fill in the MAC address manually in the Search User field. When pressing on the View button, all the information related to that SS appears, divided in two tabs: Summary and Detail.

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6.16.1 Summary tab


This tab is shown in Figure 6.35 and displays two main information groups: Radio Levels : it shows basic current radio information, both in the Uplink and in the Downlink : RSSI, CINR, Modulation and Transmission Power. Traffic Summary: it shows aggregated throughput information, both in the Uplink and in the Downlink : overall and instantaneous bit rate.

Figure 6.35 User Summary. Summary Tab

6.16.2 Detail User Summary


This tab is shown in Figure 6.36 and displays many information groups: UL/DL Services : it shows information related to the active Service Flows, such as their alias, QoS, classifiers, ARQ,etc., as long as their throughput information. Network information: basic networking information such as the network mode (Bridging , Routing , DHCP state, active Net Hook . Radio Levels : current radio information, both in the Uplink and in the Downlink : RSSI, CINR, Modulation , Transmission Power and Approximate Distance. Status & Information: SS uptime, Authentication enabled, Secondary Management Connection enabled. Disconnect CPE button: this button disconnects this SS (CPE) from the cell. UL/DL RSSI and CINR graphics : these graphics show different measures of CINR and RSSI, so it is possible to watch the maximum achievable values while performing the SS antenna alignment. Each graphic is prepared to show up to 14 measured values, and the Measure Age depends on the refresh time of this tab (selectable by the Refresh Timeout bar). All the groups may be minimized or maximized using the [-] an [+] icons.

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Figure 6.36 User Summary. Detail tab

6.17 Provisioning System

6.17.1 Theory of Operation


Fixed WiMAX IEEE 802.16-2009 networks can provide differentiated service levels of Broadband

Wireless Access (BWA) for Small and Home Office users( SOHO), Small and Medium Enterprises (SME), Residential users. One of the main advantages of a fixed WiMAX network in comparison with other BWA networks is support Quality of Service (QoS) capability with required throughput, maximum latency (network delay) and tolerated jitter (delay variation) for data, voice, video traffic streams, traffic for particular network devices, computers, ports, group of users and applications.

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The Fixed BWA for various types of users, especially corporate LAN users in opposite to a mobile BWA is characterized by a significant traffic consumption and high requirements to a data transfer rate and link quality. The WiMA network is able to provide the required parameters of the wireless communication for different categories of users, devices and applications, that are critical to the link parameters (VoIP telephony, corporate applications, multimedia services, etc.) especially with the limited network capacity or high number of users. For the service differentiation and support a quality service capability a WiMAX system has a special software mechanism, that is similar to the ATM technology, that is called the Convergent Sublayer (CS). WiMAX CS is a program interface between a data link and a network link layer according Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Basic Reference Model. The CS filters and selects in a network traffic required data streams (Service Flows), that are marked by the special identifiers (Classifiers), and provides for each of them required QoS link parameters at MAC data link network level. A Service Flow is a key MAC level concept of the WiMAX technology. The SF describes the specific unidirectional Downlink and Uplink traffic with the QoS attributes, that set the required parameters for the data rate, delay, jitter. The QoS description is included such parameters (attributes): Minimum Reserved Traffic Rate (MRTR); Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate (MSTR); maximum Latency, which determines the allowable delay wireless link; Tolerated Jitter (delay variation), etc. All traffic in the WiMAX network must be classified by the Classifiers and divided into the Service Flows ( Figure 6.37).

Figure 6.37 Traffic classification in WiMAX network The Service Flow differentiates a traffic by using following Classifiers: source and destination MAC

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addresses of the Ethernet data packets; Type of Ethernet packets; VLANs identifiers according standard IEEE 802.11Q-1998; Type of service (TOS ) in IP network;source and destination IP addresses of IP packet data; type of protocol, source port and destination of data (TCP, UDP, FTP, mail, HTTP, etc.). Available traffic Classifiers depend on used Convergence Sublayer type. The Classifiers, that are used in variousConvergence Sublayer types according IEEE 802.16 - 2009 standard are shown in Table 6.1. Table 6.1 Convergence sublayers classifiers.

The QoS can be defined as a set of mechanisms that can guarantee the transmission of a certain amount of data in a minimum specified time, or that can control the resource allocation between nodes in order to perform a communication. A device that implements mechanisms for QoS should perform at least two differentiated processes: traffic classification and resource allocation. This is shown schematically in Figure 6.38. In the first phase packets are classified into different data flows using the available criteria: DSCP/ TOS, VLAN tags, IP or MAC addresses, source or destination port, etc. Once these flows are created and data is classified, the device routes the packets in a deterministic way, sending first the higher priority ones. In conclusion, this structure of differentiated data flows allows implementing QoS mechanisms that can guarantee some minimum parameters.

Figure 6.38 QoS mechanism block diagram The MAXBridge system implements QoS mechanisms and supports four different types of service: Best

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Effort (BE), Real Time Polling Service (rtPS), Non-Real Time Polling Service (nrtPS) and Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS). Extended Real Time Polling Service (ERTPS) will be MAXBridge BS, CPE software releases. The QoS types and parameters for fixed BWA according IEEE 802.16- 2009 standard are shown in Table 6.2. Table 6.2 WiMAX QoS types
Service Abbrev Definition Real-time data streams comprising fixed-size Unsolicited Grant Service UGS data packets with Constant Bit Rate (CBR) and tolerated jitter. Real-time data streams comprising variablesized data packets with guarantied data rate Real-time Polling Service rtPS CIR and maximum data rate limitation MIR, maximum latency and traffic prioritization. Jitter level is not guaranteed. Delay-tolerant data streams comprising Non-real-time Polling Service nrtPS variable-sized data is not guaranteed. Data streams for which no minimum service Best Effort BE level is required and therefore may be handled on a space-available basis HTTP packets for which minimum data rate is required. Latency level FTP with guaranteed minimum throughput MPEG Video, VoIP T1/E1, transport, VoIP Applications

implemented in next

The class UGS defines the QoS parameters that provide a Constant Bit Rate (CBR) - MRTR, that in the UGS is equal to MSTR with minimum possible packet delay (latency) and jitter (variation in packet delay). The class rtPS defines the QoS parameters - MRTR, MSTR and delay (latency) and traffic priority. The Latency defines maximum data packets Base Stations processing time. The link packets delay value depends on latency. Besides latency packet delay also depends on used frame size (length). The class nrtPS defines the QoS parameters - MRTR, MSTR and traffic priority. The class BE can define MSTR and traffic priority or be defined without requirements. During service planing for every SS Uplink SF and Downlink SF with appropriate Classifiers must be assigned (at least one SF for the Downlink and another one for the Uplink ). For one SS can be assigned maximum 16 SFs. Required service level with QoS parameters (at least BE as default service without any requirements) must be specified for every SF (Figure 6.39). This service description procedure is called Provisioning .

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Figure 6.39 WiMAX Service Flows Provisioning should fully describe all traffic passing through the SS, all prioritization and processing rules. NOTE In this document and in the unit interface, the terms "Data service", "Data Flow, Service Flow and Flow are used as synonyms. In the MAXBridge system all SS units and their associated Data Services must be previously defined according to Provisioning System, so that when a new SS tries to get into the network, the BS decides

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whether to allow the new SS get into the cell or not. The BS must also know which Data services the new SS is permitted to have. The mechanisms that control, over the air, the SS entry and the allocation of new Data services are fully described in the IEEE 802.16-2009 standards. BS and SS exchange messages to allow the SS to enter the network and, afterwards, to allocate Data services. These procedures are covered by standard IEEE 802.16-2009, and are implemented by both BS and SS equipment. MAXBridge BS 33 has internal local provisioning system to provide the SS network entry information and this system architecture is shown in Figure 6.40.

Figure 6.40 Provisioning System architecture scheme Using this local Provisioning system, the BS equipment holds a database in which all the allowed SS units and their Data Services are stored. When a new SS has to be provisioned in the cell, the operator accesses the Provisioning System using the BS's web interface. In order to open the local provisioning web interface, log into the BS web and then click on the Local AA (Authentication and Authorization) button on the left menu. Figure 6.41 shows the Local Provisioning main page.

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Figure 6.41 Local Authentication and Authorization This interface allows the operator to provision SS or to delete existing ones, and to manage Data Services of provisioned SS units. This system also informs the operator about which provisioned SS units are currently active in the cell. In addition, the system provides the ability to provision groups of SS units , sharing the same configuration amongst them. A group of SS units is defined by a base MAC address and a mask, proving that if a SS MAC address bitwise AND-ed with the mask is equal to the base address, the SS belongs to that group. Attention! This web page is the front end to the Provisioning System. This implies that if the SS is active and it is de-provisioned, it is not disconnected and only removed from the database. If the SS is dropped using the tools available in the system, for example, in the User Stat menu, then it is not be able to get into the cell again as it has been de-provisioned. This also applies to service provisioning. When the SS that is already active in the cell and it is provisioned with a new service, or a current service is changed, the changes will take effect the next time the SS connects to the BS. Note The title of the Provisioned Users, Provisioned Groups, AA Local Database and AA Database Backup blocks is preceded by a - or + symbol which may be used to contract or expand the contained elements.

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6.17.2 User and Group Provisioning


As explained before, the local provisioning system allows the operator to add, remove, and modify user/SS or groups of users/SS units in the BS database. Only allowed or provisioned SS units in the local database may connect to the cell. The SS can be directly provisioned as a standalone SS or can be included into a user/SS group. The web tool to manage user/SS database is accessed via the Local AA menu. The main view shows the current status of the database and a summary of the SS units that are connected, connecting or disconnecting. In Figure 6.41 the provisioning database has defined SS units different alias SME, SOHO 2",and a group with the alias EVERYBODY". As shown in Figure 6.41, the Local AA menu presents different blocks in which the following information can be found: PROVISIONED USERS SS Address : it indicates the MAC address of the associated SS . It includes a link to the SS/User Description submenu. Alias : is shows (if specified) a user-friendly text string that the operator may provide when allocating new users/SS. This alias is used in many dialogues in the web and management system to make it easy to manage. Status : it indicates the current status of that user/SS (Active/ Disconnected ). Access : this tool allows the operator setting the access of a user/SS by pressing the Set button. Sometimes the operator may want to temporarily forbid entering the WiMAX cell to a provisioned user/SS or group, without deleting it from the database. There are 3 possibilities for the access: Allow means that the user/SS is allowed to enter the cell; by selecting Reject, the user/SS or group are not be allowed to enter the cell and the BS will drop it, and Deny refers that the user/SS is not allowed, but if the device is rebooted, it will switched to allowed automatically. Clicking on Allow button again, the access to the WiMAX cell will be restored, and the BS will not drop it any more. Actions : is contains two buttons, Copy is used for creating a copy of the user/SS, so that it is not necessary to specified every parameters of the new user/SS in case they are the same. Provisioned items may be easily removed from the local database; the Delete button removes the user/SS or group for the database. PROVISIONED GROUPS This menu allows also provisioning a group of users/SS units identified by a Group address and a Mask, (in the example, 00:00:00:00:00:00 and 00:00:00:00:00:00, which means that every SS belongs to this group). If there were another group identified, for instance, by a base address 00:50:C2:BE:90:00 and mask FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:00 , it would mean that every SS with a MAC address between 00:50:C2:BE:90:00 and 00:50:C2:BE:90:FF belongs to this group so it will be provisioned with the provisioning conditions specified in the group. The Alias, Access and Actions parameters are the same that are explained for single SS. with the

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NOTE When denying or rejecting a SS, it will be automatically dropped by the BS, but in case of Groups of users/SS, it is necessary to disconnect the group to apply the changes. NOTE In the case that a SS MAC address is provisioned as a single user/SS and also belongs to a provisioning group, the former specification has a higher priority. AA LOCAL DATABASE The local databases implementation is an XML file in this version of the system: To download the image of the current database press on Download Current button and the web browser downloads the XML file, named _config_AA.xml. This file can be viewed or edited using a plain-text editor such as WordPad or vim. The Browse and Upload New File buttons allows uploading the database back to a working BS, from a previous backup or copied from another BS. This is an easy method to clone provisioning between different BS. The current local provisioning database may also be removed by pressing Clear Current. AA DATABASE BACKUP The current state of the Local Provisioning System is always saved in an XML file, as explained before. When the Local AA section changes, the BS modifies automatically this file. Thus, this XML is modified with every modification in the provisioning system. Due to this, there is another possibility to save the current state of the AA: making a System Backup . When performing this action (pressing on the Backup Now button), the current state of the system is saved in the .BKP text file. If an involuntary change is applied to the provisioning system, the XML file will change too, but not the Backup file. This means that it is possible to have a Backup copy of a previous state of the system. In addition, the last backup can also be downloaded to the computer by pressing on Download Backup button, and uploaded back again like explained in the Local AA Database section. Note To upload a Backup XML file to the unit using the Upload New File, remember to change the extension from .BKP to .XML.

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6.17.2.1 Adding new user


To add a new SS/user to the local data base, just click the Add SS button in the provisioning main view. The dialog in Figure 6.42 is shown.

Figure 6.42 Adding new SS This dialog allows the operator to add a new user/SS to the database. The parameters are structured in the following blocks: USER CONFIGURATION HW Address (mandatory): it refers to the MAC address of the new SS. This is the unique required field in this dialog. User alias (optional): it indicates a user defined text string that is used as an alias to the HW address. This is an optional field.

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Max/Min DL Modulation (optional) When these limits are set to other than the default values, the SS is bound to use those modulations as most/ least robust ones in the Downlink direction of the link. These are optional fields. Max/Min UL Modulation (optional) When these limits are set to other than the default ones, the SS is bound to use those modulations as most/ least robust ones in the uplink direction of the link. These are optional fields. Disc on DSA Fail (recommended) When this field is activated, if the maximum number of opportunities to create a Service Flow (DSA retries) is exceeded, the SS is dropped from the BS instead of being added without Service Flows. After being dropped the SS tries to start again the registering process. Authentication: RSA authentication is performed if it supported by the SS. There are advanced options when selected explained below. Managed (SMC): Secondary Management Connection is negotiated if supported by a SS. The configuration parameters are described below. AUTHENTICATION -Allow self signed certificate: if enable, the SS does not need to be certified by the chain of truth of the BS. This option is by default disabled for more security. SMC CONFIGURATION SMC net type: there are two possible modes: -Unified: both data and management traffic share the same wethX virtual interface, but use different Service Flows. Traffic addressed to the user HW address uses the additional Secondary Management Connection different from the provisioned data flows. - Out of band: an independent methX interface is created for management traffic. Traffic addressed to the SS HW address uses the Secondary Management Connection and device, whereas any other traffic uses the data services. Traffic priority: it indicates priority of the management traffic, from 0 to 7. Max/Min Sustained Traffic Rate: allows setting the maximum and minimum management traffic rate in kbps. ARQ Enabled: this checkbox allows enabling the ARQ. If active, some parameters regarding the ARQ can be set. They are explained bellow in section 6.16.3.1. Once all the data is filled, clicking on the Save button the new SS will be added to the database.

6.17.2.2 Adding a new group of users


When referring to a group, the only difference is that it is necessary to provide SS base and mask MAC addresses instead of a unique SS MAC address. To add a new group of users/SS units to the local data base, click on the Add Group button in the provisioning main view. The dialog in Figure 6.43 is shown.

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Figure 6.43 Adding new group Note In the Cell Setup section, the Check Hardware Address field allows to enable/disable this in the

authentication control in the Initial Ranging . When this field is disabled, all SS units provisioned, so communication with SS is not possible.

operating range of the BS are accepted and able to enter the cell, but no SS Service Flows are There is another possibility to allow to every SS units entering the cell, assigning Service Flows to them. This can be performed using the Add EVERYBODY button which creates a new group with the less restrictive MAC Address condition: -Group Address: 00:00:00:00:00:00 - Group Mask: 00:00:00:00:00:00 With this configuration ( default ), all SS units in the operating range of the BS are accepted and able to connect to the cell. In addition, if Service Flows are provisioned to this group, all SS units are provisioned with those SS Service Flows.

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6.17.2.3 Editing user / group


When two or more users/SS or groups are going to be provisioned in the same way, the provisioning system provides a tool to make copies of a previously provisioned user/SS or group. In the Local_AA section, every row representing a user/SS or group includes a button labeled Copy (Figure 6.41). It allows the operator to set the new HW address and to change any other parameter. Once the Copy button is clicked on the new SS is added to the database. Note that least the base and mask MAC addresses should be modified. Note If the user/SS or group has been provisioned with data services or if it has defined a specific network configuration, these parameters are also copied to the new user/SS or group. Provisioned items may also be modified. In the main provisioning dialog ( Figure 6.41), the different users/ SS and groups are listed as rows of the provisioning table. Every SS MAC Address field links to the Edit Dialog dialogue, as shown in Figure 6.44 Service Flows and network configuration are also copied. This process can be performed similarly for groups of users/SS; where at

Figure 6.44 User modification If any of the parameters of the user/SS or group needs to be changed, modify the correspondent field and then click on the Update button. This dialog also allows adding new provisioned Service Flows. Attention! Remember that any change made with an active SS is only stored in the database and is not applied to the active SS . If the SS is active, the Reconnect button is shown. Clicking on this button forces the active SS to drop from the cell and to reconnect. In this new reconnection all the modified

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parameters are taken into account by the system.

6.17.3 Service Flow provisioning


Once the SS units have been defined and provisioned, the next step should be to create the appropriate Service Flows for each SS. These SF are also provisioned in the BS, using the Local AA section. When a provisioned SS enters the cell, the BS queries the Local Provisioning System about services provisioned for it. If the local database has service descriptors for the SS, those are allocated using WiMAX mechanisms on the air. The Local Provisioning System and it's front-end allows the operator to add, remove and modify SFs for a provisioned user/SS or group. To get to the main provisioning dialog, proceed following : 1. Get into the provisioning main dialog by browsing BS web and then click on the Local AA button on the main menu. 2. Select the user/SS or group that needs to be provisioned with services and click on the link included in the MAC address. The provisioning page, unique for each user/SS or group, is shown in Figure . Information referring to the Service Flows is displayed in the provisioned Service Flows DL Services Description, UL Services Description table. A brief description of the existing Service Flows is displayed as a row inside this table. NOTE There are some important points about services that must be noted: Services are unidirectional: As the IEEE 802.16-2009 states, data flows are unidirectional. That means that a Service Flow can only transport data either in the Downlink or in the Uplink , but not both at the same time. Direction of a service: In the Provisioning System, the service direction is noted as Tx or Rx. This means Tx or Rx as seen from the BS. Thus a Tx provisioned service transports data in the Downlink , and an Rx provisioned service transports data in the Uplink. For any bidirectional communication, two Service Flows are needed. QoS of a service: QoS is independent by service. Each Service Flow has it's own QoS parameters, so the UL and DL Service Flows do not have to be necessarily provisioned in the same way.

6.17.3.1 Service Setup


Add new Service Flows To add new Service Flows get into the Service Provisioning main page and click on the link inside the MAC address of the current SS. Then press the Add Service button link to show the Service Setup dialog, as shown in Figure 6.45.

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Figure 6.45 Service Stup This dialogue page allows the operator to change the QoS parameters such as the guaranteed traffic rates or the peak traffic rates of the new provisioned Service Flow. Once all the parameters have been correctly set, the pressing on Update button adds the new service to the local database. This section is divided into few main blocks: Service Setup , QoS Parameters, ARQ Parameters and CS Descriptor. They are explained in the following. SERVICE SETUP Alias : it gives an alias to the current SF (optional). Direction: selectable between Tx and Rx, it indicates the direction of the SF (mandatory). CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check): MAC PDUs may include an optional CRC fragment at the end. This checkbox activates/deactivates this feature. Fragmentation: fragmentation is the process by which a MAC SDU is divided into one or more MAC PDUs. This process can be necessary in order to accomplish QoS requirements of a connections Service Flow. The authority to fragment traffic on a connection is defined when the connection is created by the MAC SAP. Fragmentation may be initiated by a BS for Downlink connections and by an SS for Uplink connections. This checkbox activates/deactivates this feature. For non-ARQ connections, fragments are transmitted once and in sequence. The sequence number assigned to each fragment allows the receiver to recreate the original payload and to detect the loss of any intermediate packets. For ARQenabled connections, fragments are formed for each transmission by concatenating sets of ARQ blocks with adjacent sequence numbers. Piggyback Bandwidth Request: Requests refer to the mechanism that SS units use to indicate to the BS that they need Uplink bandwidth allocation. A Request may come as a stand-alone bandwidth request header or it may come as a Piggyback Request. Certain services need to request bandwidth before transmitting data. There are two mechanisms to request bandwidth: either an absolute request (standalone) or a Piggyback request. The capability of Piggyback Request is optional. This checkbox

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activates/deactivates this feature. Broadcast Bandwidth Request: this field allows to use of the broadcast channel to send bandwidth requests for the current SF. Multicast Bandwidth Request: when SS units are divided into groups, this field activates multicast bandwidth requests, that is be only available for SS units belonging to that group. This procedure allows segmenting the bandwidth opportunities. SDU size : the value of this parameter specifies the length of the SDU for a fixed-length SDU Service Flow. This parameter is used only if packing is enabled and the Service Flow is indicated as carrying fixed-length SDUs. The default value is 49 bytes. Long FSN size : Fragment Sequence Number (FSN ) refers to the sequence number of the current SDU fragment. This field is increased by one with each fragment, including unfragmented SDUs. The standard defines that this size could be 3-bits or 11-bits. This checkbox activates/deactivates the 11-bits size. CSL Type (Convergence Sublayer): as the standard IEEE 802.16-2009 states, each allocated service must have an instance of a Convergence Sublayer (CS or CSL). This is related to the type of traffic that a service can handle. All the available CSL types are those that can transport packetized traffic and are included into a higher level CS called Packet CS . The main difference between selecting one CSL or another is the variety of available classifiers. For example, the CS ETHERNET CSL type is only able to make filtering up to OSI-models Layer-2 . Once the SF has been created, this option is the only one that may not be modified. QoS PARAMETERS - QoS Scheduling Type The value of this parameter specifies the scheduling service that is enabled for the associated Service Flow. Scheduling services represent the data handling mechanisms supported by the MAC scheduler for data transport on a connection. Each connection is associated with a single Data Service (SF), and each Data Service is associated with a set of QoS parameters that quantify aspects of its behaviour. For services are supported: Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS), Real-time Polling Service (rtPS), Nonrealtime Polling Service (nrtPS), and Best Effort (BE). The following paragraphs provide a brief description of each of the supported scheduling services. Note Extended Realtime Polling Service (ErtPS) will be supported in next s/w releases The QoS concept is described in 6.16.1.The following section provides a more detail QoS description: BE. This service is designed to support data streams for which no minimum service level is required and therefore may be handled on a space-available basis. Best effort delivery describes a network service in which the flow does not provide any guarantees that data is delivered. nrtPS. It is designed to support delay-tolerant data streams (non real time) consisting of variable-sized data packets for which a minimum data rate is required, such as high bandwidth FTP. The nrtPS offers unicast polls on a regular basis, which assures that the Service Flow receives request opportunities even during network congestion. rtPS. It is designed to support real-time data streams consisting of variable-sized data packets that are issued at periodic intervals, such as Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) video. The service offers realtime, periodic, unicast request opportunities, which meet the flows realtime needs and allow the SS to specify the size of the desired grant. This service requires more request overhead than UGS , but supports variable grant sizes for optimum data transport efficiency. ertPS. It is a scheduling mechanism that builds on the efficiency of both UGS and rtPS . The ertPS is designed for real-time traffic with variable data rate (such as VOIP service with silence suppression) over the WiMAX network.

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UGS. It is designed to support real-time data streams consisting of fixed-size data packets issued at periodic intervals, such as T1/E1 or VoIP without silence suppression. The service offers fixed-size grants on a real-time periodic basis, which eliminate the overhead and latency of SS requests and assure that grants are available to meet the flows real-time needs.
- QoS

Priority This parameter, also known as Traffic Priority in the standard IEEE 802.16-2009, specifies the priority assigned to a Service Flow. Given two Service Flows with identical QoS parameters, the higher priority Service Flow should be given lower delay and higher buffering preference. For otherwise non identical Service Flows, the priority parameter should not take precedence over any conflicting Service Flow QoS parameter. Selectable from 0 to 7, higher numbers indicate higher priority. - Maximum Rate This parameter, related with the Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate parameter in the standard IEEE 802.162009, defines the peak information rate of the service. The rate is expressed in kilobits per second and pertains to the SDUs at the input to the system. Explicitly, this parameter does not include MAC overhead such as MAC headers or CRCs. This parameter does not limit the instantaneous rate of the service since this is governed by the physical attributes of the ingress port. This field specifies only a bound, not a guarantee that the rate is available. - Minimum Rate This parameter, related with the Minimum Reserved Traffic Rate parameter in the standard IEEE 802.162009, specifies the minimum rate reserved for this Service Flow. The rate is expressed in kilobits per second and specifies the minimum amount of data to be transported on behalf of the Service Flow when averaged over time. The specified rate shall only be maintained when sufficient data is available for scheduling. When insufficient data exists, the requirement imposed by this parameter shall be satisfied by assuring that the available data is transmitted as soon as possible. The BS shall be able to satisfy bandwidth requests for a service flow up to its Minimum Rate. If less bandwidth than its Minimum Rate is requested for a Service Flow, the BS may reallocate the excess reserved bandwidth for other purposes. The aggregate Minimum Rate of all Service Flows can exceed the amount of available bandwidth. If this parameter is omitted, then it defaults to a value of 0 bits per second (no bandwidth is reserved for the flow). - Maximum Burst This parameter, also known as Maximum Traffic Burst in the standard IEEE 802.16-2009, defines the maximum burst size that shall be accommodated for the service, expressed in bytes. Since the physical speed of ingress/egress ports, the air interface, and the backhaul will, in general, be greater than the maximum sustained traffic rate parameter for a service, this parameter describes the maximum continuous burst the system should accommodate for the service, assuming the service is not currently using any of its available resources. - Maximum Jitter This parameter, also known as Tolerated Jitter in the standard IEEE 802.16-2009, defines the maximum delay variation for the connection. It is expressed in milliseconds. - Maximum Latency This parameter, also known as Maximum Latency in the standard, specifies the maximum latency between the reception of a packet by the BS or SS on its network interface and the forwarding of the packet to its RF Interface. If defined, this parameter represents a service commitment (or admission criteria) at the BS or SS and shall be guaranteed by the BS or SS. A BS or SS does not have to meet this service commitment for service flows that exceed their minimum reserved rate. It is expressed in milliseconds. - Grant Interval The BS gives a SS the bandwidth requested at least every Grant Interval time. - Polling Interval

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It sets the maximum interval the BS will wait before making a Poling request, asking that user for bandwidth requests. ARQ PARAMETERS ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) is a communication protocol in which the receiving device detects errors and requests retransmissions. When the receiver detects an error in a packet, it automatically requests the transmitter to resend the packet. This process is repeated until the packet is error free or the error continues beyond a predetermined number of transmissions. ARQ may be used in WiMAX communications to guarantee data integrity. ARQ is enabled on a per-connection basis. The per-connection ARQ is specified and negotiated during connection creation. Similar to other properties of the MAC protocol, the scope of a specific instance of ARQ is limited to one unidirectional connection. A distinct unit of data is carried on an ARQ-enabled connection. Such a unit is assigned a sequence number, and is managed as a distinct entity by the ARQ state machines. Block size and other related parameters are negotiated during connection establishment. This section allows enabling the ARQ mechanism for the current SF as long as to modify some related parameters. However, UNIDATA recommends using the default parameters, which will be automatically calculated to be the more efficient ones for the current SF. The parameters are explained in the following points: - ARQ Enabled checkbox: it indicates whether or not ARQ use is requested for the current Service Flow. - Window Size : it is the maximum number of unacknowledged ARQ blocks at any given time. An ARQ block is unacknowledged if it has been transmitted but no acknowledgment has been received. - Block Life Time : it is the maximum time interval an ARQ block shall be managed by the transmitter ARQ state machine, once initial transmission of the block has occurred. If transmission (or subsequent retransmission) of the block is not acknowledged by the receiver before the time limit is reached, the block is discarded. - Retry Timeout: it is the minimum time interval a transmitter shall wait before retransmission of an unacknowledged block for retransmission. The interval begins when the ARQ block was last transmitted. - Sync Loss Timeout: it is the maximum time interval ARQ_TX_WINDOW_START or ARQ_RX_WINDOW_START parameters shall be allowed to remain at the same value before declaring a loss of synchronization of the sender and receiver state machines when data transfer is known to be active. The ARQ receiver and transmitter state machines manage independent timers. Each has its own criteria for determining when data transfer is active. - Purge Timeout: it indicates the time interval the receiver shall wait after successful reception of a block that does not result in advancement of ARQ_RX_WINDOW_START value, before advancing to a new ARQ_RX_WINDOW_START. - Block Size : it indicates the length used for partitioning an SDU into a sequence of ARQ blocks prior to transmission. Note ARQ is referred to unidirectional Service Flows, what means that it may be applied only in one direction (Uplink or Downlink). Deleting an existing Service Flow Data flows may also be deleted or de-provisioned. To do this just get into the User Description menu page, choose the required SF and click on Delete button.

6.17.3.2 Classifier desctiption


Once the Service Flow has been created, in the Flow Description dialog page this new section appears in the down side of the screen (squared in yellow in Figure 6.46). From this section, the flow classifiers can be added and modified.

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Figure 6.46 Convergent Sublayer Descriptor Classifiers The WiMAX systems allow the data to be filtered by certain criteria and mapped to specific Service Flows, so that QoS might be different depending on the traffic types. This is done by the Classifiers mechanism, that is associated to the Convergence Sublayers of the Service Flow. Once a new service has been provisioned, classifiers can be added to the Service Flow so that only the desired traffic is transported through it. To do this, get into the CS Descriptio section and click on the Add New Classifier button. In Figure 6.47 and Figure 6.48 different Classifier Description dialogues are shown . Note The available Classifiers are different depending on the selected Convergence Sublayer, so only some matching criteria can be selected according to the selected CSL type. For example, IPv4overEthernet CSL type offers much more possibilities than CS Ethernet CSL Type. CS

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Figure 6.47 Classifier Description over a CS Ethernet CSL type

Figure 6.48 Classifier Description over a CS IPv4overVLAN type The classification rules are various: Destination/Source IP address, Destination/Source MAC Address, Destination/Source Port range, TOS field , VLAN User priority, etc, giving the operator a great filtering flexibility. They are all described in Table 6.3 below.

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Table 6.3. MAXBridge system Classifiers


IP TOS/DSCP The IPv4 frame header includes an 8-bit Type of Service field that specifies the parameters for the requested service to perform Layer-3 QoS. The bits are structured as follows: Bits 7-5: Precedence, Bit 4: Delay, Bit 3: Throughput, Bit 2: Reliability, Bits 1-0: not-used. Later the TOS was redefined to the DSCP value ( Differentiated Services Code Point, as in RFC2474 and RFC2475). Routers that support DiffServ use this DSCP value to select per-hop behaviour and provide the appropriate Layer-3 QoS service to traffic. The bits are structured as follows: Bits 7-2: DiffServ Codepoint (DC), Bits: 1-0: ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification). DC field in DSCP is backwards compatible with TOS precedence field. When converting between TOS precedence and DSCP, match the three most significant bits. For instance: TOS Precedence 5 (101) maps to DSCP DC 101 000. This classifier filters by the 8-bit Type field on the Layer-3 protocol frame header, both for TOS and DSCP. This classifier filters by the 8-bit Type field on the Layer-3 protocol frame header, both for TOS and DSCP. Selection: a filtering range can be selected defining the lower and the higher margins (TOS-Low and TOS-High ), expressed in decimal notation. A TOS Mask should be defined, also in decimal notation, to select the bits that are going to be filtered. TOS Low/High values and TOS Mask will be combined with an AND logical operation, resulting the TOS final filtering value, whereas: TOSmin d TOSpckt & TOSmask d TOSmax. Note: operator should understand properly the TOS/DSCP fields and its bit distribution in order to use this classifier properly IPv4 IPv4overVLAN

IP Source Address

IP Destination Address

It filters by the Source address field on the Layer-3 protocol frame header. IPv4 Selection: The filtering IP address range is defined with a IPv4overVLAN Base Address and a Mask Address, performing a logical AND operation, whereas: Filter_IP = IPbase_address & IP mask For example when filtering by a unique IP address, the mask should be 255.255.255.255. In addition, the address format should be specified (IPv4 or IPv6). IPv4 It filters by the Destination address field on the Layer-3 IPv4overVLAN protocol frame header. Selection: similar as explained before in the IP Source

Address Classifier.
Layer-4 Protocol It filters by the type of transport protocol that is being used, as specified in the 8-bit Protocol field on the Layer-3 frame header. The IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) is a regulatory entity that has defined the Internet Protocol Numbers. Thus, every Layer-4 protocol is defined with a numerical value: ICMP = 1, IGMP = 2, TCP = 6, UDP=17, etc. Selection: the protocol number should be specified, expressed in decimal notation. It filters by the Source Port field as specified in the Layer-4 protocol frame header. Selection: a filtering range can be selected defining the lower and the higher margins in decimal notation. To filter a unique IPv4 IPv4overVLAN

Source Port Range

IPv4 IPv4overVLAN

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port, both low and high values should be the same. It filters by the Destination Port field as specified in the Layer-4 protocol frame header. Selection: a filtering range can be selected defining the lower and the higher margins in decimal notation. It filters by the Layer-3 protocol specified in the Ethernet frame header. Filtering can me made using the Ethertype or the DSAP/SSAP fields: Ethertype refers to the 2-byte Type field of the Ethernet frame header as defined by the Ethernet II framing networking standard. It is used to indicate which upperlayer protocol is encapsulated in the frame data. Each upper-layer protocol is identified by a 2-byte code (i.e.: IPv4 = 0x0800, ARP = 0x0806, 802.1q = 0x8100, IPv6 = 0x86DD, etc). In the original IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard, the frame header includes a part belonging to the IEEE 802.2 standard (LLC). Amongst them, there are the one-byte DSAP and SSAP fields. DSAP (Destination Service Access Point) indicates the service to which the LLC data unit is being sent, and SSAP (Source Service Access Point) indicates the service from which the LLC data unit is sent. Selection: first choose between Ethertype or DSAP/SSAP options, and then specify the adequate protocol number, expressed in hexadecimal notation . It filters by the Source Address field in the Ethernet IEEE 802.3 frame header. Selection: The filtering MAC address range will be defined with a Base Address and a Mask Address, performing an AND logical operation, whereas: Filter_MAC = MACbase_address & MACmask It filters by the Destination address field in the Ethernet IEEE 802.3 frame header. Selection: similar as explained before in the Ethernet Source Address classifier. Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) is a technique which allows the logical segmentation of different LANs into multiple virtual LANs, or the creation of a unique logical LAN from physically segmented LANS. The protocol used in configuring VLANs is IEEE 802.1q. Every packet belonging to a VLAN should be identified in some way (tagged). The IEEE 802.1q protocol specifies that when using VLANs, a tag should be added to the Ethernet frame header of every packet, including a three-bit User Priority field and a twelvebit VLAN Identifier-VID. This classifier filters according to the three-bit User Priority field in the VLAN tag of every packet. Selection: a filtering range can be selected defining the lower and the higher margins, expressed in decimal notation. This classifier filters according to the twelve-bit VLAN identifier field in the VLAN tag of every packet. Selection: the desired VLAN_ID value should be specified in decimal notation.

Layer 3 Protocol

All

Ethernet Source Address

All

Ethernet Destination Address VLAN User Priority

All

VLAN IPv4overVLAN

802.1q VLAN ID

VLAN IPv4overVLAN

Classifier Description
There are also two additional important fields that are explained: Priority When the SS is connected to the BS, all the different Classifiers for the current network interface are

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stored in the CSL in some kind of list. When the BS wants to send a packet, it sequentially checks all the current Classifiers in that list, and the data is assigned to the first matching Classifiers Service Flow. With the Priority parameter, it is possible to increase the priority of a Classifier, so it gets higher in this Classifiers list. In conclusion, the BS first checks the filtering rules of the higher priority Classifiers. Action This field allows creating Discarding flows. The default value of this field is Accept, so the packets compliant with the filtering rules are transmitted over the suitable Service Flow. On the other hand, selecting Discard , all the packets compliant with the filtering rules will be discarded and dropped, so they will not be transmitted to the air. There is also the possibility to select different filtering conditions following AND or OR rules. This can be explained with an example: if a unique Classifier is created with both Destination IP Address and a TOS field rules, the BS understands this as an AND condition: only the packets with that destination IP Address AND with the specified TOS values are compliant with this Classifier. On the other hand, if two different Classifiers are created, one with the Destination IP Address rule and another one with the TOS field rule, the BS performs an OR condition: both the packets with that destination IP Address OR with the specified TOS values are compliant with this Classifier.

6.17.4 Network provisioning


Network provisioning is a powerful functionality which allows to completely managing the networking configuration of all the active SS units. In other wireless systems (such as Wi-Fi), the Master node has a unique wireless interface to communicate with all the registered clients. Every networking configuration related to this interface, such as the operation mode or the IP routes, are applied to all the managed hosts. This means that if the Master nodes wireless interface is operating in bridging mode, all the clients should operate in bridging mode (as they will be connected to this shared bridged- and-unique wireless interface). In the MAXBridge BS, by contrast, there are different and independent virtual wireless interfaces for each SS. When some SS is registered in the cell, the BS will automatically create a virtual wireless interface (called wethX) to communicate with that SS. This means that the BS has the possibility of configuring independently the networking mode of each SS. It would be possible to use the three different networking modes simultaneously (Routing , Bridging and Local Network ) for different SS units, that connected simultaneously to the BS. When the SS has been provisioned with at least one Service Flow, the Network Configuration block appears in the User/Group Description sub-menu. This block is highlighted in blue in Figure 6.49. When pressing the Configure button, the SS Network Configuration dialogue menu is opened. As explained before, unit supports three main operation modes at network layer. These models are briefly described below.

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Figure 6.49 Network Configuration provisioning block Bridging Mode The BS incorporates the possibility of performing transparent Bridging at Layer-2. In this mode, the wethx wireless interface is transparently bridged to the defined logic bridge. All the traffic flow at Layer-2 between all the interfaces belonging to that bridge. If a wired/VLAN interface is also added to that bridge, the SS has transparent access to the network. It is a plug&play networking mode which does not need additional routing configuration, so it is probably the easiest networking mode available. The creation and configuration of a bridge in the BS is performed in the Bridging Setup section, as explained below in paragraph 6.19. After creating a bridge, the operator may select in the network provisioning the adequate bridge to which the SS will be associated. A schematic view of the Bridging architecture is shown in Figure 6.50, in order to illustrate a possible scenario that could use this mode. In this case, and being compliant with the Bridging concept, two networks with the same network mask are connected by means of two WiMAX units. Both networks will work in the domain 192.168.2.0/24. The Bridges advantage is its simplicity an its Plug-and-Play feature, since once it is created and configured it will not be necessary to configure anything more, and the wireless link will be a transparent bridge which will communicate both sub-networks in a fully transparent way. It will not be necessary to add manually any route to the WiMAX units and neither to any other network equipment in the network.

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Figure 6.50 Example of architecture with Bridging mode This operation mode is selected in the CPE Network Configuration page, selecting Bridged as the desired networking mode. If this mode is selected, the Bridge Mode Configuration block is displayed, as shown in Figure 6.51. As explained before, Bridging mode is extremely easy to configure. The only thing the operator should fix is the bridge to which the SS should connect. If there is only one unique bridge, the SS will be associated to it automatically. After configuring this, press on the Update button and the changes will be automatically saved in the Local AA database.

Figure 6.51 CPE Network Configuration. Bridging mode NOTE The Bridging mode is the Default provisioned networking mode, so if the network configuration of a SS is not manually configured, the BS tries to operate in Bridging mode with the first created bridge. Bridged VLAN Mode In Bridged VLAN mode the wethx interface is allowed to have up to four different VLAN devices, each one defined by a VLAN tag . Like Bridged mode, all the traffic of this VLAN device flows at layer 2

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between all the interfaces in the logic bridge defined and provisioned next to the VLAN tag ( Figure 6.52).

Figure 6.52 CPE Network Configuration. Bridged VLAN Routing Mode The Routing mode is defined as the classic working mode where units have some routing tables defined, and they redirect packets through one interface or another following these previously established rules. These tables must be filled in by the network administrator, and it is very important to configure them correctly in order to make the system work properly. In this networking mode, the wethx wireless interface associated to a certain SS is configured as a standard and static routed interface. An IP must be provided (or DHCP selected) to that interface and all the needed static routes may be added in the Provisioning System.

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Figure 6.53 Example of architecture with Routing mode In order to show a possible scenario that uses this mode, a schematic is shown in Figure 6.53, where two differential sub-networks in different locations can be observed. A WiMAX link will be used to connect the network 192.168.2.0/24 with the network 192.168.3.0/24, using two units. The graph also shows an example of the routing tables that could be defined on each unit in order to allow the communication between units from different networks in a natural way. Obviously, it will be also necessary to make a suitable configuration of the routing tables in each sub-networks equipment, in order to allow them to route traffic towards other network, because in this case it's gateway would be the unit that belongs to its own network.

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Figure 6.54 CPE Network Configuration. Routing mode This operation mode is selected in the CPE Network Configuration screen, selecting Routed as the desired Networking mode. If this mode is selected, the Router Mode Configuration block is displayed, as shown in Figure 6.54. The fields that should be configured are described below: IP version: IP version 4 may only be selectable, although IPv6 will be available for future use in later releases. Static IP: it refers to the public IP that is assigned to this wethx interface, when it is created. This IP address should be set either manually (static IP) or automatically, selecting the DHCP checkbox. In this case, a Fallback IP address should be specified, as long as the interface that will be used for the DHCPrequests. Netmask : this field must be filled with the net-mask of the current sub-network, using the CIDR notation (Classless Inter-Domain Routing ). Broadcast: this field should be filled with the broadcast IP address. If no address is specified, the following default address will be selected: 255.255.255.255. When operating in DHCP mode, this field is not available. After filling in this networking information and pressing on the Update button, changes will be saved and the Routes block will appear below, where the IP routes may be configured manually. The Net-Hook is explained in the following. Local Network Mode

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In this mode the SS is connected to a local network at the BS, and it has data access via NAT to a data interface. This data interface should be selected and a data IP should be provided (or DHCP selected). In addition, this mode allows defining an additional management interface, thus providing a pair of interfaces to access the SS: one for data and another one for management. This operation mode is selected in the CPE Network Configuration section, selecting Local Network as the desired Networking mode. If this mode is selected, the Local Network Mode Configuration block is displayed, as shown in Figure 6.55.

Figure 6.55 CPE Network Configuration. Local Network mode Note The Management Configuration block appears only once the Local Network mode is selected, after pressing on the Update button. This operation mode allows to give virtual IP addresses to SS units with even the same IP address (using the Net Hook functionality, which will be explained later) with the peculiarity that these virtual IP addresses do not have to belong to the BSs subnetwork (what is possible with the Local Network Mode configuration). The fields that should be configured are explained below: Data interface: it refers to the data interface. If DHCP is used, this device will be used for the DHCP requests. Data Static IP: it refers to the public IP address that is assigned to this wethx interface, when it is

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created. This IP address should be set either manually (static IP) or automatically, selecting the DHCP checkbox. In this case, a Fallback IP address should be specified. Private/Local Address : in this field, the private virtual address that is given to the SS can be set. There is also the possibility to fix it in automatic mode (selecting the Auto checkbox), and the BS assigns randomly and IP address inside the current subnet. Local Network bridge : this field allows to set the identifier of the bridge that is used to perform the Local Network operation. To understand better this concept, a sample scenario will be considered, with a BS in the 192.168.70.1 IP address and four SSs belonging to the 192.168.90.0/24 IP subnet, as shown in Figure 6.56

Figure 6.56 Example of architecture with Double NAT mode To use this functionality in this scenario, two conditions must be fulfilled: a) SS units should have a real IP address which belongs to the desired operation sub-network (in this sample scenario, 192.168.90.0/24). Two different scenarios are supported: all SS units could have different real IP addresses, or they could have the same real IP address (i.e. the vendor default IP, which could be 192.168.90 .253 , for instance) using the Net Hook functionality, which will give every SS a different virtual IP address belonging to the original subnet (the Net-Hook is explained later). Once every SS has a different IP address belonging to the private subnet (192.168.90.0/24 in this sample) the BS is able to translate this addresses into public IP addresses belonging to the public subnet (192.168.70.0/24 subnet in this sample). The SS units communicate with the BS or access the Internet using this public IP addresses.

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b) SSs should have correctly configured it's Gateway. In this sample scenario, their gateway would be the BSs IP in the 192.168.90.0/24 sub-network, which in the sample will be 192.168.90.1. To be able to use the Double-NAT functionality, it will be necessary to create a specific bridge in the BS. This is performed easily in Bridging Setup menu. In the sample scenario the new bridge could be defined as lan90 , for example, and the given IP would be the gateway for the SS units in that sub-network: 192.168.90.1. If the SS units already have different real IP addresses, the Net-Hook functionality will not be necessary, only the Local Network Mode fields should be filled in. In the current sample, where all SS units have the same real IP (192.168.90.253 ), the Net-Hook will perform the translation between real and virtual IP addresses. The fields should be filled on this way: Data Static IP: 192.168.70.x, Private/Local Address: 192.168.90.x, Local Network Bridge: 90, And referring to the Net-Hook: Hook Type: IPv4, Hidden IP: it indicates the real IP of that SS (i.e. 192.168.90.253 in the current sample), Private/Local Address: it indicates the virtual private IP address of that SS (i.e. 192.168.90.2, 192.168.90.3, or 192.168.90.4 in the sample). If the Local Mode Network configuration is being used, this field is automatically filled in to keep the system coherence. In conclusion, this section configures the Double-NAT procedure which allows translating IP addresses from one sub-net to another, and vice versa (in this sample, 192.168.70.0/24 and 192.168.90.0/24 subnets). For example, the SS that is identified with the 192.168.90.4 private IP address on the private sub-net goes to Internet using the 192.168.70.4 as specified in the field Data Static IP. Note that all these IP address translations is performed in the BS. The SS units are not aware that the translation is being performed, as it is a transparent procedure. MANAGEMENT DOUBLE IP ADDRESS Once the Local Network mode is activated and configured, a new block called Management Configuration appears in the bottom of the page, as shown in Figure 6.57. This section allows setting an additional IP address for the SS units which can be used for management operations. This IP address may be used as the source or destination address of IP datagrams, resulting that the configuration web interface of that SS could be accessible via this additional management IP address, for example. The Management Configuration block allows setting this management additional IP address. For activating this functionality, just select the checkbox in the top of the table, and the IP address fields will be selectable. The management IP address may be set either manually (static IP) or automatically, selecting the DHCP checkbox. In this case, a Fallback IP address should be specified, as long as the interface that will be used for the DHCP requests.

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Figure 6.57 Management additional IP address Net-Hook Stateless NAT The Net-Hook functionality can be configured for Routing or Local Network operating modes, and is used for giving a virtual IP address to a specific SS. Two important conditions must be filled: 1) The new Public IP address must belong to the same subnet of the real IP Address (Hidden IP). 2) SSs should have correctly configured it's Gateway. The fields that should be filled are explained below: - Hook Type : IPv4 or IPv6 (IPv6 is not available yet ). - Hidden IP: it indicates the real IP of that SS. - Private/Local Address : it indicates the virtual IP of that SS. If the Local Mode Network

configuration is being used, this field is automatically filled in to keep the system coherence. Attention! Remember that the Net-Hook is only translate IP addresses belonging to the same subnetwork. NOTE The Net Hook functionality is only supported for single SS , although next firmware release will include it also for groups.

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6.18 Certification Authority


This feature allows configuring the authentication subsystem by means of Certification Authority (CA) certificates. As explained in Cell Setup menu, when the Authorization required field is enabled in the BS, the SS Authorization and Key Exchang e isperformed, using X.509 digital certificates . This means that during the cell entry process, the SS needs to be certified by the chain of truth of the BS. This is the first step for a SS to access the network: if authorization is required but not supported by the SS, it will be directly disconnected; otherwise, the entry process will continue and the BS will decide whether allowing the SS into the cell or not, according to the provisioned SS units in the Local AA Database (as explained in Section 6.16). The X.509 digital certificate is a public-key certificate that binds the SSs identifying information to its RSA public key in a verifiable manner. It is digitally signed by the SSs manufacturer, and that signature can be verified by a BS that knows the manufacturers public key. The manufacturers public key is placed in an X.509 certification authority (CA) certificate, which in turn is signed by a higher-level CA. By default, unit is loaded trusted certificate UNIDATA System Root CA ( Figure 6.58). The operator can also load his own certificate by the Upload CA certificate tool where the authorized SS units are specified, as a first control to the cell entry.

Figure 6.58 CA Certificates

6.19 Network Setup


This section allows visualizing and configuring all the network interfaces of the unit, both physical and wireless, as well as the current configured IP routes or the gateways IP address.

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6.19.1 Interfaces setup


This page allows configuring unit's interfaces ( Figure 6.59).

Figure 6.59 Network Setup, Interfaces tab It contains different sections: CHANGE IP ADDRESS In this block it is possible to change the IP addresses to all the current active wired interfaces (ethx, lanx and VLAN devices). There are two operation modes available: a) Static mode : the IP address should be introduced manually by the operator in the appropriate field (with a 0.0.0.0/X notation), and the address of the default gateway may also be set. b) DHCP mode : in this mode the unit l automatically asks for an IP address using the DHCP protocol. In this mode, the operator may also define a Fallback IP, which will be assigned to that interface if the DHCP negotiation has not been successful. The changes will take effect after pressing the Set button. The system will check that the address and the mask have valid values, and it will show a warning message before changing the IP. PHYSICAL INTERFACES In this table it is possible to look up the available physical network interfaces, together with its IP address and other information. In the Mode field the operation mode of the Ethernet interface can be configured: the negotiation (auto-detecting or forced), the speed (10/100 Mbps), and the transmission mode (full/half duplex). BRIDGES In this block the active Bridges (lanx interfaces) are listed, if any, with some related information. VLANs In this block the active VLANs are listed, if any, with some related information. WIRELESS INTERFACES This table shows a list with the active wireless network interfaces, in the same way as the Physical Interfaces. These interfaces is automatically created and assigned to every SS by the BS.

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6.19.2 Routes setup


In this tab, the configured unicast routes are listed. The operator add and delete routes easily. To add new one, just fill in the suitable fields (destination , via , and interface). In order to make the creation of routes easier, the system shows which interfaces are available. In addition, the Default checkbox allows defining the default Gateway, and the Local checkbox routes that traffic locally. This tab is shown in Figure 6.60.

Figure 6.60 Network Setup, Routes tab

6.19.3 Name Resolution


If the BS has access to the Internet, in this field the default DNS (Domain Name System) server can be defined. Just introduce the IP address of the server in the field and press on the Set DNS button to activate this option. To de-activate, press the Reset DNS button. This tab is shown in Figure 6.61.

Figure 6.61 Network Setup. Name Resolution

6.20 Bridging Setup


This section is useful when Bridging mode is going to be used. From this, different bridges may be created or deleted. The unit allows creating multiple bridges simultaneously, what means that a pair of units could interconnect different pairs of sub-networks sharing the same wireless channel, or that a BS with multiple SS inits could put them into different groups using different Bridges, for instance. Figure 6.62 shows an example, where three bridges are defined.

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Figure 6.62 Bridging Setup Creating a Bridge. It is a simple process: just go to the Add new bridge section, give an x number to the bridge and click on the Add Bridge icon. Once performed, a lanx named bridge is automatically created and shown in the Defined bridges section. An IP address may be assigned to the new lanx interface just by going to Network Setup menu and assigning an IP to the lanx interface. Adding interfaces to a Bridge. To add the BSs wired interface eth0 in the bridge, just by going to the Bridging Setup menu, selecting the eth0 interface and clicking on the Add port icon. If the Clone IP from device checkbox is selected, the current IP address of the eth0 interface will be automatically copied to the lan0 interface. Regarding the wireless interfaces, the BS automatically creates a wethx interface for every SS connected to the cell that has been configured in the Local_AA for belonging to the Bridge. The Bridge ports section also allows to delete manually an interface from a Bridge, clicking on the appropriate Delete icon. Deleting a Bridge. Once a lanx has been created, it can be easily deleted in the Defined bridges section, just pressing the appropriate Delete icon. If the eth0 is added to the bridge, deleting the bridge would also delete the IP of the unit, making it unreachable. To avoid this, it is possible to clone the IP of the bridge to the physical interface, keeping the IP address of the unit. NOTE Remember that after creating Bridges, every SS should be associated to the correct bridge in the Network Provisioning section in the Local AA. SPANNING TREE PROTOCOL (STP) STP is a Layer 2 protocol, typically based in the IEEE 802.1D standard, that runs on bridges and switches,

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and whose main purpose is to prevent loops when having redundant paths in the network. STP is a technology that allows bridges to communicate with each other to discover physical loops in the network. The protocol specifies an algorithm that bridges can use to create a loop-free logical topology. As the name suggests, STP creates a tree structure of loop-free leaves and branches that spans the entire Layer 2 network; it disables those links that are not part of the spanning tree, leaving a single active path between any two network nodes. STP operation is transparent to end-stations. Where two bridges are used to interconnect the same two computer network segments, Spanning Tree is a protocol that allows bridges to exchange information, so that only one of them will handle a given message that is being sent between two computers within the network. Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) are used by bridges where STP is enabled, to exchange information regarding their status. The Hello Time is the time between each BPDU that is sent on a port. This time is equal to 2 seconds (sec) by default, but it may be tuned to be between 1 and 60 sec. STP is an available functionality when using Bridging in the unit, so every Bridge is able to communicate with other bridges/switches in the network where STP is running. It is possible to activate STP (or not) for each existing Bridge using the STP Configuration section. The procedure is simple: select the Bridge name, select to enable or disable STP, and set the Hello Time parameter. Then just press on the Configure button.

6.21 VLAN Setup


VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) - a virtual LAN, commonly known as a VLAN, is a group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the same broadcast domain, regardless of their physical location. A VLAN has the same attributes as a physical LAN, but it allows for end stations to be grouped together even if they are not located on the same network switch. It is possible to have multiple subnets on one VLAN or have one subnet spread across multiple VLANs. Network reconfiguration can be done through software instead of physically relocating devices. Usage of VLAN give the following advantages: limiting broadcast domain, easy creating of functional workgroups, increased security, scalability and network management. The MAXBridge BS is able to tag and un-tag packets as specified in the IEEE 802.1Q protocol. The 802.1Q protocol does not actually encapsulate the original frame. Instead, for Ethernet II frames, it adds a 32-bit field between the source MAC address and the EtherType/Length fields of the original frame. Two bytes are used for the Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID), the other two bytes for Tag Control Information (TCI). The TCI field is further divided into PCP, CFI, and VID ( Figure 6.63).

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Figure 6.63 IEEE 802.1Q tagged frame Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID): a 16-bit field set to a value of 0x8100 in order to identify the frame as an IEEE 802.1Q-tagged frame. This field is located at the same position as the EtherType/Size field in untagged frames, and is thus used to distinguish the frame from untagged frames. Priority Code Point (PCP): a 3-bit field which refers to the IEEE 802.1p priority. It indicates the frame priority level. Values are from 0 (best effort) to 7 (highest); 1 represents the lowest priority. These values can be used to prioritize different classes of traffic (voice, video, data, etc). Canonical Format Indicator (CFI): a 1-bit field. If the value of this field is 1, the MAC address is in noncanonical format. If the value is 0, the MAC address is in canonical format. It is always set to zero for Ethernet switches. CFI is used for compatibility between Ethernet and Token Ring networks. If a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not be bridged to an untagged port. VLAN Identifier (VID): a 12-bit field specifying the VLAN to which the frame belongs. A value of 0 means that the frame does not belong to any VLAN; in this case the 802.1Q tag specifies only a priority and is referred to as a priority tag. The hexadecimal value of 0xFFF is reserved. All other values may be used as VLAN identifiers, allowing up to 4094 VLANs. On bridges, VLAN 1 is often reserved for management. MAXBridge BS unit may be used to create and manage VLANs, operating either as a switching node or as a VLAN end-point. It supports up to 10 levels of Q-in-Q encapsulation, which allows adding an additional tag to a previously tagged packet. This mechanisms increases VLAN scalability, improves security via robust isolation of customer traffic, and ensures backward compatibility preserving existing customers VLAN structures. VLANs may be defined in the VLAN Setup section, as shown in Figure 6.64. The page is divided into two blocks: in the left side, the current VLANs are listed, and in the right side the new VLANs may be created. To perform this operation, the operator should select the base interface, fill in the desired VLAN Identifier, and press on the Add VLAN button. After this, a new row will appear in the Current VLANs block showing the related information. To assign an IP address to this new interface, go to the Change IP Address block inside the Network Setup menu. The new VLAN will be now a completely manageable interface, so it can be assigned an IP address, used to manage the SSs, etc. As it has been explained before, thanks to the Q-in-Q encapsulation a new VLAN can be defined over an

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existing VLAN. To perform this, just select an existing VLAN as the Base device of the new VLAN.

Figure 6.64 VLAN Setup In Appendix A complete procedures of various VLAN models configuring and appropriate network

and service provisioning setup are described.

6.22 Network Tools


Web interface includes some simple diagnostic tools to check networks connectivity, as shown in Figure 6.65 and as explained below: Ping Test whether a particular host is reachable across an IP network by sending ICMP echo request packets. The operator must fill in the destination IP address (To(IP) field), and may also fill in the number of ping requests (Count field, default is 4), and the number of data bytes to be sent with every packet ( Packet size field, default is 56 bytes which translates into 64 ICMP data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes if ICMP header). Once these fields have been filled in, after pressing the Ping button and the results will be displayed when the ping has finished. Arping Similar to ping, but it operates using ARP instead of ICMP. Thus, arping is only usable for hosts inside the current LAN. For using this command the operator must fill in the destination IP address (To (IP) field) and the number of arping requests (Count field, default is 4). Then, select the interface from where the packets will be transmitted, and press the Arping button. Traceroute This network tool is used to determine the route taken by packets across an IP network. For using this command the operator must fill the destination IP address (To (IP) field) and then press on the Traceroute button. Once the required fields are filled in and the correspondent button is clicked, the results of the used command will be shown in the screen when finished.

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Figure 6.65 Network Tools menu

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7 Command Line Interface


All the operations that can be performed by the Web interface are also available in the CLI interface. The CLI could be less intuitive and graphical, but it offers the same functionalities as when accessing via HTTP, and it is an alternative when an internet browser is not available. It also may be used for interoperating with any other software or for building specific program scripts.

7.1 Accessing the CLI Interface


In order to use this interface, it is necessary to establish a SSH (Secure Shell) connection towards the IP address of the unit. The encryption used by SSH provides confidentiality and data integrity as it uses publickey cryptography to authenticate the remote computer. As the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is the same as in HTTPS , the CLI interface will be as secure as the HTTPS Web Interface. Once the SSH command is launched using: ssh BS_IP_Address the system will ask for login and password, that are the same as used for in the Web Interface. This procedure can be seen in Figure 7.1. Once authentication has been correctly performed, the prompt [MAXBridge] will be shown, ready to process all the available commands.

Figure 7.1 Accessing the CLI The CLI includes a complete Help system that describes all the available commands in each section. This Help system is easily accessed typing one of these commands: help (Figure 7.2).

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Figure 7.2 CLI help command

7.2 Menu description


The CLI has a folder scheme (Figure 7.3). The movement across the different folders is the typical in this kind of systems. Thus to descend to a submenu_x, it must be typed: cd submenu_x and to return to the original folder, it must be typed: cd .. There are five main menus/folders inside the application. The main menu is the User menu. From this menu it is possible to perform all the actions related to the users ( operators') global management as well as some administrative actions in the system. By typing help , all the operations that can be performed inside this menu will be seen. Besides this menu, there are four other specific menus in the equipment. Typing p or ls inside the User menu, these four folders will be listed, as shown in Figure 7.3. These menus are: system, management, network, global..

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Figure 7.3 CLI folder scheme SYSTEM This menu provides information about the system and allows the user to manage the Configuration Files. The folder is reached from the User Menu typing: [MAXBridge]> cd sys [MAXBridge/sys]> From this folder, many operations can be performed: to save or load configuration files, show the SW version, execute a system reboot, set the system local time, etc by typing: [MAXBridge/sys]>help The SYS menu operations are shown in Figure 7.4, describing all these all these options more in detail.

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Figure 7.4 CLI SYS operations MANAGEMENT This menu allows to configure all the aspects related to the Management of the unit. The folder is reached from the User Menu by typing: [MAXBridge/sys]>cd mng
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[MAXBridge/mng]> From this folder, many operations can be performed: to enable or disable SNMP, activate the different XML-RPC modes, create specific management interfaces, change from a HTTPS server to a HTTP one, etc. by typing: [MAXBridge/mng]>help The MNG menu operations are shown in Figure 7.5, describing all these options more in detail.

Figure 7.5 CLI Management operations NETWORK This section allows the user (operator) to configure the management features of the unit. The folder is reached from the User Menu by typing: [MAXBridge]> cd net [MAXBridge/network]> From this folder, many operations can be performed: to set the IP routes, define a DNS server, operate with bridges, view the static multicast routes. etc., by typing: [MAXBridge/network]>help The NET menu operations are shown in ( Figure 7.6), describing all these options more in detail.

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Figure 7.6 CLI NET operations

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GLOBAL This menu is the more complete of the CLI. It allows to perform many different operations related to the physical and radio configuration of the unit as well as to the users and data services management. The folder may be reached from the User Menu by typing: [MAXBridge]> cd mac [MAXBridge/mac1[BS]]> From this folder, many operations can be performed: to change the MAC status (stopped/started/paused), disconnect SS units, show information about the physical level, change radio parameters, etc. by typing: [MAXBridge/mac1[BS]]>help The MAC menu operations are shown Figure 7.7, describing all these options more in detail .

Figure 7.7 CLI MAC operations In the Figure 7.8 MAC information mac1[BS]]> p is shown.

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Figure 7.8

CLI MAC parameters

It also shows ( Figure 7.8) that from the Global menu different sub-menus may be accessed. First of all, there is the parameters men, which allows modifying all the physical parameters: transmission power, maximum user distance, channel bandwidth, etc. The help command describes all these options more in detail ( Figure 7.9), and the p command displays the radio configuration ( Figure 7.10).

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Figure 7.9 CLI MAC parameters operations

Figure 7.10 CLI Radio configuration Besides, one User_x sub-menu is created for every connected to BS active SS. In the example, that is shown in Figure 7.11, with one active user (SS), user1 sub-menu have been created. User's (SS unit's ) numbers are randomly selected by the BS. From this user sub-menu , many operations referring to that user (SS) can be performed: to show link stats, create and delete Service Flows, etc. The help command

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describes all the available options more in detail ( Figure 7.11), and the p command displays the Service Flow configuration ( Figure 7.12).

Figure 7.11 User_x sub-menu

Figure 7.12 CLI User_x Service Flow configuration

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8 Appendix A
Definitions BRIDGE (network bridge) - a network bridge, also known as a layer 2 switch, is a hardware device used to create a connection between two separate computer networks or to divide one network into two. Both networks usually use the same protocol; Ethernet is an example of a protocol. Network devices include, but are not limited to, Personal Computers (PCs), printers, routers, switches and hubs. Devices connected to a network via an Ethernet adapter card have what is known as a Media Access Control (MAC) address, also called a physical or hardware address. It is this address that uniquely identifies a device to a bridge that can then determine to which network the device is connected. In the BS bridge is virtual interface, which is used to interconnect two or more networks. BRIDGE PORT - a network interface, member of bridge, in the BS: Ethernet interface of the BS or virtual 802.1Q interfaces of Ethernet BS or virtual interfaces mapped to SS or 802.1Q sub-interfaces of virtual interfaces mapped to SS. TRUNK PORT (trunk) - a point-to-point link between switch and other network device. Can be used to transmit multiple (or all) VLANs in one link. ACCESS PORT (access) - a point-to-point link between switch and other network device. Can be used to transmit one or listed VLANs and filter others. NATIVE PORT (PVID) - a point-to-point link between switch and other network device, where switch does two jobs - strip selected VLAN ID and egress filtering all others. Ingress traffic on this port automatically marked with the same VLAN ID. MANAGEMENT VLAN ID (MVID) - a 802.1Q tag, which marks management traffic. NATIVE MANAGEMENT (UNTAGGED MANAGEMENT) - a network managed using untagged traffic. DATA VLAN ID (DATAVLAN) - a 802.1Q tag, which used to mark user traffic (not management traffic).

8.1 VLAN models


There are three most common cases of usage: 1.Transparent VLAN - transparent tagged 802.1Q and untagged , QoS based on VLAN ID not available, MTU limitation is 1500 bytes ( Figure 1).

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Figure 1 Transparent VLAN

MAXBridge 50 system Transparent VLAN model implementation


Native Management The SMC for all SS must be off. A Router or Switch , to which Ethernet of the BS is connected must have Management VLAN as Native and transparently pass all others VLAN ID. Management VLAN The SMC for all SS must be off. A Router or Switch, to which Ethernet of the BS is connected pass only tagged traffic. BS is controlled via lan0.MVID, on which management IP address is set. The SS units are managed via routed network, with default gateway is IP address of lan0 . Unmanaged Just like Native, but BS and SS units setup done using PC, directly connected to the Ethernet of the BS. After setup is done, BS Ethernet must be connected to designated port of Switch or Router. This is used only if Switch or Router cannot have trunk + Native on same port. 2. BS Port VLAN ID (PVID) - tagging/untagging on the BS. The SS pass untagged traffic, the BS insert tag and passed packets to Ethernet of the BS. End-to-End QoS based on VLAN ID no available, but prioritization based on IP TOS/DiffServ or other IP header fields and Ethernet header fields is possible between BS and SS (Figure 2).

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Figure 2 BS Port VLAN ID MAXBridge 50 system PVID model implementation


Management VLAN: SMC for all SS must be on, in Out Of Band mode ( Figure 3).

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Figure 3 Management VLAN A Router or Switch , to which Ethernet of the BS is connected pass only tagged traffic. The BS is controlled via bridge lan0 , on which management IP address is set. Members of bridge lan0: eth0.MVID, meth0 ...methX, so lan0 strip MVID for SMC of the SS, which allow transparent control of both BS and SS. 3. BS VLAN ACCESS - allow filtering based on VLAN ID, End-to-End QoS by VLAN ID, it is required prerequisite for End-to-End QoS is all network devices awareness on 802.1Q based QoS ( Figure 4).

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Figure 4 BS VLAN ACCESS

MAXBridge 50 system BS VLAN ACCESS model implementation


Management VLAN: the same as for BS PVID mode.

8.2 VLAN configurations

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8.2.1 Transparent VLAN with Native Management


1. Example of Transparent VLAN with Native Management scheme is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 Transparent VLAN model with Native Management scheme 2. BS settings Unit factory default settings can provide Transparent VLAN model with Native Management implementation. Operator need only change BS management IP address (Figure 6).

Figure 6 IP adress configuration in Transparent VLAN with Native Management 3. SS settings On the SS you have to setup frequency and channel bandwidth according to BS settings and also set MTU to 1600. Also setup management IP address (192.168.100.1), according to network scheme in Figure.5.

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8.2.2 Transparent VLAN with Management VLAN


1. Example of Transparent VLAN with Management VLAN scheme is shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7 Transparent VLAN with Management VLAN scheme 2. BS settings. Setup IP address on lan0 is the same as IP address setup in Transparent VLAN with Native Management (Figure 6) mode, but without default gateway. After IP address setup lan0.500 must be added (Figure 8, 9).

Figure 8 Add VLAN ID 500 to lan0

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Figure 9 VLAN Setup lan0.500 Setup IP address on lan0.500 and default gateway (Figure 10).

Figure 10 IP address and default gateway setup on lan0.500

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8.2.3 BS PVID with Management VLAN


1.Example of BS PVID with Management VLAN scheme is shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11 BS PVID with Management VLAN 2. BS settings Starting with factory default BS settings Delete lan0 and Clone IP to eth0 (Figure 12).

Figure 12 Delete lan0 and Clone IP to eth0 Add bridge lan0 and lan1 (Figure 13, 14).

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Figure 13 Add bridge lan0

Figure 14 Add bridge lan1 Add VLAN for Management (MVID) (Figure 15).

Figure 15 Add VLAN for Management (MVID) Add VLAN for User Traffic (DATAVLAN) (Figure 16).

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Figure 16 Add VLAN for User Traffic (DATAVLAN) Add MVID into bridge lan0 and DATAVLAN into bridge lan1 (Figure 17, 18).

Figure 17 Add MVID into bridge lan0

Figure 18 Add MVID into bridge lan1 Setup Management IP address and Default Gateway lan0 (Figure 19).

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Figure 19 Setup Management IP address and Default Gateway lan0 As result, PVID with Management VLAN configuration is shown in Figure 20

Figure 20 PVID with Management VLAN configuration After that SS provisioning is configured ( see Section 6.16.2). Turn On SMC, set SMC Type - Out of Band , set MSTR, MRTR, Priority (Figure 21).

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Figure 21 SS provisioning setup Setup Network Configuration ( see Section 6.16.4) (Figure 22).

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Figure 22 Setup Network Configuration Make sure, that SMC OOB Interface is member of lan0 and switch Bridge interface into lan1 , where eth0.10 has been already added (Figure 23).

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Figure 23 SS Network configuration After that click on Back to User, Update and Reconnect (if SS has been connected). Configuration result is shown in Figure 24.

Figure 24 PVID with Management VLAN configuration

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8.2.4 BS VLAN ACCESS with Management VLAN


1. Example of BS VLAN Acccess with Management VLAN scheme is shown in Figure 25.

Figure 25 BS VLAN Acccess with Management VLAN scheme 2. Setup BS procedure is the same as BS PVID with Management VLAN configuration (Figures 12-20). After that, just like was done for eth0.10 and lan1 , add eth0.20 and lan2 , add eth0.20 into lan2 ( Figure 16,18). After that SS provisioning is configured ( see Section 6.16.2). SMC configuration, SMC Type - Out of Band , MSTR, MRTR, Priority settings are the same as in Figure 21, but data Service Flows (Figure 26) must be removed, because CS type must be replaced by CS VLAN with QoS setting. For example, QoS settings for VLAN ID 10 are: MIR 4Mbps, for VLAN ID 20: CIR 512k, MIR 1Mbps, VLAN 20 has more priority, than VLAN 10.

Figure 26 Service Flows removing

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For implementing proposed QoS settings 4 SF: 2 Uplink and 2 Downlink have to be created, one pair will serve for VLAN10 , other - for VLAN20 ( Figure 27).

Figure 27 Add Service Flows Add Uplink SF for VLAN10 , MSTR=4424 (4424 derived from 4096 * 1,08[MAC overhead] and grants 4Mbps at Ethernet level), 8021Q VLAN ID: 10, (Figures 28-31).

Figure 28 CS VLAN Service Flow setup

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Figure 29 CS VLAN Classifier description setup

Figure 30 Rx Service Flow setup, VLAN 10 Just like Uplink, Downlink SF for VLAN10 has been added ( Figure 31).

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Figure 31 Tx Service Flow setup, VLAN 10 Add another pair of SF for VLAN20 : UL: QoS nrtPS, MRTR=553, MSTR=1106, QoS Priority=1, Burst size=1024 , results is shown in Figure 32.

Figure 32 Rx Service Flow setup, VLAN 20

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DL SF for VLAN20: MRTR=553, MSTR=1106, QoS Priority=1 (QoS type for DL makes no sense, only priority), Burst size=1024, results are shown in Figure 33.

Figure 33 Rx Service Flow setup, VLAN 20 Click on Back to User button (Figure 33) and save changes, clicking Update (Figure34).

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Figure 34 Update SF Configuration Click on Configure button (Figure 34 ) and setup Network Configuration page (Figure 35 ).

Figure 35 Setup Network Configuration


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Networking Mode - Bridged VLAN, Out of Band Management configuration - lan0 , click on Update button, one by one activating Bridge VLAN configuration, 1st - lan1 , 2nd - lan2, according to sequence VLAN IDs 10 and 20, later below clicking on Update and finally - click on Back to User button. After that click on Update button ( Figure 35). Finally click on Reconnect button (Figure 36).

Figure 36 Reconnect SS Configuration results are shown in Figure 37 and 38.

Figure 37 Data Service Flow configuration

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Figure 38 Bridging Setup configuration

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9 Appendix B System parameters adjustment


For efficient communication it is necessary to properly configure the MAXBridge system parameters. The MAXBridge BS controls and selects a lot of communication radio and network parameters: transmit and receive power, modulation, frame division, frame duration, channel bandwidth, QoS parameters and others. Most of them should be set in default value. Some of these parameters (max Tx power, frequency, etc.) depends on regulatory organizations, some of them ( bridging, routing, VLAN etc.) depends on used by operator networking model, some of them ( SF, QoS parameters) depends on service level requirements. So these parameters should be adjusted manually by the operator.

Radio signal parameters


Channel frequency It should be set in accordance with frequency license and /or permissions of regulatory organizations. Channel bandwidth (BW) Recommended value: BW= 7 MHz. Using a large bandwidth 7 MHz maximizes the capacity and channel throughput. Narrower channel BW may be chosen as result of RF planning, EMC requirements and others. Also using narrower channel BW increases receiver sensitivity and the link budget. Frame Duration Recommended value is 5 or 10 ms. Short frames reduces the round-trip delay ( RTT ) of the system, and larger ones increase the overall throughput of the system, due to the shorter overhead. Cyclic Prefix Recommended value: CP=1/16. It represents the guard time of data frame in order to be able to receive delayed due to multipath symbols. CP is a useful parameter that controls the immunity against multipath fading: a short CP maximizes the link capacity as it reduces the guard time, and a larger CP increases robustness against multipath radio wave propagation. The CP=1/16 is used in LOS/nearLOS conditions, CP=1/4 - in nearLOS/NLOS conditions. Tx Power Recommended value for the BS 33 Tx power = 20 dBm. The BS Tx power is fixed for communicating with all SS units. A BS and SS utilize ATPC, that regulates SS Tx power to maintain receive RSSI at BS Target RSSI level. The higher Tx power increase UL link budget and increase operating DL modulations and the overall system throughput. At the same time high Tx power may create interference to others wireless systems. In most cases Tx power should be set at maximum possible levels. Target RSSI, Rx Atteniation Recommented values: Target RSSI =-62 dBm, Rx Attenuation = 0 dB. This parameter specifies maximum possible received signal level RSSI at the BS receiver from SS units , that allows to control Tx power of every SS. WiMAX implements Automatic Transmitter Power Control ( ATPC) in Uplink channel, that limits

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maximum signal level in BS receiver by reducing SS Tx power. Target RSSI value is set by changing Rx Attenuation level. In most cases it is not necessary to modify Target RSSI. In some scenarios it may be necessary to adjust this parameter in order to adapt the equipment configuration to the channel conditions. Presence of high level interference may require increasing UL RSSI from all connected SS units to obtain higher UL CINR level and increase SS unit's UL modulations. If some SS operates at reduced by ATPC Tx power level and has low UL CINR and low UL modulation due to interference affect, increasing Target RSSI allows to increase it's Tx power up to maximum level, that may increase also it's UL CINR and UL modulation. If some SS makes interference to other wireless systems, decreasing Target RSSI allows to reduce it's Tx power and decrease interference from it. Note, that changing Target RSSI takes affect to all connected SS .

Link adjustment
Every BS -SS link has few most important signal parameters that are displayed in User Stats, CPE stats menu page: - Uplink RSSI, UL CINR, UL modulation, UL Virtual Noise Flow (VNF); - Downlink RSSI, DL CINR, DL modulation, DL VNF.
An analysis of these radio parameters can help to identify improper antennas alignment, harmful effect of interference, equipment failure and others and make required adjustment to improve link.

Antenna alignment The RSSI level is defined by link budget, that depends on distance between units, antenna gains, unit's Tx power, LOS/nearLOS/NLOS conditions, weather conditions, antenna alignment, etc. Operator is able to choice proper BS, SS (CPE) antenna with appropriate gain, and control BS, SS antenna alignment. The MAXBridge BS sector or omni antenna and external or the integrated antenna must be aligned for maximum BS, SS receiver radio signal RSSI level. Also BS and SS antenna polarization must be the same. During antenna alignment it is necessary to provide absence of direct obstructions in front of the BS and SS antennas. In LOS conditions if BS and SS antennas are aligned properly, than DL path loss ( radio wave propagation losses) should be approximately equal UL path loss. DL path loss is calculated as BS Txpower - DL RSSI, dBm. The UL path loss = SS Tx power- UL RSSI, dBm. The UL and DL path loss is displayed as Signal Losses (SL) on User Stats.Detailed View Stats. Signal Stats page. If UL SL differs from DL SL more then 10 dB, it is indicated about wrong antenna alignment. The expected RSSI level should be calculated before link installation by using simple link budget calculator or by using more complex software, for example, Radiomobile. If measured RSSI value differs from expected RSSI level more than 8-10 dB, it indicates about improper link installation. Note

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The accuracy of RSSI measurement according IEEE 802.16-2009 standard is 4 dB. So difference between DL SL and UL SL values 3-8 dB in LOS conditions should be considered as normal. In nearLOS or NLOS conditions difference between DL SL and UL SL values may achieve 10-15 dB. Adaptive modulation A WiMAX system continuously measures radio parameters Carrier to Interference plus Noise Ratio (CINR ), CNR =C/( N+I ). The carrier C is the desired signal power, and the I interference - co-channel radio signal power from other wireless systems. The N - is thermal noise of receiver. The CINR value gives precision estimation of signal effectiveness in noisy environment. The CINR mean determines the available modulation scheme used for link. The modulation schemes and appropriate required CINR levels MAXBridge 33 system are shown in Table 1 Table 1. MAXBridge BS 33 vs modulation schemes CINR, dBm 21 19 15 11.5 8.5 6.0 3.0 Modulation 64QAM-3/4 64QAM-2/3 16QAM-3/4 16QAM-1/2 QPSK-3/4 QPSK-1/2 BPSK-1/2 Max Receiver Sensitivity of BS 33 at BW 7 MHz, dBm -74.0 -75.0 -80.0 -83.5 -86.5 -90.0 -92.0 Receiver Thermal Noise N in BW 7 MHz, dBm -93.5 -93.5 -93.5 -93.5 -93.5 -93.5 -93.5

So, a WiMAX system is able to support link at certain modulation scheme ( is able to decode certain modulation rate with BER 10E-6 ) if CINR threshold value in Table 1. The modulation may be set by operator manually in accordance with available relevant CINR + fade margin value. Recommended fade margin value is 1-3 dB It is recommended, that the modulation used at each time should be automatically selected by the BS depending on the available CINR at that moment ( Radio Setup. Modulation -auto ). In auto mode BS sets modulation in accordance with relevant CINR + fade margin, where. fade margin value is 3 dB. Required for some modulation CINR value (Table 1 ) can be modified in Cell Setup, Rx CINR modulation Table adjustment menu. Interference detection The MAXBridge Spectrum Analyzer allows to detect interference in the operating frequency channel. The SA is able to show only average RSSI level of unwanted emission and can not show real interference impact to the WiMAX system. A interference influence is able to be detected by evaluation the CINR, RSSI,SNR mean, where SNR ( Signal to Noise Ratio) is calculated as: measured parameter CINR is equal or higher to the given

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SNR = C/N, dB; where C is the desired signal power, N - is thermal noise of receiver. There are two rules that allow to detect present of a interference: If CINR is roughly equal to SNR, it indicates that the interference is low enough and it should not impact to the wireless communication. If CINR is significantly different from SNR, it indicates presence of interference, that impacts to the communication. The MAXBridge BS does not directly measure SNR, but it's value may be calculated as: SNR=C/N=RSSI -NBW, where NBW is Thermal Noise of system receiver in BW channel bandwidth. The MAXBridge BS receiver Thermal Noise in BW=7 MHz channel bandwidth is represented in Table 1. The Thermal Noise of receiver N is defined as: N=Noise Floor - Implementation Loss, dBm. The Noise Floor (NF) is defined as: Noise Floor = -114 + Noise Figure + 10 log ( BW), dBm; where: -114 dBm(W/MHz) is Thermal Noise in 1 MHz , BW 7 MHz channel bandwidth, Noise Figure of the MAXBridge system is 6 dB, Implementation Loss of MAXBridge BS 33 receiver is 6 dB. Noise Floor in 7 MHz channel bandwidth is -99.6 dBm (for system with Noise Figure 6 dB),

Thermal Noise N7 in 7 MHz channel bandwidth of MAXBridge BS receiver is -93.5dBm ( Table 1), Note The MAXBridge CPE 33 measures current SNR as well as CINR value ( see MAXBridge CPE 33 User Gude). There is a correlation between measured RSSI, CINR, and I interference means. On User Stats.Detailed View Stats. Signal Stats page is displayed Virtual Noise Floor (VNF). The VNF is the measure of the signal created from the sum of thermal noise within channel bandwidth. It can be calculated as: VNF=RSSI-CINR, dBm. So, to compare CINR with SNR value it needs to contrast SNR. So evaluation of CINR and SNR values transforms into following rule: If the VNF value considerably less then N mean in Table 1 ( for example 8-10 dB below N mean), it indicates, that the interference presents and it noticeable impacts to the wireless communication . VNF= RSSI - CINR value with N=RSSIand unwanted signals ( interference)

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Attention! If RSSI value exceeds Rx sensitivity threshold at 64 QAM 3/4 modulation plus fade margin ( 3 dB), then inaccuracy of calculation VNF appears and it's value is not applicable for interference detection. For the MAXBridge BS 33 this RSSI threshold is approximately equal -71 dBm. Note The Noise Floor is system parameter with constant value and it should not be mixed up with measured (calculated) link parameterVirtual Noise Floor. There are close but absolutely different concepts. For example, if displayed on MAXBridge BS User Stats page UL VNF value is -82 dBm ( considerably less then receiver thermal noise N in 7 MHz -93.5 dBm ), UL RSSI value is -70 dBm ( belongs to applicable for interference detection range), and CINR is 12 dB, it indicates that CINR value is lower that should be and in result, modulation adaptively falls from 64QAM 2/3 to QPSK-3/4. Another rule is following: If RSSI mean is not aplicable for interference detection range, for example, it's value is close to Target RSSI default value -62 dBm and CINR is considerably less then required for

64QAM 3/4 CINR = 21 dBm ( Table 1,2), then it also indicates that the interference presents and it noticeable impacts to the wireless communication. Interference types A interference may be caused by other wireless systems or by neighbour sectors in a multi- sector BS installation. A co-channel interference from other wireless systems can cause permanent distortion of radio signal, that drops link CINR valueand modulation is adaptively reduced by system to appropriate scheme. The modulation adaptation allows system to work properly (at required BER level and without packets losses) in noisy environment. A co-channel interference may be a multipath fading from other interference may wireless system, that is caused by

other wireless system radio signals reflected from obstacles, hills, buildings, etc., In this case fading result in temporary failure of signal and communication and temporary drop link CINR value. The CINR value floating may be very fast and not noticeable by the operator. The modulation adaptation may not keep up with fast fading and it may cause packets drops. In this case it is recommended to use ARQ, that is able to get rid of the fade impact and recover a proper communication. Inter-sector ( inter-cell) self-interference, that is caused by impact of radio signal from neighbour sectors in multi-sector BS installation. The MAXBridge BS 33 is able to configuration at adjacent frequency channels ( without guard intervals). To reduce adjacent channel interference in multi-sector BS configuration separation between sector antennas should be a minimum of 1.5 m. In multi-sector BS deployment it is strongly recommended to use high quality sector antennas, that comply with ETSI EN 302 085 V 1.1.2. CS3/CS2 requirements. work in multi-sector

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Inter-sector interference is also eliminated in a synchronized multi-sector configuration.

BS High End

Provisioning
To get high network efficiency it is strongly recommended that every SS should be individually provisioned. Default provision may be used as Getting Started configuration. During provisioning it is strongly recommended to avoid setting high prioritization service to SS with low modulation. For example, the BS serves three SS at 64QAM 3/4 DL and UL modulation with assigned BE service without any limitation and prioritization . Maximum IP throughput capacity of BS in 50/50 UL/DL TDD in 7 MHz in channel approximately UL/DL 10/10 Mbps (10 Mbps duplex). The BS throughput capacity is evenly divided between all three SS units , that every SS gets maximum throughput 3.5 Mbps duplex ( Scheduler BW Equalizer Mode is Equal Symbols). If one of these SS units reduces modulation to UL&DL BPSK 1/2 ( max channel throughput at BPSK 1/2 in 7 MHz is 1.2 Mbps duplex), then for two SS units at 64QAM 3/4 modulation nothing changes ( they continue to get max 3.5 Mbps duplex throughput), but max throughput of third SS with BPSK 1/2 modulation falls to 0.4 Mbps. If Provisioning System assign to this SS at BPSK 1/2 modulation nrtPS service with UL MRTR =1 Mbps and DL MRTR==1 Mbps (that is slightly less then 7 MHz max channel capacity 1.2 Mbps duplex at BPSK 1/2 ), then it may be done only by decreasing max throughput, that may be given to others SS inits . In this case SS at BPSK 1/2 can get required MRTR (CIR) 1 Mbps duplex, but other SS units at 64QAM3/4 would get almost nothing, because SS at BPSK1/2 with high guaranteed service CIR =1 Mbps consumes almost all throughput capacity.

Scheduler parameters
To get high efficiency of multiple access it is strongly recommended parameters as: Scheduler BW Equalizer Mode is Equal Symbols with weight "1" that is given to every modulation scheme, min Frame div =25%, DL->UL Extra Gap =0%, UL->DL Extra Gap =0%, DL preambles -disabled, UL Gaps -disable, Shed Stats Weight -30%. DynAST. Using this functionality increases BS CPU resource consumption and reduce BS scheduler efficiency. This feature is not recommended to use when BS serves the large quantity SS units. Minimum Frame Division . It is used in DynAST functionality. It is strongly recommended to set it as 25%. to set Scheduler important

2011 UNIDAT A

MAXBridge BS 33 User Guide

Appendix B

143

10 Appendix C
Default settings
MAXBridge BS 33 default ip address 192.168.0.7 default ip netmask /24 default ip gateway 0.0.0.0 web gui https off default frequency 3400MHz Channel BW 7MHz CP 1/16 FD 5ms Maximum User Distance 30000 m NETMODE Bridge SMC off Default provisioning EVERYBODY UL 21000, BE DL 21000, BE Scheduler BW Equalizer Mode - Equal Symbols.

2011 UNIDAT A