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# Code No: RR320404 Set No.

1
III B.Tech II Semester Supplementary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
MICROWAVE ENGINEERING
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. (a) Compare “Drift space bunching” and “Reflector bunching” with the help of
Applegate diagrams.
(b) A reflex Klystron operates at the peak of n=1 or 3/4 mode. The dc power
input is 40mW and ratio of V1 to V0 is 0.278.
i. Determine the efficiency of the Reflex Klystron Oscillator
ii. Find the total power output in mW.
iii. If 20% of the power delivered by the electron beam is dissipated in the
cavity walls, find the power delivered to the load.. [6+10]

2. (a) What is a slow wave structure? Explain and differentiate between different
structures.
(b) Explain the working principle of TWT amplifier.. [8+8]

3. (a) Derive an expression for the Hull cut off condition for cylindrical magnetron
oscillator.
(b) Write short notes on “8 cavity magnetron” [8+8]

## 4. (a) Describe a non-degenerate negative resistance parametric amplifier.

(b) An N type Ga As GUNN diode has the following specification
Threshold field: 3KV/m
Applied field 3.5KV/m
Device length 10 micrometers
Doping Constant 1014 electron/ Cm3
Operating freq. 10 GHz
Calculate the current density and (-Ve) electron mobility in the device, ex-
plaining the relations used. [6+10]

5. (a) A rectangular cavity of width ‘a’ height ‘b’ and length ‘d’ is to resonance with
T E101 mode.
q Show that the frequency of resonance
C 2
fres = 2d 1 + ad2
If fres = 10GHz, a= 2 cm., and b = 1cm, find ‘d’
(b) Discuss how wave equations are useful in understanding the propagation of
EM waves in wave guides. [8+8]

## 6. (a) State the properties of E plane Tee and H plane Tee.

(b) Show that a symmetrical magic Tee is a 3dB directional coupler. [8+8]

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Code No: RR320404 Set No. 1
7. (a) Derive the S matrix for E-plane Tee.
(b) What is Faraday’s Rotation? What are its applications in microwaves? Ex-
plain in detail. [10+6]

8. (a) Define VSWR. Describe the methods of measuring high and low VSWRs.
(b) Write short notes on “Reflection co-efficient and Insertion loss measurement
at microwave frequencies”. [8+8]

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Code No: RR320404 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Supplementary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
MICROWAVE ENGINEERING
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Compare “Drift space bunching” and “Reflector bunching” with the help of
Applegate diagrams.
(b) A reflex Klystron operates at the peak of n=1 or 3/4 mode. The dc power
input is 40mW and ratio of V1 to V0 is 0.278.
i. Determine the efficiency of the Reflex Klystron Oscillator
ii. Find the total power output in mW.
iii. If 20% of the power delivered by the electron beam is dissipated in the
cavity walls, find the power delivered to the load.. [6+10]

2. (a) Distinguish between different types of slow wave structures. Why is a slow
wave structure used in TWT?
(b) Compare the performance characteristics applications and limitations of Kly-
stron amplifiers, TWT amplifiers and parametric amplifiers.. [8+8]

## 3. (a) What is Π mode of oscillations in a magnetron? Why is strapping required in

a magnetron?
(b) An x-band pulsed cylindrical magnetron has V0 = 30 KV, I0 = 80A, B0 =
0.01wb/sq.m, a= 4 cm, b = 8 cm. Calculate the cyclotron angular frequency,
cut-off voltage and cut-off magnetic flux density. [8+8]

4. (a) Negative resistance devices can be used to produce amplification and oscilla-
tion. Explain with suitable examples.
(b) Draw the equivalent circuit of a typical parametric amplifier and explain the
parameters involved. [8+8]

5. (a) Show that the TEM, TM01 and TM10 modes in a rectangular wave-guide do
not exist.
(b) Discuss the merits and demerits of circular wave guide over rectangular wave
guide. [10+6]

## (a) Directional coupler.

(b) Wave guide windows.
(c) Flap attenuator. [5+5+6]

## 7. (a) What are Ferrites? Derive the scattering matrix of an isolator.

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Code No: RR320404 Set No. 2
(b) State and prove S matrix properties of a lossless junction. [8+8]

## 8. (a) Explain the method to measure VSWR and reflection co-efficient.

(b) Describe the measurement of impedance using slotted line and Smith chart.
[8+8]

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Code No: RR320404 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Supplementary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
MICROWAVE ENGINEERING
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) What is velocity modulation? Explain how amplification takes place in a two
cavity Klystron amplifier.
(b) What is transit time? How it is made use of in realization of microwave tubes.
[10+6]

2. (a) What is a slow wave structure? Explain and differentiate between different
structures.
(b) Explain the working principle of TWT amplifier.. [8+8]

3. (a) A magnetron is operating in the Π mode and has the following specifications,
N=10, f= 3MHz, a = 0.4cm, b= 0.9 cm, l = 2.5 cm, V0 = 18 KV, B = 0.2
wb/m2 .
Determine
i. the angular velocity of the electron.
ii. The radius at which radial forces due to electric and magnetic fields are
equal and opposite.
(b) What are Hatree harmonics? Explain in detail. [8+8]

## 4. (a) Describe a non-degenerate negative resistance parametric amplifier.

(b) An N type Ga As GUNN diode has the following specification
Threshold field: 3KV/m
Applied field 3.5KV/m
Device length 10 micrometers
Doping Constant 1014 electron/ Cm3
Operating freq. 10 GHz
Calculate the current density and (-Ve) electron mobility in the device, ex-
plaining the relations used. [6+10]

5. (a) Starting with the equation for the propagation constant of a mode in a rec-
tangular wave guide, Derive the expression λ = √ λgλc
2 2
λg +λc
Where λg is the guide wave length and λc is the cutoff wave length
(b) An air filled rectangular wave guide has dimensions of 0.9” x 0.4” and is
supporting T E10 mode at a frequency of 9800 MHz. Calculate the wave guide
impedance. Calculate the percentage change in this impedance for a 10%
increase in the operating frequency. [8+8]

6. (a) Explain the working of two hole directional coupler with a neat diagram.

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Code No: RR320404 Set No. 3
(b) Explain about E plane Tee junction with a neat sketch. Why it is called a
series Tee? [8+8]

## 7. (a) Explain the principle of operation of an isolator. What is the significance of

using isolator in microwave circuits?
(b) Explain the characteristics of a 3 port circulator listing its S- matrix. How
can this be used as an Isolator? [8+8]

8. (a) Define VSWR. Describe the methods of measuring high and low VSWRs.
(b) Write short notes on “Reflection co-efficient and Insertion loss measurement
at microwave frequencies”. [8+8]

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Code No: RR320404 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Supplementary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
MICROWAVE ENGINEERING
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Discuss various losses that occur at UH frequencies and suggest the remedies.
(b) What is velocity modulation? How is it different from normal modulation?
Explain how velocity modulation is utilized in Klystron amplifier. [6+10]

2. With a neat sketch explain the structure and the principle of operation of backward
wave oscillator. Derive a simple expression for the oscillator frequency? Discuss its
applications.. [16]

## 3. (a) Explain the principle of Π mode oscillations in cylindrical magnetron.

(b) Write short notes on ‘Reike’ diagram and its significance. [8+8]

4. (a) What are bulk properties of a GUNN diode that give rise to negative resistance
like characteristics?
(b) A Ga As Gunn diode has an active region of 10 micro meters. If the electron
drift velocity is 105 m/sec., calculate the natural frequency and the Threshold
voltage. The critical electric field is 3 KV/cm. [8+8]

5. (a) Show that the TEM, TM01 and TM10 modes in a rectangular wave-guide do
not exist.
(b) Discuss the merits and demerits of circular wave guide over rectangular wave
guide. [10+6]

## 6. (a) Sketch a 4 port Hybrid junction. Justify that it is basically a 3 dB directional

coupler.
(b) A 20-mw signal is fed into the series arm of a loss less Magic Tee junction. Cal-
culate the power delivered through each port when other ports are terminated