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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

p]WITH CONSTRUCTION

HOLLOW STEEL SECTIONS

Edited by: Comite Internationalpour le Developpement et I’Etude de la Construction Tubulaire Authors: Jacques Rondal, University of Liege Karl-GerdWurker, Consultingengineer Dipak Dutta, Chairman of the Technical Commission CIDECT Jaap Wardenier, Delft Universityof Technology Noel Yeomans, Chairman of the Cidect Working Group “Joints behaviour and Fatigue-resistance’’

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

J. Rondal, K.-G. Wurker, D. Dutta, J. Wardenier, N. Yeomans

Verlag TUV Rheinland

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

I Die Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP Einheitsaufnahme

Structural stability of hollow sections / [Comite International pour le Developpement et I’Etude de la

Construction Tubulaire]. J. Rondal

TUV Rheinland, 1992 (Construction with hollow steel sections) Dt. Ausg. u.d.T.: Knick- und Beulverhalten von Hohlprofilen (rund und rechteckig). - Franz. Ausg. u.d.T.: Stabilite des structures en profils creux ISBN 3-8249-0075-0, Reprinted edition NE: Rondal, Jasques; Comite International pour le Developpement et I’Etude de la Construction Tubulaire

- Koln: Verl.

ISBN 3-8249-0075-0

0 by Verlag TUV Rheinland GmbH, Cologne

Entirely made by: Verlag TUV Rheinland GmbH, Cologne

Printed in Germany First edition 1992 Reprinted with corrections 1996

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

The objectiveof this design manualis to present theguide lines for the design and calculation

of steel structuresconsisting of circular and rectangular hollow sections dealingin particular with the stability of these structural elements. This book describes in a condensed form the global, local and lateral-torsionalbuckling behaviour of hollow sections as wellas the methods to determine effective buckling lengths of chords and bracings in lattice girders built with them. Nearlyall design rules and procedures recommended here are basedon the resultsof the analytical investigations and practical tests, which were initiated and sponsored by CIDECT. These research works were carried outin the universities and institutes in various parts of the world. The technical dataevolving from these research projects,the results of their evaluation and the conclusions derived were usedto establish the “European buckling curves”for circular and rectangular hollow sections. This was the outcome of a cooperation between ECCS (European Convention for Constructional Steelwork) and CIDECT. These buckling curves

have now been incorporated in a number of national proposed for the buckling design by Eurocode 3, Part

Buildings” (ENV 1993-1-1). Extensive research works on effective buckling lengths of structural elements of hollow sections in lattice girders inthe late seventies ledin 1981to the publicationof Monograph No.

4 “Effective lengthsof lattice girder members” byCIDECT. A recent statistical evaluation of all data from this research programme resulted in arecommendation for thecalculation of the

said buckling lengthwhich Eurocode 3,Annex K “Hollow section lattice girder connections” also contains. This design guideis the second of a series, which CIDECT has alreadypublishedand alsowill publish inthe coming years:

standards. They have also been 1: “General Rules and Rules for

1. Design guide for circular hollow section (CHS) joints under predominantly static loading (already published)

2. Structural stability of hollow sections (reprinted edition)

3. Design guide for rectangular hollow section joints under predominantly static loading (already published)

4. Design guide for hollow section columns exposed to fire (already published) 5. Design guide for concrete filled hollow section columns under static and seismic loading

(already published)

6. Designguide for structuralhollow sections formechanicalapplications (already published)

7. Design guide for fabrication, assembly and erection of hollow section structures (in

preparation) 8. Design guide for circular and rectangular hollow section joints under fatigue loading (in preparation) All these publications are intended to make architects, engineers and constructors familiar with the simplified design procedures of hollow section structures. Worked-out examples make them easyto understand and show howto come toa safe and economic design. Our sincere thanks go to the authors of this book, who belong to the group of wellknown specialists in the field of structural applications of hollow sections. We express our special thanks to Prof. Jacques Ronda1 ofthe University of Liege, Belgium as mainthe author ofthis

book. We thank further Dr. D. Grotmann of the Technical University of Aix-la-Chapelle for numerous stimulating suggestions. Finally we thank all CIDECT members, whose support made this book possible.

Dipak Dutta Technical Commission CIDECT

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

7

Quadrangular vierendeel columns

6

Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

 
 

Contents

 
 

Page

 

Introduction

 

9

1

General

10

1.1

Limitstates

10

1.2Limitstatedesign

 

10

1.3

Steelgrades

11

1.4

Increase in yield strength due to

cold working

11

2

Cross section classification

13

3

Members in axial compression

19

General3.1

19

 

3.2

Designmethod

19

3.3Designaids

25

4

Membersin bending

27

4.1Designforlateral-torsional

buckling

 

27

5

Members in combined compressionand

bending

 

28

General5.1

 

28

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5.2Designmethod

 

28

5.2.1Design

for stability

28

5.2.2

Design based on stress

30

5.2.2.1 Stress design without considering shear load

 

31

5.2.2.2

Stress design considering shear

load

32

6

Thin-walled sections

34

6.1

General

34

6.2Rectangularhollowsections

 

34

6.2.1

Effective geometrical properties

of class 4 cross sections

 

34

6.2.2Designprocedure

 

36

6.2.3Designaids

37

6 . 3 Circularhollowsections

38

7

Buckling length of members inlattice

girders

 

40

General7.1

 

40

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7.2

Effective

buckling length of chord and bracing members with lateral support

.

.

40

7.3

Chords

of lattice girders, whose joints are not supported laterally

 

40

8

Designexamples

43

8.1 Design of a rectangular hollow section column

8.2 Design of a rectangular hollow section column uni-axialbending

Design of a rectangular hollow section column bi-axialbending

8.3

in compression in combined compression and

in combined compression and

43

43

45

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

8.4

Design

of a thin-walled rectangular hollow section column

in compression

47

8.5

Design

of

a thin-walled rectangular hollow section column

in concentric

compression and bi-axial bending

 

49

9

Symbols

 

51

10

References

53

CIDECT .International Committee for the Development and Study of Tubular Structures

55

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

Introduction

It is very often considered thatthe problems to be solved while designing a steelstructureare

only related to the calculationand constructionof the members and their connections. They concern mainly thestatic or fatigue strengthand the stability of thestructuralmembers as well as the load bearingcapacity of the joints. This point of view is certainly not correct as one cannot ignore the important areas dealing with fabrication, erection and when necessary, protectionagainst fire.

It is very important to bear in mind that the application of hollow sections, circular and

rectangular, necessitates special knowledgein all of the above mentioned areas extending beyond that forthe open profiles inconventional structural engineering. This book dealswith theaspect of buckling of circular and rectangular hollow sections, their calculations and thesolutions tothe stability problems. The aim ofthis design guideis to provide architects andstructuralengineers with designaids

based on the most recent research results in the field of application technology of hollow sections. It is mainly based on the rules given in Eurocode 3 “Design of Steel Structures,

Part 1: General Rules and Rules forBuildings” and its annexes [l, 21.Small differences can be found when compared to some national standards. The reader will find in reference [3]

a review of the main differences existing between Eurocode 3 and the codes used in other

countries. However, when it is possible, some indications are given on the rules and recommendations in the codes used in Australia, Canada, Japan and United States of

America as well asin some european countries.

Lift shaft with tubular frames

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

1

General

1 .l

Limit states

Most design codes for see1 structures are, at the present time, based on limit state design. Limit states are those beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements. Limit state conditions are classified into

- ultimate limit state

- serviceabilitylimit state Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse of a structure or with other failure modes, which endanger the safety of human life. For the sake of simplicity, states prior to structural collapse are classified and treated as ultimate limit states in place of the collapse itself. Ultimate limit states, which mayrequire consideration, include:

- Loss of equilibrium of a structureor a partof it, considered as a rigid body

- Loss of load bearingcapacity, as for example, rupture,instability, fatigue or other agreed limiting states, such as excessive deformations and stresses Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond whichspecified service criteria are no longer met. They include:

- Deformations or deflections which affect the appearance or effective use of the structure (including the malfunction of machines or services) or cause damage to finishes or non- structural elements

- Vibration which causes discomfort to people, damage to the building or its contents or which limits its functional effectiveness Recent national and international design standards recommend procedures proving limit state resistance. This implies, in particular for stability analysis, that the imperfections, mechanical andgeometrical, whichinfluence the behaviourof a structuresignificantly, must be taken into account. Mechanical imperfections are, for example, residual stresses in structural membersandconnections.Geometricalimperfectionsarepossible pre- deformations in members and cross sections as wellas tolerances.

1.2 Limit state design

In the Eucrocode3 format, when considering alimit state, it shall be verified that:

where

yF = Partial safety factor for the action F

yU = Partial safety

factor forthe resistance R

F

R

= Value of an action

= Value of a resistance for a relevant limit state

yF F = Fd is called the designload while RlrM = R, is designated as the design resistance. It is not within the scopeof this book to discuss in detail these general provisions. They can be taken from Eurocode3and othernationalcodes, whichcan sometimes show small deviations from one another. As for example, the calculations in the recent US-codes are made with

6 = ?hM.

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

1.3 Steel grades

Table 1 gives the grades of the generally used structural steels with the nominal minimum values of the yield strength f,, range of the ultimate tensile strengthf, and elongations. The steel grades correspond to the hot-rolled hollow sections as well as to the basic materials fo cold-formed hollow sections. The designationsof the steel gradesin Table 1 are in accordance with EN 10 0251311. They can be different in other standards. For hot-rolled hollow sections (circular and rectangular), the european code EN 10 210, Part1 1201, 1994 is available.

Table 1 - Steel gradesfor structural steels

steel grade

S 235

S 275

S 355

S 460

min. yield strength

tensile strength

min. percentage elongation L, = 5.65 4,

f, (Nlmrn')

f, (N/mm2)

longitudinal

transverse

235

,470

24

26

275

410

,560

20

22

355

490

,630

22

20

460

.720

17

15

Table 2 contains the recommended physical properties valid allforstructural steels.

Table 2 - Physical propertiesof structural steels

moduluselasticity:of

E

= 210 000 N/mm2

 

E

shearmodulus:

G

= -

2(1 + U)

= 81 000 N/mm2

poison co-efficient:

U

= 0.3

co-efficient of linear expansion:

Q

=

12 . 10 ~ 6/oC

density:

e = 7850 kg/m3

1.4 Increase in yield strength due to cold working

Cold rolling of profiles provides an increasein the yield strength due to strain hardening, which may be usedin the design by meansof the rules givenin Table 3. However, this increase can be used only forRHS in tension or compression elements and cannot be taken into accountif the members are subjected to bending (see Annexof AEurocode 3121). For cold rolled square and rectangular hollow sections,(1.2)eq.can be simplified(k = 7 for all cold-forming of hollow sections and n= 4) resulting in:

14t

fya = fyb + b+h (fu-fyb)

I f,

5 1.2 . fyb

Fig. 1 allows a quick estimationof the average yield strength after cold-forming, for square and rectangular hollow sections for the four basic structural steels.

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

Table 3 - Increase of yield strength due to cold-formingof RHS profiles

Average yield strength:

The average yield strength,,f may be determined from full size section testsor as follows [19, 321:

,,f

= ,,f

+ (k . n . tz/A) . (f,

- ),,f

(14

where ,f ,,,f

=

specified tensile yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the basic material

 

(N/mm2)

t

= materialthickness(mm)

A

= gross cross-sectional area (mm2)

k

=

co-efficient depending on the type of forming (k = 7 for cold rolling)

n

=

number of 90° bends in the section with an internal radius <5t (fractions of 90' bends should be countedas fractions of n)

fya

=

should not exceed f, or 1.2 , , f

The increase in yield strength due to coldworking should not be utilised for members which are annealed. or subject to heating over along length with a high heat input after forming, whichmay produce softening.

Basic material:

Basic material is the flat hot rolled sheet material outof which sections are made bycold forming.

*

Stress relief annealing at more than 58OoC or for over one hour may lead to deterioration of the mechanical properties [29]

Increase In weld strength fva/fyb

1 20

-

 

1

15 -.

1

10 ~.

1.05 -

 

1.004

,

1

i

,

~

,

~

,

0

10

20

30 40

50 60

b+h

2t

70

80

90 100

Fig. 1 - Increase in yield strength for cold-formed square and rectangular hollow sections

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

2 Cross section classification

Different models can be used for the analysis of steel structures and for the calculationof the stress resultants (normal force, shear force, bending moment and torsional moment in the members of a structure). For an ultimatelimit state design, the designeris faced mainly with three design methods (see Fig. 2). The cross section classes3 and 4 with the procedure “elastic-elastic”differ from each other only by the requirement for local buckling for class4.

Procedure “plastic-plastic’’

Cross section class 1

This procedure deals with the plastic design and the formationof plastic hinges and moment

redistribution in the structure. Full plasticity is developedin the cross section (bi-rectangular

stress blocks).

for plastic analysis. The ultimatelimit state is reached when the numberof plastic hinges is

sufficient to produce a mechanism. The system must remainin static equilibrium.

.The cross section can form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required

Procedure “elastic-plastic’’

Cross section class 2

In this procedure the stress resultants are determined following an elastic analysis and they are compared to the plastic resistance capacities of the member cross sections. Cross sections can develop their plastic resistance, but have limited rotation capacity. Ultimatelimit state is achieved by the formationof the first plastic hinge.

Procedure “elastic-elastic”

Cross section class 3

This procedure consistsof pure elastic calculationof the stress resultants and the resistance capacities of the member cross sections. Ultimate limit state is achieved by yielding of the extreme fibres of a cross section. The calculated stressin the extreme compression fibreof the member cross section can reachits yield strength, but local bucklingis liableto prevent the development of the plastic moment resistance.

Procedure “elastic-elastic”

Cross section class 4

The cross section is composedof thinner walls than those of class3. It is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effectsof local buckling while determining the ultimate moment or compression resistance capacityof the cross section. The application of thefirst three above mentioned procedures is based on the presumption that the cross sections or their parts do not buckle locally before achieving theirlimitultimate loads; that means, the cross sections must not be thin-walled.In order to fulfil this condition, the blt-ratiofor rectangular hollow sections ordlt-ratiothe for circular hollow sections must not exceed certain maximum values. They are different for the cross section classes1 through 3 as given in Tables 4, 5 and 6. A cross section must be classified according to the least favourable (highest) class of the elements under compression andlor bending. Tables 4 through 6 give the slenderness limits blt or d/t for different cross section classes based on Eurocode 3 [l, 21. Other design codes show slightly different values (compare Tables 8 and 9).

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

cross section

class 1

classes

load resistance

full plasticity in

capacity

the cross section

stress distribution

full rotation capacity

and rotation

capacity

procedure for the determination of the stress resultants

plastic

procedure for the determination of the ultimate resistance capacity of a section

plastic

class 2

full plasticity in the cross section restricted rotation capacity

- f V

+

fY

plastic

class 3

elastic cross section yield stress in the extreme fibre

elastic

elastic

Fig. 2 - Cross section classification and design methods

class 4

elastic cross section local bucklingto be taken into account

&

elastic

elastic

-fv

1’

+ fy

Table 4 - Limiting d/t ratios for circular hollow sections

cross section class

82

compression andlor bending

1

dlt S 50t2

2

dlt 5 70e2

3

dlt S 90e2

f, (Nlmm2)

355

275

460235

e

1

0.92

0.72

0.81

€2

1

0.85

0.66

0.51

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

Table 5 - Limiting h,/t-ratios for webs of rectangular hollow sections

webs: (internal element perpendicular to theaxis of bending)

h,

=

h -

3t

h, = h - 31

class

web subject to

web subjectto

web subjectto bending and compression

bending

compression

stress distribution

in element

(compression

1

#3/h- -1

fV -

h,/t 5 72c h,lt

positive)@h

-2

+

S 33 e

fV -

when CY > 0.5 h,/t 5 396e/(13~~-1)

when CY < 0.5 h,/t S 36cla

2

I

stress distribution

in element

(compression

positive)

h,lt 5 83c

h,lt 5 386

when CY > 0.5 h,lt S 456~1(13~~-1)

when CY < 0.5 h,lt S 41.5cla

PT!h

I

h1'2yDTh

fv -

ha

-i -i,

fv

*tv-

3 h,lt 5 124~

f Y

h,/t I 42~

when

11. > -

1

 

h,/t 5 42d (0.67 + 0.3311.)

 
 

when

11.< - 1

 
 

h,/t 5 62t(l - 11.)m

 

235

460

355

275

1

0.92

0.81

0.72

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

Table 6 - Limiting b,/t-ratiosfor flanges of rectangular hollow sections

flanges: (internal elements parallel to the axisof bending)

class I

b, = b ~

3t

bendingI

in section

stress distributionin element and cross section (compression positive)

compression1 in section

+nf~

’I

I

b,/t 5 33e

I

b,/t I 42e

21

I

b,/t

I 38c

I

b,/t

5 42 c

 

stress distribution in element and cross section (compression positive)

31

I

b,/t

5 42 e

I

b,lt

S 42 t

f, (N/mm2)

t

235

1

275

0.92

355

0.81

460

0.72

In Table 7 the blt, hlt and dlt limiting values for the different cross section classes, cross section types and stress distributions are given for a quick determinationof the cross section class of a hollow section. The values for width b and heightof ah rectangular hollow section are calculated by using the relationshipblt = b,lt + 3 and hlt = h,lt + 3. For the applicationof the procedures “plastic-plastic’’ (class1) and “elastic-plastic’’ (class 2), the ratio of the specified minimum tensile strengthf, to yield strengthf, must be not less than

1.2.

Further, according to Eurocode3 [l, 21, the minimum elongation at failure on a gauge length l, = 5.65 no(where A, is the original cross section area) is,notto be less than15%. For the application of the procedure “plastic-plastic’’ (full rotation), the strain E” corrres- ponding to the ultimate tensile strength f , must be at least 20 times the yield strain E, corresponding to the yield strengthf,. The steel gradesin Table 1 for hot formedRHS and hot or cold formedCHS may be accepted as satisfying these requirements. Tables 8 and9 give, for circular hollow sections and for square or rectangular hollow sections respectively, thelimiting blt and hlt ratios, which are recommendedin various national codes around the world [3]. Table 8 shows that there are significant differencesin dlt limits recommended by the national codes, when a circular hollow sectionis under bending.

In particular, this is clear in the case of the recent american code

AlSC 86. For the

concentrically loaded circular hollow sections, the deviations are significantly smaller (less

than about 10%). Table 9 shows that the differences in blt limits for rectangular hollow sections between the national codes are,in general, not as largeas those for circular hollow sections.

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

Table 7 - blt- , hlt- and

dlt limitsfor the cross sectionclasses 1,2 and 3 with blt= b,lt + 3 and hlt = h,lt + 3

RHP

RHP

RHP

CHS

r

class

cross section

I element

compression'

compression

 

08

bending

compression

m

bending

bending

m

compression

andlor bending

r

1

- -

-

r

2

- -

I

3

235

!75

355

235

!75

355

460

!35

275

355

460

-

-

-

45

41.6

36.6

32.2

45

41.6

36.6

32.2

45

41.6

36.6

32.2

-

-

-

-

36

33.3

29.3

25.7

41

37.9

33.4

29.3

45

41.6

36.6

32.2

 

-

-

-

75

69.3

61 .l

53.6

86.0

79.5

70.0

61.5 127

11 7.3 103.3

90.8

 

-

- - -

50

42.7

33.1

25.5

70.0

59.8

46.3

35.8

90.0

76.9

59.6

46.0

70.0 59.8 46.3 35.8 90.0 76.9 59.6 46.0 - - - - - - - There

-

-

-

-

- -

-

There is no difference between blt and hlt limits for the classes 1, 2 and 3,when the whole cross section is only under compression.

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

Table 8 - Max. d/t limitsfor circular hollow sections by country and code

(t

= e; f, in N/mm*)

axial compression

Tabelle 9 - Max. b,/t limitsfor rectangular hollow sections by country and code

(E

-

= dy ; f, in N/mm2)

Y

country

 

I

Australia

Belgium

I

Canada

I

Germany

I

Japan

I

Netherlands

I

United

AlSClLRFD

(1986)

U.S.A.

EuropeanEurocode3

Community

code

ASDR 87 164

NBN851-002

(08.88)

CANICSA-S16.1-M89

DIN 18800, Part 1 (11.90)

AIJ 80

NEN 6770, publ. draft (08.89)

5950BSPart

1 (1985)

[l]

bending

axial compression

plastic limit

yield limit

(class 2)

(class 3)

40.2~'

29.9 t

40.2~'

45.4t"

 

45.4€"

42

t

34 t

42 c

37.66

 

34.2~

43.6 t

37.8

t

37 t

37.8 t

47.8

t

-

47.8 t

42

t

34 t

42 t

42.2

t

34.6t

42.2 t

40.8~

-

40.8~

42

t

38 t

42 c

for cold formed non-stress relieved hollow sections * * for hot-formed and cold-formed stress relieved hollow sections

cold formed non-stress relieved hollow sections * * for hot-formed and cold-formed stress relieved hollow sections

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

3 Members in axial compression

3.1

General

This chapter of the book is devoted to the bucklingof compressed hollow section members belonging to the cross section classes1, 2 and 3. Thinwalled cross sections (class4) will be dealt with in chapter 6. The buckling of a concentrically compressed column is, historically speaking, the oldest problem of stability and was already investigated by Eulerlaterandby many other researchers

1 5 1 . At the present time, the buckling design

performed by using the so called “European buckling curves” in most european countries. They are based on many extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, which, in particular, take mechanical (as for example residual stress, yield stress distribution) and geometrical (as for example, linear deviation) imperfectionsin the members into account.

of

a steel element under compression is

00

0

05

1.0

x

15

0

Fig. 3 - European buckling curves[l]

A detailed discussion on the differences between buckling curves usedin codes around the world is given in reference [3].Both design methods, allowable stress design andlimit state design, have been covered. For ultimate limit state design, multiple buckling curves are mostly used (as for example, Eurocode 3 with a,, a, b, c curves, similarly in Australia and Canada). Other standards adopt a single buckling curve, presumably due to the fact that emphasis is placed on simplicity. Differences up15%to can be observed between the various buckling curvesin the regionof medium slenderness(X).

3.2 Design method

At present, a large numberof design codes exist and the recommended procedures are often very similar. Eurocode3 [l, 21 is referred to in the following. For hollow sections, the only buckling mode to be considered is flexural buckling. It is not required to take account of lateral-torsional buckling, since very large torsional rigidity of a hollow section prevents any torsional buckling.

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The design buckling load of a compression memberis given by the condition;

Nd

Nb,Rd

where Nd

Design load of the compressed member (7 times working load) = Design buckling resistance capacity of the member

=

f

Nb,Rd = X . A.

YM

(3.1)

A

is the area of the cross section;

X

is the reduction factor of the relevant buckling curve (Fig. 3, Tables 11 through 14)

fy

dependent onthe non-dimensional slenderness5; of a column; is the yield strength of the material used;

-yM

is the partial safety factor on the resistance side (in U.S.A.: l/y, = 6)

The reduction factor resistance N:,,,,,

X

is the ratio

of the buckling resistance

Nb.Rd

x=---

Npl.Rd

-

fb,Rd

fy,d

fb,,d

Nb,Rd

= design buckling stress = -

A

fY,d

= design yield strength

f Y

= -

YM

N b , R d to the axial plastic

The non-dimensional slenderness5; is determined by

Ib

with X = -

I

(Ib = effective buckling length; i = radius of gyration)

X,

= P. fi (“Eulerian” slenderness)

E = 210 000 N/mm2

Table 10 a - Eulerian slendernessfor various structural steels

steelgrade

I

1, (N/rnmz)

X,

S 235

S 275

S 355

S 460

 

355

275 460 235

I

 
 

76.4

86.867.1 93.9

The selectionof the bucklingcurve (a through inc Fig. 3) depends on the cross section type. This is mainly based on the various levels of residual stresses occurring due to different manufacturing processes. Table10b shows the curves for hollow sections.

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Table 10 b - Buckling curves accordingto manufacturing process

f,,

f,,

= Yield strength of the basic (not cold-formed) material = Yield strengthof the material after cold-forming

I cross section

1 manufacturing process I buckling curves I

Table 11 - Reduction factor X - buckling curvea,

-

-

h

-

0

3

1

2

4

5

6

--

7

8

9

0.00

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo 1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

l.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.0000

.l0

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo 1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

.20

1.oooo

0.9986

0.9973 0.9959 0.9945 0.9931

0.9917

0.9903

0.9889

0.9874

.30 0.9859 0.9845 0.9829 0.9814

0.9799 0.9783 0.9767 0.9751

0.9735

0.9718

.40 0.9701 0.9684 0.9667 0.9649 0.9631 0.9612 0.9593 0.9574 0.9554 0.9534

.50 0.9513 0.9492 0.9470 0.9448 0.9425 0.9402 0.9378 0.9354 0.9328 0.9302

0.9161 0.9130 0.9099 0.9066 0.9032 0.8997

.70 0.8961

.80 0.8533 0.8483 0.8431 0.8377 0.8322 0.8266 0.8208 0.8148 0.8087 0.8025

.90 0.7961 0.7895 0.7828 0.7760 0.7691 0.7620 0.7549 0.7476 0.7403 0.7329

.60 0.9276 0.9248 0.9220 0.9191

0.8924 0.8886 0.8847 0.8806 0.8764 0.8721

0.8676 0.8630 0.8582

1.oo

0.7253

0.7178 0.7101 0.7025 0.6948 0.6870 0.6793 0.6715 0.6637 0.6560

 

1.10

0.6482

0.6405 0.6329 0.6252 0.6176 0.6101 0.6026 0.5951

0.5877

0.5804

1.20

0.5732

0.5660 0.5590 0.5520 0.5450 0.5382 0.5314 0.5248 0.5182 0.51

17

1.30

0.5053

0.4990 0.4927 0.4866 0.4806 0.4746 0.4687 0.4629 0.4572 0.4516

1.40

0.4461

0.4407

0.4353 0.4300 0.4248 0.4197 0.4147 0.4097 0.4049 0.4001

1.50

0.3953

0.3907

0.3861 0.3816 0.3772 0.3728 0.3685 0.3643

0.3601

0.3560

1.60

0.3520

0.3480 0.3441 0.3403 0.3365 0.3328 0.3291

0.3255

0.3219

0.3184

l.70

0.3150

0.31 16 0.3083 0.3050 0.3017 0.2985 0.2954 0.2923 0.2892 0.2862

 

1.80

0.2833

0.2804 0.2775 0.2746 0.2719 0.2691 0.2664 0.2637 0.2611

0.2585

1.90

0.2559

0.2534 0.2509 0.2485 0.2461

0.2437 0.2414 0.2390 0.2368

0.2345

2.00

0.2323

0.2301 0.2280 0.2258 0.2237 0.2217

0.2196 0.2176 0.21 56 0.2136

 

2.10

0.21 17 0.2098 0.2079 0.2061 0.2042 0.2024 0.2006 0.1989 0.1971 0.1954

2.20

0.1

937 0.1920 0.1904 0.1887 0.1871 0.1855 0.1840 0.1824 0.1809 0.1794

2.30

0.1 779 0.1764 0.1749 0.1735 0.1721

0.1

707 0.1693 0.1 679 0.1665 0.1652

2.40

0.1639

0.1626 0.1613 0.1600 0.1587 0.1575 0.1563 0.1 550 0.1538 0.1526

2.50

0.1515

0.1503 0.1491 0.1480 0.1469 0.1458 0.1447 0.1436 0.1425 0.1414

2.60

0.1404

0.1394 0.1383 0.1373 0.1363 0.1353 0.1343 0.1333 0.1324 0.1314

2.70

0.1305

0.1296 0.1286 0.1277 0.1268 0.1259 0.1250 0.1242 0.1233 0.1224

2.80

0.1216

0.1207 0.1199 0.1191 0.1183 0.1 175 0.1167 0.1159 0.1151 0.1143

2.90

0.1136

0.1128 0.1120 0.1113 0.1106 0.1098 0.1091

0.1084

0.1077

0.1070

3.00

0.1063

0.1056 0.1049 0.1043 0.1036 0.1029 0.1023 0.1016 0.1010 0.1003

 

3.10

0.0997

0.0991 0.0985 0.0979 0.0972 0.0966 0.0960 0.0955 0.0949 0.0943

3.20

0.0937

0.0931

0.0926 0.0920 0.0915 0.0909 0.0904 0.0898 0.0893 0.0888

3.30

0.0882

0.0877 0.0872 0.0867 0.0862 0.0857 0.0852 0.0847 0.0842 0.0837

3.40

0.0832

0.0828 0.0823 0.0818 0.0814 0.0809 0.0804 0.0800 0.0795 0.0791

3.50

0.0786

0.0782 0.0778 0.0773 0.0769 0.0765 0.0761 0.0756

0.0752

0.0748

3.60

0.0744

0.0740 0.0736 0.0732 0.0728 0.0724 0.0720 0.0717

0.0713

0.0709

-

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Table 12 - Reduction factorX - buckling curve “a”

-

-

x

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

-

1.00

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

.l0

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

.20

1.oooo

0.9978

0.9956 0.9934 0.9912 0.9889 0.9867 0.9844 0.9821 0.9798

.30 0.9775 0.9751

0.9728

0.9704 0.9680 0.9655 0.9630 0.9605 0.9580 0.9554

.40 0.9528 0.9501

0.9474

0.9447 0.9419 0.9391

0.9363

0.9333 0.9304 0.9273

.50 0.9243 0.9211

0.9179

0.9147 0.91 14 0.9080 0.9045 0.9010 0.8974 0.8937

.60 0.8900 0.8862 0.8823 0.8783 0.8742 0.8700 0.8657 0.8614 0.8569 0.8524

.70 0.8477 0.8430 0.8382 0.8332 0.8282 0.8230 0.8178 0.8124 0.8069 0.8014

.80 0.7957 0.7899

0.7841

0.7781

0.7721

0.7659

0.7597 0.7534 0.7470 0.7405

 

.90 0.7339 0.7273 0.7206 0.7139 0.7071

0.7003

0.6934 0.6865 0.6796 0.6726

1.oo

0.6656

0.6586 0.6516 0.6446 0.6376 0.6306 0.6236 0.6167 0.6098 0.6029

1.10

0.5960

0.5892 0.5824 0.5757 0.5690 0.5623 0.5557 0.5492 0.5427 0.5363

1.20

0.5300

0.5237 0.5175 0.51

14 0.5053 0.4993 0.4934 0.4875 0.4817 0.4760

1.30

0.4703

0.4648 0.4593 0.4538 0.4485 0.4432 0.4380 0.4329 0.4278 0.4228

1.40

0.4179

0.4130 0.4083 0.4036 0.3989 ,03943 0.3898 0.3854 0.3810 0.3767

1.50

0.3724

0.3682 0.3641 0.3601 0.3561 0.3521

0.3482

0.3444 0.3406 0.3369

1.60

0.3332

0.3296 0.3261

0.3226

0.3191

0.3157

0.3124 0.3091 0.3058 0.3026

1.70

0.2994

0.2963 0.2933 0.2902 0.2872 0.2843 0.2814 0.2786 0.2757 0.2730

lBO

0.2702

0.2675 0.2649 0.2623 0.2597 0.2571 0.2546 0.2522 0.2497 0.2473

1.90

0.2449

0.2426

0.2403 0.2380 0.2358 0.2335 0.2314 0.2292 0.2271

0.2250

2.00

0.2229

0.2209 0.2188 0.2168 0.2149 0.2129 0.21 10 0.2091 0.2073 0.2054

 

2.10

0.2036

0.2018 0.2001

0.1983

0.1966

0.1949 0.1932 0.1915 0.1899 0.1

883

2.20

0.1867

0.1851 0.1 836 0.1820 0.1 805 0.1790 0.1775 0.1 760 0.1746 0.1732

2.30

0.1717

0.1 704 0.1690 0.1676 0.1663 0.1649 0.1636 0.1623 0.1610 0.1598

2.40

0.1 585 0.1 573 0.1560 0.1548 0.1536 0.1524 0.1513 0.1501

0.1490

0.1478

2.50

0.1467

0.1456 0.1445 0.1434 0.1424 0.1413 0.1403 0.1392 0.1 382 0.1372

 

2.60

0.1362

0.1352 0.1342 0.1332 0.1323 0.1313 0.1304 0.1295 0.1285 0.1276

2.70

0.1267

0.1258 0.1 250 0.1241 0.1232 0.1224 0.1215 0.1207 0.1198 0.1190

2.80

0.1 182 0.1 174 0.1166 0.1158 0.1150 0.1143 0.1135 0.1 128 0.1120 0.1113

2.90

0.1

105 0.1098 0.1091

0.1084

0.1077

0.1070 0.1063 0.1056 0.1049 0.1042

3.00

0.1036

0.1029 0.1022 0.1016 0.1010 0.1003 0.0997 0.0991

0.0985

0.0978

3.10

0.0972

0.0966 0.0960 0.0954 0.0949 0.0943 0.0937 0.0931 0.0926 0.0920

 

3.20

0.0915

0.0909 0.0904 0.0898 0.0893 0.0888 0.0882 0.0877 0.0872 0.0867

3.30

0.0862

0.0857 0.0852 0.0847 0.0842 0.0837 0.0832 0.0828 0.0823 0.0818

3.40

0.0814

0.0809 0.0804 0.0800 0.0795 0.0791

0.0786

0.0782 0.0778 0.0773

3.50

0.0769

0.0765 0.0761 0.0757 0.0752 0.0748 0.0744 0.0740 0.0736 0.0732

3.60

0.0728

0.0724 0.0721

0.0717

0.0713

0.0709 0.0705 0.0702 0.0698 0.0694

-

The bucklingcurves can be described analytically(forcomputer calculations) by the equation:

1

but x S

1

x = b+(P’

with 4 = 0,5 [l + a (x - 0,2)+ x*]

The imperfection factor a (in equation 3.4) for the corresponding buckling curve can be obtained fromthe following table:

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

Table 13 - Reduction factor X - buckling curve“b”

-

-

x

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

-

0.00

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo 1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

.l0

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.0000

1.oooo

1.oooo 1.0000 1.oooo

1.oooo

1.0000

1.oooo

.20

1.oooo

0.9965

0.9929

0.9894

0.9858 0.9822 0.9786 0.9750 0.9714 0.9678

.30 0.9641

0.9604

0.9567

0.9530

0.9492 0.9455 0.9417 0.9378 0.9339 0.9300

.40 0.9261

0.9221

0.91 81 0.9140 0.9099 0.9057 0.9015

0.8973

0.8930

0.8886

.50

0.8842

0.8798

0.8752

0.8707

0.8661 0.8614 0.8566 0.8518 0.8470 0.8420

.60 0.8371

0.8320

0.8269

0.8217

0.8165 0.8112 0.8058 0.8004 0.7949 0.7893

.70 0.7837 0.7780 0.7723 0.7665 0.7606 0.7547 0.7488 0.7428 0.7367 0.7306

0.6868 0.6804 0.6740 0.6676

.90 0.6612 0.6547 0.6483 0.6419 0.6354 0.6290 0.6226 0.6162 0.6098 0.6034

.80 0.7245 0.7183 0.7120 0.7058 0.6995 0.6931

1.oo

0.5970

0.5907

0.5844

0.5781

0.5719

0.5657 0.5595 0.5534 0.5473 0.5412

 

1.10

0.5352

0.5293

0.5234

0.51

75 0.51 10.50607

0.5003 0.4947 0.4891

0.4836

1.20

0.4781

0.4727

0.4674

0.4621

0.4569

0.4517 0.4466 0.4416 0.4366 0.4317

 

1.30

0.4269

0.4221

0.41

74 0.4127 0.4081 -0.4035

0.3991

0.3946

0.3903

0.3860

1.40

0.3817

0.3775

0.3734

0.3693

0.3653 0.3613 0.3574 0.3535 0.3497 0.3459

 

1.50

0.3422

0.3386

0.3350

0.3314

0.3279 0.3245 0.3211

0.3177

0.3144

0.3111

1.60

0.3079

0.3047

0.3016

0.2985

0.2955 0.2925 0.2895 0.2866 0.2837 0.2809

 

1.70

0.2781

0.2753

0.2726

0.2699

0.2672 0.2646 0.2620 0.2595 0.2570 0.2545

1.80

0.2521

0.2496

0.2473

0.2449

0.2426 0.2403 0.2381

0.2359

0.2337

0.2315

1.90

0.2294

0.2272

0.2252

0.2231

0.2211

0.2191

0.21

71 0.2152 0.2132 0.21

13

2.00

0.2095

0.2076

0.2058

0.2040

0.2022 0.2004 0.1987 0.1970 0.1953 0.1936

2.10

0.1920

0.1903

0.1887

0.1871

0.1855

0.1840

0.1825

0.1809

0.1794 0.1

780

2.20

0.1 765 0.1751

0.1

736 0.1722 0.1708 0.1694 0.1681

0.1667

0.1654

0.1641

2.30

0.1 628 0.1615 0.1

602 0.1590 0.1577 0.1565 0.1553 0.1541

0.1

529 0.1517

 

2.40

0.1506

0.1494

0.1483

0.1472

0.1461 0.1450 0.1439 0.1428 0.1418 0.1407

2.50

0.1397

0.1387

0.1

376 0.1366 0.1356 0.1347 0.1 337 0.1327 0.1318 0.1308

2.60

0.1299

0.1290

0.1281

0.1272

0.1263 0.1254 0.1 245 0.1237 0.1 228 0.1219

2.70

0.1211

0.1203

0.1195

0.1186

0.1178 0.1170 0.1 162 0.1155 0.1 147 0.1139

2.80

0.1132

0.1124

0.1117

0.1109

0.1102 0.1095 0.1 088 0.1081

0.1074

0.1067

2.90

0.1060

0.1053

0.1046

0.1039

0.1033 0.1026 0.1020 0.1013 0.1007 0.1001

 

3.00

3.0994

0.0988

0.0982

0.0976

0.0970 0.0964 0.0958 0.0952 0.0946 0.0940

3.10

0.0935

0.0929

0.0924

0.0918

0.0912 0.0907 0.0902 0.0896 0.0891

0.0886

3.20

0.0880

0.0875

0.0870

0.0865

0.0860 0.0855 0.0850 0.0845 0.0840 0.0835

 

3.30

0.0831

0.0826

0.0821

0.0816

0.0812 0.0807 0.0803 0.0798 0.0794 0.0789

3.40

0.0785

0.0781

0.0776

0.0772

0.0768 0.0763 0.0759 0.0755 0.0751

0.0747

3.50

0.0743

0.0739

0.0735

0.0731

0.0727

0.0723 0.0719 0.0715 0.0712 0.0708

 

3.60

D.0704 0.0700 0.0697 0.0693 0.0689 0.0686 0.0682 0.0679 0.0675 0.0672

-

Eurocode 3, Annex D allows the use of the higher buckling curve “ao” instead of “a” for compressed members of I-sections of certain dimensions and steel gradeS 460 [6]. This is based on the fact that, in case of high strength steel, the imperfections (geometrical and structural) play a less detrimental role on the buckling behaviour, as shown by numerical calculations and experimental tests on I-section columns of S460. As a consequence hot formed hollow sections using S 460 steel grade may be designed with respect to buckling curve “a,” instead of “a”.

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Construction with Hollow Steel Sections - Structural stability of hollow sections

Table 14 - Reduction factor X - buckling curve“c”

-

-

h

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

-

0.00

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

.l0

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

1.oooo

.20

1.oooo

0.9949

0.9898

0.9847

0.9797 0.9746 0.9695 0.9644 0.9593 0.9542

.30 0.9491

0.9440

0.9389

0.9338

0.9286 0.9235 0.9183 0.9131 0.9078 0.9026

.40 0.8973 0.8920 0.8867 0.8813

0.8760

0.8705

0.8651

0.8596

0.8541

0.8486

.50 0.8430 0.8374 0.8317

0.8261

0.8204

0.8146

0.8088

0.8030 0.7972 0.7913

.60 0.7854 0.7794 0.7735 0.7675 0.7614 0.7554 0.7493 0.7432 0.7370 0.7309 .70 0.7247 0.7185 0.7123 0.7060 0.6998 0.6935 0.6873 0.6810 0.6747 0.6684

.80 0.6622 0.6559 0.6496 0.6433 0.6371 0.6308 0.6246 0.6184 0.6122 0.6060

.90 0.5998 0.5937 0.5876 0.5815 0.5755 0.5695 0.5635 0.5575 05516

0.5458

1.oo

0.5399

0.5342 0.5284

0.5227 0.5171

0.51 15 0.5059 0.5004 0.4950 0.4896

 

1.10

0.4842 0.4790 0.4737 0.4685 0.4634 0.4583 0.4533 0.4483 0.4434 0.4386

1.20

0.4338 0.4290 0.4243 0.41

97 0.4151

0.41

06 0.4061 0.4017 0.3974 0.3931

1.30

0.3888 0.3846 0.3805 0.3764 0.3724 0.3684 0.3644 0.3606 0.3567 0.3529

1.40

0.3492 0.3455 0.3419 0.3383 0.3348 0.3313 0.3279 0.3245 0.3211